baking ball mill

wet ball mill/wet type ball mill/wet ball milling machine--zhengzhou bobang heavy industry machinery co.,ltd

Wet type ball mill are mostly used in the industry production. It is to increase the high grinding efficiency under the ball mill grinding and striking, from which the granularity is even and no flying dust with little noise, being the most universal powder machine in the benefication as powder grinding the ferrous metal like gold, silver, plumbum, zinc,copper,molybdenum,manganese,tungsten etc, as the nonmetal powder grinding like graphite,feldspar, potash feldspar, phosphorus ore, fluorite, clay, and swell soil etc. The wet type ball mill need to add the liquid into the grinding ball media auxiliary (water or ethanol). The material output gate is trumpet shape, with screw device inside, easy to discharging the material.

Copyright Zhengzhou Bobang Heavy Industry Machinery Co.,Ltd. E-mail : [email protected] Tel0086- 86656957 Address No.11 West Construction Road, Zhongyuan District,Zhengzhou City,Henan Province, China

ball mill liner design

There are many different designs and styles of ball mill liners. As with grinding balls local economics and ultimately operating costs determine the best design and material to use. The initial set of liners is rarely the final design selected. Based upon individual experience, mill superintendents develop preferences for liner designs. The following is given as a guideline for the initial set of liners.

For 60 mm (2.5) and smaller top size balls for cast metal liners use double wave liners with the number of lifters to the circle approximately 13.1 D in meters (for D in feet, divide 13.1 D by 3.3). Wave height above the liners from1.5 to 2 times the liner thickness. Rubber liners of the integral molded design follow the cast metal design. If using the replaceable lifter bar design in either metal or rubber the number of lifters should be about 3.3 D in meters (for D in feet* divide 3.3 D by 3.3) with the lifter height above the liners about twice the liner thickness. The use of double wave liners, particularly when using 50 mm (2) or larger balls, may show a loss of 5% or so in the mill power draw until the waves wear in and the balls cannest between the lifters.

When liners, and double wave liners in particular, wear with circumferential grooves, slipping of the charge is indicated, and this warns of accelerated wear. When the top size ball is smaller than 50mm (2.5) and mill speed is less than 72% of critical wear resistant cast irons can be used. For other conditions alloyed cast steel is recommended.Rubber liners are well suited to this same area and not onlyreduce operating costs but can reduce noise levels.

Single wave liners are recommended for larger size balls (50mm/2.5 and larger). The number of the lifters to the circle equals approximately 6.6 D in meters (for D in feet, divide 6.6 D by 3.3). The liners are from 50 to 65 mm thick (2 to 2.5) with the waves from 60 to 75 mm (2.5 to 3) above the liners. The replaceable lifter bar design madeof either metal or rubber in about the same design proportions can be used. There could be a loss in power with rubber particularly if the mill speed is faster than about 72% of critical speed, and the ball size is larger than 75 mm. Because of the impacting from the large balls, single wave liners for ball mills are usually made from alloyed steels or special wear-resistant alloyed cast irons. Because of the difficulty of balancing growth and wear with work hardening manganese steel is used infrequently and then with extreme care to allow for growth.

When a grate discharge is used the grates and wear platesare normally perpendicular to the mill axis while the discharge pans conform to the slope of the mill head. The grates and wear plates are normally made from alloy wear resistant cast steel or rubber. They are ribbed to prevent racing and excessive wear. The dischargers and pans are generally made from either wear resistant cast ironor rubber, or wear resistant fabricated steel.Slot plugging can be a problem in grate discharge mills. Whether the grates are made of metal or rubber the slots should have ample relief tapered toward the discharge side. Total angles 7 to 10 degrees (3.5 to 5 degrees per side) are commonly used. Metal grates often havea small lead-in pocket or recess which can fill in with peened metal rather than have the slot peen shut. With the proper combination of metal internals and rubber surfaces, rubber grates have flexibility that tend to make them self cleaning and yet not fail due to flexing.

