In all ore dressing and milling Operations, including flotation, cyanidation, gravity concentration, and amalgamation, the Working Principle is to crush and grind, often with rob mill & ball mills, the ore in order to liberate the minerals. In the chemical and process industries, grinding is an important step in preparing raw materials for subsequent treatment.In present day practice, ore is reduced to a size many times finer than can be obtained with crushers. Over a period of many years various fine grinding machines have been developed and used, but the ball mill has become standard due to its simplicity and low operating cost.
A ball millefficiently operated performs a wide variety of services. In small milling plants, where simplicity is most essential, it is not economical to use more than single stage crushing, because the Steel-Head Ball or Rod Mill will take up to 2 feed and grind it to the desired fineness. In larger plants where several stages of coarse and fine crushing are used, it is customary to crush from 1/2 to as fine as 8 mesh.
Many grinding circuits necessitate regrinding of concentrates or middling products to extremely fine sizes to liberate the closely associated minerals from each other. In these cases, the feed to the ball mill may be from 10 to 100 mesh or even finer.
Where the finished product does not have to be uniform, a ball mill may be operated in open circuit, but where the finished product must be uniform it is essential that the grinding mill be used in closed circuit with a screen, if a coarse product is desired, and with a classifier if a fine product is required. In most cases it is desirable to operate the grinding mill in closed circuit with a screen or classifier as higher efficiency and capacity are obtained. Often a mill using steel rods as the grinding medium is recommended, where the product must have the minimum amount of fines (rods give a more nearly uniform product).
Often a problem requires some study to determine the economic fineness to which a product can or should be ground. In this case the 911Equipment Company offers its complete testing service so that accurate grinding mill size may be determined.
Until recently many operators have believed that one particular type of grinding mill had greater efficiency and resulting capacity than some other type. However, it is now commonly agreed and accepted that the work done by any ballmill depends directly upon the power input; the maximum power input into any ball or rod mill depends upon weight of grinding charge, mill speed, and liner design.
The apparent difference in capacities between grinding mills (listed as being the same size) is due to the fact that there is no uniform method of designating the size of a mill, for example: a 5 x 5 Ball Mill has a working diameter of 5 inside the liners and has 20 per cent more capacity than all other ball mills designated as 5 x 5 where the shell is 5 inside diameter and the working diameter is only 48 with the liners in place.
Ball-Rod Mills, based on 4 liners and capacity varying as 2.6 power of mill diameter, on the 5 size give 20 per cent increased capacity; on the 4 size, 25 per cent; and on the 3 size, 28 per cent. This fact should be carefully kept in mind when determining the capacity of a Steel- Head Ball-Rod Mill, as this unit can carry a greater ball or rod charge and has potentially higher capacity in a given size when the full ball or rod charge is carried.
A mill shorter in length may be used if the grinding problem indicates a definite power input. This allows the alternative of greater capacity at a later date or a considerable saving in first cost with a shorter mill, if reserve capacity is not desired. The capacities of Ball-Rod Mills are considerably higher than many other types because the diameters are measured inside the liners.
The correct grinding mill depends so much upon the particular ore being treated and the product desired, that a mill must have maximum flexibility in length, type of grinding medium, type of discharge, and speed.With the Ball-Rod Mill it is possible to build this unit in exact accordance with your requirements, as illustrated.
To best serve your needs, the Trunnion can be furnished with small (standard), medium, or large diameter opening for each type of discharge. The sketch shows diagrammatic arrangements of the four different types of discharge for each size of trunnion opening, and peripheral discharge is described later.
Ball-Rod Mills of the grate discharge type are made by adding the improved type of grates to a standard Ball-Rod Mill. These grates are bolted to the discharge head in much the same manner as the standard headliners.
The grates are of alloy steel and are cast integral with the lifter bars which are essential to the efficient operation of this type of ball or rod mill. These lifter bars have a similar action to a pump:i. e., in lifting the product so as to discharge quickly through the mill trunnion.
These Discharge Grates also incorporate as an integral part, a liner between the lifters and steel head of the ball mill to prevent wear of the mill head. By combining these parts into a single casting, repairs and maintenance are greatly simplified. The center of the grate discharge end of this mill is open to permit adding of balls or for adding water to the mill through the discharge end.
Instead of being constructed of bars cast into a frame, Grates are cast entire and have cored holes which widen toward the outside of the mill similar to the taper in grizzly bars. The grate type discharge is illustrated.
The peripheral discharge type of Ball-Rod Mill is a modification of the grate type, and is recommended where a free gravity discharge is desired. It is particularly applicable when production of too many fine particles is detrimental and a quick pass through the mill is desired, and for dry grinding.
The drawings show the arrangement of the peripheral discharge. The discharge consists of openings in the shell into which bushings with holes of the desired size are inserted. On the outside of the mill, flanges are used to attach a stationary discharge hopper to prevent pulp splash or too much dust.
The mill may be operated either as a peripheral discharge or a combination or peripheral and trunnion discharge unit, depending on the desired operating conditions. If at any time the peripheral discharge is undesirable, plugs inserted into the bushings will convert the mill to a trunnion discharge type mill.
Unless otherwise specified, a hard iron liner is furnished. This liner is made of the best grade white iron and is most serviceable for the smaller size mills where large balls are not used. Hard iron liners have a much lower first cost.
Electric steel, although more expensive than hard iron, has advantage of minimum breakage and allows final wear to thinner section. Steel liners are recommended when the mills are for export or where the source of liner replacement is at a considerable distance.
Molychrome steel has longer wearing qualities and greater strength than hard iron. Breakage is not so apt to occur during shipment, and any size ball can be charged into a mill equipped with molychrome liners.
Manganese liners for Ball-Rod Mills are the world famous AMSCO Brand, and are the best obtainable. The first cost is the highest, but in most cases the cost per ton of ore ground is the lowest. These liners contain 12 to 14% manganese.
The feed and discharge trunnions are provided with cast iron or white iron throat liners. As these parts are not subjected to impact and must only withstand abrasion, alloys are not commonly used but can be supplied.
