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berryllium (be) - chemical properties, health and environmental effects

Beryllium is a toxic bivalent element, steel gray, strong, light-weight, primarily used as hardening agent in alloys. Beryllium has one of the highest melting points of the light metals. It has excellent thermal conductivity, is nonmagnetic, it resists attack by concentrated nitric acid and at standard temperature and pressures beryllium resist oxidation when exposts to air.

Beryllium is used as an alloying agent in the production of beryllium-copper. Thanks to their electrical and thermal conductivity, high strenght and hardness, non magnetic properties, good resistance, dimensional stability over a wide temperature range beryllium-copper alloys are used in many applications. A typical application of beryllium-copper alloys is in the defense and aerospace industries. Beryllium is also used in the field of X-ray detection diagnostic (it is transparent to X-rays) and in the making of various computer equipment.

The beryllium content on Earth crust is 2.6 ppm, in soil 6 ppm. Beryllium in soil can pass into the plants grown on it, provided it in a soluble form. Typical levels in plants vary between 1 and 40 ppb, too low to affect animals which eat these plants. Beryllium is found in 30 different minerals, the most important of which are bertrandite, beryl, chrysoberyl, and phenacite. Precious forms of beryl are aquamarine and emerald.

Beryllium is not an element that is crucial for humans; in fact it is one of the most toxic chemicals we know. It is a metal that can be very harmful when humans breathe it in, because it can damage the lungs and cause pneumonia. The most commonly known effect of beryllium is called berylliosis, a dangerous and persistent lung disorder that can also damage other organs, such as the heart. In about 20% of all cases people die of this disease. Breathing in beryllium in the workplace is what causes berylliosis. People that have weakened immune systems are most susceptible to this disease. Beryllium can also cause allergic reactions with people that are hypersensitive to this chemical. These reactions can be very heavy and they can even cause a person to be seriously ill, a condition known as Chronic Beryllium Disease (CBD). The symptoms are weakness, tiredness and breathing problems. Some people that suffer from CBD will develop anorexia and blueness of hands and feet. Sometimes people can even be in such a serious condition that CBD can cause their death. Next to causing berylliosis and CBD, beryllium can also increase the chances of cancer development and DNA damage.

Beryllium enters the air, water and soil as a result of natural processes and human activities. It occurs naturally in the environment in small amounts. Humans add beryllium through production of metal and combustion of coal and oil. Beryllium exists in air as very small dust particles. It enters waterways during weathering of soils and rocks. Industrial emissions will add beryllium to air and wastewater disposals will add beryllium to water. It usually settles in sediment. Beryllium as a chemical element occurs naturally in soils in small amounts, but human activities have also increased these beryllium levels. Beryllium is not likely to move deeper into the soil and dissolve within groundwater. In water, chemicals will react with beryllium, causing it to become insoluble. This is a good thing, because the water-insoluble form of beryllium can cause much less harm to organisms than the water-soluble form. Beryllium will not be accumulated in the bodies of fish. However, some fruits and vegetables such as kidney beans and pears may contain significant levels of beryllium. These levels can enter animals that eat them, but luckily most animals excrete beryllium quickly through urine and feces. The uptake of beryllium has consequences mainly for human health. However, laboratory tests have indicated that it is possible for beryllium to cause cancer and changes of DNA with animals. So far there is no field evidence to support these findings.

beryllium (be): properties & uses studiousguy

Beryllium was discovered by French chemist and pharmacist Nicholas-Louis Vauquelin in beryl, a silicate mineral (Be3Al2Si6O18) and emerald (variety of beryl) in 1797. Later on, the element was separated in 1828 by the french chemist Antoine-Alexandre-Brutus Bussy, and by the German chemist Friedrich Wohler, independently. The salts of beryllium have a sweet taste, and hence, it was known as glucinium from greek word glykys for sweet, until IUPAC declared its name as beryllium (which is derived from Greek word beryllos for beryl). It is a chemical element with symbol Be with atomic number 4 in the periodic table.

Beryllium is naturally found in mineral rocks, coal ashes, soil and volcanic dust. There are about 30 beryllium containing minerals, from which, the most common naturally occurring minerals are beryl and bertrandite. Beryl provides coloured gems, such as emerald (green), aquamarine (blue-green), heliodor (yellow), and morganite (pink).