Except when using rubber liners, the mill surfaces are covered with a protective rubber or plastic material toprotect the surfaces from pulp racing and corrosion. This is done in wet grinding mills. Since dry grinding mills get hot due to heat from grinding generally rubber liners and rubber materials cannot be used.

Shell liners may be furnished of various materials and of several designs. In each case the material used is the best obtainable, resulting in the lowest cost per ton of ore ground. The liner contours are selected for the specific grinding application and take into consideration liner wear, scrap loss, and mill capacity.

Liners cast of Manganese Steel, Ni-Hard, Chrome-moly, or other similar materials may be of the step type, block type, wave type, or the two-piece plate and lifter construction. These are illustrated on the right. During the past years of building ball Mills various other shapes of liners have been tried, such as the pocket type, spiral liners, etc.; in most cases it is found that these special shapes and designs are not justifiable from the standpoint of economics. They involve additional costs which are not generally recovered from an increased efficiency in milling operation.

Lorain Shell Liners consist of high carbon rolled steel plates accurately formed to the mill shell radius. These are held in place by rolled alloy steel heat treated lift bars. This type liner is carefully engineered for the specific grinding application. Variations in lift bar design and liner plate thickness provide this flexibility of design for application.

All shell liners designed for ball mill operations are of such size and shape that they will easily pass through the manhole opening to facilitate relining operations. In rod mill work the design is such that they will easily pass through the large ball open end discharge trunnion.

Where cast liners are used, and especially in rod mill applications, we furnish rubber shell liner backing to help cushion the impact effect of the media within the mill and prevent pulp racing. With the Lorain type of liner such shell liner backing is not required. For special applications where severe corrosive conditions exist a shell liner of special alloys can be furnished and also the interior surface of the shell can be treated to protect such parts from the corrosive conditions.

Head liners are of the segmental type constructed of Manganese Steel, Chrome molybdenum, or Ni-Hard and are designed to pass easily through the manhole opening or discharge opening in the case of rod mills. For ball mill work ribs are cast with the feed head liners to deflect the ball mass and minimize wear on the headliner itself.

Where cast liners are used shell liner bolts and head liner bolts are made of forged steel with an oval head to prevent turning and loosening within the liners. These are held in place with two hex nuts and a cut washer. For wet grinding applications special waterproof washers can be furnished.

Theeffect of liner design upon mill performance appears to have received little attention. Clearly, the main function of the liner is to form a removable surface to the null body, which may be replaced when seriously worn.

It is also clear however, that the metal plates which serve this purpose may have a surface which ranges from smooth in one which carries an intricate pattern of raised bars or sunken depressions. The merits of the various types do not appear, however, to have been studied.

where smooth liners are those which have projections insufficient to give appreciable keying between the liner and the ball charge, whilst lifter liners are those which are so heavily ribbed as to give rise to appreciable interlocking between the balls and the liners.

Various common types of liners are illustrated in Fig. 6.12. Although these liners have various patterns of projections, or depressions, to give an amount of interaction between the liner and the grinding medium, it would be expected that wear would round the edges. It is doubtful whether, after some time in service, the performance of a mill with these liners differs appreciably from that of a mill with a smooth surface. Liners furnished with heavy lifter bars are also sometimes used and in such a case the locking of the ball charge to the shell must be very effective. Nevertheless, although a few vague general statements to the effect that a lifter mill gives a product with different size characteristics to that of a smooth mill have appeared, the point does not appear to have been widely investigated. It is probable, however, that, on the grounds of differences in the size characteristics of the products, there exists no sound reason for the use of lifters in preference to the normal smooth liners.

It is possible that, when a material with a low coefficient of friction is milled, the charge might slip on a smooth mill shell, with consequent loss of grinding capacity, and in such a case the use of lifter bars might well be the solution. It has also been suggested by one of the authors, Rose, that the use of lifter bars might eliminate the surging of the charge sometimes encountered in mill operation.

