cement plant scrap

lehigh, giant parents scrap keystone cement purchase agreement concrete products

HeidelbergCement AG of Germany and Elementia S.A.B. de C.V. of Mexico, along with their North American subsidiariesLehigh Hanson Inc., Lehigh Cement Co. LLC and Giant Cement Holding, Keystone Cement Co., respectivelyhave terminated an agreement regarding the sale of Keystones Bath, Pa. plant to Lehigh Cement. The move responds to a U.S. Federal Trade Commission contention that the $151 million transaction would decrease from four to three the number of significant portland cement suppliers serving 36 eastern Pennsyvlania and 12 western New Jersey counties. After a protracted review of the proposed deal, which HeidelbergCement and Elementia announced in September 2019, the FTC set a November 2021 administrative trial date to prove its allegations of FTC and Clayton Act violations.

birla shakti

KIL Cement Division is an award-winning cement manufacturer and is one of the nation's largest producers to provide high quality products and reliable services to our clients and communities throughout India. Discover our manufacturing footprint, products, innovation methods, portfolio and our philosophies along the way.

Founded in 1969, Birla Shakti is one of the global leaders in cement technology. Besides being a leading supplier of cement and aggregates, we also offer consulting, research, trading, engineering and other services to complement our customers business needs. Our headquarters is in India and we have production sites in several parts of the country.

Under the cement division of Kesoram Industries Limited, Birla Shakti manufactures and sells cement. We are widely recognised for our quality, strength and technology, which has enabled us to build strong working relationships and gain the trust of our customers and builders. As a mark of our quality management best practices, we have been certified an ISO 9001 company.

Birla Shakti has two cement manufacturing plants located at Sedam, Karnataka (the "Vasavadatta Cement Plant") and Basantnagar, Andhra Pradesh (the "Kesoram Cement Plant"). Our cement business has been in operation for over 40 years, catering to the regional demands predoimnently in Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Maharashtra. Our plants are strategically located near our leased limestone deposits in the states of Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh. Presently, we have a combined total installed capacity of 7.25 million MT.

Create long-term value for our stakeholders through passionate commitment to excellence, by being customer focused, bringing total employee involvement, disciplined and innovative management process to drive sustained competitive advantage

Each of our milestones reflected in the timeline is a reflection of our passion, dedication and persistence in Total Productivity Maintenance (TPM). And in this short period of time, we at Kesoram Cement and Vasavadatta Cement have grown from strength to strength emerging as leaders of the cement industry.

Cement is a binder thats used to produce concrete. There are various types of cement for use in different applications. The properties of cement can also be varied through additives. Find out more about how we make our cement.

We are constantly finding innovative ways to improve our cement production process to better deliver solutions and products. The reason is simple: we believe in creating value and addressing our clients needs in todays ever-changing business climate. Our goal is to be the industry leader in innovation and technology, and contribute to building livable urban landscapes.

Special emphasis is placed on Research & Development facilities to reduce thermal, electrical energy and overall CO2 emissions. Each division of Birla Shakti has a well-equipped, advanced R&D department to pursue product and process improvements related to that division, as well as monitor thermal and electrical energy efficiency. Each R&D department is staffed with around 20 highly qualified researchers.

Infrastructure, growth, discipline and integrity our business is built on these very essentials. As an ISO 9001, 14001, 18001 and 50001 company, we take care of the land and the community through the entire cycle of cement manufacturing use from mining to clinkerisation.

One of the main reasons for our tremendous success in the Indian market has been our reach across the nine highly industrialised states of Andhra Pradesh, Maharastra, Karnataka, Goa, Kerela, Madhya Pradesh, Telangana, Chattisgarh and Tamil Nadu.

Our dealer network in the trade segment comprises 2,000+ strong and loyal dealers across the territories. Most of these dealers have been associated with us for the last 35 years. This strong bond empowers us with the confidence and ability to grow further in this segment.