Gears for Ball-Rod Mills drives are furnished as standard on the discharge end of the mill where they are out of the way of the classifier return, scoop feeder, or original feed. Due to convertible type construction the mills can be furnished with gears on the feed end. Gear drives are available in two alternative combinations, which are:
All pinions are properly bored, key-seated, and pressed onto the steel countershaft, which is oversize and properly keyseated for the pinion and drive pulleys or sheaves. The countershaft operates on high grade, heavy duty, nickel babbitt bearings.
Any type of drive can be furnished for Ball-Rod Mills in accordance with your requirements. Belt drives are available with pulleys either plain or equipped with friction clutch. Various V- Rope combinations can also be supplied.
The most economical drive to use up to 50 H. P., is a high starting torque motor connected to the pinion shaft by means of a flat or V-Rope drive. For larger size motors the wound rotor (slip ring) is recommended due to its low current requirement in starting up the ball mill.
Should you be operating your own power plant or have D. C. current, please specify so that there will be no confusion as to motor characteristics. If switches are to be supplied, exact voltage to be used should be given.
Even though many ores require fine grinding for maximum recovery, most ores liberate a large percentage of the minerals during the first pass through the grinding unit. Thus, if the free minerals can be immediately removed from the ball mill classifier circuit, there is little chance for overgrinding.
This is actually what has happened wherever Mineral Jigs or Unit Flotation Cells have been installed in the ball mill classifier circuit. With the installation of one or both of these machines between the ball mill and classifier, as high as 70 per cent of the free gold and sulphide minerals can be immediately removed, thus reducing grinding costs and improving over-all recovery. The advantage of this method lies in the fact that heavy and usually valuable minerals, which otherwise would be ground finer because of their faster settling in the classifier and consequent return to the grinding mill, are removed from the circuit as soon as freed. This applies particularly to gold and lead ores.
Ball-Rod Mills have heavy rolled steel plate shells which are arc welded inside and outside to the steel heads or to rolled steel flanges, depending upon the type of mill. The double welding not only gives increased structural strength, but eliminates any possibility of leakage.
Where a single or double flanged shell is used, the faces are accurately machined and drilled to template to insure perfect fit and alignment with the holes in the head. These flanges are machined with male and female joints which take the shearing stresses off the bolts.
The Ball-Rod Mill Heads are oversize in section, heavily ribbed and are cast from electric furnace steel which has a strength of approximately four times that of cast iron. The head and trunnion bearings are designed to support a mill with length double its diameter. This extra strength, besides eliminating the possibility of head breakage or other structural failure (either while in transit or while in service), imparts to Ball-Rod Mills a flexibility heretofore lacking in grinding mills. Also, for instance, if you have a 5 x 5 mill, you can add another 5 shell length and thus get double the original capacity; or any length required up to a maximum of 12 total length.
On Type A mills the steel heads are double welded to the rolled steel shell. On type B and other flanged type mills the heads are machined with male and female joints to match the shell flanges, thus taking the shearing stresses from the heavy machine bolts which connect the shell flanges to the heads.
The manhole cover is protected from wear by heavy liners. An extended lip is provided for loosening the door with a crow-bar, and lifting handles are also provided. The manhole door is furnished with suitable gaskets to prevent leakage.
The mill trunnions are carried on heavy babbitt bearings which provide ample surface to insure low bearing pressure. If at any time the normal length is doubled to obtain increased capacity, these large trunnion bearings will easily support the additional load. Trunnion bearings are of the rigid type, as the perfect alignment of the trunnion surface on Ball-Rod Mills eliminates any need for the more expensive self-aligning type of bearing.
The cap on the upper half of the trunnion bearing is provided with a shroud which extends over the drip flange of the trunnion and effectively prevents the entrance of dirt or grit. The bearing has a large space for wool waste and lubricant and this is easily accessible through a large opening which is covered to prevent dirt from getting into the bearing.Ball and socket bearings can be furnished.
Scoop Feeders for Ball-Rod Mills are made in various radius sizes. Standard scoops are made of cast iron and for the 3 size a 13 or 19 feeder is supplied, for the 4 size a 30 or 36, for the 5 a 36 or 42, and for the 6 a 42 or 48 feeder. Welded steel scoop feeders can, however, be supplied in any radius.
The correct size of feeder depends upon the size of the classifier, and the smallest feeder should be used which will permit gravity flow for closed circuit grinding between classifier and the ball or rod mill. All feeders are built with a removable wearing lip which can be easily replaced and are designed to give minimum scoop wear.
A combination drum and scoop feeder can be supplied if necessary. This feeder is made of heavy steel plate and strongly welded. These drum-scoop feeders are available in the same sizes as the cast iron feeders but can be built in any radius. Scoop liners can be furnished.
The trunnions on Ball-Rod Mills are flanged and carefully machined so that scoops are held in place by large machine bolts and not cap screws or stud bolts. The feed trunnion flange is machined with a shoulder for insuring a proper fit for the feed scoop, and the weight of the scoop is carried on this shoulder so that all strain is removed from the bolts which hold the scoop.
High carbon steel rods are recommended, hot rolled, hot sawed or sheared, to a length of 2 less than actual length of mill taken inside the liners. The initial rod charge is generally a mixture ranging from 1.5 to 3 in diameter. During operation, rod make-up is generally the maximum size. The weights per lineal foot of rods of various diameters are approximately: 1.5 to 6 lbs.; 2-10.7 lbs.; 2.5-16.7 lbs.; and 3-24 lbs.
Forged from the best high carbon manganese steel, they are of the finest quality which can be produced and give long, satisfactory service. Data on ball charges for Ball-Rod Mills are listed in Table 5. Further information regarding grinding balls is included in Table 6.
Rod Mills has a very define and narrow discharge product size range. Feeding a Rod Mill finer rocks will greatly impact its tonnage while not significantly affect its discharge product sizes. The 3.5 diameter rod of a mill, can only grind so fine.
Crushers are well understood by most. Rod and Ball Mills not so much however as their size reduction actions are hidden in the tube (mill). As for Rod Mills, the image above best expresses what is going on inside. As rocks is feed into the mill, they are crushed (pinched) by the weight of its 3.5 x 16 rods at one end while the smaller particles migrate towards the discharge end and get slightly abraded (as in a Ball Mill) on the way there.