An entirely different conception of the duty of the mill liner underlies the design of the studded liner developed by Usines Emile Henricot of Count St. Etienne. These liners, illustrated in Fig. 6.12 and Fig. 6.13, consist of comparatively thin plate liners with uniformly spaced studs on the working surface; these studs being integral with the plate. Provided the spaces between the studs are not allowed to become choked with tramp-iron, etc., the studs furnish a good key between the shell and the charge which, it is claimed, leads to a greater power consumption and to improved grinding. Furthermore it would appear that the studs impose a definite geometrical arrangement in the outer layer of balls which, in turn, brings about a closer packing, throughout the ball mass, than obtains with conventional types of liner. This effect would also lead to improved performance. Evidence of this effect of the studs upon the packing of the charge appears in Fig. 6.13b, for the balls are clearly seen to lie in rows in the mill instead of in completely random array.

An incidental merit claimed for these liners is that the high bearing pressure between the balls and the studs of the liners leads to work hardening of the studs; with a consequential reduction of the rate of metal wear.

The Henricot liners, which have been discussed in a paper by Belwinkel, appear to be the only attempt so far made to influence the grinding characteristics of a mill by means of correctly designed liners. It would therefore appear that there is some room for development in this direction.

chocolate laboratory ball mill

The ball mills are a type of grinder, with a cylindrical shape, used in the process of grinding (or mixing) and refining chocolate and other cocoa products. This chocolate laboratory ball mill is used to test and develop new chocolate recipes in any laboratory or technology center, suitable for quality control and to be used before production to design coatings.

The w-1-s-laboratory-ball-mill from Royal Duyvis Wiener is designed and manufactured to meet worldwide industrial standards. With its manually adjustable agitator speed and a 2.5 kg capacity grinding tank, the laboratory ball mill is out on its own.

Its temperature is controlled with a screw pump, re circulates the chocolate through the laboratory ball mill during processing. The w-1-s-laboratory-ball-mill includes a complete laboratory grinding line for variable media sizes.

trunnion bearing assembly ball mill & rod mill

The first part of the mill that we will look at is the TRUNNION BEARING.This is a HYDROSTATIC BEARING which is a slow moving bearing that carries a heavy load. Usually it is constructed from Babbitts metal. If you happen to remember the introduction to this course Issac Babbitt was the man who devised the method of bonding self-lubricating metals onto a strong backing to form a bearing. This type of bearing is named after him. Let us start with the base of this bearing. In it you will notice a SUMP for oil and an oil line that is connected to a PUMP. In the centre of the base is the BEARING SEAT. There is a hole in the middle of the bearing seat to allow the oil from the oil line to come out of. Radiating away from this hole there are OIL CHANNELS. These are simply grooves cut into the metal to allow the oil to be dispersed over the face of the bearing.

Now this is important, as I mentioned, this is a hydrostatic bearing, it supports a great weight. Because it has a great weight on it, when it is stopped, the oil is squeezed out from between the inner and outer bearing. Before the mill is started up this bearing must have oil injected into it by way of a pump. The pump must be started before the mill begins to turn and must continue until the mill has made at least one revolution. After that one revolution, what is known as the wedge effect, takes place. The oil that is on the surface of the bearing is forced into a wedge shaped portion of the leading edge of the outer bearing. This will generate enough pressure to lift the entire mill. But if the pump isnt kept pumping for that revolution the weight of the mill as it turns will force the metal of the bearing surface into the oil channels. Two of the required characteristics of these bearings are that they resist dirt contamination and disperse heat well. The result is that the material that the bearing is constructed from is soft. If an oil film isnt present between the two bearing surfaces, the metal to metal contact will cause this damage to the oil channels. Then the bearing will not be able to get enough oil on start up. In extreme cases the bearing may be destroyed.

Once the mill is turning the bearing is self-lubricated by OIL RINGS. They should be checked periodically. If you look closely at them you will notice that they have holes in them. As the rings revolve with the bearing these holes pickup oil from the SUMP in the bearing base and carries it to the top of the bearing. This ring is not joined to the bearing but sits on it loosely.

