Accelerating energy transitions on a path to climate safety can grow the world's economy by 2.4 per cent over the expected growth of current plans within the next decade, a new analysis from the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) shows. The Agency's 1.5C pathway foresees the creation of up to 122 million energy-related jobs in 2050, more than double today's 58 million. Renewable ...
Key Energy is an international exhibition and conference showcasing technologies, services and integrated solutions that promote and accelerate the transition towards a carbon-neutral economy - the main aim of the Green Deal, the strategic plan for sustainable growth launched by the European ...
A typical mixer-settler is consisting of a continuously operated mixing zone and a continuously operated settling zone separated by a weir to avoid back mixing. Mixer and settlercan be more or less designed independently. The mixing process of the heavy phase 1 and the light phase 2 can be adjusted by the right choice of stirrer, stirrer speed and throughput.
The settling process requires a certain residence time in the settler which is adjusted by the right choice of the volume means length of the settling zone with respect to the throughput. If the phase separation is not sufficient for a given throughput it ispossible to improve the separation process to a certain extend by installing coalescers and barrier systems to avoid the entrainment of non-coalesced dispersion.
Mixer-settlers are available in QVFborosilicate glass 3.3 from DN50 up to DN1000 and in De Dietrich glass-lined steel even larger. With one single mixer stage almost one single equilibrium stage can be achieved which makes the transfer of results in the laboratory with separation funnels to production scale systems comparably easy. In case more than one theoretical equilibrium stage has to be realized they are mostly connected in a counter current manner see below4 stage flow chart:
The investment costs for an extraction plant using mixer-settlers increase proportionally with the number of theoretical separation stages to be realized, so that in most cases no more than 4 stages are connected within one system. The more separation stages have to be realisze the more extraction columns become advantagous.
Les informations recueillies sur ce formulaire sont enregistres dans un fichier informatis par De Dietrich pour entrer en contact avec vous suite votre candidature. La base lgale du traitement est lexcution de mesures prcontractuelles. Les donnes collectes seront communiques aux seuls services comptents au traitement de votre demande chez De Dietrich. Les donnes sont conserves la dure ncessaire la ralisation des finalits pour lesquelles elles ont t collectes. Vous pouvez accder aux donnes vous concernant, les rectifier, demander leur effacement ou exercer votre droit la limitation du traitement de vos donnes. Vous pouvez retirer tout moment votre consentement au traitement de vos donnes. Pour exercer ces droits ou pour toute question sur le traitement de vos donnes dans ce dispositif, vous pouvez vous adresser par courrier lectronique [email protected] Si vous estimez, aprs nous avoir contacts, que vos droits RGPD ne sont pas respects, vous pouvez adresser une rclamation la CNIL.
Groundnut is a kind of oil with high oil content. The residual oil in oilcake can be reduced to 6.5% by second pressing. The temperature of the whole process of cold pressing is required to be below 60, so that to guarantee the quality of cold pressed oil.
ABC Machinery - reliable groundnut oil extraction machine manufacturer, offer high quality oil extraction machines and turnkey customized oil processing plant for all kinds of oilseeds and nuts.
The followings are an overview of groundnut oil extraction technologies.Feel free to send us an inquiry to one-to-one serviceon customized process design, equipment selection, factory layout and cost details!
The purchased groundnut kernels generally contain some impurities. Without cleaning, the impurities will not only affect the quality of produced oil and oilcake, but also can adsorb part of oil to decrease the oil yield. If there are sand, metal, hemp rope and other sundries in the peanut, it will cause wear and tear on the parts, even inducing production. The impurity content of the cleaned groundnut kernels should not exceed 0.2%There are many cleaning methods. Different methods can be used according to the condition of impurity. If the impurities are light, such as grass, stem and leaves, wind selection method can be used to blow off the impurities with airflow. If there are iron impurities, electromagnet or permanent magnet can be used.
