ball mill in mine

ball mill_henan hongji mine machinery co., ltd

The ball mill is the key equipment to crush the material after being crushed. This type of mill is equipped with a number of steel balls in its cylinder as grinding medium. When the barrel rotates, the grinding medium is attached to the wall lining of the barrel due to inertial centrifugal force. After rotating with the barrel body and reaching a certain height, the material in the barrel body will break due to gravity.

It is widely used in cement, silicate products, new building materials, refractories, fertilizers, black and non-ferrous metal beneficiation and glass and ceramics industries. It grinds various ores and other grindable materials dry or wet. Ball mill is suitable for grinding various ores and other materials. It is widely used in mineral processing, building materials and chemical industry. It can be divided into dry and wet grinding methods. According to the different ways of discharging, it can be divided into two types: grid type and overflow type.

what's the difference between sag mill and ball mill - jxsc machine

A mill is a grinder used to grind and blend solid or hard materials into smaller pieces by means of shear, impact and compression methods. Grinding mill machine is an essential part of many industrial processes, there are mainly five types of mills to cover more than 90% materials size-reduction applications.

Do you the difference between the ball mill, rod mills, SAG mill, tube mill, pebble mill? In the previous article, I made a comparison of ball mill and rod mill. Today, we will learn about the difference between SAG mill vs ball mill.

AG/SAG is short for autogenous mill and semi-autogenous mill, it combines with two functions of crushing and grinding, uses the ground material itself as the grinding media, through the mutual impact and grinding action to gradually reduce the material size. SAG mill is usually used to grind large pieces into small pieces, especially for the pre-processing of grinding circuits, thus also known as primary stage grinding machine. Based on the high throughput and coarse grind, AG mills produce coarse grinds often classify mill discharge with screens and trommel. SAG mills grinding media includes some large and hard rocks, filled rate of 9% 20%. SAG mill grind ores through impact, attrition, abrasion forces. In practice, for a given ore and equal processing conditions, the AG milling has a finer grind than SAG mills.

The working principle of the self-grinding machine is basically the same as the ball mill, the biggest difference is that the sag grinding machine uses the crushed material inside the cylinder as the grinding medium, the material constantly impacts and grinding to gradually pulverize. Sometimes, in order to improve the processing capacity of the mill, a small amount of steel balls be added appropriately, usually occupying 2-3% of the volume of the mill (that is semi-autogenous grinding).

High capacity Ability to grind multiple types of ore in various circuit configurations, reduces the complexity of maintenance and coordination. Compared with the traditional tumbling mill, the autogenous mill reduces the consumption of lining plates and grinding media, thus have a lower operation cost. The self-grinding machine can grind the material to 0.074mm in one time, and its content accounts for 20% ~ 50% of the total amount of the product. Grinding ratio can reach 4000 ~ 5000, more than ten times higher than ball, rod mill.

Ball mills are fine grinders, have horizontal ball mill and vertical ball mill, their cylinders are partially filled with steel balls, manganese balls, or ceramic balls. The material is ground to the required fineness by rotating the cylinder causing friction and impact. The internal machinery of the ball mill grinds the material into powder and continues to rotate if extremely high precision and precision is required.

The ball mill can be applied in the cement production plants, mineral processing plants and where the fine grinding of raw material is required. From the volume, the ball mill divide into industrial ball mill and laboratory use the small ball mill, sample grinding test. In addition, these mills also play an important role in cold welding, alloy production, and thermal power plant power production.

The biggest characteristic of the sag mill is that the crushing ratio is large. The particle size of the materials to be ground is 300 ~ 400mm, sometimes even larger, and the minimum particle size of the materials to be discharged can reach 0.1 mm. The calculation shows that the crushing ratio can reach 3000 ~ 4000, while the ball mills crushing ratio is smaller. The feed size is usually between 20-30mm and the product size is 0-3mm.

Both the autogenous grinding mill and the ball mill feed parts are welded with groove and embedded inner wear-resistant lining plate. As the sag mill does not contain grinding medium, the abrasion and impact on the equipment are relatively small.

The feed of the ball mill contains grinding balls. In order to effectively reduce the direct impact of materials on the ball mill feed bushing and improve the service life of the ball mill feed bushing, the feeding point of the groove in the feeding part of the ball mill must be as close to the side of the mill barrel as possible. And because the ball mill feed grain size is larger, ball mill feeding groove must have a larger slope and height, so that feed smooth.

Since the power of the autogenous tumbling mill is relatively small, it is appropriate to choose dynamic and static pressure bearing. The ball bearing liner is made of lead-based bearing alloy, and the back of the bearing is formed with a waist drum to form a contact centering structure, with the advantages of flexible movement. The bearing housing is lubricated by high pressure during start-up and stop-up, and the oil film is formed by static pressure. The journal is lifted up to prevent dry friction on the sliding surface, and the starting energy moment is reduced. The bearing lining is provided with a snake-shaped cooling water pipe, which can supply cooling water when necessary to reduce the temperature of the bearing bush. The cooling water pipe is made of red copper which has certain corrosion resistance.

Ball mill power is relatively large, the appropriate choice of hydrostatic sliding bearing. The main bearing bush is lined with babbitt alloy bush, each bush has two high-pressure oil chambers, high-pressure oil has been supplied to the oil chamber before and during the operation of the mill, the high-pressure oil enters the oil chamber through the shunting motor, and the static pressure oil film is compensated automatically to ensure the same oil film thickness To provide a continuous static pressure oil film for mill operation, to ensure that the journal and the bearing Bush are completely out of contact, thus greatly reducing the mill start-up load, and can reduce the impact on the mill transmission part, but also can avoid the abrasion of the bearing Bush, the service life of the bearing Bush is prolonged. The pressure indication of the high pressure oil circuit can be used to reflect the load of the mill indirectly. When the mill stops running, the high pressure oil will float the Journal, and the Journal will stop gradually in the bush, so that the Bush will not be abraded. Each main bearing is equipped with two temperature probe, dynamic monitoring of the bearing Bush temperature, when the temperature is greater than the specified temperature value, it can automatically alarm and stop grinding. In order to compensate for the change of the mill length due to temperature, there is a gap between the hollow journal at the feeding end and the bearing Bush width, which allows the journal to move axially on the bearing Bush. The two ends of the main bearing are sealed in an annular way and filled with grease through the lubricating oil pipe to prevent the leakage of the lubricating oil and the entry of dust.

The end cover of the autogenous mill is made of steel plate and welded into one body; the structure is simple, but the rigidity and strength are low; the liner of the autogenous mill is made of high manganese steel.

The end cover and the hollow shaft can be made into an integral or split type according to the actual situation of the project. No matter the integral or split type structure, the end cover and the hollow shaft are all made of Casting After rough machining, the key parts are detected by ultrasonic, and after finishing, the surface is detected by magnetic particle. The surface of the hollow shaft journal is Polished after machining. The end cover and the cylinder body are all connected by high-strength bolts. Strict process measures to control the machining accuracy of the joint surface stop, to ensure reliable connection and the concentricity of the two end journal after final assembly. According to the actual situation of the project, the cylinder can be made as a whole or divided, with a flanged connection and stop positioning. All welds are penetration welds, and all welds are inspected by ultrasonic nondestructive testing After welding, the whole Shell is returned to the furnace for tempering stress relief treatment, and after heat treatment, the shell surface is shot-peened. The lining plate of the ball mill is usually made of alloy material.

The transmission part comprises a gear and a gear, a gear housing, a gear housing and an accessory thereof. The big gear of the transmission part of the self-grinding machine fits on the hollow shaft of the discharge material, which is smaller in size, but the seal of the gear cover is not good, and the ore slurry easily enters the hollow shaft of the discharge material, causing the hollow shaft to wear.

The big gear of the ball mill fits on the mill shell, the size is bigger, the big gear is divided into half structure, the radial and axial run-out of the big gear are controlled within the national standard, the aging treatment is up to the standard, and the stress and deformation after processing are prevented. The big gear seal adopts the radial seal and the reinforced big gear shield. It is welded and manufactured in the workshop. The geometric size is controlled, the deformation is prevented and the sealing effect is ensured. The small gear transmission device adopts the cast iron base, the bearing base and the bearing cap are processed at the same time to reduce the vibration in operation. Large and small gear lubrication: The use of spray lubrication device timing quantitative forced spray lubrication, automatic control, no manual operation. The gear cover is welded by profile steel and high-quality steel plate. In order to enhance the stiffness of the gear cover, the finite element analysis is carried out, and the supporting structure is added in the weak part according to the analysis results.

The self-mill adopts the self-return device to realize the discharge of the mill. The self-returning device is located in the revolving part of the mill, and the material forms a self-circulation in the revolving part of the mill through the self-returning device, discharging the qualified material from the mill, leading the unqualified material back into the revolving part to participate in the grinding operation.

The ball mill adopts a discharge screen similar to the ball mill, and the function of blocking the internal medium of the overflow ball mill is accomplished inside the rotary part of the ball mill. The discharge screen is only responsible for forcing out a small amount of the medium that overflows into the discharge screen through the internal welding reverse spiral, to achieve forced discharge mill.

The slow drive consists of a brake motor, a coupling, a planetary reducer and a claw-type clutch. The device is connected to a pinion shaft and is used for mill maintenance and replacement of liners. In addition, after the mill is shut down for a long time, the slow-speed transmission device before starting the main motor can eliminate the eccentric load of the steel ball, loosen the consolidation of the steel ball and materials, ensure safe start, avoid overloading of the air clutch, and play a protective role. The slow-speed transmission device can realize the point-to-point reverse in the electronic control design. When connecting the main motor drive, the claw-type Clutch automatically disengages, the maintenance personnel should pay attention to the safety.

The slow drive device of the ball mill is provided with a rack and pinion structure, and the operating handle is moved to the side away from the cylinder body The utility model not only reduces the labor intensity but also ensures the safety of the operators.

ball mill for sale | grinding machine - jxsc mining

Ball mill is the key equipment for grinding materials. those grinding mills are widely used in the mining process, and it has a wide range of usage in grinding mineral or material into fine powder, such as gold, ironzinc ore, copper, etc.

JXSC Mining produce reliable effective ball mill for long life and minimum maintenance, incorporate many of the qualities which have made us being professional in the mineral processing industry since 1985. Various types of ball mill designs are available to suit different applications. These could include but not be restricted to coal mining grate discharge, dry type grinding, wet mineral grinding, high-temperature milling operations, stone & pebble milling.

A ball mill grinds ores to an end product size of thirty-five mesh or finer. The feeding material to a ball mill is treated by: Single or multistage crushing and screening Crushing, screening, and/or rod milling Primary crushing and autogenous/semi-autogenous grinding.

Normal feed sizes: eighty percent of six millimeters or finer for hard rocker eighty percent of twenty-five millimeters or finer for fragile rocks (Larger feed sizes can be tolerated depending on the requirements).

The ratio of machine length to the cylinder diameter of cylindrical type ball mills range from one to three through three to one. When the length to diameter ratio is two to one or even bigger, we should better choose the mill of a Tube Mill.