Because of the drag on the ring by the oil in the sump as the ring is revolved through it, and the lubrication of the oil between the ring and the bearing, the ring turns at a slower rate than the mill does. This is necessary to allow the oil to flow out from under the ring and get caught at the contact point of the inner bearing and the outer bearing. The outer bearing then picks up this oil and maintains the wedge effect.

This cap provides access to the rings and the inner bearing by two ACCESS DOORS on top of the cap. When the bearing and rings are checked through these ports, the person doing the inspecting will be looking at the condition of the bearing surface, verifying that the bearing is being oiled, and that it is free from any grooves or gouges. At the same time, check the rings to be sure they are turning, but at a slower rate than the bearing is.

There is one more piece to complete the assembly, technically it belongs with a following section on liner description, but to avoid confusion I will include it in this portion. It is the TRUNNION LINER, it fits inside the bearing to protect it from wear caused by the ore being washed over the liner and through the bearing as it is fed to or discharged from the mill.

Swivel type lead-bronze bushed trunnion bearings are generally furnished on large diameterball Mills. The bearing swivels are of Meehanite metal spherically turned outside and bored and faced inside to receive the removable bushing. The bushing is bored and scraped to fit the mill trunnion. The bushing is provided with end flanges thus assuring that the trunnion flanges run against a bronze face.

On smaller mills rigid or swivel type bearings support the mill trunnions. The lower half of such bearings are lined with bronze or a special millbabbitt which is peened in place and bored to fit the trunnion.

In all cases a low bearing pressure is maintained to assure freedom from overheating, long life and minimum maintenance. They are designed to provide support to the mill proper, its media and pulp load.

In many dry grinding applications, or where heat is developed, the trunnion bearings can be furnished for water cooling. This system carries away the excess heat transmitted through bearings and protects them.

Lead Bronze has been found to be the most satisfactory bearing material for large diameter bearings, affording the greatest protection against damage of trunnions. Lead bronze will withstand extreme heat for a considerable period of time (for example in the event of lubrication failure). Such heat will cause the lead to sweat out and act as a lubricant itself. This protection eliminates the possibility of scoring a trunnion and there is no danger, as with babbitt, of having the trunnions settle in the bearing and rub on the bearing base.

These are cast heavy in section of Meehanite metal. Where swivel type bearings are used the base is spherically bored inside to gauge to receive such swivels. The bottom of the base is planed to fit a planed top of the trunnion bearing sole plate. The bearing cap is provided with a shroud feature extending out over drip flanges to protect the bearing from entrance of dirt or grit.

Slotted holes are provided in the base for bolting the base to the sole plate; this permits movement of the bearing on the sole plate for adjustment of gear and pinion mesh. Such adjustment is carried out by the use of set screws.

A separate hand operated lubricant jack can be furnished to be mounted on the bearing base or at some distant point to provide a flow of lubricant prior to starting mill rotation. This feature assures lubricant being present at the bottom of the bearing and reflects somewhat in reducing bearing wear and shows a slight reduction in starting torque.

Pinion shaft bearings are of the SKF anti-friction type mounted in a common twin bearing assembly. Bearings are fixed in place so that the pinion shaft of the mill is always in alignment with the drive components. V-belt driven mills are furnished with an outboard bearing of similar construction.

Also available are bearings of the double rigid ring oiling type for special applications. Such bearings are cast integral with a heavy twin bearing sole plate assuring perfect alignment and rigidity. These bearings are equipped with bronze or babbitted bushings.

grain mill, flour mill, grinder | stone burr, impact & steel burr mills at pleasant hill grain

A quality grain mill transforms whole grains into flour, meal or a cereal-grind texture. Whether you want a flour mill for common wheat, einkorn, or corn, or a flaker for oatmeal, at Pleasant Hill Grain we offer the worlds best. Our mills can grind almost anything, and are available in a range of prices to fit your needs.

A home flour mill is a fun, easy and fast way to turn whole grains into flour you can trust. You know youre getting all the natural nutrition of whole foods with no unhealthful additives. Fresher tastes so much better, and nothing is fresher than what comes from your own grain grinder, made minutes before becoming the best-tasting breads, cakes and cereals youve ever made.

