artificial sand from sand stones and waste metals

artificial sand - what is it and how to make it | fote machinery

Artificial sand, also called crushed sand or mechanical sand (m sand), refers to rocks, mine tailings or industrial waste granules with a particle size of less than 4.75 mm. It is processed by mechanical crushing and sieving.

In China, the artificial sand was mainly used in the construction of hydropower systems. For example, the Three Gorges Project and the Yellow River Xiaolangdi Project used artificial sand to prepare concrete. Due to the remote environment of the hydropower project and the high quality of sand and gravel, the projects have taken the materials locally.

Many Indian states have decreed the use of crushed sand in infrastructure construction because of its high compressive strength and cohesion and the adverse environmental effects of river sand mining, which will greatly boost the demand for artificial sand.

There are both natural and human factors in the increasing demand for artificial sand. The former is that the natural sand is about to run out, while human factors include people's requirements for environmental protection and the need for high-quality concrete.

With the development of infrastructure, the natural sand resources formed by hundreds of thousands of years in many countries and regions have been almost exhausted, which has affected the further development of construction projects.

Driven by huge interests, natural sand has been indiscriminately mining, which changes the river course, affects the safety of river embankments, destroys the living environment of fish and contaminates the groundwater. The crushed stone sand is an important alternative resource to change this phenomenon.

In the process of mining river sand, it often produces a large amount of tailings which is not used reasonably. Especially in small mines, the tailings are piled up at random, occupying land and polluting the environment.

Besides, in urban planning and construction, a large amount of construction waste is generated, which actually can be crushed by the crushers to produce the artificial sand and aggregates for promoting resource utilization.

With the rapid development of concrete technology, the comprehensive performance of high-performance concrete and high-strength structural concrete has higher requirements on the quality of aggregates, requiring it with stable quality, good gradation and shape, while less and less natural sand meets the requirements. Therefore, people are turning their focus on artificial sand.

Artificial sand and mixed sand are mainly used in building construction, municipal construction, transportation, and other projects whose concrete strength grade is below C60. When meeting the corresponding technical requirements, they can also be used for concrete projects such as ports and water conservancy.

The vibrating feeder feeds the stone evenly into the coarse crushing machines for the primary crushing of the stone. The crushed stone from the coarse crushing equipment is transported through the belt conveyor to the fine crushing machines for the secondary crushing.

The primary crushing equipment directly processes supplied materials from the stone material factory and is the foremost processing plant. The jaw crusher is the ideal choice for primary crushing.

The secondary crushing equipment is responsible for the middle and fine crushing in the stone crushing process. The secondary crushing equipment mainly includes impact crushers and cone crushers.

The crushed material is conveyed by the belt conveyor to the crushed sand making machine for fine crushing. The finely crushed material is then screened through the vibrating screen for coarse sand, medium sand, fine sand and other specifications.

VSI sand making machine is called high cost-effective sand making equipment with low initial investment cost and good use effect. It is high in operation efficiency with the PLST crushing cavity.

The HVI sand making machine manufactured by Fote is more advanced in technology. Its butt ends and lubrication scheme are modular in design, and the peripheral guard plate can be turned up and down to extend its life cycle. It has the effects of sand making and shaping at the same time.

For those with strict requirements on the powder content of sand, a sand washing machine can be installed behind the sand manufacturing machine, and the sewage discharged from the sand washing machine can be recycled by the fine sand recovery plant.

The following video shows clearly the difference between crushed sand and river sand from the aspects of source, wastage, setting time, shape, silt content and so on. It is worth collecting and sharing with friends.

The table below shows the mix ratio of M15 M55 and M55 M55 concrete designed for artificial sand and river sand. The results show that in the same Concrete Mix Design, the strength of concrete by artificial sand is higher.

As the demand for aggregates from China, Africa, Latin America, Europe,etc. will continue to rise, and the price of artificial sand will also increase, the outlook for the global aggregate market for sand and gravel is worth looking forward to.

According to the Global Sandstone Aggregate report, by 2020, the demand for aggregates of sand and gravel in the Asia-Pacific region will increase the fastest in the world, and the growth rate of India, Vietnam, Malaysia, Indonesia and other regions will be among the best.

Due to the economic transformation, the demand for sand and gravel aggregates in China will slow down. However, the report predicts that by 2020, China will still be the world's largest aggregate demander, accounting for almost half of the world's total aggregate.

The Global Sandstone Aggregate report shows that the reserves of natural sand are gradually decreasing globally, and in some developing countries where the demand for aggregates and sand is huge, illegal sand mining has happened frequently. According to the report, by 2020, the reserves of natural sand resources in some countries will be quickly depleted.

The depletion of natural sand resources will lead to a sharp increase in the price of aggregates and artificial sand, especially in areas where the demand for aggregates is huge. It can be seen that the profit margin of the artificial sand is very large.

The m sand manufacturing machine produced by the supplier Fote is suitable for m sand making production line of high hard and abrasion-resistant materials such as limestone, quartz stone, granite, river pebble, basalt, cement, various ores, glass raw materials, mechanism building stone, gold slag, etc.

The limestone, widely distributed in nature, is easy to obtain. It is the main raw material for manufacturing cement, lime and calcium carbide. After being processed, limestone is used in large quantities as building materials. Generally, simple processing process is through the limestone sand production line.

Quartz is a hard, wear-resistant, chemically stable silicate mineral mainly composed of silicon dioxide. It is an important industrial mineral raw material generally used in glass, building materials, ceramics, high-tech electronics industry, etc. after crushing and sand making.

The granite has the characteristics of hard texture, high strength, abrasion resistance and weathering resistance. It has the title of "The King of Rocks" and is a good building material. It is rich in resources with low mining costs but high product value. Granite is a popular choice when the product needs to be weather-resistant or durable.

The river pebble resources are rich with low collection costs and high application value. After making sand from river pebble, it is widely used in water conservancy and hydropower, expressways, high-speed railways, passenger dedicated lines, bridges, airport runways, municipal engineering and high-rise buildings in the engineering field.