We haveSmall Ball Mills for sale coming in at very good prices. These ball mills are relatively small, bearing mounted on a steel frame. All ball mills are sold with motor, gears, steel liners and optional grinding media charge/load.
Ball Mills or Rod Mills in a complete range of sizes up to 10 diameter x20 long, offer features of operation and convertibility to meet your exactneeds. They may be used for pulverizing and either wet or dry grindingsystems. Mills are available in both light-duty and heavy-duty constructionto meet your specific requirements.
All Mills feature electric cast steel heads and heavy rolled steelplate shells. Self-aligning main trunnion bearings on large mills are sealedand internally flood-lubricated. Replaceable mill trunnions. Pinion shaftbearings are self-aligning, roller bearing type, enclosed in dust-tightcarrier. Adjustable, single-unit soleplate under trunnion and drive pinionsfor perfect, permanent gear alignment.
Ball Mills can be supplied with either ceramic or rubber linings for wet or dry grinding, for continuous or batch type operation, in sizes from 15 x 21 to 8 x 12. High density ceramic linings of uniform hardness male possible thinner linings and greater and more effective grinding volume. Mills are shipped with liners installed.
Complete laboratory testing service, mill and air classifier engineering and proven equipment make possible a single source for your complete dry-grinding mill installation. Units available with air swept design and centrifugal classifiers or with elevators and mechanical type air classifiers. All sizes and capacities of units. Laboratory-size air classifier also available.
A special purpose batch mill designed especially for grinding and mixing involving acids and corrosive materials. No corners mean easy cleaning and choice of rubber or ceramic linings make it corrosion resistant. Shape of mill and ball segregation gives preferential grinding action for grinding and mixing of pigments and catalysts. Made in 2, 3 and 4 diameter grinding drums.
Nowadays grinding mills are almost extensively used for comminution of materials ranging from 5 mm to 40 mm (3/161 5/8) down to varying product sizes. They have vast applications within different branches of industry such as for example the ore dressing, cement, lime, porcelain and chemical industries and can be designed for continuous as well as batch grinding.
Ball mills can be used for coarse grinding as described for the rod mill. They will, however, in that application produce more fines and tramp oversize and will in any case necessitate installation of effective classification.If finer grinding is wanted two or three stage grinding is advisable as for instant primary rod mill with 75100 mm (34) rods, secondary ball mill with 2540 mm(11) balls and possibly tertiary ball mill with 20 mm () balls or cylpebs.To obtain a close size distribution in the fine range the specific surface of the grinding media should be as high as possible. Thus as small balls as possible should be used in each stage.
The principal field of rod mill usage is the preparation of products in the 5 mm0.4 mm (4 mesh to 35 mesh) range. It may sometimes be recommended also for finer grinding. Within these limits a rod mill is usually superior to and more efficient than a ball mill. The basic principle for rod grinding is reduction by line contact between rods extending the full length of the mill, resulting in selective grinding carried out on the largest particle sizes. This results in a minimum production of extreme fines or slimes and more effective grinding work as compared with a ball mill. One stage rod mill grinding is therefore suitable for preparation of feed to gravimetric ore dressing methods, certain flotation processes with slime problems and magnetic cobbing. Rod mills are frequently used as primary mills to produce suitable feed to the second grinding stage. Rod mills have usually a length/diameter ratio of at least 1.4.
Tube mills are in principle to be considered as ball mills, the basic difference being that the length/diameter ratio is greater (35). They are commonly used for surface cleaning or scrubbing action and fine grinding in open circuit.
In some cases it is suitable to use screened fractions of the material as grinding media. Such mills are usually called pebble mills, but the working principle is the same as for ball mills. As the power input is approximately directly proportional to the volume weight of the grinding media, the power input for pebble mills is correspondingly smaller than for a ball mill.
A dry process requires usually dry grinding. If the feed is wet and sticky, it is often necessary to lower the moisture content below 1 %. Grinding in front of wet processes can be done wet or dry. In dry grinding the energy consumption is higher, but the wear of linings and charge is less than for wet grinding, especially when treating highly abrasive and corrosive material. When comparing the economy of wet and dry grinding, the different costs for the entire process must be considered.
An increase in the mill speed will give a directly proportional increase in mill power but there seems to be a square proportional increase in the wear. Rod mills generally operate within the range of 6075 % of critical speed in order to avoid excessive wear and tangled rods. Ball and pebble mills are usually operated at 7085 % of critical speed. For dry grinding the speed is usually somewhat lower.
The mill lining can be made of rubber or different types of steel (manganese or Ni-hard) with liner types according to the customers requirements. For special applications we can also supply porcelain, basalt and other linings.
The mill power is approximately directly proportional to the charge volume within the normal range. When calculating a mill 40 % charge volume is generally used. In pebble and ball mills quite often charge volumes close to 50 % are used. In a pebble mill the pebble consumption ranges from 315 % and the charge has to be controlled automatically to maintain uniform power consumption.
In all cases the net energy consumption per ton (kWh/ton) must be known either from previous experience or laboratory tests before mill size can be determined. The required mill net power P kW ( = ton/hX kWh/ton) is obtained from
Trunnions of S.G. iron or steel castings with machined flange and bearing seat incl. device for dismantling the bearings. For smaller mills the heads and trunnions are sometimes made in grey cast iron.
The mills can be used either for dry or wet, rod or ball grinding. By using a separate attachment the discharge end can be changed so that the mills can be used for peripheral instead of overflow discharge.
The basic parameters used in ball mill design (power calculations), rod mill or anytumbling millsizing are; material to be ground, characteristics, Bond Work Index, bulk density, specific density, desired mill tonnage capacity DTPH, operating % solids or pulp density, feed size as F80 and maximum chunk size, productsize as P80 and maximum and finally the type of circuit open/closed you are designing for.
In extracting fromNordberg Process Machinery Reference ManualI will also provide 2 Ball Mill Sizing (Design) example done by-hand from tables and charts. Today, much of this mill designing is done by computers, power models and others. These are a good back-to-basics exercises for those wanting to understand what is behind or inside the machines.
