ball mill for fusing glass

fusing and slumping glass : 8 steps (with pictures) - instructables

In one of my sculpture classes at Carthage College, my students and I experimented with fusing and slumping glass. Carthage had many glass supplies, a kiln that looked barely used but no one teaching it. None of us had ever done this but I felt with my experience enameling, metal working and casting, we could do some research and we could figure a few things out.

For our assignment we started with 3D scans generated from the Sense 3D scanner. I used this scanner because it is inexpensive, very simple to use and is great for introducing beginners to digital fabrication. There are many tutorials out there on this and it is so easy to use that I do not feel it is important to go through this step here.

I generated G-code using Rhino and Rhino CAM and cut each student's face in the negative into a piece of 2" pink foam on the CNC router at Frankie Flood'sDCRL at UWM. These processes are complicated and not the scope of this Instructable so I will only be showing brief documentation on this.

We started with 2" pink foam for our 1st pattern and then used a plaster/silica mix to make a mold and generate our final pattern for slumping. I did a fast, rough cut on the CNC router with a 3/8" flat end, 2 flute end mill on the foam and then switched to a 1/4" ball end mill for a second pass to pull out some detail.

When the foam "pattern" was finished we need to decide how we were going to slump the glass before proceeding. For our experiment, we tried slumping the glass two different ways and I need to experiment more before suggesting the best way. First, we slumped the glass IN a mold with the face being a negative in the mold. The glass did not flow well into the nose and the surface that came into contact with the mold had a matte surface so we decided to re-slump it OVER a positive form. In both cases, we need to make a mold.

If we were to pour our plaster/silica mix into our negative foam carving, we will have a positive pattern we can then slump glass OVER or on top of. However, if we want to slump our glass INTO a negative pattern, we need to start the mold making process with a positive form.

To begin, press a 1" slab of water-based clay into the details of the negative pink foam shown above. Fill the rest of the mold with clay and flip it over. Work out the clay face and touch up any details or changes with clay tools. The student featured here (Tori) did not want to capture her hair so it was cut off the clay version before further mold making. Set the solid positive clay face on a board (face up) that is several inches larger in diameter than the clay face. Make sure the board either already has a resist such as a laminate, or apply one such as clay water or Vaseline. Next, build a 3" tall clay wall approximately 1-2" away from the face. This will act as a retaining wall so we can pour our plaster/silica mixture directly over the face and contain the fluid mix around it. We do not need a release for the clay, but just make sure the board has one.

There are many different investment formulas, but the simplest uses equal parts of silica flour (around 200 mesh), pottery plaster, and water. This produces a mold that is inexpensive and will work fairly well for small projects. Start with a clean container. Using a container that has not been thoroughly cleaned may contaminate the mixture or cause it to set up more quickly than desired.

Normally, the plaster used can be any of the commonly available pottery plasters. Even plasters such as Plaster of Paris will work well for most purposes. Silica, which is a hazardous material that can cause silicosis (a lung disease), is generally used in powder form. 200 mesh works well. In some places ground silica is also known as flint or silica flint. You should wear a respirator or approved mask when working with silica to keep from inhaling the potentially harmful silica dust.

Start the actual mixing process by adding the plaster/silica mixture it to the water. (Always add the dry ingredients to the water, not the water to the dry plaster and silica.) Add the dry mixture a little at a time. Some people use a sifter to evenly spread the dry mixture on the surface of the water, but simply sprinkling the particles across the surface will work also.

Continue adding the investment until it "peaks." Peaking occurs when the mixture sinks slowly and dry investment islands appear in the container. (If you measured out your ingredients properly, the mixture should "peak" just as you use the last of the dry ingredients.)

Once the investment peaks, mix in all the dry ingredients until the formula is a consistent thickness. Then stop mixing and allow the mixture to sit undisturbed for about five minutes. This process, called "slaking," helps ensure that the investment particles become saturated with water.

As the mixture slakes, it should become thicker. Watch carefully until it begins to thicken, then slowly pour it into the mold box that surrounds your model. To minimize bubbles and distortion of the model, pour the investment along the edges of the box, rather than directly on the model. Do not pour leftover mixture down the sink, as it will harden and ruin your plumbing.

When a plaster/silica mold is heated, the mold goes through three phases. Regardless of the size or shape of the mold, it's important to recognize each of these phases and to soak the mold at each phase so that the mold will dry without causing cracking or other distortion.

