beneficiation iron ore process with diegram

beneficiation of iron ore

Beneficiation of Iron Ore and the treatment of magnetic iron taconites, stage grinding and wet magnetic separation is standard practice. This also applies to iron ores of the non-magnetic type which after a reducing roast are amenable to magnetic separation. All such plants are large tonnage operations treating up to 50,000 tons per day and ultimately requiring grinding as fine as minus 500-mesh for liberation of the iron minerals from the siliceous gangue.

Magnetic separation methods are very efficient in making high recovery of the iron minerals, but production of iron concentrates with less than 8 to 10% silica in the magnetic cleaning stages becomes inefficient. It is here that flotation has proven most efficient. Wet magnetic finishers producing 63 to 64% Fe concentrates at 50-55% solids can go directly to the flotation section for silica removal down to 4 to 6% or even less. Low water requirements and positive silica removal with low iron losses makes flotation particularly attractive. Multistage cleaning steps generally are not necessary. Often roughing off the silica froth without further cleaning is adequate.

The iron ore beneficiation flowsheet presented is typical of the large tonnage magnetic taconite operations. Multi-parallel circuits are necessary, but for purposes of illustration and description a single circuit is shown and described.

The primary rod mill discharge at about minus 10- mesh is treated over wet magnetic cobbers where, on average magnetic taconite ore, about 1/3of the total tonnage is rejected as a non-magnetic tailing requiring no further treatment. The magnetic product removed by the cobbers may go direct to the ball mill or alternately may be pumped through a cyclone classifier. Cyclone underflows usually all plus 100 or 150 mesh, goes to the ball mill for further grinding. The mill discharge passes through a wet magnetic separator for further upgrading and also rejection of additional non-magnetic tailing. The ball mill and magnetic cleaner and cyclone all in closed circuit produce an iron enriched magnetic product 85 to 90% minus 325 mesh which is usually the case on finely disseminated taconites.

The finely ground enriched product from the initial stages of grinding and magnetic separation passes to a hydroclassifier to eliminate the large volume of water in the overflow. Some finely divided silica slime is also eliminated in this circuit. The hydroclassifier underflow is generally subjected to at least 3 stages of magnetic separation for further upgrading and production of additional final non-magnetic tailing. Magnetic concentrate at this point will usually contain 63 to 64% iron with 8 to 10% silica. Further silica removal at this point by magnetic separation becomes rather inefficient due to low magnetic separator capacity and their inability to reject middling particles.

The iron concentrate as it comes off the magnetic finishers is well flocculated due to magnetic action and usually contains 50-55% solids. This is ideal dilution for conditioning ahead of flotation. For best results it is necessary to pass the pulp through a demagnetizing coil to disperse the magnetic floes and thus render the pulp more amenable to flotation.

Feed to flotation for silica removal is diluted with fresh clean water to 35 to 40% solids. Being able to effectively float the silica and iron silicates at this relatively high solid content makes flotation particularly attractive.

For this separation Sub-A Flotation Machines of the open or free-flow type for rougher flotation are particularly desirable. Intense aeration of the deflocculated and dispersed pulp is necessary for removal of the finely divided silica and iron silicates in the froth product. A 6-cell No. 24 Free-FlowFlotation Machine will effectively treat 35 to 40 LTPH of iron concentrates down to the desired limit, usually 4 to 6% SiO2. Loss of iron in the froth is low. The rough froth may be cleaned and reflotated or reground and reprocessed if necessary.

A cationic reagent is usually all that is necessary to effectively activate and float the silica from the iron. Since no prior reagents have come in contact with thethoroughly washed and relatively slime free magnetic iron concentrates, the cationic reagent is fast acting and in somecases no prior conditioning ahead of the flotation cells is necessary.

A frother such as Methyl Isobutyl Carbinol or Heptinol is usually necessary to give a good froth condition in the flotation circuit. In some cases a dispersant such as Corn Products gum (sometimes causticized) is also helpful in depressing the iron. Typical requirements may be as follows:

One operation is presently using Aerosurf MG-98 Amine at the rate of .06 lbs/ton and 0.05 lbs/ton of MIBC (methyl isobutyl carbinol). Total reagent cost in this case is approximately 5 cents per ton of flotation product.