Large oilseeds must be crushed before being tempered. The purpose of crushing is to increase the surface area of the oil to facilitate the transfer of temperature and water, so as to improve the oil yield. The particle size after cracking should be 6-8 pieces. In order to meet the requirements of crushing, it is necessary to control the moisture content of seeds 7%~12%.
Heat treatment is one of the important processes in groundnut oil extraction plant. The effect of heat treatment has a direct effect on the whole oil production process, oil yield, oil and oilcake quality.
The well processed groundnut kernels are fed from the hopper into the oil press chamber. The kernels are continuously pressed by the squeezing spiral. Screw type groundnut oil manufacturing machine is the main equipment used in small to medium scale edible oil extraction plant, featured of reasonable structure design, high pressure and low labor intensity.
The main components of screw type peanut oil expeller include a speed reduction gear, a drain collector, pulleys and a hopper. The machine is driven by electric motor.One of the most unique feature is that it assembles oil expeller, electric heatting pipe and vacuum oil filter press together.It is characterised by a high rate of oil output and great oil quality. There are a plenty of benefits of this multifunction oil making machines, making it worth buying for oil production business owners. The vital ones are listed out here for your easy understanding: cost-effective, affortable for farmers and small oil milling workshops; easy operation and maintenance, low noise; cover a small area, etc.
Refined oil and unrefined oil: Unrefined groundnut oil has a nutty taste, making it an ideal choice for salad dressings. Refined peanut oil is produced after bleaching and deodorization in cooking oil refinery plant, used as an attractive frying oil. During the refining process, the components that might cause peanut-based allergies are also removed, non-allergic. (Related Post: Peanut Oil Cold Filteration Machine)
Now that you have a fair idea about groundnut oil extraction machine and refinery machine, you must have understood how important and best suited equipment is for your oil manufacturing business. With the help of ABC Machinery, you will be able to get a boost to your business which will help you to produce high-quality cooking oil in short time with less effort, and make more money.So what are you waiting for? Send us an inquiry to get more details of our groundnut oil extraction machine right now!
Groundnut is native to Latin America and some other tropical regions. Groundnut or peanut oil is one of the most common vegetable oils for cooking or enhance the food flavor. It can be segmented on the basis of type, application, and packaging.
Different Application: Groundnut oil is mainly applied in market of food, pharmaceutical, personal care products and others. Food industry (including oil extraction) is the main application field, and is expected to remain so due to the nature of the market.Groundnut oil is not only rich in protein content but is equally very tasty and edible. In India the oil is further processed to produce margarine as well as soaps, paints and cosmetics. Almost fifty percent oil can be extracted from groundnuts.
Different Packaging: The produced oil can be packed in plastic bottles and containers, plastic pouches and glass containers. If you are planning to start your own groundnut oil manufacturing business, you should select the kind of packaging method depending on convenience, cost and shelf life.
India and China is the main groundnut oil producer, and account for over 50% of the global production. The United States is also a major producer of peanut oil with over 10% of the global share. On the basis of consumption, the market presents a more complex and region-specific trend. The overall observable trend being that the increase in consumption is closely related to the increasing incorporation of peanut oil in food products.
Pelletizing is the process of compressing or moulding crude or exhausted olive kernel into the shape of a pellet. Olive kernel pellets is densified biofuel made from grinded or milled olive kernel with or without additives and unitized as cylinders, usually diameter<25mm, random length and typically 3, 1540mm with broken ends, obtain by mechanical compression. Nonwoody pellets including olive kernel pellets have high ash, chlorine, nitrogen, and sulfur content and major element contents. To this end olive kernel pellets are recommended to be used in appliances, which are specially designed or adjusted for this kind of pellet. (Christoforou and Fokaides,2015a). The main steps of the pelleting process are presented in Fig.4.3.