At PHG we actually use the flour mills, wheat grinders, oat flakers, both hand operated and electric, that we offer. Were bakers ourselves, and have hands-on experience with these machines. We follow the advice, Never sell product you wouldnt buy yourself. You can count on a flour mill from Pleasant Hill Grain to do a great job, be enjoyable to use, and last for many years. We offer products by manufacturers who stand behind their machines. They make replacement parts available for many years. We stock most parts for our flour mills, oat flakers, wheat grinders and other machines, and also can advise you on any maintenance or replacement questions that may arise. Thank you for visiting our website, and please let us know if you have a question!

When I started making home ground wheat bread, I had no idea where to buy wheat. An internet search popped up Pleasant Hill Grains, but little did I know then that I had hit the baking jackpot. I am now able to turn out gorgeous whole wheat loaves that get rave reviews!

simple baking recipes | bob's red mill

Luckily, baking can offer as much freedom of creativity and expression as any other art form. And if youre just getting started with cakes, cookies, muffins and more, there are many easy dessert recipes out there to ease you into the technique and get you going.

This easy recipe from Jen Tilley of How to Simplify requires only six ingredients and a handful of simple steps to get a delectable end result. Its fun for kids (or novice bakers) and the light and crispy texture is perfect for all sorts of occasions. If youre looking for simple cookie recipes, look no further! This one will surely become a staple in your baking routine.

This easy-to-make (and easy-to-eat) Crazy Cake doesnt require any eggs or dairy, and its instructions only call for four simple steps. Its a good cake to throw together when youre looking for a homemade treat that can be made in a short amount of time. Perhaps you have last minute guests coming over, or maybe you just have a hankering for a divine slice of Crazy Cake! Either way, this cake will do the trick.

These Easy Gluten Free Vanilla Cupcakes found their way to Bobs Red Mill by way of Becky Winkler from A Calculated Whisk. Theyre perfect for a simple spring or summer dessert or a birthday gathering, and can be made with essential pantry staples you most likely already have on hand.

These Easy Gluten Free Biscuits are incredibly simple and take just 20 minutes from start to finish. Theyre dairy free, versatile and are made using ingredients you already have on hand. They can be used to make breakfast sandwiches, strawberry shortcake and even a breakfast or dinner egg bake. However you decide to use these biscuits, make a big batch! Were certain youll find many delicious culinary uses for them.

To make the sweet version: Add 1 tablespoon of sugar to the flour mixture. After brushing the top with egg yolk, sprinkle coarse sugar on top. Bake as you would the savory version. To make the baked egg version: After separating the dough into two even rounds, make a hole in the center, leaving dough on the bottom to hold in the egg. Top as you wish (bacon, cheese, vegetables). Bake 15-20 minutes or until golden brown.

Who doesnt experience a craving for warm, homemade chocolate chip cookies and an ice cold glass of milk every now and then? Luckily, these 5-Ingredient Chocolate Chip Cookies take just 30 minutes to throw together (15 minutes prep time, 15 minutes cooking time) and they only call for unsalted butter, light brown sugar, eggs, Organic Unbleached White All Purpose Flour and chocolate chips. Throw them in the oven, wait until theyre lightly browned and let the cookie making magic unfold.

Just because youre creating a simple baking recipe, it doesnt mean it cant be creative, unique and nutritious. This Chocolate Sour Cream Quinoa Quickbread contains a whole lot of fiber and is fit for breakfast or dessert. Note: though the recipe ingredients say the chocolate chips are optional, the Bobs Red Mill team highly suggests including them. Theyll make the end result that much sweeter and delicious.