The first phase is at around 225 degrees F (107 C). At this temperature physically absorbed water within the mold can be driven off, so that the process of drying the mold can take place. For small molds (under 8 inches/20 cm) it's sufficient to soak a wet mold for around two hours to drive off physically absorbed water.

The second phase, which involves the removal of chemically bound water in the plaster, takes place at around 350 F (177 C). A two hour soak will generally work well to remove chemically bound water from small molds.

The final critical phase occurs in the temperature range from 500 to 850 F (260 to 450 C). This is where the plaster starts to shrink as it completes the drying process. It's important to fire slowly (take about three hours for small molds) through this range to avoid cracking the plaster or fracturing the mold. For larger pieces the firing times and soak times will need to increase.

In order for the glass to not stick to the mold, you will need to use a kiln wash or shelf primer. The primer we used was in a powder form and it is mixed with water; equal parts by volume. It will be applied to both the shelf if you are fusing glass and the mold if you are slumping glass. We applied it with a brush and cured it in the kiln at 550F for 20-30 min before allowing it to cool and begin the slumping/fusing process. This primer changes color from blue to white/grey indicating it has cured.

If you just want to slump one color, or a single plane of glass, you can move onto the next step "Slumping Glass". Here, we will go through the process of fusing two or more pieces together. After this, we can slump our new piece of fused glass into our plaster/silica mold.

To start, we need to decide the dimensions of our finished piece. At school, we have several bins of various shapes, sizes and colors of glass. The pictures above show Tori working on a design consisting of many fragments and shattered pieces of glass on one larger sheet. Once the design is finalized we laid the piece on the primed shelf and set the kiln.

The second picture above shows what happens when you do not cure the primer on the shelf before putting the glass down. Since we did not cure the primer first, it cured under glass, releasing gasses and "fuming" from the shelf. I peaked several times because it was the first time I had done this and I saw large bubbles the size of a golf ball creating the holes seen above. Although it messed up the piece she was going to use for her mold, it created some great results for a different application. If you do not want holes, follow the previous instructions on "Shelf Primer".

After the primed mold has been cured and the glass is ready, we set the glass over the mold and set the kiln. For our pieces we tried slumping our glass into a mold that had the negative of the students face. The 1st picture shows these molds that basically look like they pushed their faces in a bowl full of frosting.

The glass did slump but did not flow into the nose or other details very well. In addition, the surface that comes into contact with the surface of the mold is slightly matte. I had to bump the time and the temperature up a little more than 10 min at 1225F.

We decided to create a second set of molds that were in the positive. So instead of the mold looking like someone pushed their face into it, the molds looked like the students faces were pushing out of the kiln shelf. We hovered the newly slumped glass over the molds on fire primed fire bricks. This allowed the mold to slowly slump evenly over the face. In addition to bumping up the temperature and time, I had to reach in with a metal rod to push the firebricks out of the way so the glass could fully cover the mold. The glass is not extremely malleable but enough to slowly slump; it is similar to acrylic at 300-400F.

grinding media & grinding balls | milling media - mse supplies llc

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investigation on preparation and spectroscopic properties of yb2+-doped silica-based glass prepared by the oxyhydrogen flame fusing process - sciencedirect

The Yb2+-doped silica glass was prepared by using oxhydrogen flame fusing process.The emission band around 505 nm was obtained under excited UV wavelength.The wide full width at half maximum (FWHM) of emission band of 147nm was achieved.This glass has applications for white light sources based on near UV LED chip.

In this paper, we report the preparation and spectroscopic properties of Yb2+-doped silica-based glass prepared by the solid state reaction using the oxyhydrogen flame fusing process. The glass exhibits broadband emission in the visible region due to a 5d4f transition of the rare earth ions. The emission peak wavelength and bandwidth are especially 505nm and 147nm for Yb2+-doped silica-based glass at the room temperature. The color coordinate calculation shows that the Yb2+-doped silica-based glass has a better color coordinate (0.28,0.37) in the white light region.

how i built a quick and easy home-made ball mill

Anyone who has looked through my web site can see that I am fascinated with glass. I like to melt it, cast it, fuse it and turn it into new things. Eventually I got the idea of doing the ultimate glass hack and making my own glass from scratch. For that I needed a way of grinding and mixing the chemicals that would make up a batch of glass into a very fine and homogeneously mixed powder. I needed a ball mill. So naturally I decided to build my own. Here it is in all it's bodged together glory. It doesn't look like much, but it works great, and it cost almost nothing to build. As a bonus, this ball mill can also be used as a rock tumbler, or a glass tumbler to make your own "sea glass" at home. To use the mill as a rock tumbler, just leave out the steel balls, add rocks, tumbling grit and water, and let it spin.

