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ball mills

In all ore dressing and milling Operations, including flotation, cyanidation, gravity concentration, and amalgamation, the Working Principle is to crush and grind, often with rob mill & ball mills, the ore in order to liberate the minerals. In the chemical and process industries, grinding is an important step in preparing raw materials for subsequent treatment.In present day practice, ore is reduced to a size many times finer than can be obtained with crushers. Over a period of many years various fine grinding machines have been developed and used, but the ball mill has become standard due to its simplicity and low operating cost.

A ball millefficiently operated performs a wide variety of services. In small milling plants, where simplicity is most essential, it is not economical to use more than single stage crushing, because the Steel-Head Ball or Rod Mill will take up to 2 feed and grind it to the desired fineness. In larger plants where several stages of coarse and fine crushing are used, it is customary to crush from 1/2 to as fine as 8 mesh.

Many grinding circuits necessitate regrinding of concentrates or middling products to extremely fine sizes to liberate the closely associated minerals from each other. In these cases, the feed to the ball mill may be from 10 to 100 mesh or even finer.

Where the finished product does not have to be uniform, a ball mill may be operated in open circuit, but where the finished product must be uniform it is essential that the grinding mill be used in closed circuit with a screen, if a coarse product is desired, and with a classifier if a fine product is required. In most cases it is desirable to operate the grinding mill in closed circuit with a screen or classifier as higher efficiency and capacity are obtained. Often a mill using steel rods as the grinding medium is recommended, where the product must have the minimum amount of fines (rods give a more nearly uniform product).

Often a problem requires some study to determine the economic fineness to which a product can or should be ground. In this case the 911Equipment Company offers its complete testing service so that accurate grinding mill size may be determined.

Until recently many operators have believed that one particular type of grinding mill had greater efficiency and resulting capacity than some other type. However, it is now commonly agreed and accepted that the work done by any ballmill depends directly upon the power input; the maximum power input into any ball or rod mill depends upon weight of grinding charge, mill speed, and liner design.

The apparent difference in capacities between grinding mills (listed as being the same size) is due to the fact that there is no uniform method of designating the size of a mill, for example: a 5 x 5 Ball Mill has a working diameter of 5 inside the liners and has 20 per cent more capacity than all other ball mills designated as 5 x 5 where the shell is 5 inside diameter and the working diameter is only 48 with the liners in place.

Ball-Rod Mills, based on 4 liners and capacity varying as 2.6 power of mill diameter, on the 5 size give 20 per cent increased capacity; on the 4 size, 25 per cent; and on the 3 size, 28 per cent. This fact should be carefully kept in mind when determining the capacity of a Steel- Head Ball-Rod Mill, as this unit can carry a greater ball or rod charge and has potentially higher capacity in a given size when the full ball or rod charge is carried.

A mill shorter in length may be used if the grinding problem indicates a definite power input. This allows the alternative of greater capacity at a later date or a considerable saving in first cost with a shorter mill, if reserve capacity is not desired. The capacities of Ball-Rod Mills are considerably higher than many other types because the diameters are measured inside the liners.

The correct grinding mill depends so much upon the particular ore being treated and the product desired, that a mill must have maximum flexibility in length, type of grinding medium, type of discharge, and speed.With the Ball-Rod Mill it is possible to build this unit in exact accordance with your requirements, as illustrated.

To best serve your needs, the Trunnion can be furnished with small (standard), medium, or large diameter opening for each type of discharge. The sketch shows diagrammatic arrangements of the four different types of discharge for each size of trunnion opening, and peripheral discharge is described later.

Ball-Rod Mills of the grate discharge type are made by adding the improved type of grates to a standard Ball-Rod Mill. These grates are bolted to the discharge head in much the same manner as the standard headliners.

The grates are of alloy steel and are cast integral with the lifter bars which are essential to the efficient operation of this type of ball or rod mill. These lifter bars have a similar action to a pump:i. e., in lifting the product so as to discharge quickly through the mill trunnion.

These Discharge Grates also incorporate as an integral part, a liner between the lifters and steel head of the ball mill to prevent wear of the mill head. By combining these parts into a single casting, repairs and maintenance are greatly simplified. The center of the grate discharge end of this mill is open to permit adding of balls or for adding water to the mill through the discharge end.

Instead of being constructed of bars cast into a frame, Grates are cast entire and have cored holes which widen toward the outside of the mill similar to the taper in grizzly bars. The grate type discharge is illustrated.

The peripheral discharge type of Ball-Rod Mill is a modification of the grate type, and is recommended where a free gravity discharge is desired. It is particularly applicable when production of too many fine particles is detrimental and a quick pass through the mill is desired, and for dry grinding.

The drawings show the arrangement of the peripheral discharge. The discharge consists of openings in the shell into which bushings with holes of the desired size are inserted. On the outside of the mill, flanges are used to attach a stationary discharge hopper to prevent pulp splash or too much dust.

The mill may be operated either as a peripheral discharge or a combination or peripheral and trunnion discharge unit, depending on the desired operating conditions. If at any time the peripheral discharge is undesirable, plugs inserted into the bushings will convert the mill to a trunnion discharge type mill.

Unless otherwise specified, a hard iron liner is furnished. This liner is made of the best grade white iron and is most serviceable for the smaller size mills where large balls are not used. Hard iron liners have a much lower first cost.