Basalt is the best material used for repairing roads, railways and airport runways. With the characteristics of strong compressive resistance, low crushing value and strong corrosion-resistance, it is the best cornerstone for the development of railway transport and road transport.

As a professional manufacturer of mechanical sand production equipment, Fote Heavy Machinery has rich experience in the design of mechanical sand production equipment, a perfect service system and professional after-sales team.

As a leading mining machinery manufacturer and exporter in China, we are always here to provide you with high quality products and better services. Welcome to contact us through one of the following ways or visit our company and factories.

Based on the high quality and complete after-sales service, our products have been exported to more than 120 countries and regions. Fote Machinery has been the choice of more than 200,000 customers.

artificial sand from stones and waste metals

As for Manila's artificial white sand, it looks like some might have already been blown away by a recent storm. DENR claims it wasn't washed away, but said that grayish sand, stones and other material had simply piled up over the dolomite sand.

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Artificial Sand From Stones And Waste Metals Categories: BEP Above 75%, Miscellaneous, ROI 51% to 75%, TCI 75 Lakh - 1 Cr INR, Uncategorized Related products Granite (Marble) Polishing Batti (Bar) Read more Integrated Unit Textile Mill And Readymade ...

Palm Jumeirah was built with only sand and stones and no artificial building material like steel or concrete. Japanese Islands Not satisfied with the 6,852 islands that are part of their archipelago, the Japanese have created more artificial islands than any other country.

Artificial sand crusher is specially designed for manufacturing artificial sand from the grit. It is a better utilization of the large size of rock materials and stones through rock on rock metal machine mechanism.

Manufacturing Artificial Stones The following is a process of manufacture in which the alkaline silicates ..., which weld together the materials (quartz sand, pebbles, granite, fluorspar, and the waste of clay bricks). The mass may be colored black by the addition of ...

11/95 Sand And Gravel Processing 11.19.1-3 hydroseparators. Material may also be rodmilled to produce smaller sized fractions, although this practice is not common in the industry. After processing, the sand is transported to storage bins or stockpiles by belt

Artificial Sand from Stones and Waste Metals Niir Project Consultancy Services (NPCS) through its network of project consultants in a wide range of business and technological disciplines is engaged in providing services to its clients by way of preparation of project reports.

Manufacturing Artificial Stones The following is a process of manufacture in which the alkaline silicates ..., which weld together the materials (quartz sand, pebbles, granite, fluorspar, and the waste of clay bricks). The mass may be colored black by the addition of ...

Nowadays artificial sand is widely used in highway construction, concrete making, and relevant construction fields. Due to the gradual shortage of natural sand resources and the booming construction industry, machine-made artificial sand becomes e...

Artificial sand crusher is specially designed for manufacturing artificial sand from the grit. It is a better utilization of the large size of rock materials and stones through rock on rock metal machine mechanism.

artificial sand from sand stones and waste metals Thirty kilograms of waste plastic of fabriform shapes was used as a partial replacement for sand by,,, and with kg of concrete mixtures all of the concrete mixtures were tested

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10/11/2014 Artificial Sand Making Machines, Jaw Crushers, Cone Crushers, Special VSI Crusher, Plaster Sand Making Machines, Manufacturer, Supplier, Exporter, India Notice of Annual General Meeting AGM Proxy Form AGCM New Product Development Fines Separator for

Sand Requirements of sand It should be clean. It should be well graded. Maximum permissible clay content is 3 to 4% in sand. It should contain sharp, angular grains. It should not contain salts which attract moisture from the atmosphere.

Palm Jumeirah was built with only sand and stones and no artificial building material like steel or concrete. Japanese Islands Not satisfied with the 6,852 islands that are part of their archipelago, the Japanese have created more artificial islands than any other country.

If non fulfillment of obligation by importation of Pearls, Stones, Precious Metals, Imitation Jewelry and Coins, the importer should re-export the hazardous waste within 90 days from the date of arrival in to importing country as per hazardous waste management

As for Manila's artificial white sand, it looks like some might have already been blown away by a recent storm. DENR claims it wasn't washed away, but said that grayish sand, stones and other material had simply piled up over the dolomite sand.

Artificial Sand From Stones And Waste Metals: PRODUCT PROFILE Sand is a naturally occurring granular material composed of finely divided rock and mineral . what is the stones for artificial sand making - beltconveyers

10/11/2014 Special VSI Crusher, Plaster Sand Making Machines, Dust Seperating Unit, Dust Free Products, Finopactor, Manufacturer, Supplier, Exporter, India The site of artificial sand making plant / Crushing plant must be away from residential area. In operation this machine ...

Artificial Sand from Stones and Waste Metals ARTIFICIAL SAND FROM STONES AND WASTE METALS. Capacity 240000 MT/Annum: Plant and Machinery cost 178.00 Lakhs Working Capital 0.00: Rate of Return (ROR) 43.00 % Break Even Point (BEP) 55.00 % ...

artificial sand from stones and waste metals india - Crusher . : 4.8/5 2,846 Fly ash Wikipedia Waste-to-energy facilities), the fly ash may contain higher levels of contaminants than the bottom ash and mixing the fly and bottom ash ...

Dry sand out by putting it in the oven set on its coolest setting for 15 minutes. Apply a release agent, or a thin coating of petroleum jelly, to the inside of the mold to make it easier to remove the sandstone cast. References Castcraft: Epoxy Bonded Sand, Epoxy ...

manufactured sand and crushed stones processing technology for concrete | quarrying & aggregates

Aggregate is the most exploited material in the world. It is an important component of concrete and asphalt concrete, accounting for 70% of the volume of concrete. It can inhibit the shrinkage and cracking of concrete and enhance the strength of concrete.

Aggregates are divided into natural aggregates and artificial aggregates. According to the degree of thickness, they are divided into coarse aggregate (crushed stone or gravel) and fine aggregate (sand).

Due to the non-renewable resources, the mining of natural aggregates is increasingly restricted. Now, in many countries and regions, the amount of artificial aggregate has exceeded the amount of natural aggregate, and it is widely used in various concrete industries.

