briquette making machine design pdf

how does a briquette machine work - types and making process

There are several types of briquette machines with different working principles, they work on different pressures and suitable for different materials. So how they workdifferently? What are there advantage and disadvantages? Lets follow the article.

A briquette machine is used to turn the waste powder to a regular shape block, which can help to improve the conditions for those powder, make them easy for transportation, storage, and more useful for further usage.

Briquetting work always work with the binder as it needs the binding effect to get enough strength for the finished briquette. Biomass and industrialwaste are different from each other due to their binder sources.

The heating system is a special design for those briquettersdeal with materials contain lignin, lignin alway can be found on biomass. So theheating system is usually used for biomass briquetting. Other materials like coal, charcoal, etc. Binders are always needed when briquetting with the screw type briquette machine.

The suitablematerial is fed to the hopper and then conveyed by the screw inside the briquette machine.the rotating screw takes the material from the feed port, and compacts it against a die which assists the build-up of a pressure gradient along the screw.

As the screw briquette machine works with a pressure not that high, binders are always needed forming the briquette. Equip with a heating system will help the biomass material melt the internal lignin and turn it to a high-performance binder. Besides, other materials also work with this briquetterlike coal, charcoal, etc. These materials should be well mixed with the binder to get the briquette forms.

The briquette working process is in a chamber where materials are fed into, there materials are briquetting under a very high pressure. It causes theirplasticity and makes them binding stably together as a block.

Hydraulic type takes a long pressure keeping time on the briquette, this prevents theshort-time material deformation rebound and will cause a special heating for those materials like sawdust for melting its internal lignin, make the briquette with higher strength.

The piston type uses the rotary power of the mechanical device or the thrust of the hydraulic cylinder to reciprocate the piston (or the plunger), and the piston (or plunger) drives the ram to reciprocate in the forming sleeve to generate a pressing force to form the material to briquette.

A big pressure will be generated as the movement of the flywheel and punch the briquette time after time in a short time, it raises the temperature of the raw material. As the raw material moves, it fractionates with the inside, another kind of heat friction heat generates. With the action of these two kinds of heat, material raises its own temperature to a high level and melt the lignin. Particle materials then bind together and become strong enough.

Roller press works with two close rotating rollers at the same speed butwith opposite direction. The two rollers, with the same width and diameter, have holes on the surface. When they move, the same two holes on the different roller will coincide at the intersection of the midline and the briquette will be pressed there.

A normal roller press will use a wedge iron to fix the movable roller as it works on a low pressure. The hydraulic pump station is also can be used to fix the roller and supplies a much bigger but flexible support to the roller to work stable on big pressure.

mdf briquetting solutions | mdf briquetting presses

MDF as a material is widely used in many industries, both in building, furniture production, cabinetry and much more, producing boards, doors, architraves, and skirting, etc. This means that our MDF-briquetting solution is a relevant waste management solutions for most industries applying MDF in their production.

Usually, the waste product from MDF processing is disposed of instead of being recycled or converted into other products. This comes with high costs for the MDF manufacturers, both economically and environmentally, as MDF waste needs to be collected and transported away from the production plant. MDF waste in dust form also poses a hazard issue regarding dust explosions.

At C.F. Nielsen, we offer you sustainable MDF briquetting solutions, that recycle the MDF waste into briquettes that can be sold for profit or used as fuel for industrial boilers in your factory. This is a sustainable and cost-effective solution, as well as a safety measure for you, your company, and your employees.

The processing of MDF into finished products generates a lot of dust in the process. This is a frequent problem for many MDF production companies around the world, due to the high risk of dust explosions that cause severe injuries for employees in factories every year, as well as large material damages.

When you choose to convert the dust from the MDF processing into briquettes, you will not only remove the dust problem from the production areas in your factory, thereby also removing the risk of dust explosions, but you will also meet the ATEX standards. This will provide you and your employees with a much healthier and safer work environment.

Other dust generating materials can also be converted into fuel briquettes, mainly for industrial use. ATEX-standards are valid for all dust-generating production; thus, an adapted briquetting solution will aid in ensuring health and safety regulations, while you also get a cost-effective solution. At C.F. Nielsen we offer advisory engineering for a uniquely adapted solution for your industry.

On-site production of MDF briquettes for industrial fuel may offer you a profit rather than an expense for waste management. Converting your MDF waste with one of our MDF briquetting solutions, you either have the option of selling your briquettes, or to use them for fuel in your own industrial boilers. This is a sustainable solution which also may save you and your company a lot of money every year.

In addition to this, you will also save transport costs that come with waste disposal. When you save this entry, you will also spare the environment and thereby decrease the environmental footprint of your company in addition to reducing waste production.

At C.F. Nielsen, we offer you customer-specific briquetting solutions adapted to your factory layout as well as your existing equipment. This means that you will always get the solution from us that is best suited for your company, both regarding your needs and your space capacity.

Usually, the raw material from MDF waste is too dry for briquetting, entailing only 6-8 % moisture. Our MDF briquetting solutions come with a mixer that increases the moisture content of the raw material with up to 10 % so that it can be used for briquetting.

If your company processes other materials in addition to MDF, it is also possible to get a customized solution that allows you to mix MDF with other raw materials in the briquetting process. This is a very effective solution that will also save you space as well as time in the briquetting process, so that you can focus more on the main tasks of your company.

Hume Doors and Timber is a 100% Australia-based and family-owned business. Since 1953 it has been servicing the Australian market with high quality doors and frames. With factories spread across Australia, Malaysia and New Zealand, Hume Doors is one

By-product, and how to deal with it, was one of the first considerations for Southern Pine Products when it started manufacturing MDF (medium density fibreboard) products. Initially Southern Pine was disposing of the dust in sealed plastic sacks in t

design and fabrication of briquetting machine pdf report download

Sachin is a B-TECH graduate in Mechanical Engineering from a reputed Engineering college. Currently, he is working in the sheet metal industry as a designer. Additionally, he has interested in Product Design, Animation, and Project design. He also likes to write articles related to the mechanical engineering field and tries to motivate other mechanical engineering students by his innovative project ideas, design, models and videos.