Electric steel, although more expensive than hard iron, has advantage of minimum breakage and allows final wear to thinner section. Steel liners are recommended when the mills are for export or where the source of liner replacement is at a considerable distance.

Molychrome steel has longer wearing qualities and greater strength than hard iron. Breakage is not so apt to occur during shipment, and any size ball can be charged into a mill equipped with molychrome liners.

Manganese liners for Ball-Rod Mills are the world famous AMSCO Brand, and are the best obtainable. The first cost is the highest, but in most cases the cost per ton of ore ground is the lowest. These liners contain 12 to 14% manganese.

The feed and discharge trunnions are provided with cast iron or white iron throat liners. As these parts are not subjected to impact and must only withstand abrasion, alloys are not commonly used but can be supplied.

Gears for Ball-Rod Mills drives are furnished as standard on the discharge end of the mill where they are out of the way of the classifier return, scoop feeder, or original feed. Due to convertible type construction the mills can be furnished with gears on the feed end. Gear drives are available in two alternative combinations, which are:

All pinions are properly bored, key-seated, and pressed onto the steel countershaft, which is oversize and properly keyseated for the pinion and drive pulleys or sheaves. The countershaft operates on high grade, heavy duty, nickel babbitt bearings.

Any type of drive can be furnished for Ball-Rod Mills in accordance with your requirements. Belt drives are available with pulleys either plain or equipped with friction clutch. Various V- Rope combinations can also be supplied.

The most economical drive to use up to 50 H. P., is a high starting torque motor connected to the pinion shaft by means of a flat or V-Rope drive. For larger size motors the wound rotor (slip ring) is recommended due to its low current requirement in starting up the ball mill.

Should you be operating your own power plant or have D. C. current, please specify so that there will be no confusion as to motor characteristics. If switches are to be supplied, exact voltage to be used should be given.

Even though many ores require fine grinding for maximum recovery, most ores liberate a large percentage of the minerals during the first pass through the grinding unit. Thus, if the free minerals can be immediately removed from the ball mill classifier circuit, there is little chance for overgrinding.

This is actually what has happened wherever Mineral Jigs or Unit Flotation Cells have been installed in the ball mill classifier circuit. With the installation of one or both of these machines between the ball mill and classifier, as high as 70 per cent of the free gold and sulphide minerals can be immediately removed, thus reducing grinding costs and improving over-all recovery. The advantage of this method lies in the fact that heavy and usually valuable minerals, which otherwise would be ground finer because of their faster settling in the classifier and consequent return to the grinding mill, are removed from the circuit as soon as freed. This applies particularly to gold and lead ores.

Ball-Rod Mills have heavy rolled steel plate shells which are arc welded inside and outside to the steel heads or to rolled steel flanges, depending upon the type of mill. The double welding not only gives increased structural strength, but eliminates any possibility of leakage.

Where a single or double flanged shell is used, the faces are accurately machined and drilled to template to insure perfect fit and alignment with the holes in the head. These flanges are machined with male and female joints which take the shearing stresses off the bolts.

The Ball-Rod Mill Heads are oversize in section, heavily ribbed and are cast from electric furnace steel which has a strength of approximately four times that of cast iron. The head and trunnion bearings are designed to support a mill with length double its diameter. This extra strength, besides eliminating the possibility of head breakage or other structural failure (either while in transit or while in service), imparts to Ball-Rod Mills a flexibility heretofore lacking in grinding mills. Also, for instance, if you have a 5 x 5 mill, you can add another 5 shell length and thus get double the original capacity; or any length required up to a maximum of 12 total length.

On Type A mills the steel heads are double welded to the rolled steel shell. On type B and other flanged type mills the heads are machined with male and female joints to match the shell flanges, thus taking the shearing stresses from the heavy machine bolts which connect the shell flanges to the heads.

The manhole cover is protected from wear by heavy liners. An extended lip is provided for loosening the door with a crow-bar, and lifting handles are also provided. The manhole door is furnished with suitable gaskets to prevent leakage.

The mill trunnions are carried on heavy babbitt bearings which provide ample surface to insure low bearing pressure. If at any time the normal length is doubled to obtain increased capacity, these large trunnion bearings will easily support the additional load. Trunnion bearings are of the rigid type, as the perfect alignment of the trunnion surface on Ball-Rod Mills eliminates any need for the more expensive self-aligning type of bearing.

The cap on the upper half of the trunnion bearing is provided with a shroud which extends over the drip flange of the trunnion and effectively prevents the entrance of dirt or grit. The bearing has a large space for wool waste and lubricant and this is easily accessible through a large opening which is covered to prevent dirt from getting into the bearing.Ball and socket bearings can be furnished.

Scoop Feeders for Ball-Rod Mills are made in various radius sizes. Standard scoops are made of cast iron and for the 3 size a 13 or 19 feeder is supplied, for the 4 size a 30 or 36, for the 5 a 36 or 42, and for the 6 a 42 or 48 feeder. Welded steel scoop feeders can, however, be supplied in any radius.

The correct size of feeder depends upon the size of the classifier, and the smallest feeder should be used which will permit gravity flow for closed circuit grinding between classifier and the ball or rod mill. All feeders are built with a removable wearing lip which can be easily replaced and are designed to give minimum scoop wear.

