cement plants in columbia

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Cardox International, the original manufacturers and suppliers of Cardox Systems for clearing blockages and build-ups in the preheater (kiln inlet, riser, cyclones, feed pipes, calciners), rotary kilns, coolers and silos.

JAMCEM consultants are cement industry experts that have operated cement plants. In addition to this, a number of the JAMCEM personnel have operated at Executive and Plant Management levels in the cement industry.

The Marietta Group includes Marietta Silos and Marietta Inspection Services and is the parent company to USA Silo Service, offering you more construction, repair, inspection and cleaning services for your concrete silos and structures

Our innovations have been made possible by discussions with our customers and by being focused solely in solving their refractory problems. Our experts know what they are talking about when it comes to refractory anchors and Rapid Arc (Stud) Welding Technology.

A-C Equipment Services specializes in supplying parts, construction services, technical assistance and engineering, for rotary kilns, rotary digesters (BioMixers) or other process equipment, regardless of manufacturer.

canada | heidelbergcement group

HeidelbergCement acquired its Canadian operations in 1993 and currently maintains a very strong position in the country with 3 modern cement plants, extensive aggregate deposits, and many ready-mixed concrete plants. Our Canadian cement production facilities, located in British Columbia, Alberta and Ontario are supported by strategically located cement distribution terminals which supply customers throughout the market area.

We also have a strong aggregates presence in western Canada, with quarries and deposits in areas immediately adjacent to major population centers, thus making us the major supplier of aggregates in our operating markets. Our ready-mixed concrete companies are the technological leaders in the market. In addition, we operate pipe companies in Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta, and British Columbia.

The acquisition of the Italcementi Group in the second half of 2016 further strengthened HeidelbergCements presence in Canada with its subsidiary Essroc. Set up in 1866 as Coplay Cement, the company started producing cement in 1872. The name changed into Essroc in 1989. All of the Essroc business lines have been rebranded to either Lehigh Cement Company (the cement operations) or Hanson (aggregates & RMC).

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british columbia - cement industry news from global cement

Canada: The government has granted a subsidy worth US$20m to Svante for the establishment of a Centre for Excellence for Carbon Capture, Use and Storage in Vancouver, British Columbia. The centre will consist of a filter production plant, headquarters and testing centre. The company said that it will help in the global deployment carbon capture and storage (CCS) solutions at Gigatons scale.

Vancouver is the Silicon-Valley of carbon capture technology development, said Claude Letourneau, the president and chief executive officer of Savante. Lowering the capital cost of the capture of the CO2 emitted in industrial production is critical to the worlds net-zero carbon goals. He added The carbon pulled from earth as fossil fuel needs to go back into the earth in safe CO2 storage.

Canada: The Royal Canadian Mounted Polices serious crime unit has launched an investigation into the death of one person at Lafarge Canadas Richmond, British Columbia integrated cement plant on 19 November 2020. The Vancouver Sun newspaper has reported that the incident caused the plant to be evacuated.

Spokesperson Jill Truscott said, "We are in shock and are extremely concerned about the impact to this individual's family and friends. Steps have been taken to protect all employees on site and the surrounding community."

Canada: Lafarge Canada has launched the first phase of its COMENT project. The objective is to build a full-cycle solution to capture and reuse CO2 from a cement plant. The project is a partnership between Lafarge Canada, Inventys and Total.

LafargeHolcim is committed to reducing CO2 emissions and we are excited to join forces with Inventys and Total through Project COMENT. We hope to discover ways to capture emissions from our production processes and reuse them in our products, advancing a circular economy even further than today. The recent launch of the new lower carbon fuel (LCF) system at our Richmond plant aims to make the facility the most carbon efficient cement plant in Canada, said Ren Thibault, Region Head North America for LafargeHolcim.

Over the next four years, Project COMENT will demonstrate and evaluate Inventys CO Capture System and a selection of LafargeHolcims carbon utilization technologies at its Richmond cement plant in British Columbia. The project has three phases and is expected to be fully operational by the end of 2020. Subject to the pilots success, the vision is to scale up the project and explore how the facility can be replicated across other LafargeHolcim plants.