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briquetting - an overview | sciencedirect topics

Briquetting is a way to make use of biomass residues that would otherwise go to waste, and replace the use of wood and charcoal (often produced unsustainably) as well as fossil fuels, thus cutting greenhouse gas emissions.

Briquetting is a compaction technology that has been around for many years. Fines are pushed into the nip of two counter-rotating wheels using a screw or gravity feeder. High hydraulic pressure is applied and the rotating wheels compress the feed between the pockets to form briquettes. Unlike pelletization, briquetting does not always require a binder, but generally some amount of molasses, starch, or tar pitch is used. A traditional application for briquetting is the agglomeration of coal.

Most applications of briquetting in the iron and steel industry involve waste materials, such as mill scale and process dusts, sludges, and filter cakes [27]. In the DR industry, a number of facilities briquette their hot DRI product to produce a higher-density product for safer shipping. This material is known as HBI (hot briquetted iron), as discussed in Section 1.2.3.

Briquetting machines, with dies and punches, driven by a single bullock, have been developed by the School of Applied Research in Maharashtra, India. They cost about US$ 2400 each. The machine is very sturdy but the problem is the limited maximum production 25 kg/hr and the price of the equipment.

The same school has also developed a briquetting machine with two plungers driven by a 3 horse powermotor. The maximum capacity is 100 kg/hr and the price about US$ 4000. However, the pressure on the briquettes is not very high and it is necessary either to use a binder or to handle the briquettes with great care.

GAKO-Spezialmaschenen in West Germany produces briquetting equipment that uses the piston extruder compacting method and produces good quality briquettes because of the high pressure although this results in higher prices and power consumption. A 150 kg/hr machine costs about US$ 12 900 and a 60 kg/hr machine about US$ 8800 and requires a power load of 8.5 kW.

T & P Intertrade Corporation Ltd in Thailand markets a press-screw system briquetter that heats the agro-waste before compression. This means that good briquettes can be produced without needing a binder and at lower pressure, resulting in cheaper equipment. Their Ecofumac has a capacity of about 150 kg/hr, needs a 15 hp motor and three 2000 watt heaters and costs about US$ 5850. The grinder needs a 5 hp motor. Unfortunately a lot of energy is used by the heaters and there have also been some problems with other components.

It can be seen, therefore, that even if equipment does exist, the problems are not totally solved. Either equipment is too expensive with little capacity and too high an energy use, or poor quality briquettes result. There is still a need for a medium-size briquetting machine that is inexpensive, easy to operate, repairable using local tools and commonsense, energy efficient, reliable and which can handle different types of raw material. The advantage of medium-sized equipment is that capital investment is low and mechanized drying and special storage space is not required. In addition it would be practical for use in villages and in places with small wood industries or small agro-industries like groundnut oil mills, sugar mills, saw mills and paper mills. The briquettes could be used locally in bakeries, brickworks, potteries, curing houses, breweries, drieries or simply for cooking.

Briquetting is like pelletising a process in which the raw material is compressed under high pressure, which causes the lignin in the wood or biomass to be liberated so that it binds the material into a firm briquette.

The most appropriate water content in the raw material for briquetting varies and depends on the raw material. However, the normal water content is between 6% and 16%. If the water content is over 16% the quality of the briquettes will be reduced, or the process will not be possible.

There are hydraulic presses for small capacities from 50 to 400kg/hour. The raw material is fed into the press by a time-controlled dosing screw, which means that it is the volume of the raw material and not the weight, which is controlled. Briquettes have a fairly good uniform length (square briquettes) and they are mainly used by domestic consumers.

Mechanical presses are available with capacities from 200kg/hour up to 1800kg/hour. Briquettes from these presses are normally round and short and they are used in heating plants for larger industries and for district heating plants. A mechanical press is built like an eccentric press. A constantly rotating eccentric connected to a press piston presses the raw material through a conic nozzle. The required counter pressure can be adjusted only by using a nozzle with a different conicity. A mechanical press receives raw material from a speed-controlled dosing screw. The speed of the dosing screw determines the production rate of the press. A change in the specific gravity of the raw material will change the hardness of the briquettes. A mechanical briquetting press will produce a long length of material a briquette string which, however, breaks into random lengths depending on the binding capacity of the raw material. A saw or cutter is used to cut the briquette string into briquettes of uniform length.

The briquette string pushed out of the press is very hot because of the friction in the nozzle. The quality of the briquettes depends mainly on the cooling and transport line mounted on the press. A cooling/transport line of at least 15m is recommended for wood briquettes. The longer the time a briquette remains in the cooling line the harder it will become. Cooling lines up to 50m long are common.

Biomass briquetting technology can compress some biomass raw materials, such as wood shavings, sawdust, crop straw, and other solid waste biomass fuel through pressurizing and heating. It is conducive to the transportation, storage and combustion and can largely improve the efficiency of combustion and fuel utilization. At present, there are three main types of solid shaping, including screw extrusion, piston punch, and roller forming.

Thermochemical conversion involves biomass structure degradation with oxygenic or anoxygenic atmosphere at high temperature [100]. It includes three kinds of technology, namely biomass gasification, biomass pyrolysis, and direct liquefaction.

Biomass gasification is a chemical reaction process that reacts with gasifying agent (air, oxygen, and water) at high temperatures in gasifiers. The main problem of biomass gasification technology is that the tar obtained in the gasification of gas is difficult to purify, which has become the main factor restricting the biomass gasification technology.

Pyrolysis is a thermal process in which the organic polymer molecules in the biomass are quickly broken into short chain molecules, coke, bio-oil and noncondensable gas in the absence of oxygen or a small amount of oxygen under high temperatures. Biomass liquid fuel could provide an alternative to petroleum up to a certain extent. After some modification, industrial oil fired boilers and internal combustion engines can use bio-oil as fuel directly.