A combination drum and scoop feeder can be supplied if necessary. This feeder is made of heavy steel plate and strongly welded. These drum-scoop feeders are available in the same sizes as the cast iron feeders but can be built in any radius. Scoop liners can be furnished.

The trunnions on Ball-Rod Mills are flanged and carefully machined so that scoops are held in place by large machine bolts and not cap screws or stud bolts. The feed trunnion flange is machined with a shoulder for insuring a proper fit for the feed scoop, and the weight of the scoop is carried on this shoulder so that all strain is removed from the bolts which hold the scoop.

High carbon steel rods are recommended, hot rolled, hot sawed or sheared, to a length of 2 less than actual length of mill taken inside the liners. The initial rod charge is generally a mixture ranging from 1.5 to 3 in diameter. During operation, rod make-up is generally the maximum size. The weights per lineal foot of rods of various diameters are approximately: 1.5 to 6 lbs.; 2-10.7 lbs.; 2.5-16.7 lbs.; and 3-24 lbs.

Forged from the best high carbon manganese steel, they are of the finest quality which can be produced and give long, satisfactory service. Data on ball charges for Ball-Rod Mills are listed in Table 5. Further information regarding grinding balls is included in Table 6.

Rod Mills has a very define and narrow discharge product size range. Feeding a Rod Mill finer rocks will greatly impact its tonnage while not significantly affect its discharge product sizes. The 3.5 diameter rod of a mill, can only grind so fine.

Crushers are well understood by most. Rod and Ball Mills not so much however as their size reduction actions are hidden in the tube (mill). As for Rod Mills, the image above best expresses what is going on inside. As rocks is feed into the mill, they are crushed (pinched) by the weight of its 3.5 x 16 rods at one end while the smaller particles migrate towards the discharge end and get slightly abraded (as in a Ball Mill) on the way there.

We haveSmall Ball Mills for sale coming in at very good prices. These ball mills are relatively small, bearing mounted on a steel frame. All ball mills are sold with motor, gears, steel liners and optional grinding media charge/load.

Ball Mills or Rod Mills in a complete range of sizes up to 10 diameter x20 long, offer features of operation and convertibility to meet your exactneeds. They may be used for pulverizing and either wet or dry grindingsystems. Mills are available in both light-duty and heavy-duty constructionto meet your specific requirements.

All Mills feature electric cast steel heads and heavy rolled steelplate shells. Self-aligning main trunnion bearings on large mills are sealedand internally flood-lubricated. Replaceable mill trunnions. Pinion shaftbearings are self-aligning, roller bearing type, enclosed in dust-tightcarrier. Adjustable, single-unit soleplate under trunnion and drive pinionsfor perfect, permanent gear alignment.

Ball Mills can be supplied with either ceramic or rubber linings for wet or dry grinding, for continuous or batch type operation, in sizes from 15 x 21 to 8 x 12. High density ceramic linings of uniform hardness male possible thinner linings and greater and more effective grinding volume. Mills are shipped with liners installed.

Complete laboratory testing service, mill and air classifier engineering and proven equipment make possible a single source for your complete dry-grinding mill installation. Units available with air swept design and centrifugal classifiers or with elevators and mechanical type air classifiers. All sizes and capacities of units. Laboratory-size air classifier also available.

A special purpose batch mill designed especially for grinding and mixing involving acids and corrosive materials. No corners mean easy cleaning and choice of rubber or ceramic linings make it corrosion resistant. Shape of mill and ball segregation gives preferential grinding action for grinding and mixing of pigments and catalysts. Made in 2, 3 and 4 diameter grinding drums.

Nowadays grinding mills are almost extensively used for comminution of materials ranging from 5 mm to 40 mm (3/161 5/8) down to varying product sizes. They have vast applications within different branches of industry such as for example the ore dressing, cement, lime, porcelain and chemical industries and can be designed for continuous as well as batch grinding.

Ball mills can be used for coarse grinding as described for the rod mill. They will, however, in that application produce more fines and tramp oversize and will in any case necessitate installation of effective classification.If finer grinding is wanted two or three stage grinding is advisable as for instant primary rod mill with 75100 mm (34) rods, secondary ball mill with 2540 mm(11) balls and possibly tertiary ball mill with 20 mm () balls or cylpebs.To obtain a close size distribution in the fine range the specific surface of the grinding media should be as high as possible. Thus as small balls as possible should be used in each stage.

The principal field of rod mill usage is the preparation of products in the 5 mm0.4 mm (4 mesh to 35 mesh) range. It may sometimes be recommended also for finer grinding. Within these limits a rod mill is usually superior to and more efficient than a ball mill. The basic principle for rod grinding is reduction by line contact between rods extending the full length of the mill, resulting in selective grinding carried out on the largest particle sizes. This results in a minimum production of extreme fines or slimes and more effective grinding work as compared with a ball mill. One stage rod mill grinding is therefore suitable for preparation of feed to gravimetric ore dressing methods, certain flotation processes with slime problems and magnetic cobbing. Rod mills are frequently used as primary mills to produce suitable feed to the second grinding stage. Rod mills have usually a length/diameter ratio of at least 1.4.

Tube mills are in principle to be considered as ball mills, the basic difference being that the length/diameter ratio is greater (35). They are commonly used for surface cleaning or scrubbing action and fine grinding in open circuit.