W = power consumption expressed in kWh/short to (HPhr/short ton = 1.34 kWh/short ton) Wi = work index, which is a factor relative to the kwh/short ton required to reduce a given material from theoretically infinite size to 80% passing 100 microns P = size in microns of the screen opening which 80% of the product will pass F = size in microns of the screen opening which 80% of the feed will pass
Open circuit grinding to a given surface area requires no more power than closed circuit grinding to the same surface area provided there is no objection to the natural top-size. If top-size must be limited in open circuit, power requirements rise drastically as allowable top-size is reduced and particle size distribution tends toward the finer sizes.
A wet grinding ball mill in closed circuit is to be fed 100 TPH of a material with a work index of 15 and a size distribution of 80% passing inch (6350 microns). The required product size distribution is to be 80% passing 100 mesh (149 microns). In order to determine the power requirement, the steps are as follows:
The ball mill motorpower requirement calculated above as 1400 HP is the power that must be applied at the mill drive in order to grind the tonnage of feed from one size distribution. The following shows how the size or select thematching mill required to draw this power is calculated from known tables the old fashion way.
The value of the angle a varies with the type of discharge, percent of critical speed, and grinding condition. In order to use the preceding equation, it is necessary to have considerable data on existing installations. Therefore, this approach has been simplified as follows:
A = factor for diameter inside shell lining B = factor which includes effect of % loading and mill type C = factor for speed of mill L = length in feet of grinding chamber measured between head liners at shell- to-head junction
Many grinding mill manufacturers specify diameter inside the liners whereas othersare specified per inside shell diameter. (Subtract 6 to obtain diameter inside liners.) Likewise, a similar confusion surrounds the length of a mill. Therefore, when comparing the size of a mill between competitive manufacturers, one should be aware that mill manufacturers do not observe a size convention.
In Example No.1 it was determined that a 1400 HP wet grinding ball mill was required to grind 100 TPH of material with a Bond Work Index of 15 (guess what mineral type it is) from 80% passing inch to 80% passing 100 mesh in closed circuit. What is the size of an overflow discharge ball mill for this application?
Our small-scale miners Ball Mills use horizontal rotating cylinders that contain the grinding media and the particles to be broken. The mass moves up the wall of the cylinder as it rotates and falls back into the toe of the mill when the force of gravity exceeds friction and centrifugal forces. Particles are broken in the toe of the mill when caught in the collisions between the grinding media themselves and the grinding media and the mill wall. In ball mills, the grinding media and particles acquire potential energy that becomes kinetic energy as the mass falls from the rotating shell. Ball mills are customarily divided into categories that are mainly defined by the size of the feed particles and the type of grinding media.
Intermediate and fine size reduction by grinding is frequently achieved in a ball mill in which the length of the cylindrical shell is usually 1 to 1.5 times the shell diameter. Ball mills of greater length are termed tube mills, and when hard pebbles rather than steel balls are used for the grinding media, the mills are known as pebble mills. In general, ball mills can be operated either wet or dry and are capable of producing products on the order of 100 um. This duty represents reduction ratios as great as 100.
The ball mill, an intermediate and fine-grinding device, is a tumbling drum with a 40% to 50% filling of balls. The material that is to be ground fills the voids between the balls. The tumbling balls capture the particles in ball/ball or ball/liner events and load them to the point of fracture. Very large tonnages can be ground with these devices because they are very effective material handling devices. The feed can be dry, with less than 3% moisture to minimize ball coating, or a slurry can be used containing 20% to 40% water by weight. Ball mills are employed in either primary or secondary grinding applications. In primary applications, they receive their feed from crushers, and in secondary applications, they receive their feed from rod mills, autogenous mills, or semi-autogenous mills. Regrind mills in mineral processing operations are usually ball mills, because the feed for these applications is typically quite fine. Ball mills are sometimes used in single-stage grinding, receiving crusher product. The circuits of these mills are often closed with classifiers at high-circulating loads.
All ball mills operate on the same principles. One of these principles is that the total weight of the charge in the mill-the sum of the weight of the grinding media, the weight of the material to be ground, and any water in the millis a function of the percentage of the volume of the mill it occupies.
The power the mill draws is a function of the weight of the charge in the mill, the %of volumetric loading of the mill, the %of critical speed, which is the speed in RPM at which the outer layer of the charge in the mill will centrifuge.
For closed grinding circuits producing typical ball mill products, indirect and direct on-line measurements of the product size are available. The indirect means are those which assume that the product size is relatively constant when the feed condition to the classifying unit and the operating conditions in the classifying unit are constant. One example is maintaining a constant mass flow, pulp density and pressure in the feed to the cyclone classifier.
By using math modeling, it is possible to calculate the product size from measured cyclone classifier feed conditions and circuit operating data, thus establishing the effect on the particle size distribution in the product for changes in the variables.
Direct on-line means to measure either particle size or surface area are available for typical ball mill circuit products. These require the means to obtain representative or at least consistent samples from the grinding circuit product stream. These direct means and the calculated product particle size distributions can be used to:
Small variations in the feed size to ball mill circuits generally is not critical to the calculation of operating work index because they make a very small change in the 10F factor. Thus, a computer program can be developed to calculate operating work indices from on-line data with the feed size a constant and with the program designed to permit manually changing this value, as required to take into account changes in feed size resulting from such things as drawing down feed bins, crusher maintenance, work screen surfaces in the crushing plant, etc. which are generally known in advance, or can be established quickly. Developments underway for on-line measurement of particle size in coarser material which when completed will permit measuring the feed size used to calculate operating work indices.
recorded by a data logger, gives continuous means to report comminution circuit performance and evaluate in-plant testing. Changes in Wio indicated on data loggers alert operating and supervisory personnel that a change has occurred in either the ore or in circuit performance. If sufficient instrumentation is available, the cause for a problem can often be located from other recorded or logged data covering circuit and equipment operation, however, generally the problem calls for operator attention to be corrected.
Wio can be used to determine the efficiency of power utilization for the entire comminution section of a mill, and for the individual circuits making up the comminution section. The efficiency of a comminution circuit is determined by the following equation.