Rock particles (excluding soft and weathered rock particles) processed by natural rock, river pebble stone or mine waste rock through mechanical crushing, shaping, screening, powder control and other processes, including:

The wet processing technology refers to washing with water during the screening and crushing of materials, and washing the coarse and fine aggregates with the stone washing machine and sand washing machine. Generally used for raw materials containing mud or more weak particles. When the finished sand and crushed stone powder content is too high, wet production can also be used to remove part of the stone powder.

According to the nature of the soil contained in the raw materials, the sand and stone washing methods can be divided into screen surface washing and sand washing machine washing. Which stone washing method to use can be determined according to factors such as the mud content of the raw materials, the nature of the soil, and the processing volume.

High water consumption, high cost of machine-made sand and crushed stone powder recovery and sewage treatment, serious loss of fine sand and crushed stone powder, and difficulty in dehydration of finished sand; when vertical shaft impact crushing machine-made sand is used, the sand formation rate is low.The wet production process is suitable for applications in areas with abundant water resources.

Generally, it means that the pre-screening is produced by wet method and the moisture content of the discharged material is controlled, and the sand making and screening system of shaping adopts the dry production process.

After the sand-making raw materials are washed with water, they must be dehydrated mechanically or naturally to ensure that the moisture content of the raw materials entering the sand-making machine is not more than 3%, otherwise the sand-forming rate and screening efficiency of the sand-making machine will be low.

No water or very little water consumption, less stone powder loss, dry processing technology is mainly used for raw material cleaning, high sand rate, low stone powder content machine-made sand and stone system.

(1) Due to the high moisture content of the dry processing raw materials or the high soil content of the raw materials, the fine aggregate is not easy to sieve through, and the soil content or fine powder content exceeds the requirements of relevant standards.

The 40 mm clean aggregate produced by multiple crushing and screening enters the sand making system. Sand making equipment generally uses a vertical shaft impact crusher. The principle of sand making is that some or all of the raw materials enter the high-speed rotating impeller and quickly rotate, and shoot out at high speed from the evenly distributed launch ports around the impeller. The flow or the raw materials piled in the cavity are broken by repeated high-speed collisions.

After screening and fine powder separation system sorting, qualified machine-made sand and gravel are processed. Fine powder separation is divided into two types according to different processing techniques:

Wet sand washing generally adopts a flat layout. The screened artificial sand flows into the sand washing machine for sand washing, and the washed fine powder and soil enter the integrated fine sand recovery and dehydration system for fine sand recovery.

The separated mud and stone powder enter the high-efficiency thickener for concentration and dehydration, and the concentrated and precipitated mud powder is pressed into a mud cake through a filter press.

The operating cost and floor space of a complete set of wet-process artificial sand making and sewage treatment equipment are about twice that of the dry process. Due to the high cost of equipment investment and land occupation rent, sewage treatment and dewatering waste residue discharge are also very expensive, so dry sand making has been rapidly developed.

The dry sand making fine powder separation system can be set up before or after screening. The plastic sand making machine and the screening fine powder separation system are connected to the large dust collector through a pipeline. The excess fine powder in the screened sand is collected by the dust collector and stored in the fine powder tank, which is regularly transported by the tanker for later application.

Dry sand making can be arranged in a flat layout or a three-dimensional layout in a tower. Since the tower-style complete set of equipment occupies only one-fifth of that of the traditional wet method and one-third of the traditional dry method Therefore, the tower-type machine-made artificial sand system is very suitable for building with concrete mixing plants or dry-mixed mortar mixing plants, reducing the transportation cost of finished artificial sand and crushed stone aggregates and storage facilities.

famous design stone mobile sand washing plant manufacturer - best stone crusher plant solution from henan dewo

Dewo machinery can provides complete set of crushing and screening line, including Hydraulic Cone Crusher, Jaw Crusher, Impact Crusher, Vertical Shaft Impact Crusher (Sand Making Machine), fixed and movable rock crushing line, but also provides turnkey project for cement production line, ore beneficiation production line and drying production line. Dewo Machinery can provide high quality products, as well as customized optimized technical proposal and one station after- sales service.

Artificial Sand Plant View details > We are a famous Manufacturer and Exporter of the quality approved assortment of Stone Crusher, Crushing Plant, Quarry Plant, etc. Along with this, we are also offering Installation Service to our valued clients.

shanghai shuosen mining machinery is one China special manufacturer. Mainly supply sand stone crushing line and mining line eqipment, include jaw crusher,impact crusher,cone crusher,hydraulic cone crusher,mobile crusher plant,sand maker,sand washing machine,ball mill, magnetic separator,flotation machine, spiral classifier etc.

The sand washing machine is used to remove impurities such as dust, silt, and other unwanted particles from sand products. Screening Machine Dewatering screen, the main function is dehydration, de-sludge, de-intermediation, can be used in sand and gravel washing plant.

Henan Baichy Machinery Equipment Co,.Ltd is a mining factory manufacturer mainly engaged in manufacturing crushing machinery, grinding equipment, mobile crushing plant and mineral processing machines, integrates research and development,design, manufacturing, sales and after-sales service.

Processing solutions for the Quarrying, Aggregate, Recycling & Handling Industries. Duo has a history that dates to 1981 when Powerscreen Washing Systems, an independent dealer in England and Wales for Powerscreen aggregate washing equipment, was founded. Duo Group Holdings Ltd.

Henan xingyang mining machinery manufacturing plant according to different customers, design different lines, so that customers convenient configuration of products and meet the needs of customers.Mainly include magnetic separation line, flotation line, production line, stone production line _ sand production line, metal magnesium, ceramsite sand production line, etc.

henan mining machinery and equipment manufacturer - artificial sand making project profile

Artificial Sand Making Project Profile Artificial Sand Project Report From Sand Making Machine Supplier . ... 13 Jan 2014 manufacturing machine project report m sand ...Popular Q&A for Artificial sand making process in India. Q: What is the process of making a sand cave? A: There are no instructions listed online for making a sand ...