The key to sustaining economic growth lies in our belief, where we value our employees and their families, the environment we do business in, our esteemed customers, as well as the local communities we are surrounded by. We are convinced that social progress should be shared and enjoyed by all that KIL Cement Division is connected to. Learn more about how we are making this a reality.

At Birla Shakti, we are constantly exploring new technologies and initiatives to conserve the environment we work and live in. Being a responsible managed firm, we aspire to exceed market expectations across all sustainability issues and go beyond legal compliance to proactively reduce our environmental impacts.

Our plant generates both hazardous and non-hazardous waste during the manufacturing of cement. Major waste include used oil, used battery, MS scrap, PP burst bags, alumina fire brick, overburden in mine, etc.

However, we make constant efforts to recycle and reuse the waste generated out of our own operations and waste generated by other industries like pharma. Only waste that cannot be utilised effectively is being disposed off.

In managing our waste output, we are also utilising waste generated in other industries as alternative fuel for our manufacturing plants. We have a tie-up with the government of Goa to procure waste which will be used as alternate fuel input.

Concurrently, we are the first in India to install Hot Disc technology to help utilise and manage waste. Presently, we recycle and reuse Plastic waste, Carbon black powder, PU and upper cutting waste, shredded tyres /rubber chips, Municipal solid waste.

Co-processing in cement kiln perforce provides high temperature and long residence condition during the operation and is an effective technology for the management of hazardous waste in an environmentally friendly and safe manner.

It fully absorbs the energy and material value of the waste without any harmful emissions. Co-processing in cement kiln ranks higher in the waste management hierarchy as compared to other disposal options such as incineration and landfill.

Unlike incineration and landfill, co- processing does not leave behind any residue that might have harmful impact on the environment. Thus, co-processing is an ecologically sustainable solution for waste management.

Fresh water is a scarce resource and its alarming depletion in Gulbarga and Basant Naagr has led to our increased focus on effective water management through conservation, reduction in leakage or wastage and recycling & reuse.

We strive to spread awareness on conserving water in our operations and families of employees, by implementing a number of water harvesting and recycling and reuse projects, so as to minimise the consumption of fresh water.

Furthermore, the sump developed in the mine pit is utilised for storage of rain water for later use in the process during lean period. The amount of rainwater collected depends on the rainfall, as well as the catchment area, where the water will be diverted to the mine pit (Sump).

For this purpose, garland drains are cut around the quarry on the higher profile of the land to channel rainwater from the catchment area. This water is then directed to the mine pit by opening the drain at desirable places. The mine sump has been developed to a capacity of 40,00,000 m3.

We meet almost all our water requirements from ground water sources. However, we have also implemented initiatives for replenishing ground water through our water harvesting structures built at various locations within the plant premises, as well as in the vicinity of the manufacturing facilities.

To create a sustainable environment for our business and the community, we have designated a green belt development site at our plants for afforestation. So far, a total of 14,91,807 samplings have been planted and harvested.

Currently, the total area for afforestation at our plants is 860 acres within the plant, mine and colony premises. Our efforts in driving environmental conservation projects such as this reinforce our philosophy of sustainable development and caring for the community.

Underpinning life at Company is the Division Vision our statement of the company culture, which both informs and describes our behaviour. Development activities revolve around the under-privileged community that lives in the immediate vicinity of our cement plants.

The range of our activities begins with extending educational and medical facilities and goes on to cover vocational guidance and supporting employment-oriented and income-generation projects like agriculture, animal husbandry, cottage industries by developing local skills, using local raw materials and helping create marketing outlets. These are the key areas that we endeavour to make a difference in.

Each factory has a medical centre with full-fledged doctors and the latest basic equipment. Mobile medical services are provided in the vicinity and regular medical camps are held to eradicate diseases, offer medical help, treatment and preventive care.

We foster learning and knowledge through formal schools. Education is imparted not only to children of employees but also to children from rural areas, who do not have access to any medium of information or education.