Grinding circuit design Grinding circuit design is available, we experienced engineers expect the chance to help you with ore material grinding mill plant of grinding circuit design, installation, operation, and optimization. The automatic operation has the advantage of saving energy consumption, grinding media, and reducing body liner wear while increasing grinding capacity. In addition, by using a software system to control the ore grinding process meet the requirements of different ore milling task.

The ball mill is a typical material grinder machine which widely used in the mineral processing plant, ball mill performs well in different material conditions either wet type grinding or dry type, and to grind the ores to a fine size.

Main ball mill components: cylinder, motor drive, grinding medium, shaft. The cylinder cavity is partial filling with the material to be ground and the metal grinding balls. When the large cylinder rotating and creating centrifugal force, the inner metal grinding mediums will be lifted to the predetermined height and then fall, the rock material will be ground under the gravity force and squeeze force of moving mediums. Feed material to be ground enters the cylinder through a hopper feeder on one end and after being crushed by the grinding medium is discharged at the other end.

Mining Equipment Manufacturers, Our Main Products: Gold Trommel, Gold Wash Plant, Dense Media Separation System, CIP, CIL, Ball Mill, Trommel Scrubber, Shaker Table, Jig Concentrator, Spiral Separator, Slurry Pump, Trommel Screen.

ball mills

In all ore dressing and milling Operations, including flotation, cyanidation, gravity concentration, and amalgamation, the Working Principle is to crush and grind, often with rob mill & ball mills, the ore in order to liberate the minerals. In the chemical and process industries, grinding is an important step in preparing raw materials for subsequent treatment.In present day practice, ore is reduced to a size many times finer than can be obtained with crushers. Over a period of many years various fine grinding machines have been developed and used, but the ball mill has become standard due to its simplicity and low operating cost.

A ball millefficiently operated performs a wide variety of services. In small milling plants, where simplicity is most essential, it is not economical to use more than single stage crushing, because the Steel-Head Ball or Rod Mill will take up to 2 feed and grind it to the desired fineness. In larger plants where several stages of coarse and fine crushing are used, it is customary to crush from 1/2 to as fine as 8 mesh.

Many grinding circuits necessitate regrinding of concentrates or middling products to extremely fine sizes to liberate the closely associated minerals from each other. In these cases, the feed to the ball mill may be from 10 to 100 mesh or even finer.

Where the finished product does not have to be uniform, a ball mill may be operated in open circuit, but where the finished product must be uniform it is essential that the grinding mill be used in closed circuit with a screen, if a coarse product is desired, and with a classifier if a fine product is required. In most cases it is desirable to operate the grinding mill in closed circuit with a screen or classifier as higher efficiency and capacity are obtained. Often a mill using steel rods as the grinding medium is recommended, where the product must have the minimum amount of fines (rods give a more nearly uniform product).

Often a problem requires some study to determine the economic fineness to which a product can or should be ground. In this case the 911Equipment Company offers its complete testing service so that accurate grinding mill size may be determined.

Until recently many operators have believed that one particular type of grinding mill had greater efficiency and resulting capacity than some other type. However, it is now commonly agreed and accepted that the work done by any ballmill depends directly upon the power input; the maximum power input into any ball or rod mill depends upon weight of grinding charge, mill speed, and liner design.

The apparent difference in capacities between grinding mills (listed as being the same size) is due to the fact that there is no uniform method of designating the size of a mill, for example: a 5 x 5 Ball Mill has a working diameter of 5 inside the liners and has 20 per cent more capacity than all other ball mills designated as 5 x 5 where the shell is 5 inside diameter and the working diameter is only 48 with the liners in place.

Ball-Rod Mills, based on 4 liners and capacity varying as 2.6 power of mill diameter, on the 5 size give 20 per cent increased capacity; on the 4 size, 25 per cent; and on the 3 size, 28 per cent. This fact should be carefully kept in mind when determining the capacity of a Steel- Head Ball-Rod Mill, as this unit can carry a greater ball or rod charge and has potentially higher capacity in a given size when the full ball or rod charge is carried.

A mill shorter in length may be used if the grinding problem indicates a definite power input. This allows the alternative of greater capacity at a later date or a considerable saving in first cost with a shorter mill, if reserve capacity is not desired. The capacities of Ball-Rod Mills are considerably higher than many other types because the diameters are measured inside the liners.

The correct grinding mill depends so much upon the particular ore being treated and the product desired, that a mill must have maximum flexibility in length, type of grinding medium, type of discharge, and speed.With the Ball-Rod Mill it is possible to build this unit in exact accordance with your requirements, as illustrated.

To best serve your needs, the Trunnion can be furnished with small (standard), medium, or large diameter opening for each type of discharge. The sketch shows diagrammatic arrangements of the four different types of discharge for each size of trunnion opening, and peripheral discharge is described later.

Ball-Rod Mills of the grate discharge type are made by adding the improved type of grates to a standard Ball-Rod Mill. These grates are bolted to the discharge head in much the same manner as the standard headliners.

The grates are of alloy steel and are cast integral with the lifter bars which are essential to the efficient operation of this type of ball or rod mill. These lifter bars have a similar action to a pump:i. e., in lifting the product so as to discharge quickly through the mill trunnion.

These Discharge Grates also incorporate as an integral part, a liner between the lifters and steel head of the ball mill to prevent wear of the mill head. By combining these parts into a single casting, repairs and maintenance are greatly simplified. The center of the grate discharge end of this mill is open to permit adding of balls or for adding water to the mill through the discharge end.

Instead of being constructed of bars cast into a frame, Grates are cast entire and have cored holes which widen toward the outside of the mill similar to the taper in grizzly bars. The grate type discharge is illustrated.

The peripheral discharge type of Ball-Rod Mill is a modification of the grate type, and is recommended where a free gravity discharge is desired. It is particularly applicable when production of too many fine particles is detrimental and a quick pass through the mill is desired, and for dry grinding.

The drawings show the arrangement of the peripheral discharge. The discharge consists of openings in the shell into which bushings with holes of the desired size are inserted. On the outside of the mill, flanges are used to attach a stationary discharge hopper to prevent pulp splash or too much dust.

The mill may be operated either as a peripheral discharge or a combination or peripheral and trunnion discharge unit, depending on the desired operating conditions. If at any time the peripheral discharge is undesirable, plugs inserted into the bushings will convert the mill to a trunnion discharge type mill.

Unless otherwise specified, a hard iron liner is furnished. This liner is made of the best grade white iron and is most serviceable for the smaller size mills where large balls are not used. Hard iron liners have a much lower first cost.

Electric steel, although more expensive than hard iron, has advantage of minimum breakage and allows final wear to thinner section. Steel liners are recommended when the mills are for export or where the source of liner replacement is at a considerable distance.

Molychrome steel has longer wearing qualities and greater strength than hard iron. Breakage is not so apt to occur during shipment, and any size ball can be charged into a mill equipped with molychrome liners.

Manganese liners for Ball-Rod Mills are the world famous AMSCO Brand, and are the best obtainable. The first cost is the highest, but in most cases the cost per ton of ore ground is the lowest. These liners contain 12 to 14% manganese.

The feed and discharge trunnions are provided with cast iron or white iron throat liners. As these parts are not subjected to impact and must only withstand abrasion, alloys are not commonly used but can be supplied.

Gears for Ball-Rod Mills drives are furnished as standard on the discharge end of the mill where they are out of the way of the classifier return, scoop feeder, or original feed. Due to convertible type construction the mills can be furnished with gears on the feed end. Gear drives are available in two alternative combinations, which are:

All pinions are properly bored, key-seated, and pressed onto the steel countershaft, which is oversize and properly keyseated for the pinion and drive pulleys or sheaves. The countershaft operates on high grade, heavy duty, nickel babbitt bearings.

Any type of drive can be furnished for Ball-Rod Mills in accordance with your requirements. Belt drives are available with pulleys either plain or equipped with friction clutch. Various V- Rope combinations can also be supplied.

The most economical drive to use up to 50 H. P., is a high starting torque motor connected to the pinion shaft by means of a flat or V-Rope drive. For larger size motors the wound rotor (slip ring) is recommended due to its low current requirement in starting up the ball mill.

Should you be operating your own power plant or have D. C. current, please specify so that there will be no confusion as to motor characteristics. If switches are to be supplied, exact voltage to be used should be given.

Even though many ores require fine grinding for maximum recovery, most ores liberate a large percentage of the minerals during the first pass through the grinding unit. Thus, if the free minerals can be immediately removed from the ball mill classifier circuit, there is little chance for overgrinding.

This is actually what has happened wherever Mineral Jigs or Unit Flotation Cells have been installed in the ball mill classifier circuit. With the installation of one or both of these machines between the ball mill and classifier, as high as 70 per cent of the free gold and sulphide minerals can be immediately removed, thus reducing grinding costs and improving over-all recovery. The advantage of this method lies in the fact that heavy and usually valuable minerals, which otherwise would be ground finer because of their faster settling in the classifier and consequent return to the grinding mill, are removed from the circuit as soon as freed. This applies particularly to gold and lead ores.

Ball-Rod Mills have heavy rolled steel plate shells which are arc welded inside and outside to the steel heads or to rolled steel flanges, depending upon the type of mill. The double welding not only gives increased structural strength, but eliminates any possibility of leakage.

Where a single or double flanged shell is used, the faces are accurately machined and drilled to template to insure perfect fit and alignment with the holes in the head. These flanges are machined with male and female joints which take the shearing stresses off the bolts.

The Ball-Rod Mill Heads are oversize in section, heavily ribbed and are cast from electric furnace steel which has a strength of approximately four times that of cast iron. The head and trunnion bearings are designed to support a mill with length double its diameter. This extra strength, besides eliminating the possibility of head breakage or other structural failure (either while in transit or while in service), imparts to Ball-Rod Mills a flexibility heretofore lacking in grinding mills. Also, for instance, if you have a 5 x 5 mill, you can add another 5 shell length and thus get double the original capacity; or any length required up to a maximum of 12 total length.

On Type A mills the steel heads are double welded to the rolled steel shell. On type B and other flanged type mills the heads are machined with male and female joints to match the shell flanges, thus taking the shearing stresses from the heavy machine bolts which connect the shell flanges to the heads.

The manhole cover is protected from wear by heavy liners. An extended lip is provided for loosening the door with a crow-bar, and lifting handles are also provided. The manhole door is furnished with suitable gaskets to prevent leakage.

The mill trunnions are carried on heavy babbitt bearings which provide ample surface to insure low bearing pressure. If at any time the normal length is doubled to obtain increased capacity, these large trunnion bearings will easily support the additional load. Trunnion bearings are of the rigid type, as the perfect alignment of the trunnion surface on Ball-Rod Mills eliminates any need for the more expensive self-aligning type of bearing.

The cap on the upper half of the trunnion bearing is provided with a shroud which extends over the drip flange of the trunnion and effectively prevents the entrance of dirt or grit. The bearing has a large space for wool waste and lubricant and this is easily accessible through a large opening which is covered to prevent dirt from getting into the bearing.Ball and socket bearings can be furnished.