Ore beneficiation equipment, sand making equipment, crushing equipment and powder grinding equipment, which are widely used in various industries such as metallurgy, mine, chemistry, building material, coal, refractory and ceramics.

hvi sand making machine with best performance | hxjq

HVI sand making machine is one of the most advanced sand making equipment, whose structure has been upgraded, working performance further improved. It is suitable for making and shaping sand, and both capacity and quality have been greatly improved in HVI series sand maker. And it is the new rising star in sand and stone equipment, which can be used to crush metal and non-metal ores, process building materials, make and shape sand.

It adopts a deep cavity which makes more throughput of materials and realizes two feeding methods of central feeding and sides feeding, to reduce the downtime effectively and improve the working efficiency greatly.

The combination of new upper and lower peripheral shields are designed to reduce the wear of the materials, and there are three throwing heads, which can be replaced after being worn, which greatly improves the service life of the wearing parts and reduces the frequency of replacement.

The energy-saving and environmental motor is equipped with reasonable coordination between the components. In the production process, the dust is less spilled and the noise is low, which meets the requirements of green production.

The motor drives the spindle of the bearing cylinder to rotate at a high speed, and the rotor rotates with the spindle at a high speed. The material entering the impeller is accelerated by the impeller and then sprayed into the crushing chamber, colliding and grinding with other materials in the crushing chamber, so as to achieve continuous crushing and shaping of the material. The processed material is discharged from the lower part of the body. The crushing method is "stone -hitting-stone principle", and the method is mainly applied to the shaping and crushing of stone.

In addition, the equipment is also equipped with a "stone-hitting-iron" crushing method. Unlike the stone -hitting-stone principle, the material is ejected from the rotor and collides with the counter-attack block installed in the crushing chamber to finish the sand making process. This crushing method is mainly suitable for crushing process

Introducing German and American innovative sand making machine production technology, and combining with years of sedimentation experience of the manufacturer, HVI sand making machine is created, which mainly consists of feeding port, rotor, frame, pulley, control device, liner, casing, motor, discharge port and other components.

The new structural design enables it to have a wider range of applications and broaden the value of market applications. It can process various stones such as limestone, pebbles, quartz stone, marble, dolomite, granite, iron ore, etc. The HVI sand making machine is good equipment for the sandstone material factory to establish a production line.

Since the end of 2017, the Vietnamese government has imposed restrictions on natural sand mining because the wild mining of natural sand in Vietnam has led to the exhaustion of sand and gravel in recent years, and Vietnamese experts estimate that natural sand in Vietnam will be exhausted within five years.

In April 2018, Mr. Phan of Vietnam posted a message on the website, saying that he would like to know about the river pebble sand production line of the HXJQ Mining Machinery. After receiving the message, our engineers immediately contacted Phan, and after learning about his project, the engineer introduced a 200 TPH river pebble sand production line to him.

Nowadays, this production line has been officially put into production for more than a year. Due to the lack of natural sand in Vietnam, the artificial sand market is at a rapid increase for a period of time.

In January of this year, Mr. Phan gave feedback to our after-sale service department. He said: "Thanks to the engineers of the HXJQ Mining Machinery for the production line. This production line has run smoothly in the past year, the failure rate has been extremely low, and the operation and daily maintenance have been very simple. At present, the artificial sand market is a very good industry in Vietnam. I will invest more projects in the future, hoping to have more and more cooperation with HXJQ." We are very happy to receive such good news, also hope that Mr. Phan will develop better and better.

HXJQ Mining Machinery as the mining machine manufacturer has committed to research HVI sand making machine for a long time and already understood the techniques of HVI sand machines. HXJQ can supply excellent equipment with cheap price and perfect after-sale service to ensure smooth production.

sand casting | metal casting resources

Sand casting is a process that utilizes non-reusable sand molds to form metal castings. On one hand, casting is a deceptively simple manufacturing process: anyone who has formed castles at the beach knows sand can be used to make detailed shapes. However in a foundry, dealing with the heat of molten metal, many factors must be considered for success. Casting is used to make metal components of all sizes, ranging from a few ounces to several tons. Sand molds can be formed to create castings with fine exterior detail, inner cores, and other shapes. Nearly any metal alloy can be sand cast. Hollows are made in moistened sand, filled with molten metal, and left to cool.

Sand casting is one of the few available processes for metals with high melting temperatures such as steels, nickel, and titanium. Because of its flexibility, heat resistance, and relatively low cost, sand casting is the most widely used casting process.

Castings are produced by pouring liquid metal into a mold cavity. For a casting to be successful, the mold cavity must retain its shape until the metal has cooled and fully solidified. Pure sand breaks apart easily, but molding sand contains bonding material that increases its ability to resist heat and hold shape.

Green sand(an aggregate of sand, pulverized coal, bentonite clay, and water) has traditionally been used in sand casting, however modernchemically bonded molding systemsare becoming more popular. The most widely used casting sand is silica (SiO2).

Moisture content affects a molds strength and permeability: a mold with too little moisture may break apart, while a mold with too much moisture can cause steam bubbles to be entrapped in the casting.

Many properties of molding sand depend on the grain size and distribution of sand particles: small grain size enhances mold strength, but large grain size is more permeable. Finely grained sand provides castings with a good surface finish, but possesses low permeability, while course grained sand provides the opposite.

Special additives orbindersmay be added to the basic aggregate of sand, clay, and water to increase cohesion. These binders can be either organic or inorganic. Common binders include cereals, ground pitch, sea coal, gilsonite, fuel oil, wood flour, silica flour, iron oxide, pearlite, molasses, dextrin, and proprietary materials.

Finding the perfect combination isnt easy. Some properties of a sand aggregate are contradictory to each other: a molding sand with greater collapsibility has less strength, and one with greater strength has less collapsibility. Trade-offs are often needed to achieve a compromise that provides appropriate properties for the specific part and casting application. Precise control of molding sand properties is so essential that sand labs have become a common addition to modern foundries.