Wi is obtained by running the appropriate laboratory tests on a composite sample of circuit feed. Wio is calculated from plant operating data covering the period when the feed sample was taken. Since Wi from laboratory tests refers to specific conditions for accurate efficiency determinations, it is necessary to apply correction factors as discussed in The Tools of Power Power to Wio to put the laboratory and operating data on the same basis.
To-date, there is no known way to obtain standard work index data from on-line tests. Continuous measurement of comminution circuit efficiency is not possible and thus efficiency is not available for circuit control. Using laboratory data and operating data, efficiency can be determined for overall section and individual circuit for evaluation and reporting. Just monitoring Wio and correcting operating problems as they occur will improve the utilization of the power delivered to the comminution circuits.
Samples taken from the chips around blast hole drillings and from broken ore in the pit or mine for laboratory work index and other ore characteristic determinations before the ore is delivered to the mill, can be used to predict in advance comminution circuit performance. Test results can also be used for ore blending to obtain a more uniform feed, particularly to primary autogenous and semi-autogenous circuits.
We sell Small Ball Mills from 2 to 6 (600 mm X 1800 mm) in diameter and as long as 10 (3000 mm) in length. The mills are manufactured using a flanged mild steel shell, cast heads, overflow discharge, removable man door, spur type ring gear, pinion gear assembly with spherical roller bearings, replaceable roller bronze trunnion bearings, oil lubrication, replaceable trunnion liners with internal spirals, rubber liners and lifters, feed spout with wash port, discharge trommel with internal spiral, motor and gear reducer drive, direct coupled to pinion gear, gear guard and modular steel support frame. All ball mills always come withOSHA-type gear guard.
A PULP level sufficiently high to interpose a bed of pulp, partly to cushion the impact of the balls, permits a maximum crushing effect with a minimum wear of steel. The pulp level of theseSmall Ball Millscan be varied from discharging at the periphery to discharging at a point about halfway between the trunnion and the periphery.The mill shell is of welded plate steel with integral end flanges turned for perfect alignment, and the heads are semi-steel, with hand holes in the discharge end through which the diaphragm regulation is arranged with plugs.The trunnion bearings are babbitted, spherical, cast iron, and of ample size to insure low bearing pressure; while the shell and saddle are machined to gauge so that the shells are interchangeable.
Data based on:Wet grinding, single stage, closed circuit operation: feed:( one way dimension); Class III ore. All mills:free discharge, grated type, rapid pulp flow. N. B.for overflow type mills: capacity 80%power 83%. Dimensions :diameters inside shell without linerslengths working length shell between end liners.
The CIW is a Small Ball Mill thats belt driven, rigid bearing, wet grinding, trunnion or grate discharge type mill with friction clutch pulley and welded steel shell. The 7 and 8 foot diameter mills are of flange ring construction with cut gears while all other sizes have cast tooth gears. All these mills are standard with white iron bar wave type shell liners except the 8 foot diameter mill which is equipped with manganese steel liners. The horsepowers shown in the table are under running conditions so that high torque or wound rotor (slip ring) motors must be used. Manganese or alloy steel shell or head liners and grates can be supplied with all sizes of mills if required. Alloy steel shell liners are recommended where 4 or larger balls are used and particularly for the larger sized mills.
Small (Muleback Type) Ball Mill is built for muleback transportation in 30 and 3 diameters (inside liners). A 4 (Muleback Type) Ball Mill is of special design and will be carefully considered upon request. Mankinds search for valuable minerals often leads him far away from modern transportation facilities. The potential sources of gold, silver and strategic minerals are often found by the prospector, not close by our modern highways, but far back in the mountains and deserts all over the world. The Equipment Company has realized this fact, and therefore has designed a Ball Mill that can be transported to these faraway and relatively inaccessible properties, either by the age old muleback transportation system, or by the modern airplane. As a result these properties may now obtain a well-designed ball mill with the heaviest individual piece weighing only 350 pounds.
The prime factor considered in this design was to furnish equipment having a maximum strength with a minimum weight. For this reason, these mills are made of steel, giving a high tensile strength and light weight to the mills. The muleback design consists of the sturdy cast iron head construction on the 30 size and cast steel head construction on the larger sizes. The flanges on the heads are arranged to bolt to the rolled steel shell provided with flanged rings. When required, the total length of the shell may consist of several shell lengths flanged together to provide the desired mill length. Liners, bearings, gears and drives are similar to those standard on all Ball Mills.
This (Convertible) and Small Ball Mill is unique in design and is particularly adapted to small milling plants. The shell is cast in one piece with a flange for bolting to the head. In converting the mill from a 30x 18 to a 30x 36 unit with double the capacity, it is only necessary to secure a second cast shell (a duplicate of the first) and bolt it to the original section.
30 Convertible Ball Mills are furnished with scoop feeders with replaceable lips. Standard mills are furnished with liners to avoid replacement of the shell; however, themill can be obtained less liners. This ball mill is oftendriven by belts placed around the center, although gear drive units with cast gears can be furnished. A Spiral Screen can be attached to the discharge.
This mill may be used for batch or intermittent grinding, or mixing of dry or wet materials in the ore dressing industry, metallurgical, chemical, ceramic, or paint industries. The material is ground and mixed in one operation by rotating it together with balls, or pebbles in a hermetically sealed cylinder.
The cast iron shell which is bolted to the heads is made with an extra thick wall to give long wearing life. Two grate cleanout doors are provided on opposite sides of the shell by means of which the mill can be either gradually discharged and washed, while running, or easily and rapidly emptied and flushedout while shut down. Wash-water is introduced into the interior of the mill through a tapped opening in the trunnion. The mill may be lined with rubber, silex (buhrstone) or wood if desired.
The Hardinge Conical Ball Mill has been widely used with outstanding success in grinding many materials in a wide variety of fields. The conical mill operates on the principle of an ordinary ball mill with a certain amount of classification within the mill itself, due to its shape.
Sizes of conical mills are given in diameter of the cylindrical section in feet and the length of the cylindrical section in inches. Liners can be had of hard iron, manganese steel or Belgian Silex. Forged steel balls or Danish Flint Pebbles are used for the grinding media, depending upon the material being milled.