Scoop Feeders for Ball-Rod Mills are made in various radius sizes. Standard scoops are made of cast iron and for the 3 size a 13 or 19 feeder is supplied, for the 4 size a 30 or 36, for the 5 a 36 or 42, and for the 6 a 42 or 48 feeder. Welded steel scoop feeders can, however, be supplied in any radius.

The correct size of feeder depends upon the size of the classifier, and the smallest feeder should be used which will permit gravity flow for closed circuit grinding between classifier and the ball or rod mill. All feeders are built with a removable wearing lip which can be easily replaced and are designed to give minimum scoop wear.

A combination drum and scoop feeder can be supplied if necessary. This feeder is made of heavy steel plate and strongly welded. These drum-scoop feeders are available in the same sizes as the cast iron feeders but can be built in any radius. Scoop liners can be furnished.

The trunnions on Ball-Rod Mills are flanged and carefully machined so that scoops are held in place by large machine bolts and not cap screws or stud bolts. The feed trunnion flange is machined with a shoulder for insuring a proper fit for the feed scoop, and the weight of the scoop is carried on this shoulder so that all strain is removed from the bolts which hold the scoop.

High carbon steel rods are recommended, hot rolled, hot sawed or sheared, to a length of 2 less than actual length of mill taken inside the liners. The initial rod charge is generally a mixture ranging from 1.5 to 3 in diameter. During operation, rod make-up is generally the maximum size. The weights per lineal foot of rods of various diameters are approximately: 1.5 to 6 lbs.; 2-10.7 lbs.; 2.5-16.7 lbs.; and 3-24 lbs.

Forged from the best high carbon manganese steel, they are of the finest quality which can be produced and give long, satisfactory service. Data on ball charges for Ball-Rod Mills are listed in Table 5. Further information regarding grinding balls is included in Table 6.

Rod Mills has a very define and narrow discharge product size range. Feeding a Rod Mill finer rocks will greatly impact its tonnage while not significantly affect its discharge product sizes. The 3.5 diameter rod of a mill, can only grind so fine.

Crushers are well understood by most. Rod and Ball Mills not so much however as their size reduction actions are hidden in the tube (mill). As for Rod Mills, the image above best expresses what is going on inside. As rocks is feed into the mill, they are crushed (pinched) by the weight of its 3.5 x 16 rods at one end while the smaller particles migrate towards the discharge end and get slightly abraded (as in a Ball Mill) on the way there.

We haveSmall Ball Mills for sale coming in at very good prices. These ball mills are relatively small, bearing mounted on a steel frame. All ball mills are sold with motor, gears, steel liners and optional grinding media charge/load.

Ball Mills or Rod Mills in a complete range of sizes up to 10 diameter x20 long, offer features of operation and convertibility to meet your exactneeds. They may be used for pulverizing and either wet or dry grindingsystems. Mills are available in both light-duty and heavy-duty constructionto meet your specific requirements.

All Mills feature electric cast steel heads and heavy rolled steelplate shells. Self-aligning main trunnion bearings on large mills are sealedand internally flood-lubricated. Replaceable mill trunnions. Pinion shaftbearings are self-aligning, roller bearing type, enclosed in dust-tightcarrier. Adjustable, single-unit soleplate under trunnion and drive pinionsfor perfect, permanent gear alignment.

Ball Mills can be supplied with either ceramic or rubber linings for wet or dry grinding, for continuous or batch type operation, in sizes from 15 x 21 to 8 x 12. High density ceramic linings of uniform hardness male possible thinner linings and greater and more effective grinding volume. Mills are shipped with liners installed.

Complete laboratory testing service, mill and air classifier engineering and proven equipment make possible a single source for your complete dry-grinding mill installation. Units available with air swept design and centrifugal classifiers or with elevators and mechanical type air classifiers. All sizes and capacities of units. Laboratory-size air classifier also available.

A special purpose batch mill designed especially for grinding and mixing involving acids and corrosive materials. No corners mean easy cleaning and choice of rubber or ceramic linings make it corrosion resistant. Shape of mill and ball segregation gives preferential grinding action for grinding and mixing of pigments and catalysts. Made in 2, 3 and 4 diameter grinding drums.

Nowadays grinding mills are almost extensively used for comminution of materials ranging from 5 mm to 40 mm (3/161 5/8) down to varying product sizes. They have vast applications within different branches of industry such as for example the ore dressing, cement, lime, porcelain and chemical industries and can be designed for continuous as well as batch grinding.

Ball mills can be used for coarse grinding as described for the rod mill. They will, however, in that application produce more fines and tramp oversize and will in any case necessitate installation of effective classification.If finer grinding is wanted two or three stage grinding is advisable as for instant primary rod mill with 75100 mm (34) rods, secondary ball mill with 2540 mm(11) balls and possibly tertiary ball mill with 20 mm () balls or cylpebs.To obtain a close size distribution in the fine range the specific surface of the grinding media should be as high as possible. Thus as small balls as possible should be used in each stage.

The principal field of rod mill usage is the preparation of products in the 5 mm0.4 mm (4 mesh to 35 mesh) range. It may sometimes be recommended also for finer grinding. Within these limits a rod mill is usually superior to and more efficient than a ball mill. The basic principle for rod grinding is reduction by line contact between rods extending the full length of the mill, resulting in selective grinding carried out on the largest particle sizes. This results in a minimum production of extreme fines or slimes and more effective grinding work as compared with a ball mill. One stage rod mill grinding is therefore suitable for preparation of feed to gravimetric ore dressing methods, certain flotation processes with slime problems and magnetic cobbing. Rod mills are frequently used as primary mills to produce suitable feed to the second grinding stage. Rod mills have usually a length/diameter ratio of at least 1.4.

Tube mills are in principle to be considered as ball mills, the basic difference being that the length/diameter ratio is greater (35). They are commonly used for surface cleaning or scrubbing action and fine grinding in open circuit.

In some cases it is suitable to use screened fractions of the material as grinding media. Such mills are usually called pebble mills, but the working principle is the same as for ball mills. As the power input is approximately directly proportional to the volume weight of the grinding media, the power input for pebble mills is correspondingly smaller than for a ball mill.

A dry process requires usually dry grinding. If the feed is wet and sticky, it is often necessary to lower the moisture content below 1 %. Grinding in front of wet processes can be done wet or dry. In dry grinding the energy consumption is higher, but the wear of linings and charge is less than for wet grinding, especially when treating highly abrasive and corrosive material. When comparing the economy of wet and dry grinding, the different costs for the entire process must be considered.

An increase in the mill speed will give a directly proportional increase in mill power but there seems to be a square proportional increase in the wear. Rod mills generally operate within the range of 6075 % of critical speed in order to avoid excessive wear and tangled rods. Ball and pebble mills are usually operated at 7085 % of critical speed. For dry grinding the speed is usually somewhat lower.

The mill lining can be made of rubber or different types of steel (manganese or Ni-hard) with liner types according to the customers requirements. For special applications we can also supply porcelain, basalt and other linings.

The mill power is approximately directly proportional to the charge volume within the normal range. When calculating a mill 40 % charge volume is generally used. In pebble and ball mills quite often charge volumes close to 50 % are used. In a pebble mill the pebble consumption ranges from 315 % and the charge has to be controlled automatically to maintain uniform power consumption.

In all cases the net energy consumption per ton (kWh/ton) must be known either from previous experience or laboratory tests before mill size can be determined. The required mill net power P kW ( = ton/hX kWh/ton) is obtained from

Trunnions of S.G. iron or steel castings with machined flange and bearing seat incl. device for dismantling the bearings. For smaller mills the heads and trunnions are sometimes made in grey cast iron.

The mills can be used either for dry or wet, rod or ball grinding. By using a separate attachment the discharge end can be changed so that the mills can be used for peripheral instead of overflow discharge.

copper mountain 65,000 t/d expansion approved including new hpgr, 4th ball mill & extra flotation capacity - international mining

Copper Mountain Mining Corporation has announced a new life of mine plan, which includes a proposed mill expansion to 65,000 t per day, for its 75%-owned Copper Mountain mine, located in southern British Columbia. The new life of mine plan increases Copper Mountains after-tax NPV by over 60% to $1 billion, on higher annual production and lower costs, when compared to the previously published 2019 Technical Report. The 65ktpd Expansion builds upon the 45,000 t/d mill expansion currently underway.

The 65ktpd Expansion, which moves the Copper Mountain mine to about a billion dollars of asset value, clearly underscores the mines quality, and our teams ability to potentially grow reserves and value further, stated Gil Clausen, Copper Mountains President and CEO. This mill expansion study builds upon the growth projects that are already underway and illustrates the immense potential that the Copper Mountain Mine provides. In two years, we have more than doubled the mine life, grown the mines productive capacity, increased net asset value and significantly decreased cash costs. Following the completion of this 2020 Technical Report, we will further refine the capital estimates of this project in preparation for a development decision.

Clausen added, All of the deposits at the Copper Mountain Mine remain open and have significant exploration potential to add to our reserve and resource. We are steadily working to unlock the unrealised value and low risk growth potential at the Copper Mountain mine and we expect to fund this production growth with the mines internal cash flow.

The Copper Mountain mill flowsheet is currently a conventional two-stage crushing, SAG, pebble crusher, ball milling, and sulphide flotation circuit design. The current capacity supports 40,000 t per day of ore processing. The 45ktpd Expansion that is currently underway will add a third ball mill in parallel with the two existing ball mills. The 65ktpd Expansion Plan includes the installation of a High Pressure Grinding Roll (HPGR) circuit utilising a Metso Outotec HRC3000, the addition of a fourth ball mill, a regrind Metso Outotec Vertimill, additional rougher and cleaner flotation circuit capacity, and electrical system upgrades. The existing SAG mill will be retired. The fourth ball mill, a 22 ft by 38 ft mill, will be installed adjacent to the third ball mill within the existing building. With the addition of the fourth ball mill, the ball milling line will comprise four mills operating in parallel. Two identical 24 ft x 30 ft mills, and two identical 22 ft x 38 ft mills. This work will allow for increased throughput and a grind size P80 of 165 m. The 65ktpd Expansion Technical Report assumes construction to be completed at the end of 2023 for commissioning in the beginning of 2024.

The existing MKII 6089 primary crusher is fitted with a 600 kW motor and operates at 2,200 t/oph. The primary crusher is planned to be upgraded from the MKII to MKIII format ahead of the 65ktpd project. This will allow for a 1,000 kW motor, supporting the new duty point of 3,385 t/oph.

A new building erected at the northeast corner of the existing concentrator will house a second rougher flotation circuit comprising a single bank of five 300 m3 Metso Outotec TankCells. The additional flotation capacity will allow for 26 minutes of residence time. The demolished existing regrind mill will be replaced by a more efficient Metso Outotec Vertimill VTM4500 stirred mill. This will also be in the new building along with new tank cells. Rougher concentrate from all rougher flotation lines will report by gravity to this circuit, where it will be reduced to a P80 of 25 m.