Stiffness means the extent to which a metal resists deformation to the applied force. Beryllium is extremely a stiff metal. It is six times stiffer than steel, and it can maintain its shape at high and low temperature. Its elastic modulus (the quantity that measures substances resistance to being deformed elastically, when stress is applied to it) is about 50% greater than steel.

Beryllium possesses the highest thermal conductivity among all metals on an equal weight basis. Its coefficient of thermal expansion closely matches with those of stainless steel, titanium, nickel alloys, cobalt alloys and other commonly used structured materials. This makes beryllium, a suitable candidate as a mirror over a temperature range from -453F (-249C) to as high as 500F (275C), for use in satellites and other space applications.

Beryllium is kinetically inert to oxygen and water because it forms an oxide film on its surface. However, powdered beryllium burns brilliantly, when it is ignited in air, and it gives beryllium oxide (BeO) and beryllium nitride (Be3N2). The beryllium oxides have rock salt structure, which shows that it is covalent in nature. Although beryllium is placed in the alkaline earth metals group in the periodic table, its oxides and hydroxides are not alkaline in nature [Alkaline metals (Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba) are so-called because their oxides and hydroxides are alkaline in nature]. Beryllium oxide (BeO) is amphoteric in nature and beryllium hydroxide (BeOH) is also amphoteric in nature as it reacts with acid and alkali both.

Beryllium chloride is conveniently made from its oxide at the temperature range of 600-800K; whereas, the best route for the preparation of beryllium fluoride is the thermal decomposition of (NH4)2BeF4.

Beryllium halides are covalent in nature and they are easily soluble in organic solvents. This property is also exceptional as compared to other group 2 members (Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba), whose halides are ionic in nature.

Whether beryllium is barely polished or coated, it presents an excellent optical surface. The material is also reflective in the far-infrared region as high as those of gold, the usual reflective metal of choice. It is also transparent or translucent metal to most wavelengths of X-rays and gamma rays, which makes it useful for the output windows of X-ray tubes and other such apparatus.

Beryllium is one of the lightest metal with unique characteristics, such as high stiffness, high strength, low density, heat resistant, and reflectivity make it an exceptional material for various industries, such as aerospace, medical, space and defence. It also offers high specific heat and excellent thermal conductivity that allows the material to sustain crucial properties at both elevated and cryogenic temperatures.

Beryllium is used in alloys with copper or nickel to make gyroscopes, springs, spot welding electrolytes and non-sparking tools. Mixing with these metals increases their electrical and thermal conductivity. Other alloys used for high-speed aircraft, missiles, spacecraft and communication satellites. Beryllium alloys are used in many applications because of their combination of elasticity, high electrical conductivity and thermal conductivity, high strength and hardness, nonmagnetic properties, as well as good corrosion and fatigue resistance.

Beryllium exhibit low light scattering in the infrared, and it is five times stiffer than aluminium (as measured by the youngs modulus), and it can be easily matched with other metals of the similar coefficient of expansion, such as titanium or steel. It provides an excellent surface for standard IR scanning mirrors because it is highly durable, scratch-resistant and easily cleaned with acetone and tissue. Some IR scan mirrors produced years ago, have maintained 98.4% reflectivity without a change in its figure. The polished mirror surface has a fairly thick layer of beryllium oxide (BeO). Besides being stiffer than aluminium, beryllium mirrors are also lighter and more durable. These performance characteristics make beryllium a highly desirable mirror material, which makes it useful in satellites and other space applications.

Beryllium is non-magnetic. Because of this, tools fabricated out of beryllium-based materials are used by naval or military explosive ordnance disposal teams for work on or near naval mines, since these mines commonly have magnetic fuzes. They are also found in maintenance and construction materials near magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) machines because of the high magnetic fields generated. In the fields of radio communications and radars, hand made beryllium tools are used, that are used to generate high levels of microwave power in the transmitters.

The most important application of beryllium is in radiation windows for X-ray tubes because of its low atomic number and very low absorption for X-rays. Thin beryllium foils are used as radiation windows for X-ray detectors and extremely low absorption minimizes the heating effect caused by high intensity. Vacuum-tight windows and beam-tubes for radiation experiments are manufactured exclusively from beryllium. For various X-ray emission studies, the sample holder is usually made of beryllium because its emitted X-ray have much lower energies than X-rays from most studied materials.