The mold cavity is shaped by thepattern, a full size model of the part that makes an impression in the sand mold. Some internal surfaces are not included in the pattern, and will instead be created by separate cores.

Acoreis a sand shape inserted into the mold to shape the casting interior, including features such as holes or passages. Cores are usually made out of molding sand so they can be shaken out of the casting. Acore printis a region added to the pattern, core, or mold to locate and support the core within the mold.

Further core support is provided bychaplets small metal pieces that are fastened between the core and the cavity surface. In order to maintain that support, the chaplets must be composed of a metal with a same or higher melting temperature than that of the metal being cast. After solidification, the chaplets will have been encased inside the casting.

Sand cores can be produced using many of the same methods as sand molds: as molds are shaped by a pattern, sand cores are shaped by acore-box; they are similar to a die and can be made of wood, plastic, or metal. The core-boxes can also contain multiple cavities to produce several identical cores.

Ariseris an extra void within the mold designed to contain excess metal. It prevents shrinkage voids from forming in the main casting by feeding molten metal to the mold cavity as it solidifies and shrinks.

The entire sand mold is contained in a box called theflask. In a two-part mold, which is typical of sand castings, the upper half (containing the top half of the pattern, flask, and core) is called thecope. The lower half is called thedrag. Theparting lineis the line or surface that separates the cope and drag.

Sand casting involves four basic steps: assemble the sand mold, pour liquid metal into the mold, allow the metal to cool, then break away the sand and remove the casting. Of course, the process is more complex than it sounds.

The first step of mold assembly is to partially fill the drag with sand. The pattern, core print, cores, and gating system are placed near the parting line. The cope is then assembled to the drag. Additional sand is poured on the cope half until the pattern, core, and gating system are covered, and then the sand is compacted by vibration or mechanical means. Excess sand is removed with a strike off bar.

Pattern extraction is undertaken carefully to avoid breaking or distoring the newly formed mold cavity. This is facilitated by designing adraft: a vertical taper perpendicular to the parting line. The draft taper is usually at least 1. The rougher the surface of the pattern, the more the draft to be provided.

Before it can be filled with liquid metal, the complete mold needs to be prepared; the mold cavity is often lubricated with mold washes to facilitate casting removal. Then the cores are positioned, additional mold materials such as cope rope are added to help prevent run-outs, and the mold halves are closed and securely clamped together; the cope and drag sections maintain proper alignment with the aid of pins and guides.

The mold halves must remain secure so liquid metal cant leak through the parting line. Before pouring flaskless molds, wood or metal pouringjacketsare often placed around the mold and weights are set on the top to keep the cope from lifting.

Molten metal enters the mold cavity through agating system: molten metal is poured into a mold via thepouring cup, continues down thesprue(the vertical part of the gating system), and then through the runners (horizontal portions). Built up gases and displaced air escape throughvents. The multiple points where metal is introduced into the mold cavity from the runners are called thegates.

After the casting has cooled, it is broken out of the sand mold. The process of removing sand from the castings is calledshakeout. The casting can be removed manually or by automated machinery. Agitations tables and rotary tumblers are commonly used.

After sand has been shaken off a complete casting, the lumps are cooled and crushed. All particles and metal granules are removed, often with the assistance of a magnetic field. All sand and constituents are screened with shakers, rotary screens, or vibrating screens. Cleaned sand can then be reintroduced to the beginning of the molding sand production cycle.

Prepared sand is delivered to the molding floor, usually by scoop trucks or by belt conveyors, where it is formed into molds; the molds may be placed on the floor or delivered by conveyors to a pouring station. After pouring, the castings are removed from the adhering sand at a shakeout station. The used sand, in turn, is returned to the storage bins by belt conveyor or other means.

Casting sand is typically recycled and reused through many production cycles. According to industry estimates, approximately 100 million tons of sand are used in production annually. Of that number, only four to seven million tons are discarded, and even that sand is often recycled by other industries.

A typical green sand mixture contains 89 percent sand, 4 percent water, and 7 percent clay. Green sand is an industry favourite because of its low cost and solid overall performance. The green in green sand refers to the moisture content present in the mixture during pouring.

Green sand molds have sufficient strength for most sand casting applications. They also provide good collapsibility, permeability, and reusability. The main difficulties arise to the moisture content. Too much moisture can cause defects in the casting, with the moisture tolerance dependent on the metal being cast.

Sometimes non-traditional binders are used in industrial sand casting. Conventional casting binders require heat to cure, while these alternative binders bond chemically at room temperature when mixed with sand hence the term cold setting processes. Technically advanced, these relatively recent sand casting processes are growing in popularity. Cold setting processes are more expensive than green sand molds, but they produce castings with exceptional dimensional accuracy.

Shell mold casting is a relatively recent invention in molding techniques for mass production and smooth finish; it was first used by Germany during the Second World War. The molding material is a mixture of dry, fine silica sand with minimal clay content and 3-8 percent thermosetting resin (phenol formaldehyde or silicon grease). When the molding mixture drops on to the heated pattern plate, a hard shell of around 6 mm thickness is formed. In order to cure the shell completely, it must be heated to 440 to 650F (230 to 350t) for several minutes.

Reliance Foundry works collaboratively with clients to design the pattern and molding method for each custom casting.Request a Quoteto get more information on how our casting service can match your project requirements.

what are the materials for replacement of sand in concrete? - happho

A concrete mix necessarily contents cement, water, fine aggregate and coarse aggregate. Aggregate occupy about 60 70% volume of concrete. In this percentage 40 to 50 % proportion of aggregate is fine aggregate (sand). Fine aggregate selection plays vital role in concrete performance and its cost.

Lately the need for replacing sand with alternative materials have picked governing serious environmental impact of dredging sand from river bed, also there is huge demand and supply gap in major cities.

As per BIS fine aggregate is divided in four Zones as per their grading ,Zone II are fine aggregates are best for concrete ,Zone- I & III can also be used, Zone IV is to fine cant be used for concrete application(will lead to stickiness in concrete).

In total aggregate, the proportion of sand to coarse aggregate (C.A) is altered depending on fineness of sand. Fineness modulus (F.M) measures the degree of fineness of a fine aggregate, lower value of F.M indicates finer particles.