Kylili etal. (2016b) presented a novel pelletizing center designed for crude olive kernel. The pelletizing process is based on a typical series of stages, which may vary depending on the condition of the raw material: reception of raw material: drying; grinding; conditioning; pelletizing; cooling; screening; packaging. Crude olive kernel is collected at the bottom end of a dryer and is automatically fed to a grid-connected milling machine. The main parts of the milling machine are the machine frame and engine assembly, and the cutting and crushing rotor assembly. Eighteen cutting knives are used for the milling of dried olive mills solid waste giving a capacity of 100500kg/h depending on the sieves used (425mm). In this plant, a 4mm sieve was used and a capacity of 150kg/h was achieved. The crushed, dried olive mills solid waste is transferred by compressed air to a collection tank with a total capacity of 300 L, which is connected to a 2.5kW cyclone for the separation of the finest particles. The grinded material is manually transferred to a rotating roller (i.e., three rollers) pelletizing machine which is powered by a 22kW three-phase motor. The diameter of the produced pellets is 6mm (Peksa-Blanchard etal.,2007) and a maximum capacity of 500kg/h can be achieved based on the processed feedstock and the feeding rate which can be adjusted. The produced pellets are finally transferred to a silo using a perforated belt conveyor, which allows the simultaneous cooling and dust removal from the produced pellets. The collection of silo is connected to a weighing and packaging assembly which delivers the final, tradable product. Table4.4 provides information regarding the installed and operating pellet production equipment of the olive mills solid waste pellet plant. The operation of the crude olive kernel pelletizing plant is presented in Sustainable Energy Research Group (2015d). Fig.4.4 presents pelletized crude olive kernel.
Christoforou etal. (2016) provided evidence that the exploitation of pelletized crude olive kernel can have a significant input on the contribution of renewable energy sources in a country energy balance, at an affordable competitive price. By considering the elemental composition and the available crude olive kernel quantities in Cyprus, it was revealed that the exploitation of pelletized crude olive kernel for heat generation purposes across the households, industrial, and agricultural sectors in a 40:30:30% ratio could contribute significantly by 1114 toe, 934 toe, and 835 toe, respectively. Furthermore, the findings of the economic feasibility analysis based on the assumption of a baseline case study revealed that the costs for collecting the raw biomass, manufacturing and distributing crude olive kernel pellets stands at 0.372 /kg. A sensitivity analysis though showed that a significant drop of the selling price of the pellets down to 142 /ton could be achieved by increasing the pellet plants annual operating hours and capacity, being competitive with the retail price of conventional wood pellets, reported in Europe for the year 2013 at 280 /ton (European Biomass Association,2013).
To summarize, in this section, we have demonstrated the ability of 3-D reconstruction methods to accurately represent the pore structure of porous membranes. Two model systems have been examined, Vycor porous glass and porous compacts made by pelletizing monosize spherical alumina particles. For the case of Vycor, a stochastic reconstruction process has been employed to generate 3D images which have the same basic statistical content with the actual material in terms of porosity, auto-correlation function and chord length distribution. Furthermore, the percolation threshold of 14.4% found for the stochastic process employed to generate the structure Vycor, is in close agreement with the value obtained based on the theory of spinodal decomposition, indicating that the developed reconstruction process mimics at some level the underlying process that takes place during the formation of the material. For the case of the porous pellets made by compaction of spherical monosize alumina particles, a ballistic deposition process of spherical particles has been employed, to accurately represent the pore structure the porous compact. Comparison between the computed and experimental permeability values obtained in the Knudsen regime shows a relative difference of less than 8% for both model membranes. This agreement has been obtained without resorting to any assumption or additional simplification in either the porous structure or the diffusion process. Small anisotropy is observed in the simulated sphere packs in agreement with the anisotropic character of the ballistic deposition process. Comparison between the structural and dynamic properties between the two model systems shows similar correlation functions but different chord length distributions and Knudsen permeabilities (not justifiable solely by the difference in porosity). This result shows that matching of the two-point correlation function alone is not always adequate, when pursuing an accurate representation of the structure of a porous material. In such cases, higher order statistical properties of the material contained in the chord length distribution should be satisfied as well. Finally it is important to emphasize the fact that both reconstruction models seem to mimic at some level the underlying process that takes place during the formation of the actual porous material. This observation leads to the conclusion that proper account of the formation process in the reconstruction of a porous material leads to accurate representations of its structure.