Beryllium is useful as a material for high-frequency speaker devices because of its low weight and high rigidity. Although, beryllium tweeters (a special type of loudspeakers) are limited to high-end home because beryllium is expensive (many more times than titanium).

beryllium - an overview | sciencedirect topics

Beryllium and its alloys must be heated with care. Handling and processing produce dust, chips, scale, slivers, mists, or fumes. Air-borne particles of beryllium and beryllium oxide are extremely toxic with serious latent effects. Abrasives and chemicals used with beryllium must be properly disposed of [2]. One procedure is to degrease with trichloroethylene, followed by immersion in the etching solution (Table 7.9) for 510 minutes at 20C [27].

Rinse in distilled water after washing in tap water and oven-dry for 10 minutes at 121C177C. Caution should be exercised because beryllium reacts quickly with methyl alcohol, fluorocarbons, perchloroethylene, and methyl ethyl ketone/Freon and can be pitted by long-term exposure to tap water containing chlorides or sulfates [27].

Beryllium hydroxide (Be(OH)2) is used as feedstock to produce beryllium oxide (BeO) [90]. The hydroxide is dissolved in sulfuric acid to form beryllium sulfate (BeSO4) crystals, which is calcined in air at a temperature between 1420 and 1720K before decomposing into high purity BeO powder. Calcining produces agglomerates of particles 0.1 to 0.2m in size. Typical tap density at this stage 20% to 25% of solid. The agglomerates are spray dried with binders to increase tap density and flowability and is pressed into green parts, machined and sintered. Beryllia ceramic possesses by unique combination of high electrical resistivity (21014 to 1.31015m) with high conductivity (250 to 330W/mK).

Beryllium (Be) has many unique properties that make it of both theoretical and practical interest. As a metal, it is strikingly different both from lithiumits neighbor in the periodic tableand the higher Z alkaline-earth metals magnesium and calcium. The density of beryllium is not only 3.5 times larger than that of lithium but is also greater than that of magnesium and calcium. Its compressibility is very low, its Debye temperature is among the highest in the periodic table, its melting temperature is much higher than the other alkaline earths, and its electronic specific heat is very low. Beryllium also has many properties that recommend it for exotic optical applications. It is relatively light compared with other metals of optical importance and offers a very high specific stiffness, a low thermal expansion at cryogenic temperatures, a low Z number, high thermal conductivity, and high reflectivity in the infrared. These properties make it particularly attractive for optical components that are intended for use in space. This chapter presents a summarization of the relevant facts about the more significant studies of optical properties of Be, including photon-energy range, sample type, method of measurement, date of publication, and reference number. The chapter further discusses the available experimental data in four spectral regionsthe soft X-ray range, the vacuum ultraviolet, the infraredvisibleultraviolet, and the far infrared.

For solid beryllium remediation, the common preferred method is to wash, soak, or rinse the contaminated area with -aminobenzyl-, ,-diphosphoric (APMDP) acid and collecting the rinses. This is ideal for machine tools or work surfaces, but not practical for larger environmental areas such as fields or roads. A more appropriate method has been proposed that uses a gel, foam, or strippable coating that could be peeled away from the surface by hand, by mechanical means, or by vacuum [164,165]. Similarly, for liquid contamination, solid material, such as gel, foam, or strippable coating containing APMDP would trap the beryllium contamination, preventing it from spreading further. The gel, foam, and/or coating can be mechanically removed. Another option is to incorporate APMDP into a solid support matrix (e.g., styrene beads, silica beads or even silica aerogel). Beryllium-contaminated liquids could be flowed over the surface to remove the beryllium. This latter example would be useful for removing liquid beryllium from liquid environments such as drinking water, sewer water, or seawater. The cleaned water may then be recycled.