Burning biomass to obtain heat energy, as a direct utilization mode, has been more and more widely employed based on the mature experiences during development of fossil fuel power plants. When biomass is used as the boiler fuel, its thermal efficiency is close to the level of fossil fuels. Compared with fossil fuels, for example, coal, biomass fuel contains more hydrogen element, is more volatile, and has less carbon and sulfur content.

Bioconversion technology of biomass refers to the process by which microorganisms produce high-grade energy through biochemical action with agricultural and forestry wastes. Anaerobic fermentation and ethanol fermentation are the two main conversion types. With the help of anaerobic bacteria, organic matter can be converted to combustible gas, for example, methane under a certain temperature, humidity, pH, and anoxygenic conditions. The ethanol is produced by microzyme with the carbohydrate hydrolyzed by enzymes.

Renewed interest in briquetting coal has arisen because of (i) the increasing amounts of fine coal being generated in mining and preparation which are stockpiled or disposed of in tailings dams and lead to uneconomic land use and environmental problems; (ii) the need for easily handled and convenient coal products; and (iii) the demand for smokeless solid fuels.

Briquette quality depends on composition (type of coal and binder), particle sizes and processing conditions. In this study various data are presented on the influences of such factors on mechanical strength and water resistance of briquettes formed from high rank coals using a molasses/lime binder alone and also including bagasse. These data relate to Hardgrove grindability index (HGI), coal size, moisture and curing time.

White Energy developed the BCB technology at pilot scale in Australia, after initial work by CSIRO. In partnership with Bayan Group, White Energy formed PT Kaltim Supa Coal, and constructed a commercial scale 1 Mtpa plant at Tabang in East Kalimantan. The BCB process takes 4200 kcal/kg GAR feed and produces a 6100 GAR product. Its difference from Kobelcos UBC process is that BCB does not use any binder to reconstitute the dried product.

This project has been terminated due to commercial differences between the partners. The financial model used a sub-20 coal price delivered from mine mouth to plant. Bayan Group changed the price to follow the Indonesian Reference Price which more than doubles the feedstock cost. The parties are in negotiations to settle the dispute (White Energy, 2011).

Generally, briquette manufacture (briquetting) involves the collection of combustible materials that are not usable as such because of their low density, and compressing them into a solid fuel product of any convenient shape that can be burned like wood or charcoal. Thus the material is compressed to form a product of higher bulk density, lower moisture content, and uniform size, shape, and material properties. Briquettes are easier to package and store, cheaper to transport, more convenient to use, and their burning characteristics are better than those of the original organic waste material.

The raw material of a briquette must bind during compression; otherwise, when the briquette is removed from the mold, it will crumble. Improved cohesion can be obtained with a binder but also without, since under high temperature and pressure, some materials such as wood bind naturally. A binder must not cause smoke or gummy deposits, while the creation of excess dust must also be avoided. Two different sorts of binders may be employed. Combustible binders are prepared from natural or synthetic resins, animal manure or treated, dewatered sewage sludge. Noncombustible binders include clay, cement, and other adhesive minerals. Although combustible binders are preferable, noncombustible binders may be suitable if used in sufficiently low concentrations. For example, if organic waste is mixed with too much clay, the briquettes will not easily ignite or burn uniformly. Suitable binders include starch (5%10% w/w) or molasses (15%25% w/w) although their use can prove expensive. It is important to identify additional, inexpensive materials to serve as briquette binders in Kenya and their optimum concentrations. The exact method of preparation depends upon the material being briquetted as illustrated in the following three cases of compressing sugar bagasse, sawdust, and urban waste into cooking briquettes.

Rural villages in developing countries are connected to the drinking water supply without a sewer system. Other places in urban and semi-urban communities have no sewage treatment networks. Instead under each dwelling there is a constructed septic tank where sewage is collected or connected directly to the nearest canal through a PVC pipe. Some dwellings pump their sewage from the septic tank to a sewer car once or twice a week and dump it elsewhere, usually at a remote location.

In general, a huge amount of sewage and solid waste, both municipal and agricultural are generated in these villages. Because of the lack of a sewer system and municipal solid waste collection system, sewage as well as garbage are discharged in the water canals. This and the burning of agricultural waste in the field cause soil, water, and air pollution as well as health problems. Some canals are used for irrigation, other canals are used as a source of water for drinking.

Rural communities have had agricultural traditions for thousands of years and future plans for expansion. In order to combine the old traditions with modern technologies to achieve sustainable development, waste should be treated as a byproduct. The main problems facing rural areas nowadays are agricultural wastes, sewage, and municipal solid waste. These represent a crisis for sustainable development in rural villages and to the national economy. However, few studies have been conducted on the utilization of agricultural waste for composting and/or animal fodder but none of them has been implemented in a sustainable form. This chapter combines all major sources of pollution/wastes generated in rural areas in one complex called an eco-rural park (ERP) or environmentally balanced rural waste complex (EBRWC) to produce fertilizer, energy, animal fodder, and other products according to market and need.

The idea of an integrated complex is to combine the above-mentioned technologies under one roof, a facility that will help utilize each agricultural waste with the most suitable technique that suits the characteristics and shape of the waste. The main point of this complex is the distribution of the wastes among the basic four techniques animal fodder, briquetting, biogas, and composting (ABBC) as this can vary from one village to another according to the need and market for the outputs. The complex is flexible and the amount of the outputs from soil conditioner, briquettes, and animal food can be controlled each year according to the resources and the need.

Based on the above criteria, an environmentally balanced rural waste complex (EBRWC) will combine all wastes generated in rural areas in one complex to produce valuable products such as briquettes, biogas, composting, animal fodder, and other recycling techniques for solid wastes, depending upon the availability of wastes and according to demand and need.

The flow diagram describing the flow of materials from waste to product is shown in Figure 7.2. First, the agricultural waste is collected, shredded, and stored to guarantee continuous supply of waste into the complex. Then according to the desired outputs the agricultural wastes are distributed among the basic four techniques. The biogas should be designed to produce enough electrical energy for the complex; the secondary output of biogas (slurry) is mixed with the composting pile to add some humidity and improve the quality of the compost. And finally briquettes, animal feed, and compost are main outputs of the complex.