Transportation and land-application costs limit the utilization of manure as a substitute for chemical fertilizers. At the current costs of loading, hauling, and spreading, it is not economically feasible to transport manure and compost over dozens of miles in most cases. Manure handling and transportation costs can be reduced by pelletizing. During this process, compression and heat are applied to solid manure to granulate or mold it into pellets of uniform size. Manure is often concurrently dried during pelletizing or pre-dried using a solar field or thermal methods. The combination of pressure and heat can chemically stabilize manure, while preventing loss of N. As a result, manure pellets preserve and concentrate most of the nutrients, making them easier and cheaper to be transported to the end-user. For handling, manure pellets are usually dry, stable, and odorless products that can be packaged and land-applied like mineral fertilizer pellets.
There are two approaches for producing pelletized meal. The traditional approach is to start with ground meal from the meal sizing operation, and the more recent approach is to start with meal directly from the meal desolventizing step in the solvent extraction process without drying, cooling, or sizing the meal prior to pelletizing.
Sunflower granules coming out of the grinder are hard and generally at around 35 C with a moisture content of around 11%. The conditions required for the pellet mill are a temperature around 85 C and the moisture around 15%, with pliable granules. To obtain these conditions, the meal must be processed through a horizontal paddle conditioner using direct and indirect steam. Figure 8.33 (p. 233) illustrates a typical horizontal paddle conditioner. Significant energy is required to increase the temperature of the meal by approximately 50 C and increase the moisture of the meal by approximately 4% inside the horizontal paddle conditioner.
Sunflower meal direct from the desolventizer toaster is generally around 100 C with moisture content of around 15% and the meal granules are rather pliable. By the time the meal is conveyed from the desolventizer toaster in the solvent extraction process building over to the pellet mills in the seed preparation process building, the temperature has typically fallen to 85 C, providing all the correct conditions for pelletizing. This approach saves the thermal energy needed for heating the meal and increasing its moisture. The limitation of the approach of going directly from the desolventizer toaster to meal pelletizing is that tail-end dehulling to further increase meal protein is not possible.
The pellet mill is a device that presses the meal through holes in a cylindrical die plate using rotating rollers inside to form dense pellets. The dense pellets are generally 610 mm in diameter and 13 cm long. Different peripheral velocities, from 4 to 8 m/s, and different diameters of the dies allow process flows ranging from 1 to 50 tons per hour of sunflower meal to be pelletized, using from 45 to 400 kW of power. Figure 8.34 illustrates a typical pellet mill used for sunflower meal.
After the pellet mill, the sunflower meal pellets contain approximately 14% moisture and are at 85 C and somewhat fragile. The pellets must be conveyed to a pellet cooler with a minimum handling and drops to maintain the pellet integrity. Most pellet mills are located directly over a vertical pellet cooler. The vertical pellet cooler uses forced ambient air to simultaneously cool the pellets, remove moisture via evaporative cooling effect, and give the pellets time to become firm and less friable. Figure 8.35 illustrates a typical vertical pellet cooler used for sunflower meal pellets.
Isopellets are hop pellets in which the alpha acids are converted into iso-alpha acids as part of the processing operation. This is achieved by adding a calculated amount of magnesium oxide (approximately 13% by weight) to the milled hops, mixing, and then pelletizing and packing as normal. The cartons of hop pellets are then warm conditioned at temperatures between 45 and 55C for 814days during which time the isomerization proceeds catalyzed by the presence of magnesium ions. Although there are small changes to the hop oils, practical experience has shown that no flavor differences can be detected in comparable beers brewed with both T90 and Isopellets (Taylor etal., 2000). Because the alpha acids are already isomerized, dissolution in the wort is rapid and more efficient than standard pellets. Typically, utilizations (in final beer) are increased to at least 5060% compared to 3035% for T90 and T45 pellets.