In some cases it is suitable to use screened fractions of the material as grinding media. Such mills are usually called pebble mills, but the working principle is the same as for ball mills. As the power input is approximately directly proportional to the volume weight of the grinding media, the power input for pebble mills is correspondingly smaller than for a ball mill.

A dry process requires usually dry grinding. If the feed is wet and sticky, it is often necessary to lower the moisture content below 1 %. Grinding in front of wet processes can be done wet or dry. In dry grinding the energy consumption is higher, but the wear of linings and charge is less than for wet grinding, especially when treating highly abrasive and corrosive material. When comparing the economy of wet and dry grinding, the different costs for the entire process must be considered.

An increase in the mill speed will give a directly proportional increase in mill power but there seems to be a square proportional increase in the wear. Rod mills generally operate within the range of 6075 % of critical speed in order to avoid excessive wear and tangled rods. Ball and pebble mills are usually operated at 7085 % of critical speed. For dry grinding the speed is usually somewhat lower.

The mill lining can be made of rubber or different types of steel (manganese or Ni-hard) with liner types according to the customers requirements. For special applications we can also supply porcelain, basalt and other linings.

The mill power is approximately directly proportional to the charge volume within the normal range. When calculating a mill 40 % charge volume is generally used. In pebble and ball mills quite often charge volumes close to 50 % are used. In a pebble mill the pebble consumption ranges from 315 % and the charge has to be controlled automatically to maintain uniform power consumption.

In all cases the net energy consumption per ton (kWh/ton) must be known either from previous experience or laboratory tests before mill size can be determined. The required mill net power P kW ( = ton/hX kWh/ton) is obtained from

Trunnions of S.G. iron or steel castings with machined flange and bearing seat incl. device for dismantling the bearings. For smaller mills the heads and trunnions are sometimes made in grey cast iron.

The mills can be used either for dry or wet, rod or ball grinding. By using a separate attachment the discharge end can be changed so that the mills can be used for peripheral instead of overflow discharge.

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Gas Burner is research and developing for rotary kiln that burning with single or various gas fuel, which not only ensure all the advantages and specificity of four-channel burner, but also enhance the application of burning. The burner have special structure and reasonable technical parameters, guarantee the gas fuel fully mixing with air, primary air and secondary air, which to ensure stronger heating intensity, higher burning efficiency, easier adjustment. Burner can be applicable for various metallurgy and chemical rotary kiln. Application Burning System for Rotary kiln on industry fields like Power, Chemical, Metallurgy, Building material etc. Its special advantages as follows: 1.Stability flame with regular flame shapes, no phenomenon like fluctuation and sweep kiln liner, that will outstanding extend the life time of kiln liner.  2.Good mixing performance with gas fuel, primary air and secondary air, burning abundantly, that can be enhance heating intensity and reduce primary air proportion at same time, then will improve kiln capacity and reduce energy consumption.  3.No strong eddy between flame and bowl effect produced by flame cover, can avoid appearance of temperature peak and make evenly distribution of flame temperature, then effectively protect cylinder and guard plate of kiln inlet. 4.Due to more fully mixing with combustion air and fuel gas, the burning will be more quickly and fully, which will reduce the content of CO and NOX from kiln inlet, but also better for safety operating and realizing green production.  5. The nozzle has made by special material with advantages like heat-resistance and easy to change. 6.Simple operation and adjustment. When operating, erupt speed of each air pipe can be change via adjust sectional area, then will realize goals like adjustment of flame shape and strength. Gas Burner is mainly composed with Pipe, Nozzle, Ignition device, Metal corrugated compensator, Butterfly valve, Pressure measurement and Protection layer etc. The mainly features are: 1. Pipeline From outside to inside respectively, the pipeline has consist of Axial wind channel, Swirling wind channel, Gas wind channel, central wind channel and ignition channel. And the ignition is just for igniting, so called four-channel burner. 2. Nozzle Nozzle made by special material, spray mouth sectional area of axial wind channel, swirling wind channel and gas wind channel are adjustable, so that can adjust the spray speed of each channel. The nozzle is the key part to ensure flame shape. 3.Ignition Device Located in the central wind channel, used for automatic igniting. 4.Metal Corrugated Compensator Which is the key part to connect each channel, sealing and adjust flame shape, and allowed process axial movement with connected channel.

Ore ball mill is used to separate and screening different ore minerals, separate ore tailing. It also be used for ore grinding, non-ferrous metal beneficiation, new-type building material producing. According to the discharge method, the ball mill divided to dry-type mill and wet-type mill. Our products advantages of ore ball mill: High grinding efficiency, low consumption 2. Product fineness is adjustable and uniform. 3.Low energy consumption, low wear, low operating costs. 4. Small vibration, low noise, environmental friendly 5. Liner is made of high-quality wear resistant material with high strength, wear resistance and long working life. Ore ball mill is mainly consisting of feeding device, big gear, discharge device, cylinder, diaphragm plate, hollow shaft, liner, drive device and other components. 1. The feeding device is consisting of inlet chute and screw. There are liners in the inlet chute, which can extend the working life of the feeding device. 2. There is pre-gap on the inlet hallow shaft, that can reduce the tolerance which is made of temperature changes and installation mistake to ensure the gear mesh. 3. Inside the ball mill, different parts have different liner structure, which will greatly improve the grinding efficiency. 4. Dry-type ball mill adopt sliding bearing, which is good of strength, ductility, antifriction, abrasion resistance, lubricity and thermal conductivity. It is able to meet the lubrication requirements of the hollow shaft. That is suitable for the environment of low speed and heavy load in metallurgical & ore dressing industry. 5. Wet-type ball mill adopt roller bearing, reduce useless work consumption and easy to replace.