The Steel Head Ball-Rod Mill gives the ore dressing engineer a wide choice in grinding design so that he can easily secure a Ball-Rod Mill suited to his particular problem. The successful operation of any grinding unit is largely dependent on the method of removing the ground pulp. The Ball-Rod Mill is available with five types of discharge trunnions, each type obtainable in small, medium or large diameters. The types of discharge trunnions are:
The superiority of the Steel Head Ball-Rod Mill is due to the all steel construction. The trunnions are an integral part of the cast steel heads and are machined with the axis of the mill. The mill heads are assured against breakage due to the high tensile strength of cast steel as compared to that of the cast iron head found on the ordinary ball mill. Trunnion Bearings are made of high- grade nickel babbitt.
Steel Head Ball-Rod Mills can be converted intolarger capacity mills by bolting an additional shell lengthonto the flange of the original shell. This is possible because all Steel Head Ball or Rod Mills have bearings suitable for mills with length twice the diameter.
Head and shell liners for Steel Head Ball-Rod Mills are available in Decolloy (a chrome-nickel alloy), hard iron, electric steel, molychrome steel, and manganese steel. Drive gears are furnished either in cast tooth spur gear and pinion or cut tooth spur gear and pinion. The gears are furnished as standard on the discharge end of the mill, out of the way of the classifier return feed, but can be furnished at the mill feed end by request. Drives may be obtained according to the customers specifications.
Thats one characteristic of Traylor Ball Millsliked by ownersthey are built not only to do a first class job at low cost but to keep on doing it, year after year. Of course, that means we do not build as many mills as if they wore out quicklyor would we? but much as welike order, we value more the fine reputationTraylor Ball Mills have had for nearly threedecades.
Thats one characteristic of Traylor Ball Mills We dont aim to write specifications into thisliked by ownersthey are built not only to do advertisementlet it suffice to say that theresa first class job at low cost but to keep on do- a Traylor Ball Mills that will exactly fit anyanything it, year after year. Of course, that means requirement that anyone may have.
If this is true, there is significance in the factthat international Nicked and Climax Molybdenum, theworlds largest producers of two important steel alloys, areboth users of MARCY Mills exclusively. With international interest centered on increasingproduction of gold, it is even more significant that MARCYMills are the predominant choice of operators in everyimportants gold mining camp in the world.
Ball Mill. Intermediate and fine size reduction by grinding is frequently achieved in a ball mill in which the length of the cylindrical shell is usually 1 to 1.5 times the shell diameter. Ball mills of greater length are termed tube mills, and when hard pebbles rather than steel balls are used for the grinding media, the mills are known as pebble mills. In general, ball mills can be operated either wet or dry and are capable of producing products on the order of 100 pm. This duty represents reduction ratios as great as 100.
The ball mill, an intermediate and fine-grinding device, is a tumbling drum with a 40% to 50% filling of balls (usually steel or steel alloys). The material that is to be ground fills the voids between the balls. The tumbling balls capture the particles in ball/ball or ball/liner events and load them to the point of fracture. Very large tonnages can be ground with these devices because they are very effective material handling devices. The feed can be dry, with less than 3% moisture to minimize ball coating, or a slurry can be used containing 20% to 40% water by weight. Ball mills are employed in either primary or secondary grinding applications. In primary applications, they receive their feed from crushers, and in secondary applications, they receive their feed from rod mills, autogenous mills, or semiautogenous mills. Regrind mills in mineral processing operations are usually ball mills, because the feed for these applications is typically quite fine. Ball mills are sometimes used in single-stage grinding, receiving crusher product. The circuits of these mills are often closed with classifiers at high-circulating loads.
These loads maximize throughput at a desired product size. The characteristics of ball mills are summarized in the Table, which lists typical feed and product sizes. The size of the mill required to achieve a given task-that is, the diameter (D) inside the liners-can be calculated from the design relationships given. The design parameters must be specified.
The liner- and ball-wear equations are typically written in terms of an abrasion index (Bond 1963). The calculated liner and ball wear is expressed in kilograms per kilowatt-hour (kg/kWh), and when multiplied by the specific power (kWh/t), the wear rates are given in kilograms per ton of feed. The wear in dry ball mills is approximately one-tenth of that in wet ball mills because of the inhibition of corrosion. The efficiency of ball mills as measured relative to single-particle slow-compression loading is about 5%. Abrasion indices for five materials are also listed in the Table.
The L/D ratios of ball mills range from slightly less than 1:1 to something greater than 2:1. The tube and compartment ball mills commonly used in the cement industry have L/D ratios 2.75:1 or more. The fraction of critical speed that the mill turns depends on the application, and most mills operate at around 75% of critical speed. Increased speed generally means increased power, but as the simulations presented in Figure 3.26 show, it can also produce more wasted ball impacts on the liners above the toe. causing more wear and less breakage.
There are three principal forms of discharge mechanism. In the overflow ball mill, the ground product overflows through the discharge end trunnion. A diaphragm ball mill has a grate at thedischarge end. The product flows through the slots in the grate. Pulp lifters may be used to discharge the product through the trunnion, or peripheral ports may be used to discharge the product.
The majority of grinding balls are forged carbon or alloy steels. Generally, they are spherical, but other shapes have been used. The choice of the top (or recharge) ball size can be made using empirical equations developed by Bond or Azzaroni or by using special batch-grinding tests interpreted in the content of population balance models. The effect of changes in ball size on specific selection functions has been found to be different for different materials. A ball size-correction method can be used along with the specific selection function scale-up method to determine the best ball size. To do this, a set of ball size tests are performed in a batch mill from which the specific selection function dependence on ball size can be determined. Then, the mill capacities used to produce desired product size can be predicted by simulation using the kinetic parameter corresponding to the different ball sizes.
The mill liners used are constructed from cast alloy steels, wear-resistant cast irons, or polymer (rubber) and polymer metal combinations. The mill liner shapes often recommended in new mills are double-wave liners when balls less than 2.5 in. are used and single-wave liners when larger balls are used. Replaceable metal lifter bars are sometimes used. End liners are usually ribbed or employ replaceable lifters.