The existing cleaner circuit will be expanded at the first cleaner and cleaner scavenger stage. A bank of four Woodgrove Technologies DFR cells will be installed as first cleaners in parallel with the two existing 3.7 m x 12.0 m flotation columns. Concentrate from the first cleaner stage will report to the existing DFR second cleaner bank of three cells (newly installed in 2020). The target final concentrate grade will be 28%. Tails from the first cleaner stage will report to the existing bank of five 70 m3 mechanical tank cells, and a new bank of six DFR cells operating in parallel. Concentrate from all cells at the cleaner-scavenger stage will report by gravity to the regrind circuit. DFR cells were selected in these cases due to their ability to minimise footprint, and the demonstrated unit recoveries achieved with the 2020 installation.

The mine life is estimated to be 21 years, including three years of processing stockpiled ore. The production plan is based on Mineral Reserves only and does not include any other Mineral Resource categories. The company believes that the potential exists to increase life of mine production further by converting Resources to Reserves as well as increasing resources through further exploration.

Total ore mined is expected to be 400 Mt and total waste mined is expected to be 671 Mt, with a strip ratio of 1.68. Using average recoveries of 85.4% for copper, 66.1% for gold and 66.2% for silver, total production is expected to be 2 billion pounds of copper, 978,000 oz of gold and 6.7 Moz of silver.

The initial capital cost required to increase throughput to 65,000 t/d is estimated to be approximately $123 million, plus a $25 million contingency for a total of $148 million. This includes the installation of the HPGR circuit, fourth ball mill, regrind circuit, verti-mill, additional rougher and cleaner flotation circuits and electrical system upgrades.

Total life of mine expansionary capital, including the capital for the 45,000 t/d mill expansion planned for 2021 and the integration of New Ingerbelle, is estimated to be $204 million. Total sustaining capital for the life of mine is estimated to be $255 million. The majority of sustaining capital is related to the replacement of mobile mining equipment.

Total LOM operating unit costs are estimated to be $7.60 per tonne milled, which includes mining cost per tonne milled of $3.70, milling cost per tonne milled of $3.63 and G&A per tonne milled of $0.26. Mining cost per tonne mined is estimated to be $1.55. Unit milling costs are estimated to be 25% lower for the 65ktpd Expansion compared to the current 45,0000 t/d mill expansion as a result of a higher milling rate and lower operating cost of the HPGR circuit, as compared to the existing SAG mill. The above costs result in an average C1 cash cost per pound of copper of $1.19 for the first ten years and $1.21 over the life of mine, net of by-product credits.

wet and dry mine ball mill factory & cement ball mill manufacturer and ball mill factory price with high quality - china ball mill, mine ball mill

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wear-resistant liner in mine ball mill - eb castworld blog

Leading supplier of high alloy castings and forgings. There are 4 companies with sales of more than 100 million yuan, across the 4 major areas of wear resistance, heat resistance, corrosion resistance, and machinery

In the beneficiation operations of mines and other industries, the wear and tear of the wear-resistant liner of the ball mill or rod mill is very rapid. A 1.5m*3m ball mill normally operates for one year, and the wear-resistant high-manganese steel consumed The steel plate needs to exceed ten tons, which has greatly increased the production cost of the concentrator. How to improve the service life of the ball mill liner and reduce the cost of replacing the wear-resistant liner is an urgent and important issue in the current mining industry.

After long-term research, the composite wear-resistant liner of ball mills has A new long-life solution. In the past, both ordinary wear-resistant steel plates and high-chromium alloy composite wear-resistant liners that have not been improved are subject to corrosive wear of materials.This is because materials continue to wear the surface oxide layer of the wear-resistant plate, resulting in a new wear-resistant layer Exposing to the air and then being oxidized and softened, this corrosive effect makes the wear-resistant liner accelerate the consumption.

In order to overcome this shortcoming, the technicians of EB China have analyzed the function of a large number of ball mills and decided to use surfacing welding to make a new type of ball mill liner, which is to use a surfacing process to overlay the main wear parts of the ball mill liner. The high chromium alloy wear-resistant layer allows this alloy to resist the corrosive effects of materials and oxygen, and the substrate is made of high-toughness steel plate, which bears the high-strength impact of the material without breaking.

This new type of wear-resistant liner has been tried and improved by cooperative customers and has achieved ideal results. As a wear-resistant plate manufacturer, EB China has obtained the satisfaction of customers.

ball milling the role of media and bead mills - byk

Ball milling is a grinding technique that uses media to effectively break down pigment agglomerates and aggregates to their primary particles. Using a rotor or disc impeller to create collisions of the grinding media, the impact and force created by the bead mills collisions break down the pigment agglomerates. The media can consist of either stainless steel, glass, or ceramic materials. The higher the bead hardness or density, the greater the collision force. The ball-milling process uses a higher concentration of grinding media to mill base in which the chambers are designed to maximize the energy transfer.

When a particle size has to be reduced below 10 microns, bead milling is the technique to use. However, if the material has a very low viscosity, ball milling is a better dispersing process than using a high shear mixing (vertical) system.

Currently, the VMA-Getzmann company offers three product lines for bead milling. They can be dedicated stand-alone systems or accessories that can be added to the high-speed vertical disperser models. Depending upon the model, sample quantities can be as low as 20 ml or up to 20,000 ml.

Our Dispermat SL model line is the current horizontal bead mill system. Milling chamber sizes can start at 50 ml to save on raw material costs. The beads are separated from the mill base by a dynamic gap system. The standard gap uses 1.0 mm diameter grinding media; an optional gap is available to use beads down to 0.3 mm diameter. The Dispermat SL can be selected to run as a single pass or as a recirculation configuration.

One of the unique features is an independent pumping system to feed the mill base into the milling chamber. Instead of the speed of the milling rotor controlling the sample volume the operator can control the volume, through the mixing system pump that fits on top of the milling chamber. Separating the rotor speed from the sample feed system provides more control over the milling process.

Basket bead milling is a relatively new design for ball milling applications. The grinding media is contained in a cylinder (basket), and the mill base is circulated through the basket. The VMA-Getzmann basket mill consists of a stainless-steel cylinder with an opening at the top and a sieve filter on the bottom. The standard diameter size of the grinding media is 1.0 mm. however, it can be ordered to use 0.3 mm bead size.

Since the Getzmann basket mill is attached to aHigh-Speed Dispersermodel, those with an adapter allow the user to switch between the basket mill system and a motor shaft for high-shear dispersing easily.

Attached to the bottom of the basket is a cowles blade that rotates at high speed. The purpose of the cowles blade is to circulate the mill base to ensure all materials enter the basket mill. When you have created the desired particle size, the basket mill is then raised out of the sample container, while the grinding media stays in the basket.

The third system for ball milling applications is the APS (air pressure system). The APS is attached to a high shear disperser. It consists of a sample containerwith a sieve filter at the bottom, a stand to elevate the sample container, along with a sealing system around the motor shaft, and a container lid. The mill base and grinding media is mixed 50/50 in the container. Adisk impeller or pearl mill impelleris immersed into the mixture and rotated from 500 to 5000 RPMs depending on the desired particle size. After the dispersion is completed the stop cock that covers the sieve filter is removed, the lid is clamped tight over the vessel. The lid has an air connection; the air is applied to force the sample through the sieve filter separating the mill base from the grinding media. Aside from the ability to produce small quantities of less than 25 milliliters, another advantage of the APS system is their ease of cleaning.

scats production in overflow ball mill - grinding & classification circuits - metallurgist & mineral processing engineer

I went thru the same problem of ball mill scats over production last week. I need to ask you, is the 10mm something you saw yourself or something you were told it was? This is important as if you have not seen if yourself, you can not trust it is really 10mm. There should be no scats at 10 mm unless you are using much too small a grinding ball or the mill charge is much too low.

For example, I was told by a client his ball mill feed was P80 = 9mm but when I went to look at the feed belt, I saw this below. The conveyor belt is 15 mm thick, therefore the rocks on it are more like 20-30mm.

The last stages of vibrating screening is 12 mm D80=de to 10 mm measured by exploitation team The ball mill size added: 2/3 is of 100mm and 75 mm 1/3 Actually the initial work index changed and we tried to calculate the operational work index according to a follow-up of the parameters below but I dont have any conclusionsaccording to this follow-up for an absorbed power and for the same tonnage I find a scats production is different (the feed ore coming the same area)

Hi think your ball mill trommel has its holes too small. What you are discharging is small and smaller than fresh feed. It should/would go to the cyclone feed pump if your holes were larger. Also, reviewing the conversation above; you should eliminate that 100 mm ball and increase your mill's power-draw.

Furthermore, your 100 mm ball needs to be eliminated. By using a 75 mm ball instead of 100 mm you will effectively 2X the number of balls you load. Well if you are at 50/50 100 and 75, you will double on 50% therefore a net of 33% in "good hammers". This change should not go unnoticed.

I think that to increase the aperture to 15 mm knowing that the ore feeding d100 = 10 mm all the scats is going not to outside of trammel but its going to pass towards the pump and the hydro cyclone, the pump of and hydrocyclone lining will be destroyed, hydro cyclone Under flow will be blocked and we are going to find afterward these scat in the flotation cells

I would suggest that you firstly study your feed PSDvs ball charge size distribution before opting for the alternative. Plus I'm not sure if a grate discharge will give you the same grind as the overflow could give you.

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sentinel copper mine, kalumbila, north western province, zambia

The Sentinel copper mine located in the Kalumbila district of North Western Province, Zambia, is one of the biggest copper producing mines in Africa. The open-pit mine also holds one of the biggest copper reserves in the world. Producing since 2016, the Sentinel copper mine is owned and operated by Kalumbila Minerals, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Canadian metals and mining company First Quantum Minerals. First Quantum became the owner of the Sentinel copper asset after acquiring Kiwara in a 208m ($260m) cash and share deal in January 2010. Kiwara had a controlling interest in the Trident prospecting license that included the Sentinel copper project (formerly Kalumbila copper deposit), as well as the Enterprise nickel project which is currently under development.

Producing since 2016, the Sentinel copper mine is owned and operated by Kalumbila Minerals, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Canadian metals and mining company First Quantum Minerals. First Quantum became the owner of the Sentinel copper asset after acquiring Kiwara in a 208m ($260m) cash and share deal in January 2010. Kiwara had a controlling interest in the Trident prospecting license that included the Sentinel copper project (formerly Kalumbila copper deposit), as well as the Enterprise nickel project which is currently under development.

First Quantum became the owner of the Sentinel copper asset after acquiring Kiwara in a 208m ($260m) cash and share deal in January 2010. Kiwara had a controlling interest in the Trident prospecting license that included the Sentinel copper project (formerly Kalumbila copper deposit), as well as the Enterprise nickel project which is currently under development.

Kiwara had a controlling interest in the Trident prospecting license that included the Sentinel copper project (formerly Kalumbila copper deposit), as well as the Enterprise nickel project which is currently under development.