The environmentally balanced rural waste complex (EBRWC) shown in Figure 7.3 can be defined as a selective collection of compatible activities located together in one area (complex) to minimize (or prevent) environmental impacts and treatment cost for sewage, municipal solid waste, and agricultural waste. A typical example of such a rural waste complex consists of several compatible techniques such as animal fodder, briquetting, anaerobic digestion (biogas), composting, and other recycling techniques for solid wastes located together within the rural waste complex. Thus, EBRWC is a self-sustained unit that draws all its inputs from within the rural wastes achieving zero waste and pollution. However, some emission might be released to the atmosphere, but this emission level would be significantly much less than the emission from the raw waste coming to the rural waste complex.

The core of EBRWC is material recovery through recycling. A typical rural waste complex would utilize all agricultural waste, sewage, and municipal solid waste as sources of energy, fertilizer, animal fodder, and other products depending on the constituent of municipal solid waste. In other words, all the unusable wastes will be used as a raw material for a valuable product according to demand and need within the rural waste complex. Thus a rural waste complex will consist of a number of such compatible activities, the waste of one being used as raw materials for the others generating no external waste from the complex. This technique will produce different products as well as keep the rural environment free of pollution from the agricultural waste, sewage, and solid waste. The main advantage of the complex is to help the national economy for sustainable development in rural areas.

A collection and transportation system is the most important component in the integrated complex of agricultural waste and sewage utilization. This is due to the uneven distribution of agricultural waste that depends on the harvesting season. This waste needs to be collected, shredded, and stored in the shortest period of time to avoid occupying agricultural lands, and the spread of disease and fire.

Sewage does not cause transportation problems as it is transported through underground pipes from the main sewage pipe of the village to the system. Sewage can also be transported by sewage car which is most common in rural areas since pipelines may prove expensive.

Household municipal solid waste represents a crisis for rural areas where people dump their waste in the water canals causing water pollution or burn it on the street causing air pollution. The household municipal solid waste consists of organic materials, paper and cardboard, plastic waste, tin cans, aluminum cans, textile, glass, and dust. The quantity changes from one rural community to another. It is very difficult to establish recycling facilities in rural areas where the quantities are small and change from one place to another. It is recommended to have a transfer station(s) located in each community to separate the wastes, and compact and transfer them to the nearest recycling center as explained in Chapter 5. The transfer station consists of a sorting conveyer belt that sorts all valuable wastes from the organic waste, which is then compacted by a hydraulic press. The collected organic waste can be mixed with other rural waste for composting or biogas as explained above.

The outputs of the EBRWC are valuable and needed goods. EBRWC is flexible and can be adjusted with proper calculations to suit every village; moreover inputs and outputs from the complex can be adjusted every year according to the main crops cultivated in the village, which usually varies from year to year. The key element to the success of this solution lies in the integration of these ABBC technologies to guarantee that each type of waste is most efficiently utilized.

The four corner stone technologies for agricultural waste are animal fodder, briquetting, biogas, and composting (ABBC technologies). These technologies can be developed based on demand and need. In principal three agricultural waste recycling techniques can be selected to be the most suitable for the developing communities. These are animal fodder and energy in a solid form (briquetting) or gaseous form (biogas) and composting for land reclamation. There are some other techniques, which might be suitable for different countries according to the needs such as gasification, fiber boards, pyrolysis, etc. These techniques might be integrated into a complex that combine them altogether to allow 100% recycling for the agricultural waste. Such a complex can be part of the infrastructure of every village or community. Not only does it allow to get rid of the harms of the current practice of agricultural waste, but also of great economical benefit.

The amount of agricultural waste varies from one country to another according to type of crops and farming land. These waste occupies the agricultural lands for days and weeks until the simple farmers get rid of these waste by either burning it in the fields or storing it in the roofs of their houses; the thing that affects the environment and allows fire villages and spread of diseases. The main crops responsible for most of these agricultural wastes are the rice, wheat, cotton, corn, etc. These crops were studied and three agricultural waste recycling techniques were set to be the most suitable for these crops. The first technology is animal fodder that allows the transformation of agricultural waste into animal food by increasing the digestibility and the nutritional value. The second technology is energy, which converts agricultural wastes into energy in a solid form (briquetting) or gaseous form (biogas). The briquetting technology that allows the transformation of agricultural waste into briquettes that can be used as useful fuel for local or industrial stoves. The biogas technology can combine both agricultural waste and municipal waste water (sewage) in producing biogas that can be used in generating electricity, as well as organic fertilizer. The last technology is composting, that uses aerobic fermentation methods to change agricultural waste or any organic waste into soil conditioner. The soil conditioner can be converted into organic fertilizer by adding natural rocks to control N: P: K ratio, as explained before. Agricultural waste varies in type, characteristics and shape, thus for each type of agricultural waste there is the most suitable technique as shown in Figure 13.28.

A complex combining these four techniques is very important to guarantee each waste has been most efficiently utilized in producing beneficial outputs like compost, animal food, briquettes and electricity. Having this complex will not only help the utilization of agricultural waste, it will help solving the sewage problem as well that face most of the developing countries, as a certain percentage of the sewage will be used in the biogas production and composting techniques to adjust carbon to nitrogen ratio. An efficient collection system should be well designed to collect the agricultural waste from the lands to the complex in the least time possible to avoid having these wastes occupying agricultural land. These wastes are to be shredded and stored in the complex to maintain continuous supply of agricultural waste to the system and in turns continuous outputs.

design, construction and experimental evaluation of the products of a low cost briquette machine for rural communities in nigeria

Download this complete Project material titled; Design, Construction And Experimental Evaluation Of The Products Of A Low Cost Briquette Machine For Rural Communities In Nigeria with abstract, chapters 1-5, references, and questionnaire.Preview Abstract or chapter one below