This rotary cooler equipment can quickly cool higher-temperature of granular compound fertilizer directly Approximately to normal atmospheric temperature, which is convenient for timely and quick packing and Prevents compound fertilizer from forming block during store. It can achieve adverse Flow cooling, which can reduce pollution and improve working environment. It has many characteristics such as reasonable structure, stable run, strong adaptability etc.. Features of cooler: 1.High cooling efficiency 2.Simple structure, low rate malfunction, convenient operation, low cost of maintenance, stable operation. 3.Wide usage, can be used for the drying of different materials in powder, granule, strip, lump, large elasticity Of operation. Output is allowed to have larger fluctuations in manufacturing, but not allowed to influence the Quality of the products. 4.Easy to install and remove Application range of cooler: 1. Chemical industry: ammonium sulfate, sodium sulphide, anfu powder, ammonium nitrate, Urea, oxalic acid, bichromate potassium, pvc, nitrophosphate fertilizer, fytic acid, Phosphate compound fertilizer. 2. Food industry: glucose, salt, sugar, vitamin malted milk, granular sugar. 3. Mining products: ceramic sand , coal, coal slime, manganese ore, limestone, pyrite, peat, etc. 4. Others: iron powder, flat soybean

Performance characteristics: Bag Filter is widely applied for dust collection applications in mining industry, chemical industry, pharmaceutical industry, and the production of flour, glass, metallurgy, mine, cement, building materials, etc. The bag filter is made up of the top chest, middle chest, bottom chest, dust exhauster, and jet cleaning system. There is spray tube and air outlet at the top chest. The middle box consists of perforated plate, venturi tube, filter bag, keel, pulse valve and gas cleaning system. The bottom chest is comprised of ash bucket, air inlet, access door, ash exhauster (which is composed of rotary dust valve or spiral conveyer) It could be made of carbon steel or stainless steel upon request. Dust collector is generally used with a temperature less than 12C. Customized dust collector for usage at high temperatures (less 23C) is also available.

Advantages of magnetic separator: 1)Newest CTB series magnetic separator In China 2)Simple structure, high yield; 3)Covenient operation; 4)Granularity blow 0.5m Application of magnetic separator: Newest STB Series magnetic separator In China. This series of products is used in wet magnetic separation of materials with granularity below 3mm like magnetite, pyrrhotine, bake ore and washingtonite. It is also used for deironing materials like non-metal ores, coal and building materials. Average magnetic induction of barrel surface is 100-600mT. According to customer's demands, it can provide magnetic separation with different magnetic induction like forward flow, semi counter flow and counter flow. The products have features, such as simple structure, high yield, convenient operation and easy maintenance. Characteristics of Magnetic separator: The products have geatures, such as simple structure, high yield, convenient operation and easy maintenance.

Performance characteristics: Bag Filter is widely applied for dust collection applications in mining industry, chemical industry, pharmaceutical industry, and the production of flour, glass, metallurgy, mine, cement, building materials, etc. The bag filter is made up of the top chest, middle chest, bottom chest, dust exhauster, and jet cleaning system. There is spray tube and air outlet at the top chest. The middle box consists of perforated plate, venturi tube, filter bag, keel, pulse valve and gas cleaning system. The bottom chest is comprised of ash bucket, air inlet, access door, ash exhauster (which is composed of rotary dust valve or spiral conveyer) It could be made of carbon steel or stainless steel upon request. Dust collector is generally used with a temperature less than 120C. Customized dust collector for usage at high temperatures (less 230C) is also available.

NE Plate Chain Elevator takes advanced technology from home and abroad. This products is suitable for vertical transportation of powder, granular, and bulk materials, also for high hardness materials. The temperature of materials should not be higher than 200 degree celsius. Max. Elevation height 40m. Advantages: Wide range of elevating height. Strong capacity and small driving power. Feeding materials by automatic flowing and discharge through gravity induction. Long service life and good leak tightness. Stable and liable operation, easy maintenance. Low running cost. Bucket elevator The description of bucket elevator: Bucket elevators are designed to move flowing powders or bulk solids vertically. Bucket elevators use an endless belt or chain and have a series of buckets attached to it. Bulk material is spread into an inlet hopper. Buckets (or cups) dig into the material and convey it up and over the head sprocket/pulley, and then throw the material out a discharge throat. Bucket elevator can be divided into belt type and chain type, and the common characteristic is used for vertical transportation of powder, granulated and small lump materials. It has compact structure, small covering area, large hoisting height, good sealed performance. Tape bucket conveyor is lightweight, flexible, simple handling maintenance and low noise, which can be used to transport density 1.5 t/m3 granular or small conveying of bulk materials. Advantage of Bucket Elevator: The bucket conveyor has the advantages of big conveying capacity, high hoisting height, stable and reliable running and long service life. The machine is applicable for the crushed materials, and block materials, such as coal, cement, block, sand, clay and ore. The bucket elevator is allowed to convey materials with high temperature when armed with special circle chain tructure. Henan Zhengzhou Mining Machinery Co., Ltd. Specializes in manufacturing bucket elevator. Henan Zhengzhou Mining Machinery Co., Ltd. Designs and manufactures a wide variety of bucket elevators based on the characteristics of the bulk material and the process requirements. Designed to handle a wide variety of bulk materials from average to very free-flowing. Welcome to consult and order.