The Sentinel copper mine was developed with an estimated investment of 1.9bn ($2.3bn), as part of the integrated Trident copper/nickel project by First Quantum. Construction works on the Sentinel project were started in the second half of 2012, while commissioning took place in stages starting from October 2014, with the start of commercial production declared in November 2016. Location, geology, and mineralisation The Sentinel copper project is situated in the southern part of the Trident licensing area approximately 150km west of Solwezi, in the North Western Province of Zambia. The Sentinel copper deposit is located on the Zambian Copperbelt which forms part of the Domes Region within the western end of the Lufilian Arc. Lufilian Arc is a curvilinear structural belt in southern Africa that was formed during the Pan-African Orogeny. Sentinel is a strata-bound, sedimentary hosted ore body containing copper, nickel and cobalt. The copper mineralisation at the deposit is predominantly found in the form of chalcopyrite hosted by metasedimentary carbonaceous phyllite. The mineralised zone extends in an east-west direction with more than 11km of strike length. Sentinel copper reserves The Sentinel copper mine was estimated to contain 811.3 million tonnes (Mt) of proven and probable ore reserves grading 0.5% copper, as of December 2018. The measured and indicated resources were estimated to be 875.7Mt grading 0.53% copper. Copper production from the Sentinel mine The mine produced 223,656t of copper by processing 13Mt of ore in 2018. Copper production during the third quarter of 2019 stood at 56,439t. The total copper production in 2019 was projected to be 230,000t. The current estimated operational life of the Sentinel copper mine is until 2033. Mining and ore processing Sentinel is a conventional open-pit mining operation using fleets of electric face shovels, hydraulic excavators and haul trucks of 330t and 240t capacities. The current mining plan involves the staged development of a large open-pit measuring 5.4km- long, 1.5km-wide and 375m-deep. The extracted ore is crushed in-pit and sent to a crushed ore stockpile overland, from where it is further conveyed to a nearby processing plant. The Sentinel processing facility houses two milling trains, each comprising a semi-autogenous grinding (SAG) mill, a ball mill, and two parallel banks of rougher flotation cells. The fine ore material undergoes a conventional sulphide ore flotation circuit for the production of copper concentrate. The resultant concentrate is thickened and filtered in a concentrate handling facility before shipping. The Sentinel processing plant is designed to treat up to 55Mt of ore a year. Infrastructure facilities The Sentinel mine is accessed through a 34km-long sealed road connecting the national trunk road that connects Solwezi and Mwinilunga. Zambia Electricity Supply Corporation (ZESCO) supplies electricity for the mine through approximately 600km of 330kV power transmission lines. Five substations namely, Kansanshi, Lumwana, Kalumbila, Lusaka West and Mumbwa were built as part of the project. Water for the processing plant is sourced from the nearby Chisola dam, which was built as part of the Sentinel copper project. Contractors involved FLSmidth supplied SAG mills and ball mills for the Sentinel processing plant under a contract awarded in June 2011. Metso Mining and Construction supplied two MP2500 cone crushers for the Sentinel copper mine under a contract awarded in November 2013. ACTOM Power Transformers was contracted to supply six 20/25 MVA and 10 MVA customized transformers for the Sentinel copper project in 2012. CSA Global, which was acquired by Environmental Resources Management (ERM) in July 2019, provided mineral resource estimates for the Sentinel copper project.

Construction works on the Sentinel project were started in the second half of 2012, while commissioning took place in stages starting from October 2014, with the start of commercial production declared in November 2016. Location, geology, and mineralisation The Sentinel copper project is situated in the southern part of the Trident licensing area approximately 150km west of Solwezi, in the North Western Province of Zambia. The Sentinel copper deposit is located on the Zambian Copperbelt which forms part of the Domes Region within the western end of the Lufilian Arc. Lufilian Arc is a curvilinear structural belt in southern Africa that was formed during the Pan-African Orogeny. Sentinel is a strata-bound, sedimentary hosted ore body containing copper, nickel and cobalt. The copper mineralisation at the deposit is predominantly found in the form of chalcopyrite hosted by metasedimentary carbonaceous phyllite. The mineralised zone extends in an east-west direction with more than 11km of strike length. Sentinel copper reserves The Sentinel copper mine was estimated to contain 811.3 million tonnes (Mt) of proven and probable ore reserves grading 0.5% copper, as of December 2018. The measured and indicated resources were estimated to be 875.7Mt grading 0.53% copper. Copper production from the Sentinel mine The mine produced 223,656t of copper by processing 13Mt of ore in 2018. Copper production during the third quarter of 2019 stood at 56,439t. The total copper production in 2019 was projected to be 230,000t. The current estimated operational life of the Sentinel copper mine is until 2033. Mining and ore processing Sentinel is a conventional open-pit mining operation using fleets of electric face shovels, hydraulic excavators and haul trucks of 330t and 240t capacities. The current mining plan involves the staged development of a large open-pit measuring 5.4km- long, 1.5km-wide and 375m-deep. The extracted ore is crushed in-pit and sent to a crushed ore stockpile overland, from where it is further conveyed to a nearby processing plant. The Sentinel processing facility houses two milling trains, each comprising a semi-autogenous grinding (SAG) mill, a ball mill, and two parallel banks of rougher flotation cells. The fine ore material undergoes a conventional sulphide ore flotation circuit for the production of copper concentrate. The resultant concentrate is thickened and filtered in a concentrate handling facility before shipping. The Sentinel processing plant is designed to treat up to 55Mt of ore a year. Infrastructure facilities The Sentinel mine is accessed through a 34km-long sealed road connecting the national trunk road that connects Solwezi and Mwinilunga. Zambia Electricity Supply Corporation (ZESCO) supplies electricity for the mine through approximately 600km of 330kV power transmission lines. Five substations namely, Kansanshi, Lumwana, Kalumbila, Lusaka West and Mumbwa were built as part of the project. Water for the processing plant is sourced from the nearby Chisola dam, which was built as part of the Sentinel copper project. Contractors involved FLSmidth supplied SAG mills and ball mills for the Sentinel processing plant under a contract awarded in June 2011. Metso Mining and Construction supplied two MP2500 cone crushers for the Sentinel copper mine under a contract awarded in November 2013. ACTOM Power Transformers was contracted to supply six 20/25 MVA and 10 MVA customized transformers for the Sentinel copper project in 2012. CSA Global, which was acquired by Environmental Resources Management (ERM) in July 2019, provided mineral resource estimates for the Sentinel copper project.

The Sentinel copper project is situated in the southern part of the Trident licensing area approximately 150km west of Solwezi, in the North Western Province of Zambia. The Sentinel copper deposit is located on the Zambian Copperbelt which forms part of the Domes Region within the western end of the Lufilian Arc. Lufilian Arc is a curvilinear structural belt in southern Africa that was formed during the Pan-African Orogeny. Sentinel is a strata-bound, sedimentary hosted ore body containing copper, nickel and cobalt. The copper mineralisation at the deposit is predominantly found in the form of chalcopyrite hosted by metasedimentary carbonaceous phyllite. The mineralised zone extends in an east-west direction with more than 11km of strike length. Sentinel copper reserves The Sentinel copper mine was estimated to contain 811.3 million tonnes (Mt) of proven and probable ore reserves grading 0.5% copper, as of December 2018. The measured and indicated resources were estimated to be 875.7Mt grading 0.53% copper. Copper production from the Sentinel mine The mine produced 223,656t of copper by processing 13Mt of ore in 2018. Copper production during the third quarter of 2019 stood at 56,439t. The total copper production in 2019 was projected to be 230,000t. The current estimated operational life of the Sentinel copper mine is until 2033. Mining and ore processing Sentinel is a conventional open-pit mining operation using fleets of electric face shovels, hydraulic excavators and haul trucks of 330t and 240t capacities. The current mining plan involves the staged development of a large open-pit measuring 5.4km- long, 1.5km-wide and 375m-deep. The extracted ore is crushed in-pit and sent to a crushed ore stockpile overland, from where it is further conveyed to a nearby processing plant. The Sentinel processing facility houses two milling trains, each comprising a semi-autogenous grinding (SAG) mill, a ball mill, and two parallel banks of rougher flotation cells. The fine ore material undergoes a conventional sulphide ore flotation circuit for the production of copper concentrate. The resultant concentrate is thickened and filtered in a concentrate handling facility before shipping. The Sentinel processing plant is designed to treat up to 55Mt of ore a year. Infrastructure facilities The Sentinel mine is accessed through a 34km-long sealed road connecting the national trunk road that connects Solwezi and Mwinilunga. Zambia Electricity Supply Corporation (ZESCO) supplies electricity for the mine through approximately 600km of 330kV power transmission lines. Five substations namely, Kansanshi, Lumwana, Kalumbila, Lusaka West and Mumbwa were built as part of the project. Water for the processing plant is sourced from the nearby Chisola dam, which was built as part of the Sentinel copper project. Contractors involved FLSmidth supplied SAG mills and ball mills for the Sentinel processing plant under a contract awarded in June 2011. Metso Mining and Construction supplied two MP2500 cone crushers for the Sentinel copper mine under a contract awarded in November 2013. ACTOM Power Transformers was contracted to supply six 20/25 MVA and 10 MVA customized transformers for the Sentinel copper project in 2012. CSA Global, which was acquired by Environmental Resources Management (ERM) in July 2019, provided mineral resource estimates for the Sentinel copper project.

The Sentinel copper deposit is located on the Zambian Copperbelt which forms part of the Domes Region within the western end of the Lufilian Arc. Lufilian Arc is a curvilinear structural belt in southern Africa that was formed during the Pan-African Orogeny. Sentinel is a strata-bound, sedimentary hosted ore body containing copper, nickel and cobalt. The copper mineralisation at the deposit is predominantly found in the form of chalcopyrite hosted by metasedimentary carbonaceous phyllite. The mineralised zone extends in an east-west direction with more than 11km of strike length. Sentinel copper reserves The Sentinel copper mine was estimated to contain 811.3 million tonnes (Mt) of proven and probable ore reserves grading 0.5% copper, as of December 2018. The measured and indicated resources were estimated to be 875.7Mt grading 0.53% copper. Copper production from the Sentinel mine The mine produced 223,656t of copper by processing 13Mt of ore in 2018. Copper production during the third quarter of 2019 stood at 56,439t. The total copper production in 2019 was projected to be 230,000t. The current estimated operational life of the Sentinel copper mine is until 2033. Mining and ore processing Sentinel is a conventional open-pit mining operation using fleets of electric face shovels, hydraulic excavators and haul trucks of 330t and 240t capacities. The current mining plan involves the staged development of a large open-pit measuring 5.4km- long, 1.5km-wide and 375m-deep. The extracted ore is crushed in-pit and sent to a crushed ore stockpile overland, from where it is further conveyed to a nearby processing plant. The Sentinel processing facility houses two milling trains, each comprising a semi-autogenous grinding (SAG) mill, a ball mill, and two parallel banks of rougher flotation cells. The fine ore material undergoes a conventional sulphide ore flotation circuit for the production of copper concentrate. The resultant concentrate is thickened and filtered in a concentrate handling facility before shipping. The Sentinel processing plant is designed to treat up to 55Mt of ore a year. Infrastructure facilities The Sentinel mine is accessed through a 34km-long sealed road connecting the national trunk road that connects Solwezi and Mwinilunga. Zambia Electricity Supply Corporation (ZESCO) supplies electricity for the mine through approximately 600km of 330kV power transmission lines. Five substations namely, Kansanshi, Lumwana, Kalumbila, Lusaka West and Mumbwa were built as part of the project. Water for the processing plant is sourced from the nearby Chisola dam, which was built as part of the Sentinel copper project. Contractors involved FLSmidth supplied SAG mills and ball mills for the Sentinel processing plant under a contract awarded in June 2011. Metso Mining and Construction supplied two MP2500 cone crushers for the Sentinel copper mine under a contract awarded in November 2013. ACTOM Power Transformers was contracted to supply six 20/25 MVA and 10 MVA customized transformers for the Sentinel copper project in 2012. CSA Global, which was acquired by Environmental Resources Management (ERM) in July 2019, provided mineral resource estimates for the Sentinel copper project.