Fineness modulus of fine aggregate is calculated by sieving fine aggregate on standard sieve sizes starting from 4.75 mm to 150 microns, it is derived by summation of cumulative percentage retained on each sieve divided by 100 giving the value of F.M of fine aggregate.

Fine sand (lower F.M Value ) reduces the sand requirement % in the total aggregate proportion. On the other hand, coarser sand will require higher sand % in the total aggregate proportion to give a cohesive concrete mix consuming least cement.

Crushed sand (Manufactured sand) is produced by crushing rock (as in the case of coarse aggregate) to give particle size and grading at par with river sand, the texture may differ using Vertical Shaft Impactor Machines.

The percentage passing 150 microns of manufactured sand is relaxed to 20% (while that of natural sand is limited to 10%). As per design and economics, crushed sand can be used to partially or fully replace river sand from a concrete mix.

In crusher dust, the particles (% finer than 150 microns) are generally high, a major concern limiting its percentage replacement to minimum with sand in a concrete mix. It can be replaced to the amount 25%. Its Availability is not a concern.

Bottom ashes are waste of coal fired thermal power plant generally disposed in landfills. Post washing (basically done to remove carbon, unwanted in concrete), it can be used for replacing sand to the amount of 35% in a concrete mix. Its Availability is limited, restricted to power plant area.

Granulated blast furnace slag is a waste of steel industry; its use can be best exploited as part replacement of sand in concrete. It can replace sand to the amount of 70 % in concrete mixes. Its Availability is limited, restricted to steel plant area. As Granulated blast furnace slag has high glass content with sharp particles, precautions while handling it and in concrete have to be ensured.

manilas new white sand coast is a threat to marine life, groups say

MANILA Philippine authorities latest efforts to clean up Manila Bay, one of the countrys most polluted bodies of water, has come under fire after they dumped truckloads of white sand over the shoreline at the end of August.

Mayor Francisco Isko Moreno celebrated what he called a long-delayed rehabilitation move, but the artificial sand crushed dolomite boulders from a quarry in Cebu province in the central Philippines drew a backlash from environmental groups and public officials.

Environmentalists say the project passed over the public consultation phase and lacked the necessary environmental impact studies. Lawmakers and public officials have called it a waste of resources that could have been diverted to supplement the countrys pandemic health response and provide gadgets for public school students grappling with online learning.

This project is not timely, Gloria Estenzo Ramos, executive director of marine conservation NGO Oceana Philippines, said in an online press conference. This will be a total waste of peoples money. Government resources should be allocated more to helping Filipinos affected by the pandemic.

The 389 million pesos ($8 million) project is part of the beach nourishment program being carried out by the Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR). The program, in turn, fits into a 22-year master plan that aims to bring Manila Bay, the center of the Philippines navigational trade and commerce, back to its former glory. In addition to the economic outcomes, the DENR wants to make the water in the bay fit for swimming and to keep heavy metal and waste contamination at a minimum.

Years of unsustainable aquaculture and fishing practices, exacerbated by industrial and waste pollution, have taken a toll on the bays marine life and water quality. Fisherfolk living along the 19-kilometer (12-mile) coastline have reported dwindling fish catches; mass fish die-offs and red tide alerts prompted by algal blooms are an annual occurrence.

The state of Manilas iconic bay birthed numerous rehabilitation campaigns, beginning in the 1990s, mostly centered on cleaning up the area. A landmark 2008 ruling by the Supreme Court mandated government agencies, led by the DENR, to clean up, rehabilitate, preserve, restore, and maintain the waters of Manila Bay.

To complement the ruling, President Rodrigo Duterte issued an executive order last year to speed up the rehab. Since then, authorities have relocated thousands of urban poor residents, started planting mangroves, and kicked off numerous cleanups.

But dumping dolomite most commonly used in construction on the shore to make it look like a white sand beach is a step backward, groups say. One of the objectives of Manila Bay rehabilitation is to decrease the amount of heavy metals in its waters, said Fernando Hicap of the fisherfolk group Pambansang Lakas ng Kilusang Mamamalakaya ng Pilipinas (Pamalakaya).

Dolomite contains high amount of heavy metals such as aluminum, lead and mercury, which would contribute to the pollution and acidity of Manila Bay, Hicap said. Why is DENR leading a campaign that could increase and cause further harm to the bay?

Environmental groups are pushing for a science-based justification for the DENRs move, in the form of an environmental impact study (EIS). But DENR undersecretary Benny Antiporda said the EIS and an environmental compliance certificate (ECC) are not necessary.

Its a rehabilitation program, not a construction, he told The Philippine Star, adding the department had studied the project before pushing through with the implementation. Antiporda said engineering interventions are being done to ensure that the dolomite sand overlay will be preserved and that it can withstand the more than 20 typhoons that barrel through the Philippines each year.

Presidential spokesman Harry Roque, however, said earlier this week that the project had passed the EIS and that its budget had been approved prior to the COVID-19 pandemic. Government claims that these funds could not be funneled to COVID-19 response despite the passage of the Bayanihan to Heal as One Act, which gave the President legal power to divert national funds for the pandemic.

Oceanas Ramos stressed the importance of the EIS, which has not been made public. Under the Fisheries Code, Local Government Code and the Environmental Impact Assessment System Act, government agencies are required to undergo Environmental Impact Study process and Environmental Compliance Certificate for this kind of project, Oceana said in a statement.

Pamalakaya remains concerned about the artificial sands potential impacts on Manila Bays marine life, on which the fisherfolk groups members depend for their daily sustenance. There are fears that the dolomite contains hazardous dust particles and that, once eroded, it will cause marine sedimentation.

Fishing is an important activity in Manila Bay, despite its waters containing high levels of coliform bacteria. The area notorious as a pollution catch basin is limited to the water body near Manilas port. Beyond the port, shellfish and aquaculture farms flourish. Last year, a new-to-science sardine species, Sardinella pacifica, was identified from the bay. Once rehabilitated, Manila Bay could become a sardine conservation area, according to the Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources. Farther out, near the mouth of the bay, the Ecosystems Research and Development Bureau, the DENRs research arm, also discovered coral reefs thriving in the bay despite the condition of the water.