Our schools maintain high standards and are open to other children of the vicinity. These schools are often the preferred centres of learning in the district and adjoining areas. Our goal is to give everyone a chance at having an education.

We are encouraging the development of human capital by expanding human capabilities through skills development and vocational training, as well as by promoting excellence in indentified cultural fields. To achieve our objective, there is a dedicated training and development team that operates solely on such development intiatives.

Thank you for your interest in our company and products. If youre working on a media article, marketing collaterals, etc. and require high resolution images listed on this page, please select the images you required and request below.

Kesoram Industries Limited (Cement Division) offers employment opportunities in a wide range of functions. The recruitment process is fair and transparent, with adequate opportunities for suitable candidates both internally and from outside.

Recruitment is a continuous process in KIL Cement Division. We regularly hold interviews in principal cities of south and west India. In other cases, applicants are invited for specific vacancies announced through advertisements in leading newspapers or announced in this website.

Birla Shakti Cement, Division of Kesoram Industries Limited Unit: Vasavadatta Cement, Factory PO: Sedam Dist: Gulbarga Karnataka - 585222 Tel No.: +918441-276005/277403 Fax : +918441-276139 Email : [email protected] Birla Shakti Cement, Division of Kesoram Industries Limited Unit: Kesoram Cement, Factory PO: Basantnagar Dist: Peddapalli Telengana - 505187 Tel No.: +918728-228152/228252/228121/228129 Fax : +918728-228160/228444 Email : [email protected] SOLAPUR PACKING PLANT Plot No T3-MIDC Chincholi Industrial Area Taluka - Mohal Dist: Solapur Maharashtra - 413255

Plot No T3-MIDC Chincholi Industrial Area Taluka - Mohal Dist: Solapur Maharashtra - 413255

Cement Division Unit of Kesoram Industries Limited 44/A, Ground Floor, Bharath Apartments, Fair Field Layout, Race Course Road, Bangalore - 560001, Karnataka

cement industry - an overview | sciencedirect topics

The cement industry is the most important consumer of rubber waste. It uses 236,000 t of scrap tires (26 MJ/kg calorific heat) and 290,000 t of industrial waste (plastic waste, paper, textiles, etc., 22 MJ/kg caloric heat) (VDZ, 1999). Table VI.5.21 shows a comparison of components of traditional fuels and scrap tires.

In 1999, scrap tires supplied about 6% of the total fuels required (VDZ, 1999). They are fed in whole to the primary entering point of rotary kilns. If sufficient air is provided, complete combustion is achieved without increasing emissions. Sulfur dioxide is absorbed in clinker.

The cost of treatment amounts to about 100/t rubber waste. For imported coal, the cost is about 80/t. Therefore, the cement industry charges about 80130/t scrap tire to compensate for the difference (Bilhard, 1997).

The cement industry is one of the main industries necessary for sustainable development. It can be considered the backbone for development. The main pollution source generated from cement industry is the solid waste called cement by-pass dust, which is collected from the bottom of the dust filter. It represents a major pollution problem in Egypt where around 2.4 million tons per year of cement dust is diffused into the atmosphere causing air pollution problems because of its size (1-10 microns) and alkalinity (pH 11.5).

Cement by-pass dust is naturally alkaline with a high pH value and represents a major pollution problem. The safe disposal of cement dust costs a lot of money and still pollutes the environment. The chemical analysis for the by-pass dust is shown in Table 13.7.

Because of the high alkalinity of the cement by-pass dust, it can be used in the treatment of the municipal sewage sludge, which is considered another environmental problem in developing countries since it contains parasites such as Ascaris and heavy metals from industrial waste in the city. Although sludge has a very high nutritional value for land reclamation, it might contaminate the land. The safe disposal of sludge costs a lot of money and direct application of sludge for land reclamation has a lot of negative environmental impacts and is very hazardous to health.