The typical mill-motor coupling is a pinion and gear. On larger mills two motors may be used, and in that arrangement two pinions drive one gear on the mill. Synchronous motors are well suited to the ball mill, because the power draw is almost constant. Induction, squirrel cage, and slip ring motors are also used. A high-speed motor running 600 to 1,000 rpm requires a speed reducer between the motor and pinion shaft. The gearless drive has been installed at a number of locations around the world.
A mill is a grinder used to grind and blend solid or hard materials into smaller pieces by means of shear, impact and compression methods. Grinding mill machine is an essential part of many industrial processes, there are mainly five types of mills to cover more than 90% materials size-reduction applications.
Do you the difference between the ball mill, rod mills, SAG mill, tube mill, pebble mill? In the previous article, I made a comparison of ball mill and rod mill. Today, we will learn about the difference between SAG mill vs ball mill.
AG/SAG is short for autogenous mill and semi-autogenous mill, it combines with two functions of crushing and grinding, uses the ground material itself as the grinding media, through the mutual impact and grinding action to gradually reduce the material size. SAG mill is usually used to grind large pieces into small pieces, especially for the pre-processing of grinding circuits, thus also known as primary stage grinding machine. Based on the high throughput and coarse grind, AG mills produce coarse grinds often classify mill discharge with screens and trommel. SAG mills grinding media includes some large and hard rocks, filled rate of 9% 20%. SAG mill grind ores through impact, attrition, abrasion forces. In practice, for a given ore and equal processing conditions, the AG milling has a finer grind than SAG mills.
The working principle of the self-grinding machine is basically the same as the ball mill, the biggest difference is that the sag grinding machine uses the crushed material inside the cylinder as the grinding medium, the material constantly impacts and grinding to gradually pulverize. Sometimes, in order to improve the processing capacity of the mill, a small amount of steel balls be added appropriately, usually occupying 2-3% of the volume of the mill (that is semi-autogenous grinding).
High capacity Ability to grind multiple types of ore in various circuit configurations, reduces the complexity of maintenance and coordination. Compared with the traditional tumbling mill, the autogenous mill reduces the consumption of lining plates and grinding media, thus have a lower operation cost. The self-grinding machine can grind the material to 0.074mm in one time, and its content accounts for 20% ~ 50% of the total amount of the product. Grinding ratio can reach 4000 ~ 5000, more than ten times higher than ball, rod mill.
Ball mills are fine grinders, have horizontal ball mill and vertical ball mill, their cylinders are partially filled with steel balls, manganese balls, or ceramic balls. The material is ground to the required fineness by rotating the cylinder causing friction and impact. The internal machinery of the ball mill grinds the material into powder and continues to rotate if extremely high precision and precision is required.
The ball mill can be applied in the cement production plants, mineral processing plants and where the fine grinding of raw material is required. From the volume, the ball mill divide into industrial ball mill and laboratory use the small ball mill, sample grinding test. In addition, these mills also play an important role in cold welding, alloy production, and thermal power plant power production.
The biggest characteristic of the sag mill is that the crushing ratio is large. The particle size of the materials to be ground is 300 ~ 400mm, sometimes even larger, and the minimum particle size of the materials to be discharged can reach 0.1 mm. The calculation shows that the crushing ratio can reach 3000 ~ 4000, while the ball mills crushing ratio is smaller. The feed size is usually between 20-30mm and the product size is 0-3mm.
Both the autogenous grinding mill and the ball mill feed parts are welded with groove and embedded inner wear-resistant lining plate. As the sag mill does not contain grinding medium, the abrasion and impact on the equipment are relatively small.
The feed of the ball mill contains grinding balls. In order to effectively reduce the direct impact of materials on the ball mill feed bushing and improve the service life of the ball mill feed bushing, the feeding point of the groove in the feeding part of the ball mill must be as close to the side of the mill barrel as possible. And because the ball mill feed grain size is larger, ball mill feeding groove must have a larger slope and height, so that feed smooth.
Since the power of the autogenous tumbling mill is relatively small, it is appropriate to choose dynamic and static pressure bearing. The ball bearing liner is made of lead-based bearing alloy, and the back of the bearing is formed with a waist drum to form a contact centering structure, with the advantages of flexible movement. The bearing housing is lubricated by high pressure during start-up and stop-up, and the oil film is formed by static pressure. The journal is lifted up to prevent dry friction on the sliding surface, and the starting energy moment is reduced. The bearing lining is provided with a snake-shaped cooling water pipe, which can supply cooling water when necessary to reduce the temperature of the bearing bush. The cooling water pipe is made of red copper which has certain corrosion resistance.
Ball mill power is relatively large, the appropriate choice of hydrostatic sliding bearing. The main bearing bush is lined with babbitt alloy bush, each bush has two high-pressure oil chambers, high-pressure oil has been supplied to the oil chamber before and during the operation of the mill, the high-pressure oil enters the oil chamber through the shunting motor, and the static pressure oil film is compensated automatically to ensure the same oil film thickness To provide a continuous static pressure oil film for mill operation, to ensure that the journal and the bearing Bush are completely out of contact, thus greatly reducing the mill start-up load, and can reduce the impact on the mill transmission part, but also can avoid the abrasion of the bearing Bush, the service life of the bearing Bush is prolonged. The pressure indication of the high pressure oil circuit can be used to reflect the load of the mill indirectly. When the mill stops running, the high pressure oil will float the Journal, and the Journal will stop gradually in the bush, so that the Bush will not be abraded. Each main bearing is equipped with two temperature probe, dynamic monitoring of the bearing Bush temperature, when the temperature is greater than the specified temperature value, it can automatically alarm and stop grinding. In order to compensate for the change of the mill length due to temperature, there is a gap between the hollow journal at the feeding end and the bearing Bush width, which allows the journal to move axially on the bearing Bush. The two ends of the main bearing are sealed in an annular way and filled with grease through the lubricating oil pipe to prevent the leakage of the lubricating oil and the entry of dust.
The end cover of the autogenous mill is made of steel plate and welded into one body; the structure is simple, but the rigidity and strength are low; the liner of the autogenous mill is made of high manganese steel.