The decreasing availability of fuel wood, coupled with the ever rising prices of kerosene and cooking gas in Nigeria draws attention to consider alternative sources of energy for domestic and cottage level industrial use in the country. This research work was conducted to design and construct a low cost briquette machine for rural communities in Nigeria. It involved the modification of the existing CINVA RAM press and evaluation of the products produced. Selected agricultural residues (i.e. rice straw and rice husk), saw dust residue of softwood and a combination of 50% rice husk + 50% saw dust by weight with 30% optimum cassava starch by weight as binder were used to produce briquettes. Performance characteristics were evaluated for the briquettes produced based on average fuel efficiency, burning rate and specific fuel consumption. Calorific value of 16,577KJ/Kg was obtained for rice straw briquette, 14,396KJ/Kg for rice husk briquette, 15,547KJ/Kg for sawdust briquette, 17,529KJ/Kg for 50% rice husk + 50% saw dust briquette and 12,378KJ/Kg for firewood (Parkia biglobosa). The average fuel efficiency, burning rate and specific fuel consumption values of 10.68%, 1.10Kg/hr, 0.3g/g, 22.42%, 0.83Kg/hr, 0.13g/g, 15.40%, 1.03Kg/hr, 0.26g/g, 18.52%, 0.93Kg/hr, 0.16g/g and 12.29%, 1.62Kg/hr, 0.36g/g were obtained for rice straw briquette, rice husk briquette, saw dust briquette, 50% rice husk + 50% saw dust briquette and firewood respectively. Statistical analysis using the least square differences in comparison to each of the fuel samples average performances showed that rice husk briquette had the most outstanding thermal performance.

TITLE PAGE . . . . . . . . ii DECLARAION . . . . . . . . iii CERTIFICATION . . . . . . . . iv DEDICATION . . . . . . . . v ACKNOWLEDGEMENT . . . . . . . vi NOMENCLATURE . . . . . . . . viii ABSTRACT . . . . . . . . . xii TABLE OF CONTENTS . . . . . . . xiii CHAPTER ONE 1.0 Introduction . . . . . . . . 1 1.1 Problem Statement . . . . . . . 2 1.2 Agricultural and wood Residues . . . . . 3 1.2.1 Particle board and straw board production . . . . 4 1.2.2 Biogas production by anaerobic decay of organic materials . . 4 1.2.3 Gasification . . . . . . . . 5 1.2.4 Biomass Combustion . . . . . . . 6 1.2.5 Briquetting . . . . . . . . 7 1.2.6 Ruminant Feeding . . . . . . . 7 1.2.7 Construction of village level grain storage structure . . . 7 1.2.8 Regulation and reduction of geothermal temperature . . 8 1.3 Justification of Research . . . . . . 8 1.4 Existing Briquetting Techniques . . . . . 10 xiv 1.4.1 Wu-Presser . . . . . . . . 10 1.4.2 Earth Rams . . . . . . . . 10 1.4.3 Tube-Presses . . . . . . . . 11 1.4.4 Screw Presser . . . . . . . . 12 1.4.5 Hydraulic Press . . . . . . . 12 1.4.6 Piston Press . . . . . . . . 13 1.4.7 Pelletizer . . . . . . . . 13 1.4.8 Heat Die Extrusion Screw Press . . . . . 14 1.5 Objectives of study . . . . . . . 15 CHAPTER TWO 2.0 Literature Review . . . . . . . 16 2.1 Research and Development Efforts in the Use of Agricultural Residues as Energy Source for Cooking Purpose Using Low Cost Technique . 16 2.2 Review of Previous Research Work on Briquette making Raw Materials 22 2.3 Review of Previous Research Work on Residue Energy Potential . 24 2.4 Review of Previous Studies on Binding of Briquettes . . 25 2.5 Review of Research Work on Calorific Values of Some Briquettes . 27 CHAPTER THREE 3.0 Machine Design and Construction Processes. . . . 30 3.1 Material . . . . . . . . 30 3.2 Design Considerations . . . . . . 30 3.3 Description of Parts and Functions . . . . . 31 3.3.1 The Main Frame and Mould . . . . . . 31 xv 3.3.1.1 Function . . . . . . . . 31 3.3.2 The Base Ram. . . . . . . . 32 3.3.2.1 Function . . . . . . . . 32 3.3.3 The Connecting Link Mechanism and Power Screw . . . 32 3.3.3.1 Function . . . . . . . . 32 3.4 Design Analysis . . . . . . . 32 3.4.1 The Handle . . . . . . . . 32 3.4.2 The Thread Shaft (Square Thread) . . . . . 33 3.4.3 Bearings . . . . . . . . 35 3.4.4 Nut . . . . . . . . . 36 3.4.5 The Cover Plate . . . . . . . 36 3.4.6 Coupling Bolt for Installation . . . . . . 37 3.5 Design Calculations . . . . . . . 38 3.6 Construction of Machine . . . . . . 45 3.7 Pallets (Aluminum Foil) . . . . . . 50 3.8 Coupling of Components . . . . . . 50 3.9 Method of Operating the Briquette Press . . . . 51 3.9.1 Filling Mould with Material . . . . . . 51 3.9.2 Compression Stroke . . . . . . . 52 3.9.3 Ejection Stroke . . . . . . . 52 3.9.4 Maintenance and Repair . . . . . . 53 3.10 Briquette Production . . . . . . . 53 3.10.1 Material . . . . . . . . 53 3.10.2 The Binder: Cassava Flour . . . . . 53 xvi 3.10.3 Preparation and Production of Briquettes from Residues . . 54 CHAPTER FOUR 4.0 Tests and Results . . . . . . . 56 4.1 Tests . . . . . . . . . 56 4.2 Determination of Calorific Value . . . . . 56 4.2.1 Equipments used for the Calorific value test . . . . 56 4.2.2 Test Procedure Carried Out . . . . . . 56 4.3 The Water Boiling Test (WBT) . . . . . 59 4.3.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . 59 4.3.2 Equipments used in the Boiling Water Test . . . . 60 4.3.3 Variables . . . . . . . . 60 4.3.3.1 Fuel Samples . . . . . . . . 60 4.3.3.2 Stove . . . . . . . . . 61 4.3.3.3 Pot . . . . . . . . . 61 4.3.3.4 Lid . . . . . . . . . 61 4.3.3.5 Power Control . . . . . . . . 62 4.3.3.6 Environment . . . . . . . . 62 4.4. Experimental Phases Process . . . . . . 62 4.4.1 Phase 1: High Power (Cold start) . . . . . 62 4.4.2 Phase 2: High Power (Hot start) . . . . . 63 4.4.3 Phase 3: Low Power (Simmering) . . . . . 64 4.5 Analysis . . . . . . . . 64 4.5.1 Definition of terms . . . . . . . 64 xvii 4.5.2 Statistical Analysis . . . . . . . 65 4.5.3 Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) . . . . . 66 4.6 Calorific value of fuel samples . . . . . 67 4.6.1 Average Thermal Efficiency ( in %) for Fuel Samples . . 68 4.6.2 Average Burning Rate for Fuel Samples . . . . 68 4.6.3 Average Specific Consumption for Fuel samples . . . 69 4.6.4 Boiling Time . . . . . . . . 70 CHAPTER FIVE 5.0 Discussion of Results . . . . . . . 75 5.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . 75 5.2 Performance of the Briquetting Screw Press . . . . 75 5.3 Performance of Fuel Samples . . . . . . 76 5.3.1 Rice Straw Briquettes . . . . . . . 76 5.3.2 Rice Husk Briquettes . . . . . . . 77 5.3.3 Saw Dust Briquettes . . . . . . . 78 5.3.4 50% Rice Husk + 50%Saw Dust Briquettes . . . . 79 CHAPTER SIX 6.0 Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation. . . . 81 6.1 Summary . . . . . . . . 81 6.2 Conclusion . . . . . . . . 82 6.3 Recommendation . . . . . . . 83 REFERENCES . . . . . . . . 84 APPENDICES . . . . . . . . 88 WORKING DRAWINGS . . . . . . . 114 xviii