Whether youre a novice baker just getting started or an expert baker looking to fine-tune your dessert recipes, we hope these have provided some inspiration to get you into the kitchen and allow the baking bonanza to begin.

the best places to buy baking ingredients online - chowhound

If youre ready to dust offyour best baking cap to usher in fallor anytime, reallyyoull need flour, yeast, sugar, and other baking essentials. Dont risk a run to the store if you dont absolutely have to. Instead, use our list of the best places to buy baking ingredients online.

wake &bakeThe Best Cookbooks for BakersWith COVID-19 cases spiking(yet again) across the country, its not hard to imagine a scenario in which were oncemore in a form of lockdown in U.S. cities and statesjust as we were a few months ago (*stares blankly out window*). Thatcould also mean shortages on certain household ingredients that were in high demand with all of us in quarantine the first, second, and third time. (Surely you remember the baking bonanza and subsequent flour and yeast shortages ofspring 2020?).

Even if you do live in a place where the virus is under control, you might be looking for more options when it comes to baking supplies, so we took it upon ourselves to round up some of the best places to find baking ingredients online.Specialty retailers like Bakers Authority have a number of hard-to-find flours, sweeteners, and mixes, with bigger retailers like Target perfect places to stock up on the baking basics like yeast, sugar, and all-purpose flour. We advise strongly against hoarding baking supplies, as they dont last forever and there should be plenty to go around. But if youre sooo over that stuffy, crowded, foggy glasses, face-maskedtrip to the market,theseare the best places to buy baking ingredients online.

This Queens, New York-based supplier of baking supplies managed to keep their inventory of over 5,000 items mostly in stock all through the early stages of quarantine, so you can bet theyll be a reliable source now and in the future. Flour? They got them. All of them: Pastry flour, all-purpose flour, nut flour, and other specialty flour from big name brands and smaller producers alike. BA also has a huge inventory of spices and seeds, sugar and specialty sweeteners, and plenty of premade bread cake and other mixes to keep things super simple.

Need baking tools? Theyve got a wide selection of those toomostly made by the brand Wincoincluding sheet pans, bread pans, measuring cups, and cake decorating equipment. If its required for baking, you can bet this comprehensive marketplace has it, save for the oven. Oh wait, they have those too.

Thrive is a membership-based online marketplace, but if specialty ingredients are something you seek out, this could be a good place for you to shop. Similar to Trader Joes, Thrive Market sells everything under its own label so you save a few bucks on the traditional retail markup. Thrive has lots of harder-to-find baking ingredients like organiccassava flour, lemon extract, and potato starch, but also the usual suspects youll need for everyday cakes, bread, pies, and other baked goods. Memberships start at $5 per month when you sign up for an entire year, or opt for a $10 month-to-month situation, where you can cancel anytime.

I likely dont have tointroduce you tothe King of flour, but youmay not have considered buying your baking ingredients directly from the kingdom itself. King Arthurs website actually has a fairly comprehensive inventory of baking ingredients. That includes the signature flour, of course, but also spices, yeasts, thickeners, and premade baking mixes. You can even find storage containers to house all that messy flour.

If youre interested in supporting a smaller operation for quality flour, try Janies Mill. The Illinois-based farm and mill uses regenerative and organic practices to make all their many flours, grains, wheat bran & berries, and more. Try the Pantry Pack Sampler with four types of flour for just $20.

For the very basics, Target has most of what youll need to get your baking operation off the ground. Expect to see a lot of what you would in the supermarket, but when shelves start to go bare again you might be glad to see supplies lingering online. Find staples like Good & Gather organic all-purpose flour, butter, and packets of Fleischmanns dry yeast, along with an array of baking tools to keep the sourdough production steady. As you have already expected, Target has heaps of bakeware too, like bread & loaf pans, cooling racks, and the like.

This kitchen and cookware retailer might not be your first thought for baking ingredients, but theyve actually got a healthy supply. For specialty flours, baking mixes, and decorating tools Williams Sonoma is a good secret weapon when in-store supplies get low.

When all else fails, head to the retailer with everything. Walmart is not going to carry the small brands or specialty items of a Bakers Authority, but when you need flour, yeast, baking soda, or vanilla extract in a pinch, the big-box retailer is likely to have some in stock. Plus, while youre there you can add anything from a beach ball to a fishing rod to your cart.

how to make a ball mill: 12 steps (with pictures) - wikihow

This article was co-authored by our trained team of editors and researchers who validated it for accuracy and comprehensiveness. wikiHow's Content Management Team carefully monitors the work from our editorial staff to ensure that each article is backed by trusted research and meets our high quality standards. This article has been viewed 29,358 times. Learn more...