Mixing the hazardous waste of cement by-pass dust with the environmentally unsafe sewage sludge will produce a good quality fertilizer. Cement by-pass dust will enhance the fermentation process of the organic waste and kill all microbes and parasites. The high alkalinity cement bypass dust fixes the heavy metals present in the product and converts them into insoluble metal hydroxide. Hence preventing metal release in the leachate. Agricultural wastes must be added to the mix to adjust the carbon to nitrogen ratio as well as the pH value for better composting (El Haggar 2000). The produced fertilizer from composting is safe for land reclamation and free from any parasites or microbes that might exist in raw sludge.

The U.S. cement industry consists of 39 companies that operate 118 cement plants in 38 states. While its production levels have grown since 1985, the industry's energy intensity declined by 35% between 1985 and 2000 (Figure 10).

The cement manufacturing process involves three components: the mining and preparation of inputs; the chemical reactions that produce clinker; and the grinding of clinker with other additives to produce cement. The feed for older kilns is a slurry of inputs, the wet kiln process, while large new plants mix dry materials for introduction to the kiln. Energy use varies with the process and characteristics of the plant, but in general about 90% of the energy use, and all of the fuel use, occurs in the manufacture of clinker in the kiln. The chemical process that converts limestone to lime, produces roughly the same amount of carbon dioxide gas as that generated by the energy used in its production for coal-fired kilns. Technologies that allow production of cement with a lower per-ton share of clinker thus yield multiple benefits.

Upgrading a kiln from wet to dry, and from a long dry kiln to a preheater, precalciner kiln results in major energy efficiency gains but for a price that requires a payback period of at least ten years. Worrell et al. (2004) conclude that these upgrades are attractive only when an old kiln needs to be replaced. More incremental upgrades could yield commercially attractive benefits including advanced control systems, combustion improvements, indirect firing, and optimization of components such as the heat shell. While opportunities vary with specific plants, the combination of these activities appears to yield an improvement in energy use on the order of 10%. Recovering heat from the cooling stage also yields substantial savings. If the heat is used for power generation, it can save up to half of the electricity used in the clinker process. However, taking full advantage of the heat recovery savings may require other major upgrades (National Academies, 2009).

Changing the chemistry of cement to reduce the need for calcination can decrease the high share of clinker that characterizes U.S. production. Options for blended cements include fly ash and steel slag. Fly ash may be particularly promising as it is a coal combustion byproduct that can be reused in many different contexts, such as construction and pavement. Worrell et al. (2004) identify potential energy savings of up to 20% from deployment of blended cement technologies, and larger carbon dioxide emission reductions. Advanced technologies with potential to further improve energy efficiency and emissions include carbon capture and storage technology, fluidized bed kilns, advanced comminution technologies, and the substitution of mineral polymers for clinker (Worrell et al., 2004; Battelle, 2002).

In the cement industry, coal quality is very important as it affects both the quality of the cement and the operation of the plant. The Indian cement industry uses coal because of its abundant availability and shortage of oil and natural gas. Today the Indian cement industry has to use coal of high ash content with varying characteristics. To resolve this problem, the role of coal on cement making and possible improvements in coal quality and consistency have been explored (Kumar, 1994).

The cement industry is the third largest user of coal after the steel and power industries and it consumes more than 5% of total coal produced in India. This coal requirement will go up further with the rapid expansion of the cement industry (for infrastructure projects). Coal is the principal source of fuel for cement kilns. Its consumption per ton of clinker largely depends on the quality and also on how effectively the cement process technology is being used. Coal consumption varies from 0.2 to 0.3 tons for every ton of clinker. It is known that the indigenous cement plants are consuming at least 20%30% more energy than those of similar plants in other countries. Technology obsolescence has been one of the major reasons accounting for the industrys poor performance. The high moisture and ash content of coal make it difficult for the cement units to maintain the quality and quantity of output. Even today, a good part of the installed capacity is linked to the uneconomical wet process. Both the pace of modernisation and the introduction of the latest precalciner technology have to be prioritised and implemented to make this industry competitive.