INTRODUCTION Approximately 2000 million people world wide; most rural people and many urban as well, all depend on wood fuels as their main or sole source of energy to cook their food and keep warm. Nine-tenths of all the wood harvested annually is used for energy; it accounts for over two-thirds of total energy consumption in 24 tropical countries of which 16 are least-developed countries (Rodas, 1981). The demand for fuel wood is expected to have risen to about 213.4103 metric tones, while the supply would have decreased to about 28.4103 metric tones by the year 2030 (Adegbulugbe, 1994). In Nigeria, the Energy Commission of Nigeria (ECN) recently (2005) reported that Nigerias fossil led economy is under severe pressure and gave data of potential renewable energy for utilization including crop residue as shown in table 1.1 below. Table 1.1: Nigerias renewable energy resources Energy Source Capacity Hydropower, large scale 10,000MW Hydropower, small scale 734MW Fuel wood 13,071,464 hectares (forest land) Animal waste 61 million tones/yr Crop Residue 83 million tones/yr Solar Radiation 3.5 7.0 kW/m2-day Wind 2-4 m/s (annual average) Source: ECN (2005) 2 1.1 Statement of Problem As wood fuel supplies diminish, the people who depend on wood fuels are suffering increase in physical or economic burdens in maintaining even a minimal daily fuel supply. The use of firewood and misuse of the existing energy resources (agricultural residues) is creating human and environmental crisis in developing countries which is resulting in deforestation. Traditionally, wood in form of fuel wood, twigs and charcoal has been the major source of renewable in Nigeria, accounting for about 51% of the total annual energy consumption; the other sources of energy include natural gas (5.2%), hydroelectricity (3.1%), and petroleum products (41.3%) (Akinbami, 2001). In many developed and developing countries, the forest covers at least 25% of the total land area, the minimum level required by international standard. The first indicative forest inventory project completed in Nigeria in 1977 put reserved forest at approximately 10% of the total land area. Between 1976 and 1990, deforestation proceeded at an average rate of 400,000 ha. per annum, in 1981-1985 at 3.48% while in 1986-1990 it was 3.57% including some forest reserves. The FAO concluded that if this rate was maintained, the remaining forest in Nigeria would disappear by the year 2020. The degradation and depletion of the forest reserve base has major effects on other sectors of the economy. The disappearance of forest cover leads to erosion, soil degradation and unfavorable hydrological changes (Government of Nigeria, 1997). The decreasing availability of fuel wood, coupled with the ever rising prices of kerosene and cooking gas in Nigeria, draw attention to the need to consider alternative sources of energy for domestic and cottage level industrial use in the country (Olorunnisola, 2007). Such energy sources should be renewable and should be accessible 3 to the poor. As rightly noted by Stout and Best (2001), a transition to a sustainable energy system is urgently needed in the developing countries such as Nigeria. This should, of necessity, be characterized by a departure from the present subsistence energy level usage which is based on decreasing firewood resources, to a situation where human and farming activities would be based on sustainable and diversified energy forms. The realization that deforestation and wood fuel shortages are likely to become pressing problems in many countries has turned attention to other types of biomass fuel. Agricultural residues are, in principle, one of the most important of these. They arise in large volumes and in the rural areas which are often subject to some of the worst pressures of wood shortage (Eriksson and Prior 1990). If one or more efficient method of using the abundant agricultural and wood residues could be developed on a large scale the energy situation could be sustainable and the deforestation problem could be controlled. The lack of capital among most house holds in the rural communities makes it difficult to move from either firewood or charcoal, to a more advanced energy sources where small initial capital investment can be used. Hence, the substitute of these fuels requires a minimal capital investment, be as cheap and accessible as charcoal and firewood. At the same time be environmentally sustainable. 1.2 Agricultural and wood residues Large quantities of agricultural and wood residues are generated yearly in developing countries but they are neither managed nor utilized efficiently. Agricultural residues which are freely available are often discarded or burned as wastes. They occur in large amounts and have the potential to be an important industrial input for fuel production in briquette forms, particle board and straw board for furniture making, biogas fuel, 4 gasification, biomass combustion, ruminant feeding, absorbent for industrial effluents treatment, grain storage structure and regulation/reduction of geothermal temperature. The procedures for manufacturing these products are described briefly below; 1.2.1 Particle board and straw board production. Wood residues resulting from furniture making industries or stalks like cotton stalks after harvesting cotton are either grounded into particles for particle board or steam heated to breakdown the residues into fibers for medium density fiberboard, then dried to lower moisture content. After the fiber is dried, it is blended with wax, a synthetic resin such as urea formaldehyde, and other addictives, and formed into mats. The mats are processed in large presses that use heat and pressure to cure the resin and form the products into sheets or boards. Primary finishing steps of particle and medium density fiber board include cooling or hot stacking, grinding, trimming/cutting and sanding. Secondary steps include fooling, painting, laminating and edge finishing. Straw boards are made from straw and bagasses, which undergo the same production procedure as particle board production. They are used for making doors, furniture and cabinets (Gary and Rajiva, 2001). 