The high grade iron product, low in silica, discharging from the flotation circuit is remagnetized, thickened and filtered in the conventional manner with a disc filter down to 8 to 10% moisture prior to treatment in the pelletizing plant. Both the thickener and filter must be heavy duty units. Generally, in the large tonnage concentrators the thickener underflow at 70 to 72% solids is stored in large Turbine Type Agitators. Tanks up to 50 ft. in diameter x 40 ft. deep with 12 ft. diameter propellers are used to keep the pulp uniform. Such large units require on the order of 100 to 125 HP for thorough mixing the high solids ahead of filtration.

In addition to effective removal of silica with low water requirements flotation is a low cost separation, power-wise and also reagent wise. Maintenance is low since the finely divided magnetic taconite concentrate has proven to be rather non-abrasive. Even after a years operation very little wear is noticed on propellers and impellers.

A further advantage offered by flotation is the possibility of initially grinding coarser and producing a middling in the flotation section for retreatment. In place of initially grinding 85 to 90% minus 325, the grind if coarsened to 80-85% minus 325-mesh will result in greater initial tonnage treated per mill section. Considerable advantage is to be gained by this approach.

Free-Flow Sub-A Flotation is a solution to the effective removal of silica from magnetic taconite concentrates. Present plants are using this method to advantage and future installations will resort more and more to production of low silica iron concentrate for conversion into pellets.

block diagram of iron productions - binq mining

Iron ore is the basic raw material for production of metallic iron. . Fig-50 is a schematic drawing to indicate the temperature at various points in the . Process Technology: A simplified flow diagram of sponge iron making in rotary kilns is

Production process of fertilizer. Catalysts used in the process may include cobalt, molybdenum, nickel, iron oxide/chromium oxide, copper oxide/zinc oxide, and iron. . Figure 1 Block diagram of a total recycle CO2 stripping urea process.

data comparison of iron with the other members of the 3dblock and . Iron is an essential element in our diet and is needed for the production of haemoglobin. . a dative coordinate bond with the other iron atom (see diagram below).

3 Apr 2010 Flow Diagram Blast Furnace Iron Ore; Iron Ore Section Ore crushed & Transported from mine to Coal & Coke Section: Coke Oven Plant Schematic View of Coke Oven battery. . Coking Coals & Production @ Met.

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Minnesota leads the nation with 70% of the production, while Michigan produces most . The diagram below illustrates the relationship between unaltered "iron . the mid-20th century because trees do not block the view of the iron-rich hills.

iron ore beneficiation process

During the last ten years great strides have been made, on the Mesabi range, in the practice of beneficiating low grade iron ore material. By beneficiation is meant all methods of removing impurities, and raising the iron content to a point where it can be sold in open market, the principal impurities being silica and moisture. The general processes to which low grade iron ores are amenable are as follows:

(a) Drying; removes hydroscopic or atmospheric moisture. (b) Calcining; removes carbon dioxide from iron carbonate, molecular water from hydrated hematites, and atmospheric moisture. (c) Roasting; removes sulphur, carbon dioxide, molecular water and atmospheric moisture. (d) Agglomeration; primarily for the purpose of preparing finely divided material for blast furnace; briquetting and sintering.

(a) Screen sizing; removes rock and sand. (b) Classification; removes sand by means of currents of water of varying velocities. (c) Log washing; removes fine sand. (d) Jigging; removes larger particles of impurities than is possible by log washing. Certain types of jigs remove fine sand. (e) Reciprocating tables; recover fine iron particles from sand discarded by above processes. (f) Magnetic separation; applicable to the commercial separation of the magnetic oxide of iron from gangue material. From a scientific standpoint it is possible to separate certain hematites and limonites from their gangue. (g) Miscellaneous processes; comprise dry concentration, electro-static separation and other processes.

At this time four of the above methods of beneficiation, i. e., Drying, Screening, Log Washing, and Table Concentration are in use, and a plant for a fifth process, magnetic concentration, is now under construction.

The Brunt Ore Drying Plant. In 1910, M. A. Hanna & Co. built an experimental drying plant at the Hollister mine, Crystal Falls, Mich. This was the first plant of this nature built in the iron districts of Lake Superior. The ore to be dried was of very painty nature, being high in alumina, and the moisture content was in the neighborhood of 18 to 20 per cent. The capacity of this plant was approximately twenty tons per hour. The type of dryer used was what is known as the Cummers Patent Dryer. Considerable tonnage was handled through this plant with satisfactory results. By eliminating a part of the moisture the percentages of the other ingredients of the ore are raised in proportion to the amount of moisture abstracted. It was found by drying the iron ore that such grades as were a few points below the required iron content could be raised to grades that would be accepted as merchantable orein other words, taken out of the lean ore class. Many difficulties were encountered at the Hollister plant in the mechanical handling of the materials. As iron ore is of an extremely abrasive nature, the wear and tear on conveyors, elevators, chutes and any other apparatus with which it came in contact was very excessive. This plant was finally dismantled, but not until the ore at the property had been shipped.