During the first phase the partners will work on purifying the cement flue gas in preparation for CO2 capture. The second phase will focus on the separation of CO2 from flue gas using a customised for cement version of Inventys carbon capture technology at pilot scale. As part of the final phase, the captured CO2 will be prepared for reuse and support the economical assessment and demonstration of CO2 conversion technologies onsite, such as CO2 injected concrete and fly ash.

Canada: Lafarge Canada plans to develop and demonstrate a full-cycle solution to capture and reuse CO2 from a cement plant. Project CO2MENT will demonstrate and evaluate Inventys' CO2 capture system and a selection of CO2 utilisation technologies at Lafarge's Richmond cement plant in British Colombia over the next four years. This project is being led by Inventys in partnership with Lafarge Canada and Total. It also received financial support from CCP (CO2 Capture Project), the Province of British Colombia and Canada's federal government through the National Research Council of Canada Industrial Research Assistance Program (NRC IRAP).

"At Inventys, we see a real opportunity to build a CO2 marketplace where tonnes of CO2 are traded between emitters and users," said Inventys president and chief executive officer (CEO) Claude Letourneau.

Phase I of Project CO2MENT, the Contaminant Program, will attempt to reduce harmful organic and inorganic substances, such as sulphur dioxide, dust and soot, as well as nitrogen oxides, from cement flue gas. Phase II, the CO2 Capture Program, will separate the CO2 from flue gas using a customised-for-cement version of Inventys' carbon capture technology at pilot scale. Phase III, the CO2 Reuse Program, will prepare post-combustion CO2 for reuse and support the economical assessment and demonstration of CO2 conversion technologies onsite, such as CO2-injected concrete and fly ash.

sampratt.com: cement

The Holcim Catskill cement plant officially closed on June 13th. As notedin previous commentaries on the shuttering, most workers were gone months or even years ago, as the plant endured a long series of layoffs and job eliminations.

An article in yesterdaysCatskill Daily Mail contains a couple of interesting tidbits for those wondering if the old beast could spring back to life. While Holcim (pronouncedhole-sim, after the French word ciment, as confirmed in these corporate videos) has claimed it will maintain its permits and perform basic maintenance in case they want to reopen, comments from Catskill officials make that sound unlikely.

The article by Doron Tyler Antrim also recognizes what many observers have long understood: Namely, that the Holcim Catskill plant has been falling into disrepair for many years, making it inefficient and unprofitable. Meanwhile, the necessary and significant upgrades to the plant would not only require a major investment, but would also likely trigger a lengthy permitting process under New Source Review (NSR)standards the company might not be able to meet given its location on the Hudson River and in a Scenic Area of Statewide Significance (or SASS Area).

The Daily Mail also reports, per comments by Greene County Legislature chair Wayne Speenburgh, that the Holcim (formerly St. Lawrence Cement and Independent Cement) site will likely become an eyesore like the abandoned Alsen Coal Terminal just to its south. Catskill and Greene County officials might want to consider legislative options to compel property owners to clean up or at minimum prevent further blight.

Antrims article also notes that only five former Holcim employees have felt the need to enter theColumbia-Greene Workforce Investment Offices retraining program. Most of the plants workers were gone months or even years ago, as the plant slowly faded away, and workers have moved on to other pursuits.

However, that doesnt stop former union chief Dennis Smith from attempting to scapegoat outsiders for the companys failures, in a misleading and inflammatory letter-to-the-editor. Failing to identify his relationship with the company, Smith apparently feels no remorse or responsibility for the many years that this dirty, outmoded plant pollutedthe lungs of downwind residents in Germantown (and beyond), or poisoned the crops of downwind farms all over Columbia County, or fouled the waters of the Hudson River. And he makes no mention of the numerous fines for safety and environmental violations levied over the years against the facility.

As a vast global corporation, Holcim wants to reap big profit margins from very large plants which can dominate their regional markets. They no longer have much interest in running smaller, less efficient facilities with narrow profit margins.