1.2.2 Biogas production by anaerobic decay of organic materials. Anaerobic reactors are generally used for the production of methane biogas, from manure (human and animal waste) and agricultural residues. They utilize mixed methanogenic bacterial cultures which are characterized by defined optimal temperature ranges for growth. These mixed cultures allow digesters to be operated over a wide range i.e. above 0oC up to 60oC. When functioning well, the bacteria convert about 90% of the feedstock energy content into biogas containing about 55% methane, which is a readily 5 useable energy source for cooking and lighting. Fig.1 below shows the route path of biogas energy production. Figure 1: Biogas energy route Source: Elizabeth, et al, (1999) 1.2.3 Gasification. Gasification is the process involving the burning of biomass fuels (human, animal and agricultural wastes) at very high temperatures with a limited supply of oxygen so that the burning process is only partially completed (Elizabeth et al, 1999). High temperatures and a controlled environment lead to virtually all the raw materials being converted to gas. This takes place in two stages. In the first stage, the biomass is partially combusted to form producer gas and charcoal. In the second stage, the carbon dioxide (CO2) and water (H2O) produced in the first stage is chemically reduced by the charcoal, forming carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen (H2). The composition of the gas is 18% to 20% H2 gas equal portion of CO, 2% to 3% methane (CH4), 8% to 10% CO2 and the rest nitrogen. These stages are spatially in the gasifiers. Gasifiers require temperature of about 800oC and is carried out in closed-top or open top gasifiers. These gasifiers can be operated at Anaerobic Digestion Methane Digester Sludge Heating and lighting Manure/Soil Mechanical power Conditioner Animal waste Human/municipal wastes Agricultural or crop wastes Industrial Carbonaceous waste Electrical power 6 atmospheric pressure or higher. The producer gas can be burned directly in processes which normally use oil fired boilers. It can be burned in ovens, kilns and driers to replace fuels otherwise, used in this equipment. The gas can also be cleaned and used to run an engine for generating electricity. Figure 2: Gasification process. Source: Vannbush, (2006) 1.2.4 Biomass Combustion. Biomass fuel (agricultural residue) is burned in a furnace or boiler. The heat is used to produce high pressure steam. This steam is introduced into a steam turbine where it flows over a series of aerodynamic turbine blades, causing the turbine to rotate. The turbine shares a common shaft with an electric generator so as the steam flows it causes the turbine to rotate, the electric generator is turned and electricity is produced. Also it can be used to produce hot water for goods processing. 7 1.2.5 Briquetting. This involves the densification process of loose organic materials, such as rice husk, sawdust and coffee husk aiming at improving handling and combustion characteristics. There are two principal methods of briquetting, with or without a binder. The binder technology is used where low pressure presses are employed to produce briquette. Binders are added to this process to improve mechanical strength and also allow dry materials to be briquetted using low pressure techniques as simple block presses or extrusion presses. The binderless technology is a high pressure technique which produces briquettes from fine dry particle size materials without a binder being added. Three types of press are commonly used. Piston press, pelletizers and screw extrusion presses. Briquettes are burned the same way as wood and can be used directly in open fires, gasifiers, boilers, furnaces and kilns. 1.2.6 Ruminant Feeding. Fibrous agricultural residues such as rice straw, sugarcane tops, cassava leaf, soyabean-straw, peanut vines and sweet potato vines are important component of the feed base for ruminant livestock particularly in areas where land grazing is limited and pasture growth is seasonal (Dixon, 1985). 1.2.7 Construction of village level grain storage structure. Agricultural residues could be used to construct village level grain storage structure, called rhumbu which may be thatched, mud or underground pit. Thatched rhumbus are commonly found in the north-Eastern parts of Nigeria. They are cylindrical in shape with floors made of wooden grass stems or fibers and overhanging conical roof made with straws or grass. The structure normally is supported on low wooden structure or 8 by stones. The wall is provided with tension rings in two or three positions using local rope material. Mud rhumbus are found in Zaria and Sokoto towns in Nigeria. They are circular in cross section and supported on stone pieces or pillars which are about 25-50cm above the ground. The floor is made of wood and plastered with mud; the roof is conical and made of thatch. Underground pits are found in the Sahel part of the Sudan savanna Zone where water table is low. The pit is either round or square is 2-3m deep and 1.5-3m in diameter or square. The pit is lined with straw mat (Zare) with corn husk padding or insulation is provided at the bottom of the pit, it is covered with a polyethylene or metal sheet, then a layer of husk and finally with layers of laterite (Olumeko and Igbeka, 1996). 1.2.8 Regulation and reduction of geothermal temperature. In animal structures agricultural residues such as groundnut shells, maize husk or sawdust of 6mm particles are spread on the floors of poultry houses, horse stables and goat/sheep pens to serve as an absorbent material to keep the structure dry and the animals away from cold floors. 1.3 Justification of Research The abundantly available agricultural and wood residues can efficiently be used for resolving energy problems to a significant extent by adopting proper measures. Olorunnisola (2002) states that of the various types of biomass processing technologies that are being considered, and for which there are currently potentially viable local markets for in the country, which include biomass combustion, gasification and briquetting/pelletizing it is evident that none of these alternatives can compete with the low capital investment that is required; with the briquetting technology. Several kinds of agricultural residues can be utilized properly by densifying loose residues to produce a 9 compact product of different sizes. Briquetting is essentially a mechanical process requiring investment in equipment and training to ensure a product of reasonable quality that will perform the task for which it is intended. Russell, (1997) considered that briquetting is often seen as a relatively high-cost high-pressure technology, and that it is possible to use a low-cost low-pressure technique to produce acceptable briquettes. For rural communities the most suitable briquetting methods are those which are based on available waste and building materials. The manufacturing should be done in locally made hand operated presses and the briquettes held together mainly by a binder. Briquette making saves trees and prevents problems like soil erosion and desertification by providing an alternative to burning wood for heating and cooking. Briquetting substitutes agricultural waste like hulls, husk, corn stocks, grass, leaves and other garbages for a valuable resource. Briquetting engenders many micro enterprise opportunities making the presses from locally available materials, supplying materials, supplying materials and making the briquettes, selling and delivering the briquettes. The availability of briquette as an alternative fuel to replace firewood can also improve the living conditions of the rural women and children, who spend most of their time collecting firewood instead of engaging in other income generating activities or attending school. 