Coal in the cement industry is used both as a fuel and as a material in the process of cement manufacture. Therefore, both the supply of proper quality of coal and its effective utilisation are a must in the industry. Deteriorating and inconsistent quality of coal supply in terms of high ash and moisture and low HGI can create the following problems according to a study conducted by National Council for Cement and Building Materials (NCB) (Wheelock and Markuszewski, 1984):

It has been observed from different studies on the clinkerraw-coal interrelationship in some Indian cement plants that an ash content of up to 28%30% can be tolerated for burning Indian raw materials, without appreciably affecting kiln operations and clinker quality. However, in the precalciner system, where available, lower-grade coal (up to 40% ash) can be used for partial calcinations.

The present supply of coal to cement plants usually exceeds the desired limit of 27% ash content. It is not possible to maintain the quality of coal as the superior-quality Indian coal has been almost exhausted and a high degree of mechanisation has been adopted, especially in surface mining. Consistent quality can be ensured only through beneficiation.

One of the applications in the cement industry is as raw material for Portland clinker. Portland clinker is manufactured by cindering a homogeneous mixture of ground lime stone and claylike materials. Fly ash can be used as a substitute for these claylike materials because it has practically the same chemical composition.

An other application of fly ash in cement is as raw material for Portland Fly Ash Cement. The cement industry manufactures class A Portland Fly Ash Cement which has the same characteristic properties as normal class A Portland Cement. This is achieved by using a finer ground, high quality Portland clinker and adding approximately 25% high quality fly ash.

In this and the next section, we will describe waste energy potential in the glass and cement industries, both of which are highly energy intensive. Significant amounts of WH are available at such enterprises. The main problem with attempting to capture these waste heat quantities is the lack of consumers of secondary thermal energy resources at the facilities themselves. Therefore, the waste heat can only be effectively utilized for heating purposes by being transferred to the ultimate end users, which can include city district heating systems. However, if that waste heat is converted into electricity at the plant site, then the electricity can be delivered to distant end users via transmission lines.

Some data on worldwide cement production will set the framework for this discussion. Of all the energy expended in the non-metallic mineral sector (9% of total global energy use), manufacture of cement accounts for 7080%. The weighted average among cement-producing countries for specific energy consumption comes to 4.4GJ per tonne of product. China produces nearly one-half of all cement in the world. With so much energy being expended, there is a comparable high potential for energy savings: 2.5 to 3EJ per year may be saved (2833% of all energy consumed in this sector) by various means, including waste energy recovery. Such savings in primary energy would have corresponding reductions in greenhouse gas emissions, particularly CO2 [21].

The process of producing cement and its follow-on product concrete are shown schematically in Fig.9.22 [22]. The raw material, mainly limestone, is crushed in ball mills, passed through an electrostatic precipitator, stored, preheated, and reacted in a high-temperature rotary kiln which yields clinker. To make cement, the clinker must first be cooled. Prior to being crushed in the cement mill, the gypsum produced in the kiln is separated from the main product stream. The output from the cement mill may be blended with other constituents to meet certain specifications depending on the end use. The packaged product is then shipped to the consumers. Electricity is one of the main energy inputs; worldwide, the electricity intensity of cement production is about 91kWh per tonne of cement. An international goal has been established to reduce this to 87kWh/t by 2030 [23].

The main energy consumption (in 109kJ) are for: raw grinding=8.346 (1.88%), kiln heating (fuel combustion)=410.464 (92.68%), and finish milling=24.057 (5.43%) [22]. Although the firing of the kiln consumes the bulk of the energy, there are other places along the production line where waste energy can be recovered. Figure9.23 [24] focuses on the preheater, kiln, and clinker cooler, showing the primary waste heat sources (WHR-I and WHR-II); secondary waste heat may be recovered at the shells of the preheater and the kiln. The primary ones are suitable for power generation while the secondary ones may be appropriate for direct heat applications using hot water [26]. The most commonly used WHR power technologies are steam Rankine cycle with various enhancements and ORC (shown in Fig.9.23), including Kalina, and supercritical CO2 Brayton cycles.