Gz series electromagnetic vibrating feeder Vibrating feeder is widely used in crushing, screening production line of mining, cement, metallurgy, building materials, chemical, mineral processing, coal mining and industries. The vibrating feeder is used to mine material from a storage silo or other material storage equipment in uniform or quantitative supply to the equipment of subject material, and is the necessary equipment to practice routine automation. Introduction of the vibrating feeder: Gz series electromagnetic vibrating feeder mainly used for mining, metallurgical, chemical, coal, machinery and other industries in to the accepting machine. Being diversification, this series of products can be specially designed and produced according to the customers' need. Furthermore, all types of electromagnetic vibration feeder can be easily implemented manual or automatic control. Henan zhengzhou mining machinery co., ltd. Is a large professional manufacturer of vibrating feeder. We can provide our customer with a good consultant and assistant, to ensure our customer's investment will be rewarded with great profit. At the same time, select the right model of equipment for customer. To meet our customer's special needs, we can design and develop customized products.

Introduction: PF Series Impact Crusher is one kind of equipment to crushing the brittle material which compression strength no more than 350 Map, the advantage including high crushing ratio, uniform product grain and low over crushing, low energy consumption, high adjustment range of product grain size and optional crushing etc, which is mainly used in mine, metallurgy, cement, construction material, coal etc for secondary crushing and fine crushing the medium hardness material. PF Series Impact Crusher is mainly used in secondary crushing, and can crush material o f crushing compression strength no more than 320 Maps. It is suitable to produce high rank highway, hydroelectric and building material and such industry as stone. (1)Even crushing function of multi-cavities which is suitable to crush hard material. (2)Reasonable design of leveling plate making the finished material finer and cubic-shaped without internal cracks. (3)Low and big feed opening make the production line easy to arrange and increase the size of feeding material. (4)Hydraulic start-up which is convenient for maintenance and replacement of wear-parts. (5)New anti-abrasive material which prolong service life of impact hammer, impact plate and liner. Advantages: 1 Large feeding port and high crushing cavity, suitable to crushing the material with high hardness and big grain size, and less powder. 2 The gap between impact plate and hammer plate is adjustable, so the discharging grain size can be effective control and the grain shape is well. 3 The hammer, impact plate and lining plate are made of new type abrasion-proof material with long working life and impact protection, wear protection. 4 Because of the function of three-stage crushing and plastic, so the crushing ratio is high, and the product shape is cube and can optional crushing. 5 The multi-function hydraulic station has many function of hydraulic discharge gap with high speed, impact plate stable vibration and the body open automatically.

Pulse Jet Bag Filter incorporates the advantages of the several kinds of bag filters and is equipped with high performance pulse valve. This kind of bag filter can be used in building material, metallurgy, chemical and refractory industries, especially the crushing, packing, clinker cooling and grinding workshops in cement production. It is also suitable for dust collection of coal grinding after some modification. Application: Building material, metallurgy, chemical and refractory industries. Output: Volume(m/h): 67300-314000 Filtration area(m2): 935-4361 Net filtration area(m2): 4205 Dust content at inlet(g/m):

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fly line shootout, review, & buyers guide - trident fly fishing

Trident Fly Fishing is a full service fly shop. We spend a lot of time testing gear and writing shootouts to give you all of the tools to make your next trip a success. We are not a blog, or a review site. 100% of our funding comes from your gear purchase, so if this shootout helps you on your next fly fishing adventure, support us by buying your next fly line (or better yet, your next rod and reel), from us.

When we first started testing gear, we knew that we had to do things differently to make a difference. It all started with the first ever fly reel shootout way back in 2013. As we continued to scour the web for new ideas, it was pretty clear that the most talked about and least understood part of our equipment was fly lines.In fact, when we started this project, we too knew very little about fly lines. As far as trout lines were concerned, it was RIO Gold, SA GPX, and for lighter rods, RIO Trout LT.

Why are fly lines so tough to understand? First, there are a TON of lines out there. We tested 43 weight-forward 5-weight floating lines in this test, which is probably somewhere around a third of the WF5F lines on the market. When you add in DT, color variations, specialty lines, different sink rates, etc. the number of lines balloons into the 100s, and that's just for 5-weights!

Second, there's a tremendous amount of variation among lines. While there is a standard for fly lines, it's no longer that relevant(if you want more history on fly lines, Id recommend reading Americas Fly Lines by Victor Johnson). The AFFTA standards came about in the 1960s when Myron Gregory, a tournament caster, and president of the International Casting Federation, set out to make lines easy for the average angler to understand. These line standards are still in place today.

So why isn't the standard relevant? In rough numbers, only one-third of the lines tested are true 5-weight lines (134-146 grains) according to the standard and about another third are within the margin of error (126-152 grains). Also interesting is the fact that zero lines weighed in below 140 grains.