In 1911, the above company began building a dryer of much larger proportions at the Brunt mine, Mountain Iron, Minn. The capacity of this plant was to be 120 tons per hour. The first year of its operation only two units were installed, each having a capacity of forty tons per hour. These also were the Cummers Dryers, and were designed especially for iron ore. A great many mechanical difficulties were enconutered in this installation, due to the stickiness and the high moisture content of the ore to be handled. After the first years, operation it was found necessary to practically tear down the whole plant and rebuild it along different lines, as the experience gained in the first years operation proved that the equipment was entirely inadequate to cope with the situation. The wet ore bins were changed; the feeders required an entirely different arrangement. To take the place of conveyor belt, a bucket conveyor was installed, and the whole plant was changed over from steam driven equipment to individual electric motor drives. This same year two more dryer units were installed. These were of the Ruggles-Cole type. Each of these machines had a capacity of twenty tons per hour. Again an endless number of mechanical troubles were encountered with this equipment, the gear drives, etc., being entirely too light for the work imposed upon them. These were enlarged and rebuilt. The wear and tear on this equipment was very severe, and these dryers were practically rebuilt throughout with the exception of the outside shells. At this time large dust collectors were installed for collecting the dust which was carried over by the fans from the dryers. The theory was that the ore should be dried down to a moisture content of 4 or 5 per cent. The first cargoes shipped to the lower lake ports gave a great deal of trouble due to the dust which was given off during the handling, and finally the moisture content of dried ore was increased to between 8 and 11 per cent. When the ore was dried to this moisture content very little dust was given off from the dryers; consequently the use of dust collectors was discontinued, the fans discharging directly to the atmosphere through short stacks. The continuous bucket conveyor was finally discarded on account of the high cost of upkeep and delays caused by breakage and repairs. This was taken out and replaced by continuous bucket elevators which are giving very satisfactory results to date.

The ore that is being dried at the Brunt mine contains from 16 to 22 per cent moisture and is reduced to about 9 or 10 per cent moisture content. The furnace men are very well pleased with the structure of the ore after it has been dried, as in drying it nodulizes or rolls into small pellets, which makes a very satisfactory furnace ore. At the same time that the dryer was being built at the Brunt mine, the Shenango Furnace Company installed a large plant at the Whiteside mine, at, Buhl. This plant consisted of four large Ruggles-Cole type dryers, each having a capacity of thirty tons per hour. The location for the Whiteside dryers was ideal as the ore was transferred through the plant entirely by gravity, no conveyors, elevators or other ore handling equipment being necessary outside of bins and feeders. The Whiteside plant experienced considerable difficulty similar to the Ruggles-Cole units at the Brunt, the gear drives, etc., being too light in design to stand up under the severe work. A new driving mechanism was finally installed at this

In iron ores which have a natural iron content of 45 to 48 per cent, and a moisture content of 14 to 20 per cent, an abstraction of 2 per cent moisture will increase the iron content approximately 1 per cent. Thus, if from an iron ore containing 48 per cent iron, as mined, 6 per cent moisture be abstracted, it yields a product of approximately 51 per cent iron. Considerable money has been spent in developing the drying of iron ore, and the results have been very satisfactory.

Trout Lake Concentrator. The first attempt to wash Mesabi ores was made in 1901-2, when a carload of ore was sent from the Arcturus property to Cedartown, Ga. The results justified further investigation, and in 1903-4 a small experimental plant was built at the Holman mine. In 1905, the Oliver Iron Mining Company became interested, and after exhaustive investigations conducted during the following four years erected the present Trout Lake concentrator. The work was commenced in April, 1909, and the plant was ready for use in 1910. It is located on the east side of Trout Lake, readily accessible from all directions. The mill building is of heavy steel construction throughout, 255 feet long, 162 feet wide, and 124 feet high, enclosed with corrugated iron. The approach to the mill is an earth fill, some 4,000 feet long, containing several million cubic yards of stripping from the Canisteo and Walker pits. It has a maximum height of 125 feet and was planned to accommodate four tracks. A steel trestle, 650 feet long, connects it with the mill. At the opposite end of the mill, 300 feet of additional steel work is in place and is now being used for tail track; it can be utilized for an addition to the mill if need arises.

is pumped direct to a 100,000-gallon supply tank at the mill. All the machinery in the mill is electrically driven. A 1,250 k.v.a. direct-connected generator transmits electric power at 6,600 volts to the mill, where it is stepped down to 440 volts.