Here is a video of my home-made ball mill in operation with a brief explanation of all the parts and how I put it together. For detailed descriptions of all the parts, how I built it, and how I use it, read further down this page.

The drum I used for the ball mill was originally a plastic container that held abrasive grit used in vibratory tumblers. It is about two liters in size. I had several empty containers of this type, and decided to put them to use in this project. They work pretty well in this application. There are a few potential problems. The container lids are not liquid-tight. So use as a rock tumbler would require adding a cork or rubber gasket. Also, a little bit of the plastic does get ground off the inside surface and contaminates the batch being ground. This is not a problem for my application because anything organic will be vaporized out of the mix long before it reaches melting temperature in my kiln. Contamination might be an issue for other uses. A steel drum would probably work better if you can find one, or make one, but it would be a lot louder in use.

Here you can see an overview of the ball mill with the drum removed. Construction is super simple. Just three pieces of wood plank banged together to make a platform for mounting all the parts. The platform is made from a 1X10 wooden plank 14 inches long. It sits on two pieces of 1X4 wood. Four inexpensive fixed caster wheels were mounted on top of the platform for the drum to roll on. They were mounted about 2 inches in from the edges of the platform, and 7.5 inches apart. The drive motor was mounted on the underside of the platform, and the dive belt comes up through a slot in the platform.

Here is a close-up showing how two of the caster wheels are mounted. The slot in the middle of the platform for the belt to pass through is also visible. The fixed caster wheels were quite inexpensive, and were one of the few items I actually had to buy to build this project.

Here is a close-up of the other side of the platform and the other two caster wheels. Also shown is a stop mounted on one side of the platform. It was found early on in using the mill that the drum tended to slowly walk toward one side and would eventually drop off the wheels. So I found a scrap piece of aluminum and mounted it the end the drum walked toward to act as a stop. The drum riding against the smooth aluminum surface doesn't seem to produce much friction.

The ball mill is powered by a fairly robust 12V DC motor salvaged from a junked printer. It had a pulley for a fine-toothed belt on it. It was left in place and it seems to drive the heavy round rubber belt well without slipping. The motor was mounted using screws on only one side, which were deliberately left loose. This allows the motor to pivot downward under its own weight to put tension on the belt.

A long, narrow slot was cut in the platform for the belt to pass through. I did it by marking out where I wanted it, drilling a hole at each end, and then cutting out the material between the holes with a jigsaw.

This photo shows the makeshift end stop that prevents the drum from walking off the casters. It is just a random piece of aluminum I found in my junk collection. It conveniently had some holes already drilled in it which made mounting easy. Just about anything that the drum will ride against nearly frictionlessly will work for a stop.

One of the few things I had to buy for this project, aside from the casters, was the steel balls. I found these online. They were quite inexpensive. I went with 5/8 inch diameter balls, which seem to work well in a mill this size.

I have been powering the ball mill with my bench variable power supply so I could fine tune the rotation speed. I wanted it to turn as fast as possible to speed grinding, but not so fast that centrifugal force pins the balls to the wall of the drum preventing them from tumbling over each other. With a little experimentation, the correct speed was found.

So far, this makeshift mill has worked well for me. It has been run for long periods with no problems. It does a good job of reducing even fairly chunky material into a very fine powder, and thoroughly mixing everything. The only real problem I have faced is accidentally over-filling the drum a few times. The drum should not be too full or the balls and material to be ground won't have enough free space to tumble around.

After a milling run, the contents of the drum are dumped out into a sieve over a bowl. With a few shakes of the sieve, the powder drops through the mesh into the bowl leaving the balls behind to be put back in the drum. The sieve also catches any bits that haven't been sufficiently ground down.

I need to add a disclaimer here for anyone thinking of using this sort of ball mill for milling gunpowder or other flammable or explosive powders. First of all, it is really not a good idea. You could cause a fire or explosion and destroy your place, or maybe even get yourself hurt or killed. So don't do it, and if you do it, don't blame me if something bad happens. I'll be saying I told you so. Also do not to use steel, ceramic or glass balls to grind flammable or explosive materials because they can create sparks as they bang against each other while they tumble.