The effect of APMDP acid on BeO debris in the Contained Firing Facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in Livermore, California has been investigated to prove the effectiveness of the chelator on environmental samples, and to prove that chelator could in fact dissolve and bind beryllium oxide [164,165]. Varying concentrations of APMDP chelator (pH adjusted to pH 7) were added to vials containing BeO debris and left to stand for 3 days, with manual shaking performed for 2 minutes for each vial, twice a day. Samples were then filtered through a 0.2m membrane and filtrates were analyzed by ICP-MS. The results clearly demonstrated a linear concentration profile, indicating that APMDP dissolves insoluble BeO fines and binds beryllium.

Beryllium is not used as an addition to binary AlSi alloys. However, it is important to understand this phase diagram in order to conduct further analysis of the quaternary AlBeFeSi quaternary system, which explains the modifying effect of this element upon the morphology of the Fe-bearing phase.

This is a simple eutectic system (Fig.1.23) without any binary or ternary intermediate compounds [216]. The ternary eutectic forms according to the phase reaction L(Al)+(Si)+(Be) at 572C, 1213%Si, and 11.5%Be. This eutectic has an anomalous structure with particles of Si- and Be-bearing phases distributed in (Al). The limit joint solubility of Si and Be in (Al) at 572C is equal to 1.5% and 0.05%, respectively.

The (Si) phase represents almost pure silicon and has cubic crystalline lattice of the diamond type (space symmetry group Fd3m, 8 atoms per unit cell) with lattice parameter a=0.54285nm and density 2.33g/cm3 [218]. The Vickers hardness of (Si) is 8.713.5GPa in the 27327C range and drops to 3GPa at 627C. Silicon has microhardness 12.3GPa at 20C and 1-h microhardness 8GPa at 300C.

Whether anhydrous or in solution, beryllium sulphate, BeSO4, magnesium sulphate, MgSO4,7H2O, barium sulphate, BaSO4, and cadmium sulphate, CdSO4,15H2O, have no effect on aluminium. Calcium and barium sulphate are insoluble. It is well known that plaster, which mainly contains calcinated calcium sulphate, CaSO4,2H2O (gypsum), does not attack aluminium (see Chapter L4). Solutions of magnesium sulphate, in a concentration of less than 50%, have no effect on aluminium up to about 5070C.

Apart from the advantageous properties mentioned earlier, berylliumcopper alloys suffer from some drawbacks. Beryllium present in the beryllium bronze is detrimental to human life as well as to environment. The alloys are difficult to recycle after use. In this context, researchers have been studying various other copper alloys as substitute for toxic beryllium bronzes. One such alloy investigated by Huei-Sen Wang et al. is Cu7.4Ni1.3Si1.2Cr. This alloy is developed for mold tooling application. When cast conventionally, this alloy exhibits a coarse grain structure (grain size of about 200m) embedded with large size precipitates and substantial micro-segregation of the alloying elements. Huei-Sen Wang et al. processed this alloy through powder metallurgy route. The powder of the alloy was produced by argon atomization process with average size of 25m. The powder was consolidated to bulk form by hot pressing followed by sintering to obtain dense mass. The average grain size of the hot pressed and sintered product has been found to be 100m. The alloy samples were solution treated at 970C for times up to 10h and subsequently quenched in water. The samples were precipitation hardened at 450C for up to 6h. The best results were observed at 8h solution treatment at 970C followed by 6h aging at 450C. After aging a subgrain structure with grain size less than 30m was observed.11 The alloy was found to exhibit average T.S. of up to 820MPa and average thermal conductivity of 110Wm1K1. The strengthening was produced due to fine dispersion of nanometer size -Ni3Si and -Ni2Si precipitates in fine grain size matrix as shown in Figure 27. Based on the thermal conductivity and the T.S. developed in the CuNiSiCr alloy Huei-Sen Wang et al. suggested the potential application of this alloy for mold tooling.