10 1.4 Existing Briquetting Techniques 1.4.1 Wu-Presser The Wu-presser was developed by the Washington University. It is constructed from either metal or wooden parts as shown in figure 3 below. Figure 3: The Wu-presser Source: Legacy Foundation (2003) The Wu-presser presses briquettes in three steps shown in the illustration above. Each step will press with increasing pressure. This takes advantage of the non-linear force to distance property of briquetting pressing. 1.4.2 Earth Rams Presses currently in use for making stabilized earth blocks might be modified to make briquettes. The Combustaram, similar to the CINVA-Ram and Tersaram, is commercially available or can be manufactured locally, see figure 4 below. The lever arm is put in the open position, feed stock is poured into the molds and the lever is then quickly pushed up, over the top of the press, and down. This movement positions the lever over the top of the press and compresses the briquettes on the downward stroke. 11 Figure 4: Combustaram Source: Davies (1985) The lever is then moved back to the original position and again pushed down, thus forcing the briquettes out of the molds. Finished briquettes are set in the sun to dry. The process requires at least two workers. 1.4.3 Tube-Presses Metal or plastic pipe provides a good briquetting mould since it produces cylindrical briquettes. The tube press, illustration shown in Figure 5 below, Figure 5: Tube Press Source: Davies (1985) Moulding Box Roller Fulcrum for Ejection Adjustable piston guide Handle Latch Toggle Linkage Tube with feed stock Press Removable Base Plate Hole to push finished briquette through Close fitting ram for hand compression Tube partially filled with briquetting feedstock Frame Piston 12 consist of a tube mounted vertically on a platform and a close fitting ram used for compaction. The basic design can be varied considerably, as the figure indicates. Feed stock is poured into the tube and compressed with the ram. The tube is then positioned over a hole (or a slide is removed) below the tube exposing a hole and the briquette is pushed through. Briquettes are then dried in the sun before storage and use. 1.4.4 Screw Presser The screw presser makes briquettes in upright cylinders. The raw material is compressed by lowering a metal disc which is moved vertically by a screw that is turned by hand. The screw press is most commonly made of metal as shown in figure 6 below. Figure 6: Screw presser in use. Source: Olle and Olof (2006) 1.4.5 Hydraulic Press These machines operate by hydraulic pressure acting upon a piston that extrudes the material through a longitudinal die. The machine operates rather slowly which minimizes the wave rates. However, they operate at much lower pressures and the briquette quality is of lower density. They are typically used for low outputs of 40kg/hr but can be made to achieve up to 80kg/hr. 13 1.4.6 Piston Press These machine works best with dry (15% moisture content maximum) cellulose material, which is fed into a compression chamber. A reciprocating piston then forces the material through a tapered die to form a long briquette as shown in figure 7 below. Typically flywheel drive machines produce between 300kg and 500kg of briquettes per hour. Figure 7: Piston Press Source: Bhattacharya et al, (1984) The machine can achieve a service life of between 500 hours and 1000 hours using relatively clean material such as sawdust. Use of agricultural wastes containing high levels of silica (sand) will reduce the operating hours considerably. The initial cost of this type of machine is high and the briquettes are prone to breaking. 1.4.7 Pelletizer Pellet presses have dies with small diameter (usually about 30mm). The machine has a number of dies arranged as holes bored in a thick steel disk or ring. The material is forced into the dies by means of a ram, perpendicular to the centerline of the dies. The 14 main force applied results in shear stresses in the material which often is favorable to the final quality of the material. The pellets are cut to lengths normally about one or two times the diameter (Eriksson and Prior, 1990). Pelletizers can produce up to 1000kg of pellets per hour but require high initial capital investment and high energy input. 1.4.8 Heat Die Extrusion Screw Press The heat die extrusion screw press is an industrial machine for producing briquettes (see figure 8 below). It consists basically of an electric motor, a hopper, a die heater and muff, and the screw which densifies the raw material. Figure 8: Heated die extrusion screw press Source: Bhattacharya et al, 1984 The electric motor drives the briquetting screw, which is housed inside the die, through a V-belt and pulley arrangement. Biomass raw material is fed to the screw through the hopper. The electric die-heater softens the lignin in the raw material as it passes through the die which acts as a binding material. A smoke trapping system traps and removes the smoke from the vicinity during the briquetting process. Besides the cost of the Electric Motor Die Heater Hopper Muff 15 investment, the machine has a cost for the electricity consumed. Another cost is the screw that gets worn and has to be replaced frequently. 1.5 Objectives of study The objective of this project is to: Design and construct a simple, low cost briquette machine which can be used in rural communities. Test the design briquette machine using selected agricultural residues (sawdust, rice husk, rice straw) with cassava starch as binder. Evaluate the calorific value of briquetted residues. Compare calorific value and performance with firewood. 16

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