The total amount of steel in the mill building, approach, tail-track and power plant structures is approximately 7,000 tons. The total cost of mill and equipment, according to the published report of the United States Steel Corporation, approximates $1,500,000.

The concentrating machinery is arranged in live units, each complete and capable of independent operation. This was done in order to keep the machines within reasonable size, to be able to handle separately the ores from different properties at the same time, and to increase the capacity. The tail-track already mentioned is long enough for seven additional units. The crude ore from the different mines is hauled to the mill over the big fill approach and trestle and dumped into the bins at the top of the mill. Each unit has a separate bin of 450 to 500 tons capacity. The ore is sluiced out from the bottoms of the bins by a hydraulic jet, and descends by gravity through the different machines. The crude ore tracks are 90 feet above the concentrate tracks. The ore is handled entirely by gravity; there is no elevating machinery to get out of order, other than the sand pumps necessary to lift the table concentrates to dewatering tanks over the concentrate bins.

One crude ore bin and one bar-grizzly. One 20-foot conical revolving trommel with 2-inch openings. One picking-belt, to receive and convey the trommel oversize to the concentrate bin. (The taconite chunks are picked off the belt by hand and dropped into a rock bin.) Two 25-foot log washers, one on either side of the trommel to treat the trommel throughs, discharging a product into the concentrate bin. Two chip-screens, one for either log, receiving log overflow

Two settling tanks, receiving chip-screen throughs. Two 18-foot turbos (small log washers to treat fines), receiving the tank settlings, discharging a concentrate directly into the concentrate bin. Four settling tanks receiving the overflow from turbo and first settling tanks. Twenty Overstrom tables, arranged in two rows of ten each, to treat the settlings from the four settling tanks just mentioned. Eight Frenier spiral sand pumps (four primary and four relay), to pump the table concentrates to dewatering tanks from which they discharge directly into the concentrate bin.

The mill product thus consists of belt product, log-, turbo-, and table-concentrates. Each unit has its own concentrate bin of ninety tons capacity. Tracks for ore cars run directly under the bins, a separate track serving each bin. The cars are stored in a yard south of the mill, from which they can be spotted under the bins by releasing the brakes, as the grade from the yard is down towards the mill. The tailings consist of chip-screen discharge, No. 2 and No. 3 settling-tank overflow and table tailings. They are collected by launders in the mill basement and discharged into a concrete launder outside the table addition to mill. This launder discharges into Trout Lake, some 2,000 feet distant. The amount of water used per unit is about 1,500 gallons per minute, or 90,000 gallons per hour, approximately 360 gallons per ton of concentrates.

The rock picked off the belt and bar-grizzly is drawn from the rock pockets or bins into a rock car and hauled by an electric motor to a stockpile east of the mill. One motor and car serves all five units. One 100-h.p. electric motor drives the trommel, picking belt, logs and turbos; one 15-h.p. motor drives the tables and chip-screens; one 20 h.p. motor runs the sand pumps in the basement of the mill.

In 1910, the mill was operated on two eleven-hour shifts. In 1911, this was cut down to two ten-hour shifts. The average capacity is nearly 400 tons of crude ore per hour per unit, the maximum being 900 tons. The largest tonnage washed in one season of six months was over 4,000,000 tons of crude ore. The mill can not be operated in freezing weather, and its operating season coincides with the ore-shipping season. Nearly 100 men are employed on the day shift, and 75 to 80 on the night shift.

The average grade of crude ore varies greatly, depending on the character of material being treated and the local conditions at the time of mining. The concentrate product varies within wide limits, depending upon the character and class of ore, just as the grade of direct-shipping ores varies greatly. This is not a matter of degree of concentration produced by the mill, but rather the amount of concentration and enrichment produced by nature.