Lufilian Arc is a curvilinear structural belt in southern Africa that was formed during the Pan-African Orogeny. Sentinel is a strata-bound, sedimentary hosted ore body containing copper, nickel and cobalt. The copper mineralisation at the deposit is predominantly found in the form of chalcopyrite hosted by metasedimentary carbonaceous phyllite. The mineralised zone extends in an east-west direction with more than 11km of strike length. Sentinel copper reserves The Sentinel copper mine was estimated to contain 811.3 million tonnes (Mt) of proven and probable ore reserves grading 0.5% copper, as of December 2018. The measured and indicated resources were estimated to be 875.7Mt grading 0.53% copper. Copper production from the Sentinel mine The mine produced 223,656t of copper by processing 13Mt of ore in 2018. Copper production during the third quarter of 2019 stood at 56,439t. The total copper production in 2019 was projected to be 230,000t. The current estimated operational life of the Sentinel copper mine is until 2033. Mining and ore processing Sentinel is a conventional open-pit mining operation using fleets of electric face shovels, hydraulic excavators and haul trucks of 330t and 240t capacities. The current mining plan involves the staged development of a large open-pit measuring 5.4km- long, 1.5km-wide and 375m-deep. The extracted ore is crushed in-pit and sent to a crushed ore stockpile overland, from where it is further conveyed to a nearby processing plant. The Sentinel processing facility houses two milling trains, each comprising a semi-autogenous grinding (SAG) mill, a ball mill, and two parallel banks of rougher flotation cells. The fine ore material undergoes a conventional sulphide ore flotation circuit for the production of copper concentrate. The resultant concentrate is thickened and filtered in a concentrate handling facility before shipping. The Sentinel processing plant is designed to treat up to 55Mt of ore a year. Infrastructure facilities The Sentinel mine is accessed through a 34km-long sealed road connecting the national trunk road that connects Solwezi and Mwinilunga. Zambia Electricity Supply Corporation (ZESCO) supplies electricity for the mine through approximately 600km of 330kV power transmission lines. Five substations namely, Kansanshi, Lumwana, Kalumbila, Lusaka West and Mumbwa were built as part of the project. Water for the processing plant is sourced from the nearby Chisola dam, which was built as part of the Sentinel copper project. Contractors involved FLSmidth supplied SAG mills and ball mills for the Sentinel processing plant under a contract awarded in June 2011. Metso Mining and Construction supplied two MP2500 cone crushers for the Sentinel copper mine under a contract awarded in November 2013. ACTOM Power Transformers was contracted to supply six 20/25 MVA and 10 MVA customized transformers for the Sentinel copper project in 2012. CSA Global, which was acquired by Environmental Resources Management (ERM) in July 2019, provided mineral resource estimates for the Sentinel copper project.

Sentinel is a strata-bound, sedimentary hosted ore body containing copper, nickel and cobalt. The copper mineralisation at the deposit is predominantly found in the form of chalcopyrite hosted by metasedimentary carbonaceous phyllite. The mineralised zone extends in an east-west direction with more than 11km of strike length. Sentinel copper reserves The Sentinel copper mine was estimated to contain 811.3 million tonnes (Mt) of proven and probable ore reserves grading 0.5% copper, as of December 2018. The measured and indicated resources were estimated to be 875.7Mt grading 0.53% copper. Copper production from the Sentinel mine The mine produced 223,656t of copper by processing 13Mt of ore in 2018. Copper production during the third quarter of 2019 stood at 56,439t. The total copper production in 2019 was projected to be 230,000t. The current estimated operational life of the Sentinel copper mine is until 2033. Mining and ore processing Sentinel is a conventional open-pit mining operation using fleets of electric face shovels, hydraulic excavators and haul trucks of 330t and 240t capacities. The current mining plan involves the staged development of a large open-pit measuring 5.4km- long, 1.5km-wide and 375m-deep. The extracted ore is crushed in-pit and sent to a crushed ore stockpile overland, from where it is further conveyed to a nearby processing plant. The Sentinel processing facility houses two milling trains, each comprising a semi-autogenous grinding (SAG) mill, a ball mill, and two parallel banks of rougher flotation cells. The fine ore material undergoes a conventional sulphide ore flotation circuit for the production of copper concentrate. The resultant concentrate is thickened and filtered in a concentrate handling facility before shipping. The Sentinel processing plant is designed to treat up to 55Mt of ore a year. Infrastructure facilities The Sentinel mine is accessed through a 34km-long sealed road connecting the national trunk road that connects Solwezi and Mwinilunga. Zambia Electricity Supply Corporation (ZESCO) supplies electricity for the mine through approximately 600km of 330kV power transmission lines. Five substations namely, Kansanshi, Lumwana, Kalumbila, Lusaka West and Mumbwa were built as part of the project. Water for the processing plant is sourced from the nearby Chisola dam, which was built as part of the Sentinel copper project. Contractors involved FLSmidth supplied SAG mills and ball mills for the Sentinel processing plant under a contract awarded in June 2011. Metso Mining and Construction supplied two MP2500 cone crushers for the Sentinel copper mine under a contract awarded in November 2013. ACTOM Power Transformers was contracted to supply six 20/25 MVA and 10 MVA customized transformers for the Sentinel copper project in 2012. CSA Global, which was acquired by Environmental Resources Management (ERM) in July 2019, provided mineral resource estimates for the Sentinel copper project.

The copper mineralisation at the deposit is predominantly found in the form of chalcopyrite hosted by metasedimentary carbonaceous phyllite. The mineralised zone extends in an east-west direction with more than 11km of strike length. Sentinel copper reserves The Sentinel copper mine was estimated to contain 811.3 million tonnes (Mt) of proven and probable ore reserves grading 0.5% copper, as of December 2018. The measured and indicated resources were estimated to be 875.7Mt grading 0.53% copper. Copper production from the Sentinel mine The mine produced 223,656t of copper by processing 13Mt of ore in 2018. Copper production during the third quarter of 2019 stood at 56,439t. The total copper production in 2019 was projected to be 230,000t. The current estimated operational life of the Sentinel copper mine is until 2033. Mining and ore processing Sentinel is a conventional open-pit mining operation using fleets of electric face shovels, hydraulic excavators and haul trucks of 330t and 240t capacities. The current mining plan involves the staged development of a large open-pit measuring 5.4km- long, 1.5km-wide and 375m-deep. The extracted ore is crushed in-pit and sent to a crushed ore stockpile overland, from where it is further conveyed to a nearby processing plant. The Sentinel processing facility houses two milling trains, each comprising a semi-autogenous grinding (SAG) mill, a ball mill, and two parallel banks of rougher flotation cells. The fine ore material undergoes a conventional sulphide ore flotation circuit for the production of copper concentrate. The resultant concentrate is thickened and filtered in a concentrate handling facility before shipping. The Sentinel processing plant is designed to treat up to 55Mt of ore a year. Infrastructure facilities The Sentinel mine is accessed through a 34km-long sealed road connecting the national trunk road that connects Solwezi and Mwinilunga. Zambia Electricity Supply Corporation (ZESCO) supplies electricity for the mine through approximately 600km of 330kV power transmission lines. Five substations namely, Kansanshi, Lumwana, Kalumbila, Lusaka West and Mumbwa were built as part of the project. Water for the processing plant is sourced from the nearby Chisola dam, which was built as part of the Sentinel copper project. Contractors involved FLSmidth supplied SAG mills and ball mills for the Sentinel processing plant under a contract awarded in June 2011. Metso Mining and Construction supplied two MP2500 cone crushers for the Sentinel copper mine under a contract awarded in November 2013. ACTOM Power Transformers was contracted to supply six 20/25 MVA and 10 MVA customized transformers for the Sentinel copper project in 2012. CSA Global, which was acquired by Environmental Resources Management (ERM) in July 2019, provided mineral resource estimates for the Sentinel copper project.

The mineralised zone extends in an east-west direction with more than 11km of strike length. Sentinel copper reserves The Sentinel copper mine was estimated to contain 811.3 million tonnes (Mt) of proven and probable ore reserves grading 0.5% copper, as of December 2018. The measured and indicated resources were estimated to be 875.7Mt grading 0.53% copper. Copper production from the Sentinel mine The mine produced 223,656t of copper by processing 13Mt of ore in 2018. Copper production during the third quarter of 2019 stood at 56,439t. The total copper production in 2019 was projected to be 230,000t. The current estimated operational life of the Sentinel copper mine is until 2033. Mining and ore processing Sentinel is a conventional open-pit mining operation using fleets of electric face shovels, hydraulic excavators and haul trucks of 330t and 240t capacities. The current mining plan involves the staged development of a large open-pit measuring 5.4km- long, 1.5km-wide and 375m-deep. The extracted ore is crushed in-pit and sent to a crushed ore stockpile overland, from where it is further conveyed to a nearby processing plant. The Sentinel processing facility houses two milling trains, each comprising a semi-autogenous grinding (SAG) mill, a ball mill, and two parallel banks of rougher flotation cells. The fine ore material undergoes a conventional sulphide ore flotation circuit for the production of copper concentrate. The resultant concentrate is thickened and filtered in a concentrate handling facility before shipping. The Sentinel processing plant is designed to treat up to 55Mt of ore a year. Infrastructure facilities The Sentinel mine is accessed through a 34km-long sealed road connecting the national trunk road that connects Solwezi and Mwinilunga. Zambia Electricity Supply Corporation (ZESCO) supplies electricity for the mine through approximately 600km of 330kV power transmission lines. Five substations namely, Kansanshi, Lumwana, Kalumbila, Lusaka West and Mumbwa were built as part of the project. Water for the processing plant is sourced from the nearby Chisola dam, which was built as part of the Sentinel copper project. Contractors involved FLSmidth supplied SAG mills and ball mills for the Sentinel processing plant under a contract awarded in June 2011. Metso Mining and Construction supplied two MP2500 cone crushers for the Sentinel copper mine under a contract awarded in November 2013. ACTOM Power Transformers was contracted to supply six 20/25 MVA and 10 MVA customized transformers for the Sentinel copper project in 2012. CSA Global, which was acquired by Environmental Resources Management (ERM) in July 2019, provided mineral resource estimates for the Sentinel copper project.