The end cover and the hollow shaft can be made into an integral or split type according to the actual situation of the project. No matter the integral or split type structure, the end cover and the hollow shaft are all made of Casting After rough machining, the key parts are detected by ultrasonic, and after finishing, the surface is detected by magnetic particle. The surface of the hollow shaft journal is Polished after machining. The end cover and the cylinder body are all connected by high-strength bolts. Strict process measures to control the machining accuracy of the joint surface stop, to ensure reliable connection and the concentricity of the two end journal after final assembly. According to the actual situation of the project, the cylinder can be made as a whole or divided, with a flanged connection and stop positioning. All welds are penetration welds, and all welds are inspected by ultrasonic nondestructive testing After welding, the whole Shell is returned to the furnace for tempering stress relief treatment, and after heat treatment, the shell surface is shot-peened. The lining plate of the ball mill is usually made of alloy material.
The transmission part comprises a gear and a gear, a gear housing, a gear housing and an accessory thereof. The big gear of the transmission part of the self-grinding machine fits on the hollow shaft of the discharge material, which is smaller in size, but the seal of the gear cover is not good, and the ore slurry easily enters the hollow shaft of the discharge material, causing the hollow shaft to wear.
The big gear of the ball mill fits on the mill shell, the size is bigger, the big gear is divided into half structure, the radial and axial run-out of the big gear are controlled within the national standard, the aging treatment is up to the standard, and the stress and deformation after processing are prevented. The big gear seal adopts the radial seal and the reinforced big gear shield. It is welded and manufactured in the workshop. The geometric size is controlled, the deformation is prevented and the sealing effect is ensured. The small gear transmission device adopts the cast iron base, the bearing base and the bearing cap are processed at the same time to reduce the vibration in operation. Large and small gear lubrication: The use of spray lubrication device timing quantitative forced spray lubrication, automatic control, no manual operation. The gear cover is welded by profile steel and high-quality steel plate. In order to enhance the stiffness of the gear cover, the finite element analysis is carried out, and the supporting structure is added in the weak part according to the analysis results.
The self-mill adopts the self-return device to realize the discharge of the mill. The self-returning device is located in the revolving part of the mill, and the material forms a self-circulation in the revolving part of the mill through the self-returning device, discharging the qualified material from the mill, leading the unqualified material back into the revolving part to participate in the grinding operation.
The ball mill adopts a discharge screen similar to the ball mill, and the function of blocking the internal medium of the overflow ball mill is accomplished inside the rotary part of the ball mill. The discharge screen is only responsible for forcing out a small amount of the medium that overflows into the discharge screen through the internal welding reverse spiral, to achieve forced discharge mill.
The slow drive consists of a brake motor, a coupling, a planetary reducer and a claw-type clutch. The device is connected to a pinion shaft and is used for mill maintenance and replacement of liners. In addition, after the mill is shut down for a long time, the slow-speed transmission device before starting the main motor can eliminate the eccentric load of the steel ball, loosen the consolidation of the steel ball and materials, ensure safe start, avoid overloading of the air clutch, and play a protective role. The slow-speed transmission device can realize the point-to-point reverse in the electronic control design. When connecting the main motor drive, the claw-type Clutch automatically disengages, the maintenance personnel should pay attention to the safety.
The slow drive device of the ball mill is provided with a rack and pinion structure, and the operating handle is moved to the side away from the cylinder body The utility model not only reduces the labor intensity but also ensures the safety of the operators.
Learn how to optimise your ball mill systems in this 5-day training seminar focused on best practices for operations and maintenance (preventive and reactive) to achieve energy savings, reduced maintenance costs and overall improved productivity of the ball mill systems. Ball mills are used for many applications in cement production: raw meal grinding, coal and petcoke grinding as well as finish cement grinding. Each of these systems have their similarities and differences. This ball mill seminar is designed to train your personnel on the overall technology, operation and maintenance of your ball mill cement grinding system. The seminar focuses on the latest best practices for the operation and maintenance of ball mill systems to allow for optimal cement production, energy savings, reduced maintenance costs as well as the continuous improvement of the overall equipment operation. The course offers classroom instruction from our FLSmidth ball mill specialists and case studies based on real situations at different ball mill installations. Working sessions are scheduled to allow for a thorough study of the design and function of the main equipment, including but not limited to the latest methods for optimisation and possibilities for upgrades and modernisation of the current systems and operations. Maintenance training is focused on routine preventive maintenance to minimize downtime in ball mill systems, as well as developing preventive maintenance programmes and troubleshooting techniques to quickly identify and fix problems. Beyond what you will learn about your ball mill systems, this seminar provides excellent networking opportunities with our specialists as well as your counterparts from the cement industry.
Learn how to optimise your ball mill systems in this 5-day training seminar focused on best practices for operations and maintenance (preventive and reactive) to achieve energy savings, reduced maintenance costs and overall improved productivity of the ball mill systems.
Ball mills are used for many applications in cement production: raw meal grinding, coal and petcoke grinding as well as finish cement grinding. Each of these systems have their similarities and differences. This ball mill seminar is designed to train your personnel on the overall technology, operation and maintenance of your ball mill cement grinding system.
The seminar focuses on the latest best practices for the operation and maintenance of ball mill systems to allow for optimal cement production, energy savings, reduced maintenance costs as well as the continuous improvement of the overall equipment operation.
The course offers classroom instruction from our FLSmidth ball mill specialists and case studies based on real situations at different ball mill installations. Working sessions are scheduled to allow for a thorough study of the design and function of the main equipment, including but not limited to the latest methods for optimisation and possibilities for upgrades and modernisation of the current systems and operations.
Maintenance training is focused on routine preventive maintenance to minimize downtime in ball mill systems, as well as developing preventive maintenance programmes and troubleshooting techniques to quickly identify and fix problems.
FLSmidth provides sustainable productivity to the global mining and cement industries. We deliver market-leading engineering, equipment and service solutions that enable our customers to improve performance, drive down costs and reduce environmental impact. Our operations span the globe and we are close to 10,200 employees, present in more than 60 countries. In 2020, FLSmidth generated revenue of DKK 16.4 billion. MissionZero is our sustainability ambition towards zero emissions in mining and cement by 2030.
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