One of the first commercial waste heat power generation plants using ORC technology was implemented by Turboden using the exhaust gas from a cupola furnace in Torbole, Italy [27]. Around the same time, another plant came on-line at Heidelberg Cement in Lengfurt, Germany (1998) by Ormat Technologies.

Figure 9.24 shows the heat balance for a dry ement kiln for the following conditions: exhaust temperature=290390C; cooler exit temperature=250350C. Approximately 35% of the total energy involved can be used for drying the product and for WHR power generation.

Table9.3 provides some information for selected examples of the recovery of waste heat from cement production facilities [21]. The Ait-Baha plant is shown in Fig.9.25 [30]. This plant began with an annual production capacity of 2.2 million tonnes of cement, but currently puts out about 3.6 million tonnes of clinker and 4.9 million tonnes of cement [29].

Mercury is emitted from a variety of anthropogenic and natural sources. Main anthropogenic sources include coal combustion, the cement industry, chlorine manufacturing plants, and waste incineration. Source strengths will vary within each category depending on the mercury content in the raw material and theextent to which control techniques have been employed. Natural sources include volcanoes and diffuse emissions frommercury-containing mineralizations. Different emission sources emit different fractions of mercury species (see Speciation below). The global anthropogenic emissions of mercury have been estimated to be 1900 t, with Asia contributing more than 50% and Europe and North America less than 25% each.

Natural emissions and reemissions are exceedingly difficult to quantify. Emissions from natural surfaces (soils and water) may also originate from previously deposited anthropogenic mercury as well as from natural sources. The variability in time and with geographical location is also considerable. Most estimates suggest that the natural emissions are of the same order of magnitude as the anthropogenic emissions.

Instant chilling process is a physical method, which modifies the properties of steel-making slag for utilization in the cement industry (Montgomery and Wang, 1991, 1992). It is done in four stages. The first is air cooling where the molten slag is placed on shallow plates to a bed thickness of approximately 100 mm and air cooled for 4 minutes. This is followed by an initial water cooling cycle during which the slag bed is continuously water sprayed for about 20 minutes to produce an end temperature of 500 C. After water cooling the slag is loaded into slag carts and transported to a spraying station for further spraying for 4 minutes to reach an end temperature of 200 C. Finally, the slag is placed in a water pool and cooled to around 60 C to complete the process and it is sent for magnetic screening to separate the iron fraction. The slag is treated in a batch process with a total treatment time of 1.5 to 2.5 hours. This is an environmentally friendly process, producing slag of particle size 30-50 m with <4 % free lime content. Magnesium oxide occurs as mixed crystals in the solid solution phase. The composition is not deleterious to the volume stability (Montgomery and Wang, 1991, 1992). Considerable benefits have been reported from the use of instant chilled slag as coarse aggregates in concrete. They include increased strength of the concrete, an increase in the modulus of elasticity, a reduction in the brittleness and an increase in the fracture toughness (Montgomery and Wang, 1991, 1992).

The paper mill and pulp industry produces enormous quantities of paper and pulp products each year. It is the sixth largest polluting industry after the oil, cement, leather, textile, and steel industries, and many environmental contaminants are associated with the discharge of paper and pulp mill sludge (Ali and Sreekrishnan, 2001). About 6094% of organic content is available in paper mill sludge, which has the potential for use as a soil amendment in disturbed lands (Marko and Polonca, 2012). Sludge rich in organic matter is generated in high content in the paper and pulp industries. Although paper and pulp mill sludge is rich in organic matter, it contains less N and P than biosolids and compost (Park etal., 2011). Hence, paper mill sludge often needs additional nutrient input to be used in mine spoil rehabilitation (Park etal., 2011). Paper and pulp mill sludge is managed through its use in landfills and as landfill capping materials, in land spreading, composting, land reclamation, and in employment in brick, light aggregate, and cement production (Marko and Polonca, 2012).

cement sales up 41pc despite increase in price - newspaper

KARACHI: The month of May proved to be a good one for all cement manufacturers as local sales jumped 41 per cent in spite of the long Eid-ul-Fitr holidays and price increase by manufacturers in the North region.