The Sentinel copper mine was estimated to contain 811.3 million tonnes (Mt) of proven and probable ore reserves grading 0.5% copper, as of December 2018. The measured and indicated resources were estimated to be 875.7Mt grading 0.53% copper. Copper production from the Sentinel mine The mine produced 223,656t of copper by processing 13Mt of ore in 2018. Copper production during the third quarter of 2019 stood at 56,439t. The total copper production in 2019 was projected to be 230,000t. The current estimated operational life of the Sentinel copper mine is until 2033. Mining and ore processing Sentinel is a conventional open-pit mining operation using fleets of electric face shovels, hydraulic excavators and haul trucks of 330t and 240t capacities. The current mining plan involves the staged development of a large open-pit measuring 5.4km- long, 1.5km-wide and 375m-deep. The extracted ore is crushed in-pit and sent to a crushed ore stockpile overland, from where it is further conveyed to a nearby processing plant. The Sentinel processing facility houses two milling trains, each comprising a semi-autogenous grinding (SAG) mill, a ball mill, and two parallel banks of rougher flotation cells. The fine ore material undergoes a conventional sulphide ore flotation circuit for the production of copper concentrate. The resultant concentrate is thickened and filtered in a concentrate handling facility before shipping. The Sentinel processing plant is designed to treat up to 55Mt of ore a year. Infrastructure facilities The Sentinel mine is accessed through a 34km-long sealed road connecting the national trunk road that connects Solwezi and Mwinilunga. Zambia Electricity Supply Corporation (ZESCO) supplies electricity for the mine through approximately 600km of 330kV power transmission lines. Five substations namely, Kansanshi, Lumwana, Kalumbila, Lusaka West and Mumbwa were built as part of the project. Water for the processing plant is sourced from the nearby Chisola dam, which was built as part of the Sentinel copper project. Contractors involved FLSmidth supplied SAG mills and ball mills for the Sentinel processing plant under a contract awarded in June 2011. Metso Mining and Construction supplied two MP2500 cone crushers for the Sentinel copper mine under a contract awarded in November 2013. ACTOM Power Transformers was contracted to supply six 20/25 MVA and 10 MVA customized transformers for the Sentinel copper project in 2012. CSA Global, which was acquired by Environmental Resources Management (ERM) in July 2019, provided mineral resource estimates for the Sentinel copper project.

The measured and indicated resources were estimated to be 875.7Mt grading 0.53% copper. Copper production from the Sentinel mine The mine produced 223,656t of copper by processing 13Mt of ore in 2018. Copper production during the third quarter of 2019 stood at 56,439t. The total copper production in 2019 was projected to be 230,000t. The current estimated operational life of the Sentinel copper mine is until 2033. Mining and ore processing Sentinel is a conventional open-pit mining operation using fleets of electric face shovels, hydraulic excavators and haul trucks of 330t and 240t capacities. The current mining plan involves the staged development of a large open-pit measuring 5.4km- long, 1.5km-wide and 375m-deep. The extracted ore is crushed in-pit and sent to a crushed ore stockpile overland, from where it is further conveyed to a nearby processing plant. The Sentinel processing facility houses two milling trains, each comprising a semi-autogenous grinding (SAG) mill, a ball mill, and two parallel banks of rougher flotation cells. The fine ore material undergoes a conventional sulphide ore flotation circuit for the production of copper concentrate. The resultant concentrate is thickened and filtered in a concentrate handling facility before shipping. The Sentinel processing plant is designed to treat up to 55Mt of ore a year. Infrastructure facilities The Sentinel mine is accessed through a 34km-long sealed road connecting the national trunk road that connects Solwezi and Mwinilunga. Zambia Electricity Supply Corporation (ZESCO) supplies electricity for the mine through approximately 600km of 330kV power transmission lines. Five substations namely, Kansanshi, Lumwana, Kalumbila, Lusaka West and Mumbwa were built as part of the project. Water for the processing plant is sourced from the nearby Chisola dam, which was built as part of the Sentinel copper project. Contractors involved FLSmidth supplied SAG mills and ball mills for the Sentinel processing plant under a contract awarded in June 2011. Metso Mining and Construction supplied two MP2500 cone crushers for the Sentinel copper mine under a contract awarded in November 2013. ACTOM Power Transformers was contracted to supply six 20/25 MVA and 10 MVA customized transformers for the Sentinel copper project in 2012. CSA Global, which was acquired by Environmental Resources Management (ERM) in July 2019, provided mineral resource estimates for the Sentinel copper project.

The mine produced 223,656t of copper by processing 13Mt of ore in 2018. Copper production during the third quarter of 2019 stood at 56,439t. The total copper production in 2019 was projected to be 230,000t. The current estimated operational life of the Sentinel copper mine is until 2033. Mining and ore processing Sentinel is a conventional open-pit mining operation using fleets of electric face shovels, hydraulic excavators and haul trucks of 330t and 240t capacities. The current mining plan involves the staged development of a large open-pit measuring 5.4km- long, 1.5km-wide and 375m-deep. The extracted ore is crushed in-pit and sent to a crushed ore stockpile overland, from where it is further conveyed to a nearby processing plant. The Sentinel processing facility houses two milling trains, each comprising a semi-autogenous grinding (SAG) mill, a ball mill, and two parallel banks of rougher flotation cells. The fine ore material undergoes a conventional sulphide ore flotation circuit for the production of copper concentrate. The resultant concentrate is thickened and filtered in a concentrate handling facility before shipping. The Sentinel processing plant is designed to treat up to 55Mt of ore a year. Infrastructure facilities The Sentinel mine is accessed through a 34km-long sealed road connecting the national trunk road that connects Solwezi and Mwinilunga. Zambia Electricity Supply Corporation (ZESCO) supplies electricity for the mine through approximately 600km of 330kV power transmission lines. Five substations namely, Kansanshi, Lumwana, Kalumbila, Lusaka West and Mumbwa were built as part of the project. Water for the processing plant is sourced from the nearby Chisola dam, which was built as part of the Sentinel copper project. Contractors involved FLSmidth supplied SAG mills and ball mills for the Sentinel processing plant under a contract awarded in June 2011. Metso Mining and Construction supplied two MP2500 cone crushers for the Sentinel copper mine under a contract awarded in November 2013. ACTOM Power Transformers was contracted to supply six 20/25 MVA and 10 MVA customized transformers for the Sentinel copper project in 2012. CSA Global, which was acquired by Environmental Resources Management (ERM) in July 2019, provided mineral resource estimates for the Sentinel copper project.

The current estimated operational life of the Sentinel copper mine is until 2033. Mining and ore processing Sentinel is a conventional open-pit mining operation using fleets of electric face shovels, hydraulic excavators and haul trucks of 330t and 240t capacities. The current mining plan involves the staged development of a large open-pit measuring 5.4km- long, 1.5km-wide and 375m-deep. The extracted ore is crushed in-pit and sent to a crushed ore stockpile overland, from where it is further conveyed to a nearby processing plant. The Sentinel processing facility houses two milling trains, each comprising a semi-autogenous grinding (SAG) mill, a ball mill, and two parallel banks of rougher flotation cells. The fine ore material undergoes a conventional sulphide ore flotation circuit for the production of copper concentrate. The resultant concentrate is thickened and filtered in a concentrate handling facility before shipping. The Sentinel processing plant is designed to treat up to 55Mt of ore a year. Infrastructure facilities The Sentinel mine is accessed through a 34km-long sealed road connecting the national trunk road that connects Solwezi and Mwinilunga. Zambia Electricity Supply Corporation (ZESCO) supplies electricity for the mine through approximately 600km of 330kV power transmission lines. Five substations namely, Kansanshi, Lumwana, Kalumbila, Lusaka West and Mumbwa were built as part of the project. Water for the processing plant is sourced from the nearby Chisola dam, which was built as part of the Sentinel copper project. Contractors involved FLSmidth supplied SAG mills and ball mills for the Sentinel processing plant under a contract awarded in June 2011. Metso Mining and Construction supplied two MP2500 cone crushers for the Sentinel copper mine under a contract awarded in November 2013. ACTOM Power Transformers was contracted to supply six 20/25 MVA and 10 MVA customized transformers for the Sentinel copper project in 2012. CSA Global, which was acquired by Environmental Resources Management (ERM) in July 2019, provided mineral resource estimates for the Sentinel copper project.

Sentinel is a conventional open-pit mining operation using fleets of electric face shovels, hydraulic excavators and haul trucks of 330t and 240t capacities. The current mining plan involves the staged development of a large open-pit measuring 5.4km- long, 1.5km-wide and 375m-deep. The extracted ore is crushed in-pit and sent to a crushed ore stockpile overland, from where it is further conveyed to a nearby processing plant. The Sentinel processing facility houses two milling trains, each comprising a semi-autogenous grinding (SAG) mill, a ball mill, and two parallel banks of rougher flotation cells. The fine ore material undergoes a conventional sulphide ore flotation circuit for the production of copper concentrate. The resultant concentrate is thickened and filtered in a concentrate handling facility before shipping. The Sentinel processing plant is designed to treat up to 55Mt of ore a year. Infrastructure facilities The Sentinel mine is accessed through a 34km-long sealed road connecting the national trunk road that connects Solwezi and Mwinilunga. Zambia Electricity Supply Corporation (ZESCO) supplies electricity for the mine through approximately 600km of 330kV power transmission lines. Five substations namely, Kansanshi, Lumwana, Kalumbila, Lusaka West and Mumbwa were built as part of the project. Water for the processing plant is sourced from the nearby Chisola dam, which was built as part of the Sentinel copper project. Contractors involved FLSmidth supplied SAG mills and ball mills for the Sentinel processing plant under a contract awarded in June 2011. Metso Mining and Construction supplied two MP2500 cone crushers for the Sentinel copper mine under a contract awarded in November 2013. ACTOM Power Transformers was contracted to supply six 20/25 MVA and 10 MVA customized transformers for the Sentinel copper project in 2012. CSA Global, which was acquired by Environmental Resources Management (ERM) in July 2019, provided mineral resource estimates for the Sentinel copper project.