While Holcim failed to build such a plant in Columbia County, Lafarge in Ravena stole a march on its Swiss competitors, and is poised to vastly expand their plant to the north in Rensselaer County. Even if Catskill could expand, Lafarges head start would largely foil Holcims preferred modus operandi, which is to lock up markets, then bleed them dry. Millions of dollars in fines for price-fixin are, after all, a documented part of their track record.

Moreover, as an older plant with many maintenance and safety issueshaving been hit with hundreds of thousands in fines over the past few yearsthe Catskill kiln was increasingly a drag on the companys bottom line. Coupled with a national economic downturnfar from being immune to recessions, cement plants closely track building trendsthere simply wasnt much money in that site at that scale.

But any major expansion in scale and technology would necessitate a new permitting process, much ike the failed Greenport one. Despite efforts during the Bush administration to gut NSR (New Source Review), the Catskill plant would clearly be subject to such regulatory oversight. It would again need some 14-20 different permits from local, county, State and Federal agencies.

That would mean a risky new investment of tens of millions on a highly-speculative venture, in a location where citizens had already demonstrated the tenacity and means to mount a prolonged, well- informed opposition. They again could expect a long, expensive, and low-percentage fight against residents all over Columbia, Berkshire, Dutchess, Litchfield, and other downwind counties.

Worse for Holcim, the Catskill location is squarely within the famous southwestern viewshed of Olana, and any expansion there would impact a Scenic Area of Statewide Significanceagain, guaranteeing a difficult, stringent review, with many or all of the same 30+ groups which opposed the SLC project to weigh in all over again. And this time, they wouldnt be starting from scratch, but would have a world of knowledge, contacts, expertise and organizing know-how to bring to bear.

The Holcim board (and the investors who track its stock) never behaved particularly rationally or cleverly here. But the $58 million they flushed down the drain the last time they tried such a move is hard even for overconfident, negligent corporate officers to overlook.

As for economic development: Again and again, planners and residents and businesspeople here have agreed that the long-range goal has to be sustainable, compatible and contextual projects which complement each other and build upon the strengths of the region.

Most who worked at Holcim (SLC) Catskill knew this was coming long ago, and many moved on to other work already since the multiple rounds of job eliminations and layoffs began about five years ago. Finding a new job is possible; finding a new lung isnt. The thousands of residents downwind of Catskill are much better off.

Those who now call the closing a tragedy (including some, like Linda Mussmann, who once berated this company as an awful mega-corporation whose goal is to take more than it can ever ever give back) evidently dont consider it tragic when kids get asthma or grandparents are told they have cancer.

In December 2003, Linda Mussmann called St. Lawrence Cement (now Holcim) an awful mega-corporation whose "goal" is to take more than it can ever ever give back.Now she considers the departure of that company a "tragedy."At Catskill, the company was indeed taking from our communities (by polluting the lungs and crops of its downwind neighbors) more than it ever gave back. Meanwhile, theyve grieved their taxes on both sides of the river repeatedly, while others pay their full share.The SLC Catskill plant emitted mercury, arsenic, lead and fine particulate matter into the air and water of its neighbors for many years. It was heavily fined in 2008 for some 300 safety violations, putting its workers at risk. It was photographed by Riverkeeper releasing large plumes of waste materials into the river... These were not the actions of a good neighbor.Other companies bring good, safe jobs to our area without controversy, without dividing people, and without causing others harm. We should build an economy based on mutual respect, not profiting at others expense. Naturally, we as a country should make things. But we can and should manufacture make things in a manner which doesnt selfishly and recklessly take other things from others--essential things, like our health.

Businesses like LEurial and Etsy promise as many or more jobs than Catskill ever providedwith none of the downside impacts, none of the controversy, and far more prospects of surviving future economic turbulence. Thats where our focus should be, rather than attempting to reinvent a brief 1950s industrial heyday, which is not coming back, no matter how nostalgic some might be for it.

The Holcim (formerly St. Lawrence Cement) Catskill plant is closing, according to a company press release posted here. The Boston Globe also has a brief report, closely tracking the language of the release.)