This makes the environmental assessment report important, said Rodne Galicia of Living Laudato Si, an environmental advocacy group affiliated with the Catholic Church. We dont know whats under that sand if there are seagrass beds there, he said. If there are seagrass beds, dredging will obliterate the seagrass. And we dont know yet the impacts on the fisheries sector and other marine life in the area.

Its not just Manila Bays environment thats at risk, Ramos said. The quarries in Alcoy, Cebu, from which the dolomite sand was sourced are massive operations that have long threatened the regions terrestrial species. Cebu only has 1% of its original forest cover left, yet even this sliver of wilderness is home to one of the highest numbers of threatened endemic species in the Philippines, including the endangered black shama (Copsychus cebuensis), a rare and endangered songbird.

We found out that dolomite sand is also being used for beach nourishment projects in Cebu and nearby areas, said Rose-Liza Eisma Osorio, chair of the IUCN Academy of Environmental Law and a law professor at the University of Cebu. Its being mined in one of the last remaining forest areas in Cebu that hosts endemic species. If this continues, what will happen to our forests?

At the height of the dolomite issue, the Cebu provincial government said it hadnt been informed of the Manila Bay project and that it hadnt issued transport permits for the shipment of boulders to the capital. It subsequently halted dolomite quarrying activities in Alcoy.

While replenishing the sand on beaches is a common way to combat erosion, studies show that its only a short-term solution. Topsoil sand needs to be reapplied and its erosion can cause sedimentation and block estuaries.

Its an unsustainable solution to the environmental problems besetting the historic body of water, environmental youth group Wavefarers said. Instead of quick and aesthetic fixes, the government should have invested in mangrove rehabilitation projects, said executive director Charisse Reganion.

In conserving Manila Bay and all other environments, DENR must be conscious of actual long-term impacts and not superficial fixes, Reganion said. We need a healthy rehabilitated Manila Bay, for the environment and the people.

For Pamalakayas Hicap, dumping artificial sand in Manila Bay is not rehabilitation but a form of land reclamation the process of elevating existing land or filling in coastal areas such as abandoned fishing ponds to create islands or extend land area. Under the 2008 Supreme Court ruling, we expected Manila Bay to return to what it was, Hicap said. Dumping dolomite, that white sand, is a clear reclamation effort its not rehabilitation.

Pamalakaya has been actively campaigning against land reclamation in Manila and surrounding provinces. Before the pandemic, 25 reclamation projects had been approved, with most in the construction phase in Manila Bay. While opponents say that reclamation breaches the bays protected status, the issue has yet to be raised with or deliberated by the Supreme Court.

The Office of the Ombudsmans environmental team could also investigate the alleged bloating of costs and cutting of regulatory corners in the Manila dolomite dump, said Leon Dulce of the group Kalikasan Peoples Network for the Environment.

This P389-million project represents just 0.83% of the entire P47-billion [$968 million] Manila Bay rehab program, he said in a statement. The potential for large-scale corruption, dereliction of duty, and ecological harm is completely unacceptable in these times of pandemic crisis.

the mechanical strength of the artificial stones, containing the travertine wastes and sand - sciencedirect

The present study investigates the development of artificial stones containing travertine powder, fine sand, and travertine sludge. The stone powder and sludge were considered as waste. The main target of this study is to reuse and recycle the travertine waste to produce sustainable artificial stone. Considering the used solid components, three groups of artificial stones, including: (1) the combination of powder and sludge, (2) the combination of powder and sand, and (3) the combination of powder, sludge, and sand, were proposed. The percentage of each solid component per total solid components, two kinds of epoxy resins, the percentage of the used resin per total solid components, and curing temperature were selected as the variables for preparing the artificial stones. Based on the number of variables and their levels, the Taguchi approach was employed to design mix proportions in the three groups. After conducting the compressive and flexural tests of the proposed mix proportion, the compressive and flexural strengths of un-conducted mix proportions were predicted using the Taguchi method. The results show that the effect of each variable on the compressive and flexural strengths of the stones of various groups are different. The samples prepared with epoxy resin type 828 are stronger than those prepared with epoxy 557. The best sample has the compressive and flexural strengths of 67.3 and 60.7MPa, respectively. This mix proportion included 90% travertine powder, 10% travertine sludge, and 30% epoxy resin 828 per total solid components and was cured at 60C for 4h.

is it better to put rocks or sand in your ornamental pond? | home guides | sf gate

When putting in a new ornamental pond or updating an old one, a main question for many homeowners is what they should use as substrate on their pond's bottom. Although sand and gravel are natural-looking choices for lining the bottom of a pond, sand has several drawbacks, whereas gravel provides a beneficial home for pond-friendly microbes.

When putting in a new ornamental pond or updating an old one, a main question for many homeowners is what they should use as substrate on their pond's bottom. Although sand and gravel are natural-looking choices for lining the bottom of a pond, sand has several drawbacks, whereas gravel provides a beneficial home for pond-friendly microbes.

Both sand and gravel make a clean, alluring statement at the bottom of a fresh, clean pond. Although both are weighty materials that help keep a pond liner trapped on the bottom where it's supposed to be, sand has a much greater chance than gravel to make its way through small tears in the liner or get clogged in filters. Some filters are specially designed to use sand, but those that are not do poorly when sand gets stuck in them. Sand even can get stuck in sand filters.

Several kinds of bacteria naturally colonize a pond by setting up shop on the surfaces provided by a layer of gravel. They then ingest the pond's detritus -- including fish food and waste -- and help keep the pond water much cleaner than it would be otherwise. The best size of gravel to do this is between 3/8 and 3/4 inch. That gravel size allows penetration of oxygen between the rocks and resists the compaction that might begin to trap matter irretrievably.