The current mining plan involves the staged development of a large open-pit measuring 5.4km- long, 1.5km-wide and 375m-deep. The extracted ore is crushed in-pit and sent to a crushed ore stockpile overland, from where it is further conveyed to a nearby processing plant. The Sentinel processing facility houses two milling trains, each comprising a semi-autogenous grinding (SAG) mill, a ball mill, and two parallel banks of rougher flotation cells. The fine ore material undergoes a conventional sulphide ore flotation circuit for the production of copper concentrate. The resultant concentrate is thickened and filtered in a concentrate handling facility before shipping. The Sentinel processing plant is designed to treat up to 55Mt of ore a year. Infrastructure facilities The Sentinel mine is accessed through a 34km-long sealed road connecting the national trunk road that connects Solwezi and Mwinilunga. Zambia Electricity Supply Corporation (ZESCO) supplies electricity for the mine through approximately 600km of 330kV power transmission lines. Five substations namely, Kansanshi, Lumwana, Kalumbila, Lusaka West and Mumbwa were built as part of the project. Water for the processing plant is sourced from the nearby Chisola dam, which was built as part of the Sentinel copper project. Contractors involved FLSmidth supplied SAG mills and ball mills for the Sentinel processing plant under a contract awarded in June 2011. Metso Mining and Construction supplied two MP2500 cone crushers for the Sentinel copper mine under a contract awarded in November 2013. ACTOM Power Transformers was contracted to supply six 20/25 MVA and 10 MVA customized transformers for the Sentinel copper project in 2012. CSA Global, which was acquired by Environmental Resources Management (ERM) in July 2019, provided mineral resource estimates for the Sentinel copper project.

The extracted ore is crushed in-pit and sent to a crushed ore stockpile overland, from where it is further conveyed to a nearby processing plant. The Sentinel processing facility houses two milling trains, each comprising a semi-autogenous grinding (SAG) mill, a ball mill, and two parallel banks of rougher flotation cells. The fine ore material undergoes a conventional sulphide ore flotation circuit for the production of copper concentrate. The resultant concentrate is thickened and filtered in a concentrate handling facility before shipping. The Sentinel processing plant is designed to treat up to 55Mt of ore a year. Infrastructure facilities The Sentinel mine is accessed through a 34km-long sealed road connecting the national trunk road that connects Solwezi and Mwinilunga. Zambia Electricity Supply Corporation (ZESCO) supplies electricity for the mine through approximately 600km of 330kV power transmission lines. Five substations namely, Kansanshi, Lumwana, Kalumbila, Lusaka West and Mumbwa were built as part of the project. Water for the processing plant is sourced from the nearby Chisola dam, which was built as part of the Sentinel copper project. Contractors involved FLSmidth supplied SAG mills and ball mills for the Sentinel processing plant under a contract awarded in June 2011. Metso Mining and Construction supplied two MP2500 cone crushers for the Sentinel copper mine under a contract awarded in November 2013. ACTOM Power Transformers was contracted to supply six 20/25 MVA and 10 MVA customized transformers for the Sentinel copper project in 2012. CSA Global, which was acquired by Environmental Resources Management (ERM) in July 2019, provided mineral resource estimates for the Sentinel copper project.

The Sentinel processing facility houses two milling trains, each comprising a semi-autogenous grinding (SAG) mill, a ball mill, and two parallel banks of rougher flotation cells. The fine ore material undergoes a conventional sulphide ore flotation circuit for the production of copper concentrate. The resultant concentrate is thickened and filtered in a concentrate handling facility before shipping. The Sentinel processing plant is designed to treat up to 55Mt of ore a year. Infrastructure facilities The Sentinel mine is accessed through a 34km-long sealed road connecting the national trunk road that connects Solwezi and Mwinilunga. Zambia Electricity Supply Corporation (ZESCO) supplies electricity for the mine through approximately 600km of 330kV power transmission lines. Five substations namely, Kansanshi, Lumwana, Kalumbila, Lusaka West and Mumbwa were built as part of the project. Water for the processing plant is sourced from the nearby Chisola dam, which was built as part of the Sentinel copper project. Contractors involved FLSmidth supplied SAG mills and ball mills for the Sentinel processing plant under a contract awarded in June 2011. Metso Mining and Construction supplied two MP2500 cone crushers for the Sentinel copper mine under a contract awarded in November 2013. ACTOM Power Transformers was contracted to supply six 20/25 MVA and 10 MVA customized transformers for the Sentinel copper project in 2012. CSA Global, which was acquired by Environmental Resources Management (ERM) in July 2019, provided mineral resource estimates for the Sentinel copper project.

The fine ore material undergoes a conventional sulphide ore flotation circuit for the production of copper concentrate. The resultant concentrate is thickened and filtered in a concentrate handling facility before shipping. The Sentinel processing plant is designed to treat up to 55Mt of ore a year. Infrastructure facilities The Sentinel mine is accessed through a 34km-long sealed road connecting the national trunk road that connects Solwezi and Mwinilunga. Zambia Electricity Supply Corporation (ZESCO) supplies electricity for the mine through approximately 600km of 330kV power transmission lines. Five substations namely, Kansanshi, Lumwana, Kalumbila, Lusaka West and Mumbwa were built as part of the project. Water for the processing plant is sourced from the nearby Chisola dam, which was built as part of the Sentinel copper project. Contractors involved FLSmidth supplied SAG mills and ball mills for the Sentinel processing plant under a contract awarded in June 2011. Metso Mining and Construction supplied two MP2500 cone crushers for the Sentinel copper mine under a contract awarded in November 2013. ACTOM Power Transformers was contracted to supply six 20/25 MVA and 10 MVA customized transformers for the Sentinel copper project in 2012. CSA Global, which was acquired by Environmental Resources Management (ERM) in July 2019, provided mineral resource estimates for the Sentinel copper project.

The resultant concentrate is thickened and filtered in a concentrate handling facility before shipping. The Sentinel processing plant is designed to treat up to 55Mt of ore a year. Infrastructure facilities The Sentinel mine is accessed through a 34km-long sealed road connecting the national trunk road that connects Solwezi and Mwinilunga. Zambia Electricity Supply Corporation (ZESCO) supplies electricity for the mine through approximately 600km of 330kV power transmission lines. Five substations namely, Kansanshi, Lumwana, Kalumbila, Lusaka West and Mumbwa were built as part of the project. Water for the processing plant is sourced from the nearby Chisola dam, which was built as part of the Sentinel copper project. Contractors involved FLSmidth supplied SAG mills and ball mills for the Sentinel processing plant under a contract awarded in June 2011. Metso Mining and Construction supplied two MP2500 cone crushers for the Sentinel copper mine under a contract awarded in November 2013. ACTOM Power Transformers was contracted to supply six 20/25 MVA and 10 MVA customized transformers for the Sentinel copper project in 2012. CSA Global, which was acquired by Environmental Resources Management (ERM) in July 2019, provided mineral resource estimates for the Sentinel copper project.

The Sentinel processing plant is designed to treat up to 55Mt of ore a year. Infrastructure facilities The Sentinel mine is accessed through a 34km-long sealed road connecting the national trunk road that connects Solwezi and Mwinilunga. Zambia Electricity Supply Corporation (ZESCO) supplies electricity for the mine through approximately 600km of 330kV power transmission lines. Five substations namely, Kansanshi, Lumwana, Kalumbila, Lusaka West and Mumbwa were built as part of the project. Water for the processing plant is sourced from the nearby Chisola dam, which was built as part of the Sentinel copper project. Contractors involved FLSmidth supplied SAG mills and ball mills for the Sentinel processing plant under a contract awarded in June 2011. Metso Mining and Construction supplied two MP2500 cone crushers for the Sentinel copper mine under a contract awarded in November 2013. ACTOM Power Transformers was contracted to supply six 20/25 MVA and 10 MVA customized transformers for the Sentinel copper project in 2012. CSA Global, which was acquired by Environmental Resources Management (ERM) in July 2019, provided mineral resource estimates for the Sentinel copper project.

The Sentinel mine is accessed through a 34km-long sealed road connecting the national trunk road that connects Solwezi and Mwinilunga. Zambia Electricity Supply Corporation (ZESCO) supplies electricity for the mine through approximately 600km of 330kV power transmission lines. Five substations namely, Kansanshi, Lumwana, Kalumbila, Lusaka West and Mumbwa were built as part of the project. Water for the processing plant is sourced from the nearby Chisola dam, which was built as part of the Sentinel copper project. Contractors involved FLSmidth supplied SAG mills and ball mills for the Sentinel processing plant under a contract awarded in June 2011. Metso Mining and Construction supplied two MP2500 cone crushers for the Sentinel copper mine under a contract awarded in November 2013. ACTOM Power Transformers was contracted to supply six 20/25 MVA and 10 MVA customized transformers for the Sentinel copper project in 2012. CSA Global, which was acquired by Environmental Resources Management (ERM) in July 2019, provided mineral resource estimates for the Sentinel copper project.

Zambia Electricity Supply Corporation (ZESCO) supplies electricity for the mine through approximately 600km of 330kV power transmission lines. Five substations namely, Kansanshi, Lumwana, Kalumbila, Lusaka West and Mumbwa were built as part of the project. Water for the processing plant is sourced from the nearby Chisola dam, which was built as part of the Sentinel copper project. Contractors involved FLSmidth supplied SAG mills and ball mills for the Sentinel processing plant under a contract awarded in June 2011. Metso Mining and Construction supplied two MP2500 cone crushers for the Sentinel copper mine under a contract awarded in November 2013. ACTOM Power Transformers was contracted to supply six 20/25 MVA and 10 MVA customized transformers for the Sentinel copper project in 2012. CSA Global, which was acquired by Environmental Resources Management (ERM) in July 2019, provided mineral resource estimates for the Sentinel copper project.

Water for the processing plant is sourced from the nearby Chisola dam, which was built as part of the Sentinel copper project. Contractors involved FLSmidth supplied SAG mills and ball mills for the Sentinel processing plant under a contract awarded in June 2011. Metso Mining and Construction supplied two MP2500 cone crushers for the Sentinel copper mine under a contract awarded in November 2013. ACTOM Power Transformers was contracted to supply six 20/25 MVA and 10 MVA customized transformers for the Sentinel copper project in 2012. CSA Global, which was acquired by Environmental Resources Management (ERM) in July 2019, provided mineral resource estimates for the Sentinel copper project.

FLSmidth supplied SAG mills and ball mills for the Sentinel processing plant under a contract awarded in June 2011. Metso Mining and Construction supplied two MP2500 cone crushers for the Sentinel copper mine under a contract awarded in November 2013. ACTOM Power Transformers was contracted to supply six 20/25 MVA and 10 MVA customized transformers for the Sentinel copper project in 2012. CSA Global, which was acquired by Environmental Resources Management (ERM) in July 2019, provided mineral resource estimates for the Sentinel copper project.

Metso Mining and Construction supplied two MP2500 cone crushers for the Sentinel copper mine under a contract awarded in November 2013. ACTOM Power Transformers was contracted to supply six 20/25 MVA and 10 MVA customized transformers for the Sentinel copper project in 2012. CSA Global, which was acquired by Environmental Resources Management (ERM) in July 2019, provided mineral resource estimates for the Sentinel copper project.

ACTOM Power Transformers was contracted to supply six 20/25 MVA and 10 MVA customized transformers for the Sentinel copper project in 2012. CSA Global, which was acquired by Environmental Resources Management (ERM) in July 2019, provided mineral resource estimates for the Sentinel copper project.