Future improvements: The plastic container I am using is really thick-walled and sturdy, but using it in this application will eventually wear it out. I also get some plastic contamination in the materials I grind in it. So in the future I would like to replace the plastic container with a piece of large diameter steel or iron pipe with end caps. That should also help improve the grinding action as the steel balls bash against the hard walls of the pipe. If I switch to a steel or iron container, which would be heavier, I might also have to beef up the motor driving the unit. We'll see,

Other applications: As I mentioned at the top of the page, and in the attached video, this setup could also be used as a rock tumbler. The plastic container would be ideal for that. Another possible application for this unit is for grinding samples of gold ore, and maybe other metallic ores. One of my many hobbies is gold prospecting. It's often necessary to grind an ore sample to release all the fine particles of gold it contains so they can be separated. This unit may get used for that in the future too.

[Back to Mike's Homepage] [Email me] Other places to visit: [Mike's telescope workshop] [Mike's home-built jet engine page] [Mike's Home-Built Wind Turbine page] [Mike's Home-Built Solar Panel page] Copyright 2014-2018 Michael Davis, All rights reserved.

[Back to Mike's Homepage] [Email me] Other places to visit: [Mike's telescope workshop] [Mike's home-built jet engine page] [Mike's Home-Built Wind Turbine page] [Mike's Home-Built Solar Panel page] Copyright 2014-2018 Michael Davis, All rights reserved.

[Mike's telescope workshop] [Mike's home-built jet engine page] [Mike's Home-Built Wind Turbine page] [Mike's Home-Built Solar Panel page] Copyright 2014-2018 Michael Davis, All rights reserved.

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Grinding Cylpebs are made from low-alloy chilled cast iron. The molten metal leaves the furnace at approximately 1500 C and is transferred to a continuous casting machine where the selected size Cylpebs are created; by changing the moulds the full range of cylindrical media can be manufactured via one simple process. The Cylpebs are demoulded while still red hot and placed in a cooling section for several hours to relieve internal stress. Solidification takes place in seconds and is formed from the external surface inward to the centre of the media. It has been claimed that this manufacturing process contributes to the cost effectiveness of the media, by being more efficient and requiring less energy than the conventional forging method.

Because of their cylindrical geometry, Cylpebs have greater surface area and higher bulk density compared with balls of similar mass and size. Cylpebs of equal diameter and length have 14.5% greater surface area than balls of the same mass, and 9% higher bulk density than steel balls, or 12% higher than cast balls. As a result, for a given charge volume, about 25% more grinding media surface area is available for size reduction when charged with Cylpebs, but the mill would also draw more power.

rotary ball mill for high uniformity grinding of metallurgy, glass, chemical industry

The rotary ball mill is a kind of traditionalball mill machine. Different from thevertical ball mill, it adopts a horizontal barrel type rotating structure. There are two types of rotary ball mill, dry type and wet type, which can be chosen by users according to their actual situation.

The company adopts advanced controllable feeding and discharging technology, combined with the actual grinding materials, equipped with grinding media (steel balls) of appropriate size. When therotatingball mill grinds the material, the traditional surface contact is changed to the line contact, so that the output particle size is more uniform and the output is higher.

The rotating ball mill is widely used in grinding operations with high requirements on the uniformity of finished products in refractory, chemical, metallurgical, and glass industries. In recent years, it has also been used in the sand making industry of construction sand, etc.

The grinding principle of the rotary ball mill is different from that of thevibration ball mill, which uses the high-frequency vibration of the cylinder to grind the materials, and it is also different from theattritor ball millwhich uses the agitator to stir the grinding media to grind the materials.

The rotary ball mill uses the rotary motion of the cylinder to drive the grinding steel ball to fall after reaching a certain height, which produces a heavy blow and grinding effect on the material, and then grinds the material.

Rotary ball mill is composed of feeding part, discharging part, turning part, transmission part (reducer, small transmission gear, motor, electric control) and other main parts. The hollow shaft of the rotary ball mill is made of cast steel, and the lining can be removed and replaced. The large rotary gear is processed by casting hobbing, and the cylinder body is equipped with a wear-resistant lining board, which has good wear resistance. The rotating ball mill runs smoothly, safe, and reliable.

The barrel of the rotary ball mill is divided into two bins, and the grid liner at the discharge end is used for discharge. Therefore, customers can choose a dry grate rotary ball mill and wet grate rotary ball mill according to their own needs. Our company can provide customers with a free trial of rotary ball mill, also can design a variety of beneficiation process, welcome to leave a message at any time to consult.

As a ball mills supplier with 22 years of experience in the grinding industry, we can provide customers with types of ball mill, vertical mill, rod mill and AG/SAG mill for grinding in a variety of industries and materials.