Rice oil is typically extracted with solvents. The traditional solvent of choice has been hexane, although concern for impending, regulatory scrutiny of hexane for environmental and toxicological reasons has prompted exploration of alternative approaches to extraction. Although it is possible to extract oil from bran through mechanical means via pressing, oil recovery is lower and costs higher compared with solvent extraction. It has been found that pelletizing the fine rice-bran particles aids in the percolation of solvent through the bran during solvent extraction and increases yield. Alternative solvents have been considered, including ethyl acetate, isopropyl alcohol, and acetone. However, currently these are not as economical as hexane, although if regulatory action is taken with regard to hexane, these solvents may become the only viable option. At an academic level, supercritical fluids have been evaluated as a potential means to extract oil from rice bran. In principle, this approach offers interesting advantages such as ease of solvent removal and lack of toxicity. Also, it is possible to obtain fractionation of oil during the extraction process, which could facilitate refining or production of nutraceuticals. The major obstacles to the use of supercritical fluids are the large capitalization cost of initial startup and safety concerns due to the high pressures involved. Again, regulatory actions may necessitate such approaches in the future.
Vegetable oils are produced by pressing the oil from the seeds and refining it to remove free fatty acids and other impurities. Processing of the seeds for oil production provides protein meal and cake as byproducts. In the case of soybean, the feed demand for soybean meal has driven soybean production growth (FAO, 2006). In oil extraction, soybeans yield 1819% oil and 7374% meal (Schnittker, 1997), the remainder being waste. Soybean meal is used primarily in the diet of monogastric species, particularly chickens and pigs. Oil palm vegetable oil production can provide diverse animal feedstuffs. By chopping, drying, cubing and pelletizing, oil palm fronds can be implemented as a source of ruminant feed, while oil palm trunks constitute a readily available source of fiber. Oil palm fronds, used either alone or combined with other ingredients such as palm kernel cake and palm oil mill effluent, have been transformed into feed as pellets or cubes for ruminants (Prieler and Fischer, 2009). The use of rapeseed cake in pig nutrition depends on its glucosinolate content (Schne et al., 1996). Sunflower cake should be from dehulled or semi-dehulled seeds, otherwise its fiber content is too high for pig nutrition. In some regions of central Europe, seeds of specific pumpkin varieties are processed into oil and oilcake, which is very rich in protein, and may be used as a protein source for pigs (Wetscherek-Seipelt et al., 1991). Variable nutritional values have been reported for other oilseeds, including flax, poppy seed and false flax, as well as their cakes (Flachowsky et al., 1998; Salewski, 1994; Kling and Whlbier, 1983).
A fluidized bed is a well-stirred reactor, characterized by excellent gas-solid contact, and uniformity of temperature and composition across the bed. Fluidized bed processes accounts for about 2% of DRI produced. Gas utilization in a single bed process is unfavorable, so all commercial processes use two or more beds in series; the gases and solids flow countercurrently. Fluidized bed processes are typically used next to sources of iron ore, thus saving the cost of pelletizing. The product DRI is almost always converted to HBI.
The CIRCORED process uses two fluidized beds for reduction. The ore is preheated in two fluidized beds, and then prereduced in a circulating fluidized bed reactor, with high gas velocities and a retention time of 2030 minutes. The prereduced ore then passes into a conventional fluidized bed reactor for final reduction. After a retention time of 24 hours, it is flash-heated to 680 C prior to roll briquetting. The operating pressure is 4 bars gauge, and the temperature is kept below 630 C to prevent sticking. Natural gas is used as a feedstock to a steam reformer with a CO2 removal system, such that the reducing gas is mainly hydrogen.
The Fior/FINMET process consists of a fluidized bed dryer, four reducing reactors, and a roll briquetter. The reducing gas is produced by steam reforming of natural gas, in a manner similar to that shown in Fig. 4. Reactor temperatures range from 550 C in the prereduction reactor to 780800 C in the final reduction reactor. The throughput is enhanced by operating at pressures between 11 and 13 bars gauge; this greatly decreases the linear gas flow as compared to lower pressure operation. Ore fines between 13mm and 150m are preferred.