Figure 27. Bright field images of the CuNiSiCr alloy after 6h aging showing microsize Cr3Si and Ni2Si precipitates at the grain boundaries ((a) and (b)), microsize Ni31Si12 precipitate within the grain (c), and (d) large number of precipitate particles within copper matrix.11

This element was discovered by Vauquelin in France in 1798 as the oxide in the mineral beryl (beryllium aluminium silicate) and in emerald. It was first isolated independently by Whler and Bussy in 1828 who reduced the chloride with potassium. Beryl has traditionally been a by-product of emerald mining and was until recently the major source of beryllium metal. Currently more beryllium is extracted from the closely associated mineral bertrandite (beryllium silicate hydroxide). Beryllium has some remarkable properties (Table 1.1). Its stiffness, as measured by specific elastic modulus, is nearly an order of magnitude greater than that for the other light metals, or for the commonly used heavier metals iron, copper, and nickel. This has led to its use in gyroscopes and in inertial guidance systems. It has a relatively high melting point, and its capture cross section (i.e., permeability) for neutrons is lower than for any other metal. These properties have stimulated much interest by the aerospace and nuclear industries. For example, a design study specifying beryllium as the major structural material for a supersonic transport aircraft has indicated possible weight savings of up to 50% for components for which it could be used. However, its structural uses have been confined largely to components for spacecraft and for applications such as satellite antenna booms. In nuclear engineering it has had potential for use as a fuel element can in power reactors. Another unique property of beryllium is its high specific heat which is approximately twice that of aluminium and magnesium, and four times that of titanium. This inherent capacity to absorb heat, when combined with its low density, led to the selection of beryllium as the basis for the reentry heat shield of the Mercury capsule used for the first manned spacecraft developed in the United States. In a more general application, it has served as a heat sink when inserted in the center of composite disk brakes used in the landing gear of a large military transport aircraft. Beryllium also shows outstanding optical reflectivity, particularly in the infrared, which has led to its combat use in target acquisition systems as well as in space telescopes.

Despite much research in several countries, wider use has not been made of beryllium because it is costly to mine and extract, it has an inherently low ductility at ambient temperatures, and the fact that the powdered oxide is extremely toxic to some people. The problem of low ductility arises because of the dimensions of the close-packed hexagonal crystal structure of beryllium. The c/a ratio of the unit cell is 1.567 which is the lowest and most removed of all metals from the ideal value of 1.633. One result of this is a high degree of anisotropy between mechanical properties in the a and c crystallographic directions. At room temperature, slip is limited and only possible on the basal plane, which also happens to be the plane along which cleavage occurs. Furthermore, there has also been little opportunity to improve properties by alloying because the small size of the beryllium atom severely restricts its solubility for other elements. One exception is the eutectic composition Be38Al in which some useful ductility has been achieved. This alloy was developed by the Lockheed Aircraft Company in 1976 and became known as Lockalloy. Because beryllium and aluminium have little mutual solid solubility in each other, the alloy is essentially a composite material with a microstructure comprising stiff beryllium particles in a softer aluminium matrix. Lightweight (specific gravity 2.09) extrusions and sheet have found limited aerospace applications.

Beryllium is now prepared mainly by powder metallurgy methods. Metal extracted from the minerals beryl or bertrandite is vacuum melted and then either cast into small ingots, machined into chips and impact ground, or directly inert gas atomized to produce powders. The powders are usually consolidated by hot isostatic pressing and the resulting billets have properties that are more isotropic than are obtained with cast ingots. Tensile properties depend on the levels of retained BeO (usually 12%) and impurities (iron, aluminium, and silicon) and ductilities usually range from 3% to 5%. The billets can then be hot worked by forging, rolled to sheet, or extruded to produce bar or tube. Lockalloy (now also known as AlBeMet 162) is now also manufactured by inert gas atomization of molten prealloyed mixtures and the resulting powders are consolidated and hot worked as described earlier.

This chapter discusses the preparation and characteristics of beryllium oxide (BeO). BeO is the only oxide of beryllium and shows no detectable variation from the stoichiometric composition. It is noted for its high chemical stability and has excellent characteristics for nuclear use and a unique position among oxides as an excellent electrical insulator with high thermal conductivity. BeO exists in low-temperature and high-temperature forms, the transition temperature being 2373 15 K. The form has a hexagonal wurtzite structure formed by the interpenetration of hexagonal-close-packed lattices of beryllium and oxygen. The displacement of the lattices relative to one another is not symmetrical, giving a structure that is electrostatically polar in the c-axis direction. One basal plane is terminated by oxygen atoms and the other by beryllium atoms. Under fast thermal shock conditions, where the thermal conductivity does not control the rate of heat transfer, the thermal shock resistance can be similar or inferior to alumina because of the relatively lower strength. The greatest use of BeO is in electronics where its high thermal conductivity combined with its good electrical insulation makes it a valuable heat-sink material, particularly in higher-power devices.