Finally, fly lines are really complicated. The best article we've read to date about how lines cast is "The Mechanics of Flycasting: The Flyline" byGraig A. Spolek, an engineering professor at Portland State University. If you click on it, you'll see very quickly the level of math and science that's required for a deeper understanding of how fly lines work. While we don't necessarily suggest spending your time trying to figure out that article (though it is excellent), there is one chart that is critically important:

The takeaway: When modeling the fly velocity [in air] of various tapered fly lines, Spolek found that the taper makes a tremendous difference in the way a line casts. We agree, and so we set out on an odyssey to find out which lines work, and which do not.

The first thing we did in this test was to limit the test to just weight-forward 5-weight lines. We did this to make sure everything was not only an apples-to-apples comparison, but to keep the test somewhat manageable. We then asked every line manufacturer we could find to send us lines, and most did!

G. Loomis NRX LP 9 5-weight: We chose the NRX LP for a few reasons. First and foremost, its one of our best sellers and a customer favorite among all-around trout rods. We considered the Hardy Zephrus, Sage ONE and the Helios 2 (among others), but what sets the NRX apart is its more progressive action which enables you to cast a wider range of fly lines on it. The Zephrus for example really likes heavier lines like SA MPX.

Sage Circa: To complement our fast action all-around rod, we looked for something that was on the opposite end of the spectrum from the NRX. We wanted a softer, medium action rod that would cast lighter more classic lines, without being too noodle-y. The Circa fit the bill perfectly (yes, Sage calls it slow, but we know its really not that slow).

Taper diagrams were created by measuring the diameter of each line every 6 inches until we were well into the running line. Yes, thats well over 4000 data points. We used a digital micrometer, which is the only way to get an accurate reading.

While these diagrams are really great for most lines, they didnt work as well for Airflo. The reason for this is twofold. First, Airflo lines are ridged. This means that they are not round and when were talking about 1000ths of an inch, it makes a big difference. Second, Airflo lines have larger diameters. That means that Airflo lines have more air inside for any given weight of line. This makes them float better, but it also makes them squishy and hard to measure.

One of the most important features of every fly line is its taper. Once we had the taper diagrams, we could analyze the lengths of all of the key elements of each taper: the Level Tip, Front Taper, Belly, Back Taper, and Running Line.

So how accurate are these measurements? Well, all of our measurements were in 6 increments, so we could be as much as a foot off. Couple this with a 6 manufacturing tolerance and that gives us another foot. What does that mean? If a manufacturer claims the head length is 40, and we found it to be 38, it still could be within specifications. This goes for any part of the line.

In order to understand the effect mass has on how a line casts, we decided to weigh each fly line in 10-foot increments up to 30 to make sure that we got consistent measurements across all of the lines. We then measured the full head weight to show us the maximum amount of weight that we were casting. We took all of our measurements using a gram scale accurate to +/- .01 grams, or +/- 0.15 grains.

If I were forced to pick one factor that differentiated a great casting line from a poor one, its loop stability. What we mean by this is the ease with which a line "unfurls. Another way to think about it is that the velocity of the fly never gets too low to compensate for gravity when making longer casts.

Lets face it, as fly fisherman, rightly or wrongly, were kind of obsessed with distance. We made a couple of long casts across a tape measure and then recorded points based on the relative distances we cast.

Presentation is another category that is talked about often. I can honestly tell you that with a few notable exceptions, every fly line that is designated as a "trout line" has pretty decent presentation. The difference between RIO Trout LT and Scientific Anglers SharkWave GPXis really not that much. Certainly for 95+% of fishing situations, I'd take the easier to load, better casting line, over the better presentation. It's really overrated. We tested this by casting each line on a lake and judging how much it "splashed" and how softly it landed.

Unlike presentation, the ability to shoot line is an important characteristic of any fly fisherman. Shooting line is, simply put, the length of line that goes through the tip after the line is released from your bottom hand. At first glance you might think that this is equivalent to distance but there are lines that shoot far but don't cast AS far due to the fact that they can't hold as much line in the air.

This one is easy. We took our standard test leader and added a small split shot to the end and a Thingamabobber to the butt section of our leader and then cast it! This category will also tell you how well a line will cast "junk" - like a dry dropper, or a two-dry rig - anything that falls outside of a traditional dry fly or a streamer. Let's face it, most of us are throwing a lot of bobbers these days.

One thing we do a lot in the brush covered streams of the east is roll-cast, so we wanted to see which lines roll casted well. We also tested this on an open lake, but did two different styles of cast: the old school standard slow d-loop and a much more aggressive Scandi-style touch-and-go single hand spey cast.

Last, but not least, we included a category for beginning casters. Why? Because no matter where you sit on the casting spectrum, a line that loads better will give you more feedback and be more fun to fish. And also because, let's face it, you're no Steve Rajeff. We tested this by making a few short casts and seeing how the line loaded each of the rods.

We really wanted to test how well each line floats. Unfortunately, when we started testing, it became very clear that this was not going to be something that we could test. First, we just dropped the lines into a bucket... guess what, they all float! Even after 24hrs. Then we thought about taking density measurements, and it turns out that the differences are subtle, and not really useful, so we gave up. We did notice that some lines floated noticeably poorer than others, and we noted that in our reviews.