Ball mills are a special instrument used to break up hard solids into a fine powder. They are similar to rock tumblers in that the instrument is a rotating container filled with heavy balls to grind the substance into powder. Ceramic material, crystalline compounds, and even some metals can be ground up using a ball mill. Using a motor, container, belt, caster wheels, and some basic building supplies, you can make your own ball mill.[1] X Research source

To make a ball mill, start by building a wooden platform and attaching a motor underneath it. Then, cut a slit into the wooden platform for the belt to pass through and attach casters to the platform for the container to sit on. Next, thread the belt through the slit and position the container so the belt is pulled tight. Finish by connecting the motor to the power supply, and filling the cylinder with metal balls and the substance you want to grind. For tips on how to operate your ball mill, read on! Did this summary help you?YesNo

effect of mechanically modified wheat flour on dough fermentation properties and bread quality | springerlink

The swelling properties and thus baking performance of starch strongly depend on mechanical starch modification (MSM), which can be influenced by grinding. To analyze the effect of starch influencing factors on dough fermentation properties and specific bread volume, different MSM levels were obtained using a ball mill. This treatment led to an increase in the water-holding capacity and a decrease in the -amylase activity of the flour. Baking tests were conducted with varied starch modification levels and water additions to analyze the effect of mechanical flour modification and the resulting changes in hydration and gas formation properties of the dough on bread quality. The specific bread volume was lower with high-MSM flour than with low-MSM flour, regardless of the adapted water addition. Therefore, the effect of MSM on dough fermentation properties was examined with respect to different water additions. Despite increasing the water addition, the time of porosity (Tx) of high-MSM dough was significantly lower than that of low-MSM dough. However, the amount of gas leakage after 60min was quite low for high-MSM dough (gas retention coefficient ~99.5%) and thus not considered significant. By adding 58 and 83g water 100g1 flour, the gas retention coefficient after 60min was 100%. The results also show that lower enzymatic activity with high MSM has no significant effect on the produced gas volume during fermentation. However, increasing MSM leads to a reduced dough height (Hm).

Yu J, Wang S, Wang J, Li C, Xin Q, Huang W, Zhang Y, He Z, Wang S (2015) Effect of laboratory milling on properties of starches isolated from different flour millstreams of hard and soft wheat. Food Chem 172:504514. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2014.09.070

Tran TT, Shelat KJ, Tang D, Li E, Gilbert RG, Hasjim J (2011) Milling of rice grains. The degradation on three structural levels of starch in rice flour can be independently controlled during grinding. J Agric Food Chem 59(8):39643973

Dhital S, Shrestha AK, Flanagan BM, Hasjim J, Gidley MJ (2011) Cryo-milling of starch granules leads to differential effects on molecular size and conformation. Carbohydr Polym 84(3):11331140. doi:10.1016/j.carbpol.2011.01.002

Abebe W, Collar C, Ronda F (2015) Impact of variety type and particle size distribution on starch enzymatic hydrolysis and functional properties of tef flours. Carbohydr Polym 115:260268. doi:10.1016/j.carbpol.2014.08.080

Berton B, Scher J, Villieras F, Hardy J (2002) Measurement of hydration capacity of wheat flour: influence of composition and physical characteristics. Powder Technol 128(23):326331. doi:10.1016/S0032-5910(02)00168-7

Barrera GN, Bustos MC, Iturriaga L, Flores SK, Len AE, Ribotta PD (2013) Effect of damaged starch on the rheological properties of wheat starch suspensions. J Food Eng 116(1):233239. doi:10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2012.11.020

Hackenberg, S., Verheyen, C., Jekle, M. et al. Effect of mechanically modified wheat flour on dough fermentation properties and bread quality. Eur Food Res Technol 243, 287296 (2017).