The problem with sand is that its particles are too small to allow oxygen between them, and, therefore, prevent the colonization of beneficial microbes. That situation results in an environment where pond detritus rots instead of being ingested and broken down. When that happens, sand mixes with rotting matter and forms a muddy sludge. The pond can begin to stink as well as attract mosquito larvae to its muddy bottom.

Gravel works best for a small, garden pond, not a larger pond, even if the larger pond has ornamental value. Because a larger pond often has a muddy bottom that is several inches deep, adding gravel to it does not encourage microbial growth but rather results in the incorporation of gravel into the muddy substrate. If you have a small pond, line its bottom with pond liner before adding gravel. The liner will prevent the gravel from sinking into the substrate that is below the liner.

aquarium sand vs gravel - which substrate should you choose

This is more than just an aesthetic choice; it also impacts your aquariums set-up and longevity. Gravel is a popular option for freshwater aquariums, but sandy substrates may be a better choice in specific situations.

I remember setting up my first aquarium as a child. It was nothing fancier than a bowl with feeder goldfish and African dwarf frogs. There werent many commercial options for substrate in the 1980s, so its probably no surprise my 8-year-old self gravitated towards the bags of sparkling blue and green gravel.

These days were not limited to rainbow-hued bags of pea-sized gravel. You can create nearly any effect you want in your tank by choosing the right substrate. The material you choose impacts your aquarium set-up and whether your community of fish, invertebrates, and/or plants thrives or struggles.

If youre looking to recreate the smooth, tranquil appearance of a river bottom or lake, then aquarium sand might be your substrate of choice! Sand is an attractive and cost-effective option for the bottom of freshwater aquariums.

Sand comes in a variety of shades and colors and may be extremely fine or nearly as coarse as gravel. Natural sand is made up of small bits of shells, rocks, and/or organic materials with a diameter from 1/16 to 2mm.

Aquarium sand is usually made from crushed quartz, coral, or minerals such as aragonite, or is manufactured artificially from a silica base. Unlike natural sand, aquarium sand is uniform in size and shape and doesnt have any sharp edges which could injure aquatic organisms.

Commercial products may be labeled as natural or river sand, and look similar to the sand you see along a waterfront. Unlike sand straight from the river, however, these bags of substrate have been processed and cleaned.

This can be confusing when you are searching for an appropriate aquarium substrate. Sand is used in many industries, from construction to manufacturing. Many sand products are not safe to use in an aquarium or are particularly unsuitable for freshwater tanks.

Sand also prevents debris and waste products from sinking into your substrate. Instead, they remain on the top layer of sand where your filter intake can grab and remove them. You can also carefully vacuum the debris up with a hose.

The small diameter of the sand grains prevents water from flowing through your substrate. This creates dead zones in your tank; areas where all the oxygen has been depleted. Having adequate filtration and wide water circulation in your tank will help prevent these zones from developing.

If youre planning on a planted tank then sand may be something to avoid. Many aquatic plants have shallow roots and dont thrive when planted in the sand. You can mitigate these problems by using a product specifically designed for planted tanks.

Sand is also very dusty and difficult to rinse clean, and the particles are so small and light that they may be easily sucked up by your filtration system or vacuum hose. Sand doesnt work with undergravel filters either.

You may need to adjust the intake on your hanging or canister filter to prevent them from getting clogged with sand. It may also take a few days and a few rounds of water changes before your tank is clear after you add sand to it.

Gravel is the most common type of aquarium substrate and is an ideal product for most freshwater aquariums. When you opt for a gravel bottom youll have a wide variety of choices in size, color, and composition.

Gravel is typically made from rocks such as quartz or sandstone that have been crushed, smoothed and rounded into shape. Gravel can be nearly as fine as sand or appear as a collection of pebbles on the bottom of your tank.

Other types of gravel are porous and allow bacteria and microorganisms to flourish in your substrate. The presence of this bacteria helps boost the nitrogen cycle and converts toxic waste products into a safer form.

While you can buy gravel in bulk from construction supply companies, these types are not usually safe to use in aquariums. They may be contaminated with toxins or heavy metals and can poison your tank. Stick to products made especially for aquariums for the best results.

Its ideal for raising nearly all freshwater fish and most invertebrates. A few of the burrowing species prefer sand, but most do fine on gravel if they have rocks and things to hide under. Gravel is also the ideal choice for growing aquatic plants since it allows roots to take in nutrients from the water flowing through the substrate. Even if you dont opt for a plant-specific medium, its easier to maintain a planted gravel tank over a sandy-bottomed one.

Graveled aquariums encourage colonies of bacteria and other ammonia-eating microorganisms to flourish throughout your substrate. This is desirable since they break down waste products and help maintain a healthy ecosystem in your tank.

Youll have a wider array of filtering options when you go with a gravel substrate since you can use either undergravel or hanging/canister filters with your tank. The gravel wont clog the filters or get sucked out when using a vacuum hose. A final reason gravel substrates tend to be more popular in aquariums than sand is because they hide the debris better. Small particles of food and other materials that stand out against a sandy bottom may be indistinguishable when lying on the bottom of a graveled tank.

The main trade-off is these substrates also make it harder to eliminate toxic blue-green algae if you have an outbreak. Sandy substrates usually limit these outbreaks to the surface layer, since water is restricted from flowing through the small sand particles.

In contrast, gravel may permit the algae to grow throughout your substrate, where it can be challenging to treat. This may be a bigger problem with porous types of gravel, but using a UV-sterilizing filter may help prevent these algae outbreaks and other problems with waterborne parasites.

Gravel is the substrate-of-choice for many novices and experienced freshwater fish keepers because it is so broadly suited to raising both aquatic animals and plants. There are really no limits to what you can do with a graveled freshwater aquarium.

Its not easy to change the substrate in your tank once youve established an aquatic community. To avoid problems, pick the substrate that works best for the fish and plants you plan to keep in the tank of your dreams!

Jen has more than 30 years experience as a biologist, aquarist, and fishkeeper. She is an expert in setting up new tanks and maintaining naturally-planted freshwater habitats, and has experience raising a wide variety of aquatic species.