The many of the lines we tested in this shootout can be described as average. It means that they dont really stand out in any way, good or bad. They dont have spectacular presentation, or load incredibly quickly, or cast particularly far. Every one of these lines will cast your double nymph rig with a bobber 40 if youre a reasonably competent caster, and they will lay down a dry delicately enough to catch a fish on the Bighorn. The problem with these lines from a reviewers standpoint is that, because they dont stand out in any way, its very difficult to determine any significant differences between them. As you read through our casting notes, were going to keep referring back to this paragraph so that we dont repeat ourselves.

The best way to read these individual reviews is alphabetically, even though it's a TON of reading (this review is over 50 pages long in total). The reason for this is that's how we wrote it, and we found that the best way to talk about fly lines is in reference to other fly lines (particularly those that are popular and most people have experience casting). Below you'll find links to the reviews of each and every fly line we cast.

You probably haven't even gotten this far, but if you have, just get Scientific Anglers SharkWave GPX. It will work well on most modern fly rods, for most situations, for most anglers. If you really don't like texturing, you can try SA MPX or Teeny WF Floating, but neither line is as well rounded.

Below you'll find all of our test data. These images are really big, so if you want to see them, you'll probably want to right click and choose "Save Image As...", and save a copy to your computer so you can adjust the size properly. We have also included links to PDF versions.

Taper lengths computed using our taper charts. For individual line taper shapes, please see the review specific to the line. If you can't read the image, you can view it in PDF formatby clicking here.

Grain weight measurements taken for 10'-20'-30' and the full head. We also included a relative chart as this is helpful in understanding the taper.If you can't read the image, you can view it in PDF formatby clickinghere.

Last but not least, we scored each of the fly lines in the test. We seriously considered not including this chart, since there is no magic bullet in fly lines. Let me repeat that: there is no magic bullet. There is no one size fits all, does everything well fly line. If you buy Royal Wulff Triangle Taper and use it for streamers, you'll probably be disappointed. The opposite is true for SA Anadro. We highly recommend checking out our chart on "Recommended Lines" above and using that as your guide for selecting a line. Nevertheless, this is non-distilled version will help you if you're interested in finding, say, the best RIO line for streamers and you don't want to read our full review. We also only scored some lines on one rod. We did this because there was a massive disparity between how the line performed on one rod vs the other.If you can't read the image, you can view it in PDF format by clickinghere.

The Air 2 is being touted as the best all-purpose 5wt in the company's illustrious history and a challenger to the top trout rods on the market. Winston is known for making rods with a soulful touch that are perfectly tuned for technical dry fly fishing. However, due to their delicate nature, they often lack the backbone needed for dedicated nymphing and streamer fishing. If you are in the market for a new 5wt, read on to see if the Air 2 is the ultimate multi-purpose trout fishing tool.

An excellent pattern for matching caddis, terrestrial insects, Yellow Sallies, and other light-bodied adult stoneflies, the Stimulator can be used as an exact imitation or an effective attractor pattern. No matter how you fish the Stimulator, it is a pattern worth carrying in a few sizes all season long.

nu-bolt & i-rod pipe supports by deepwater | farwest corrosion control company

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Corrosion at pipe supports is one of the leading causes of process piping failures. It is the beam supports and saddle clamps that have historically caused the majority of problems. These have the following undesirable features in common:

The Nu-Bolt assembly provides an electrically isolated stand-off between the pipe and the supporting beam or saddle clamp. This allows for easy maintenance and inspection, while preventing galvanic corrosion between dissimilar metals (the pipe and support).

Below are the basic specifications for the Nu-Bolt Assembly, including the dimensions of the entire assembly (imperial and metric), I-Rod and I-Rod HT specifications, as well as specs for the polyolefin (heat-shrink) used to coat the U-bolt. Deepwater also offers PEEK material for environments that prove too severe for either (though these instances are rather rare). For information on PEEK or specifications for any other aspect of Deepwater's pipe support systems, please contact us.

The table below conservatively estimates total weight/foot of pipe filled with water. Multiply this number by support spacing to get total weight loading, then select number of 1 in. I-Rods if pipe is less than 12 in. 1 in. I-Rods are generally recommended for piping over 12 in. Do not mix rod sizes.

Acute or immediate effects: Routes of entry and systemsINGESTION: Not a probable route of exposureSKIN: Molten I-Rod causes thermal burnsEYE: Mechanical irritation onlyINHALATION: Shapes not respirable

If exposed to fumes from overheating, move to fresh air. Consult a physician if symptoms persist Wash skin with soap and plenty of water Flush eyes with water. Consult a physician if symptoms persist 7If molten I-Rod contacts skin, cool rapidly with cold water. Do not attempt to peel I-Rod from skin. Obtain medical attention to thermal burn.

A:Normally, at temperatures above 90C (194F) crevice corrosion is not a problem, because the water simply evaporates. This is therefore our upper recommended continuous service temperature. The material will, however, perform up to 120C (250F), but may experience some slight deformation at the contact area.

A:No, not if the piping is correctly supported along its length. If there is noticeable sagging between support points then the pipe is being overstressed, and inadequately supported. Note: I-Rod has been used on hundreds of thousands of pipe supports since 1987 and we have never seen a problem.

The photos below were recorded during a routine topside inspection of an offshore structure that was installed in 1989. This was the first offshore structure where the I-Rod system was specified for new construction. The total added cost of this system was less than $10,000. The photos demonstrate the success of the system, which has subsequently been used on thousands of offshore structures.