The results obtained vary widely for different ore bodies and even for different layers in the same ore body. The quantity of rock sorted out in the pit is so variable that the mere statement of mill recovery might give a very misleading idea of the total percentage of recovery from these low grade ore bodies. It may be authoritatively said that the mill has satisfactorily solved the problem of economical handling of western Mesabi ore bodies, a most important achievement in the line of conservation of our national resources.

The Concentration of the East Mesabi Magnetites. The last method of treatment to be considered, and the last to make its appearance in the Lake Superior district, is magnetic concentration. This method of beneficiating iron ores has been in use for many years in New-York State and Canada, and some foreign countries, but, until recently, it has not been used in this district.

The whole process of magnetic concentration as applied to the eastern Mesabi magnetites is a good illustration of the manner in which the various types of machines can be made to work together so as to produce a high-grade furnace product from an ore material containing only 25 per cent of iron in the form of magnetite. The hard rock is first crushed to about three-inch size and is then passed over a magnetic cobber. The field strength of this cobber is so adjusted that all of the coarse material containing no magnetic iron is discarded as tailing. The concentrate from this cobber is still too low grade to be useful, and is, therefore, crushed again to two-inch size. This material is passed over a second cobber and the worthless gangue again discarded. This process of crushing, cobbing and discarding worthless material continues until the product has been reduced to about -inch size. When this stage has been reached, approximately one-half the ore has been discarded as tailing and the other half contains practically all of the magnetic oxide that was originally present in the rock. This -inch material, however, still contains too much gangue to be considered a desirable furnace product. It is, therefore, ground wet in ball mills until it will all pass a 100-mesh screen. This fine material is concentrated by magnetic log-washers in which the final separation is made. The concentrate produced by these machines is then dewatered by the use of continuous filters in the tank of which the fuel for sintering is mixed. The filter cake is conveyed directly to the sintering plant, where the ore is agglomerated. After being sintered the ore is screened in order to remove any fine material, and only the clean coarse sinter is shipped to the furnaces.

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wet plant iron ore process diagram

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Crude Ore Processing - Figure 11.28-1 is a process flow diagram for vermiculite processing. Crude ore from open-pit mines is brought to the mill by truck and is loaded onto outdoor stockpiles. Primary processing consists of screening the raw material to remove

The iron ore pelletizing process consists of three main steps: 1. Pelletizing feed preparation and mixing: the raw material (iron ore concentrate, additives anthracite, dolomite and binders are prepared in terms of particle size and chemical 2.

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plant diagram iron ore beneficiation Beneficiation of Iron Ore Mineral Processing & Metallurgy Crushing and GrindingHydroclassification and Magnetic FinishingConditioning and FlotationSilica Flotation ReagentsThickening and FilteringAdvantages of Flotation Crushing is done in the conventional manner in 2 or 3 stage systems to approximately all minus inch which is considered good feed for ...

Wet High Intensity Magnetic Separator (WHIMS) The WHIMS range includes 4, 16, 24 and 48 pole machines with either 68 or 120 millimetre separation matrix widths. WHIMS separators are suitable for applications requiring higher magnetic field gradients to remove weakly magnetic particles from non-magnetic concentrates.

Metallurgical ContentThe Iron Ore Process FlowsheetCRUSHING AND GRINDINGHYDROCLASSIFICATION AND MAGNETIC FINISHINGCONDITIONING AND FLOTATIONSILICA FLOTATION REAGENTSTHICKENING AND FILTERINGADVANTAGES OF FLOTATION Beneficiation of Iron Ore and the treatment of magnetic iron taconites, stage grinding and wet magnetic separation is standard practice. This also applies to iron .

Vale has inaugurated its new dry pilot plant for processing iron ore in Minas Gerais, Brazil, as it continues to reduce its use of water in ore and waste processing. The Brazilian technology, known as FDMS (Fines Dry Magnetic Separation), is unique and has been developed by New Steel a company Vale acquired in late 2018 .

Processing plant The processing plant consists of six individual scrubbing, screening and de-sanding circuits. The wet scrubbing units are used to break down the sticky clays attached to the ore, into a fine suspended clay fraction suitable for subsequent wet ...

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History Iron beneficiation has been evident since as early as 800 BCE in China with the use of bloomery.A bloomery is the original form of smelting and allowed people to make fires hot enough to melt oxides into a liquid that separates from the iron. Although the ...