Following a Rs10 per 50kg bag jump on May 29, the Northern region cement makers further raised price by Rs5 on June 4, taking the average price to Rs609 per 50kg bag. Currently, the 50kg cement bag in North zone is priced between Rs610-615.

Shankar Talreja of Topline Securities said the average cement bag price in North was Rs514 per 50kg bag on July 1. North-based mills lowered the prices one-and-a-half years ago but now they are going for an increase. Coal price is now tagged at $108 per tonne which was $54.3 per tonne on July 1 last year, he said.

As per data released by All Pakistan Cement Manufacturers Association (APCMA), cement sector showed excellent growth of 49.86 per cent in May 2021. Total cement dispatches during May were 3.947 million tonnes as compared to 2.634m tonnes during the same month in the previous fiscal year.

Domestic cement dispatches during May increased to 3.201m tonnes from 2.271m tonnes in same month in FY20. Exports massively rose by 105.56pc from 363,174 tonnes in May 2020 to 746,550 tonnes last month.

During May, North-based cement mills dispatched 2.713m tonnes in the local markets, up by 35.55pc from 2.001m tonnes in the same period last year. Exports from North-based mills were just 7,520 tonnes in May 2020 which surged to 203,625 tonnes last month.

Meanwhile, South-based mills sold 487,311 tonnes in domestic markets during May, registering a robust jump of 81pc compared to 269,003 tonnes in the same period last year. Exports from South also posted a growth of 53pc to 542,925 tonnes in May 2021 from 355,654 tonnes during the same month last year.

Local despatches rose by 20.26pc to 43.451m tonnes in 11MFY21 from 36.13m tonnes in the same period last fiscal year. Exports increased from 7.059m tonnes during 11MFY20 to 8.771m tonnes during the same period on FY21 up 24.25pc.

North-based mills despatched 36.722m tonnes during 11MFY21 for domestic consumption that was 18.67pc higher compared to the same period last fiscal year that stood at 30.943m tonnes. Exports from North were 2.365m tonnes, showing a rise of 23pc over exports of 1.924m tonnes during the same period of last fiscal year.

Local dispatches from South-based mills were 6.729m tonnes in 11MFY21 up 30pc from 5.187m tonnes during the corresponding period of FY20. Exports from South recorded a 25pc jump to 6.406m tonnes in 11MFY21 compared to 5.135m tonnes during the same period last fiscal year.

The APCMA spokesman said coal prices are showing significant upward trend as the C&F cost has increased from around $60 per tonne to around $120 per tonne during FY21. This has increased the cost of doing business as presently coal and pet coke are being used as fuel/raw material for various manufacturing concerns, he added.

The cement industry is subject to federal excise duty of Rs1,500 per tonne and general sales tax (GST) of 17pc of maximum retail price and these taxes calculate to around Rs170 per bag. Besides FED, the industry also pays Customs duty and taxes on machinery, spare parts imports and on import of coal and pet coke, he said.

The spokesman urged the government to abolish the FED and reduce other duties and taxes in order to provide opportunity to the manufacturers to control their cost of production and further optimise/expand their plant that would in turn help generate more employment and revenues for the government.

He said some other builders had also followed suit perhaps to either increase the prices of steel bars ahead of the budget or wait for any announcement regarding duties and taxes in the upcoming budget.

Contrary to this, the average per tonne import price of iron and steel scrap has declined to $379 per tonne in 10 months of the ongoing fiscal year (10MFY21) from $389 per tonne in the same period last fiscal year. Total iron and steel scrap imports in 10MFY21 stood higher at 4.154m tonnes, valuing $1.55bn as compared to 3.319m tonnes costing $1.293bn in the same period in FY20.