Cold-rolled plates of Cu-Be alloy (Japanese Industrial Standard; JIS #C1720) which contains beryllium of 1.8 to 2.0 mass% and a small amount of cobalt and other trump elements were used in this investigation. Rectangular test pieces with a size of 80 mm in length, 10 mm in width and 2.5 mm in thickness were cut out from the plates. The cut-out test pieces were heat-treated for solutionizing at 1073 K for 2 hours in air.

Before aging treatment, the test piece was bent by loading at the end of the test piece using a screw fabricated in a hand-made cantilever jig, as shown in Fig. 1. The strains induced by the load were measured using strain gauges attached at the points A, B and C. Figure 2 shows strains at the points of A, B and C as a function of bending deflection. Strains at the points of B and C increase linearly with increasing the bending deflection and are rather small compared to the strain at the point A. On the other hand, strain at the neck of the cantilever (point A) increases with increasing the bending deflection showing a larger tangent, then deviates from the linearity at Hb=4mm, i.e., =2103 which corresponds to the proof stress. Therefore, when the strain at the neck of the cantilever, which is denoted A, is less than 2103, the test piece is under the elastic condition.

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beryllium processing | equipment, flow, cases - jxsc machine

Beryllium (Be) is a silver-white and very light metal. It has a very high melting point at 2349 F (1287 C). It is found in nature primarily as bertrandite, which is mined in Utah, or as beryl. The combination of its lightweight and high melting point makes it valuable for making metal alloys which are used in electronic and electrical components, aerospace, automobiles, computers, oil and gas drilling equipment, and telecommunications.

The most common mineral containing beryllium is beryl which is found in granite and special igneous rocks, derived from granite, known as pegmatites. Colored, transparent varieties of beryl may be gems, such as emerald (green), aquamarine (blue-green), heliodor (yellow), and morganite (pink). Some of the oldest known gems were mined by the Assyrians, Babylonians, Hittites, and Persians between 5000 and 400 B.C.E.

Bertrandite ore mined in Utah makes up nearly all of U.S. production, which is about 90% of the world supply. China produces most of the rest, from beryl ores. Mozambique and a few other countries mine small amounts of beryl. The United States produces and exports large amounts of beryllium alloys and compounds, and thus is a net importer of ores, but a net exporter of finished beryllium products.

Bertrandite Mining: Unlike beryl, in which the mineral can be identified by color and crystal structure, bertrandite mineralization cannot be recognized by the naked eye. Consequently, geologic and geochemical evaluations are conducted in a specific area, followed by a drilling program to determine if an economic ore body exists. After delineating an ore body, overburden is removed to within 2 m of the ore. In the 2-m cover remaining, drill benches are constructed on 7.5-m centers to take samples of the ore body at 0.6-m intervals. Information obtained from analyzing the samples allows cross-sections and contour maps to be developed. These maps are used to plan the mining and processing operations. After the maps are prepared, the remainder of the overburden is removed, and the ore is mined, typically with a self-loading scraper. Because of the irregular ore-grade distribution in the ground, the ore is mined from areas defined by drill data and placed in a stockpile in layers to obtain a more homogeneous blend. Further drilling, sampling, and assaying of the stockpiled ore are then performed to generate a map that delineates ore-grade distribution throughout the stockpile. On the basis of the grade distribution, stockpiled ore is selectively trucked to the mill for further processing.

Most beryllium is used in metal alloys, which account for more than 70% of world consumption. Because beryllium is very light and has a high melting temperature, it is an ideal metal for use in the aerospace and defense industry, almost always alloyed with other metals. Beryllium metal also has the interesting characteristic of being elastic. Consequently, it is used in the manufacture of springs, gears and other machine components that need a degree of elasticity. Another everyday application is in the manufacture of gasoline pumps, because an alloy of copper and beryllium (beryllium bronze) does not spark when hit against other metals, nor emit sparks from static electricity.

Most organisms do not depend on beryllium for growth. In fact, beryllium dust and fumes can be dangerous to human health when inhaled. Consequently, the Clean Air Act demands very careful handling of beryllium dust and fumes to minimize or eliminate its danger to humans.