Our iron ore wet processing plants are proven to successfully deal with silica and alumina contamination in the iron ore, resulting in an increase in the Fe value of the iron ore thereby increasing the efficiency of the steel production process.

Many iron ore producers are facing challenging times; processing crude material with rising levels of impurities and a volatile iron ore price. Beneficiation, particularly washing (scrubbing), can be the key to upgrading the ore to earn more per shipped tonne. High-end steel production at a low coke consumption level and a high productivity rate can only be achieved by using high-quality ...

Process Flow Diagram For Magnatite Ore Beneficiation Plant Flotation Cell. Flotation cell, also named as flotation machine, is of great importance for ore separation. The flotation effect can be influenced by the factors of ore particles, ore pulp or drug. Details+

Our iron ore wet processing plants are proven to successfully deal with silica and alumina contamination in the iron ore, resulting in an increase in the Fe value of the iron ore thereby increasing the efficiency of the steel production process.

For the dry treatment, no water (from the environment) is required to process the extracted ore; thus, there is no need to build tailings dams. In comparison to the wet processing, the dry processing technique reduces the total water consumption by 93%, on average.

Processing plant The processing plant consists of six individual scrubbing, screening and de-sanding circuits. The wet scrubbing units are used to break down the sticky clays attached to the ore, into a fine suspended clay fraction suitable for subsequent wet ...

Schematic diagram iron ore beneficiation plant india. Coal Beneficiation Process Diagram In India Coal beneficiation process diagram and solution South Africa Coal beneficiation is the process of controlled by a crushing and screening process 100 ton capacity gold processing plant equipment in south africa used Coal Crushing and Screening Plant in India Iron Ore Processing Plant is mainly

Beneficiation Plants and Pelletizing Plants for Utilizing Low Grade Iron Ore Tsutomu NOMURA 1, Norihito YAMAMOTO 2, Takeshi FUJII, Yuta TAKIGUCHI 3 1 Technology & Process Engineering Dept., Iron Unit Div., Engineering Business2 Plant Engineering Dept., Iron .

The following diagram demonstrates some typical flowsheet designs for Iron Ore beneficiation of hard rock and friable ores. Innovative Plant Design Having developed an effective and optimised flowsheet, you need a plant that safely and effectively applies this flowsheet to the ore body to extract high grade iron ore whilst delivering high availability, with low capital and low operational ...

For the dry treatment, no water (from the environment) is required to process the extracted ore; thus, there is no need to build tailings dams. In comparison to the wet processing, the dry processing technique reduces the total water consumption by 93%, on average.

Processing plant The processing plant consists of six individual scrubbing, screening and de-sanding circuits. The wet scrubbing units are used to break down the sticky clays attached to the ore, into a fine suspended clay fraction suitable for subsequent wet ...

Metallurgical ContentThe Iron Ore Process FlowsheetCRUSHING AND GRINDINGHYDROCLASSIFICATION AND MAGNETIC FINISHINGCONDITIONING AND FLOTATIONSILICA FLOTATION REAGENTSTHICKENING AND FILTERINGADVANTAGES OF FLOTATION Beneficiation of Iron Ore and the treatment of magnetic iron taconites, stage grinding and wet magnetic separation is standard practice. This also applies to iron .

Mine processing Roy Hill's purpose built, world class mine processing plant utilises low risk, proven technology to process 55Mtpa (Wet) of lump and fines iron ore and is the largest single feed processing plant in the Pilbara region. A wet processing and ...

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The following diagram demonstrates some typical flowsheet designs for Iron Ore beneficiation of hard rock and friable ores. Innovative Plant Design Having developed an effective and optimised flowsheet, you need a plant that safely and effectively applies this flowsheet to the ore body to extract high grade iron ore whilst delivering high availability, with low capital and low operational ...

existing and new processes for beneficiation of indian iron ores | springerlink

The iron ore industries of India are expected to bring new technologies to cater to the need of the tremendous increase in demand for quality ores for steel making. With the high-grade ores depleting very fast, the focus is on the beneficiation of low-grade resources. However, most of these ores do not respond well to the conventional beneficiation techniquesused to achieve a suitable concentrate for steel and other metallurgical industries. The present communication discusses the beneficiation practices in the Indian context and the recent developments in alternative processing technologies such as reduction roasting, microwave-assisted heating, magnetic carrier technology and bio-beneficiation. Besides, the use of new collectors in iron ore flotation is also highlighted.