Despite empty claims in the past that the cement industry is recession-proof (in fact, its fortunes are closely tied to wildly-fluctuating building trends), it was just a matter of time until they shuttered the place. The Catskill plant is inefficient, and too small to deliver the profit margins expected by its Swiss owners. This rapacious company wants to build big, cheap mega-plants (like its St. Genevieve operation in Missouri), not run a more modestly-scaled plant responsibly.

Meanwhile, the Catskill plant has been racking up safety violations and environmental complaints, further digging into their bottom line. With the national economy in a slup over the past few years, those fines have been accompanied by steady layoffs.

And in order to get the kind of profits out of this facility that they really want, the company would have to sink tens of millions into a major new expansion proposalone that would involve steep engineering, lobbying, legal, consulting, and public relations costswith a low probability of approval, given the highly sensitive location right on the River. Thats why, in the summer of 2005, I predicted that closure was just a matter of time.

The company is of course spinning this closure as mothballing, which seems more aimed at tamping down investor disappointment than a serious threat to reopen someday. Anything is possible. But keeping permits active, equipment and grounds maintained, and the prospect of finding skilled cement workers years later make reopening.

Given their history of abandonment and neglect of their former host communities, more likely is that over time this site will come to look like the derelict Alsen Coal Terminal at Smiths Landing, or the rusting junk and buried debris found on Holcims Hudson and Greenport properties.

Folks in Germantown, it should be said, showed incredible integrity in joining the fight against SLC Grenport. They recognized that the newer, much larger plant would pollute even more than the plant in their view right across the river, and trusted that eventually that bad actor would disappear, too. Now it has, and Im very happy for them.

NOTE: This piece originally appeared in last years environment issue ofOur Town(the Columbia County quarterly), under the titleThe Bullet We Dodged: How the Cement War was Won.*Im offering it here in several installments over the next week, in a somewhat expanded form, and with added visuals and links, both for those who lived through the tumultuous years of 1998-2005, and for others who moved to the areamore recentlywho may wonder what all the fuss was about...

THE CONVERTS While much of the media and SLC tried to portray opponents as kneejerk reactionaries, for most, the process of opposing the plant involved a slow, steady loss of faith in the companypaired with increased trust in opponents credibility.

People took the time to answer my questions in a civil and thoughtout manner. Their answers made senseandthey could be verified with facts.I started to look back at my involvement with SLC. After reading all the information I had found (not been givenbut found), both good and bad, I asked myself that question that Jesse continuously asks: Why is SLC good for us? I could not think of an answer... I got to thinking that big promises dont always add up to big keeps.

It is my hope that some of the pro-cement folks will take some time to really really honestly think about this SLC project. Really think about this Santa Claus of a company promising you all you ever wished for. I do not believe that there can be a Santa Claus if there is no heart.

He agreed to an hour online chat at Reds, finally admitting that he would not want a project like SLC in his own town. Gathering his own facts, he consulted closely with doctors such as noted Cornell cancer researcher and Hillsdale resident Mitchell Gaynor, to understand the health implications of living near a major coal-burning facility, and then weighed in regularly and forcefully with State agencies against the plant. Another key public official, Hudson Planning Board chair and later President of the Common Council Michael Vertetis, began as a middle-of-the road plant proponent.

But Vertetis (unlike his former ally, Mayor Rick Scalera) was careful to maintain a civil relationship with plant opponents, and showed an interest in having the City conduct a proper review. At first, many of us assumed that Mike was proceeding cautiously only to ensure that a botched process wouldnt open the door for a successful lawsuit. But over time, the heavy-handed tactics of SLC (in particular their belligerent attorneys, Bob Alessi and Tom West) tended to alienate more moderate supporters like Mike.

While some business leaders automatically supported the project without doing any due diligence, others took the time to gather facts and assess the situation. Farmers and realtors (including Steve Kingsley, who generously donated free office space when we were just getting our feet under us) were two early groups with a lot at stake, taking a stand against SLC as a threat to their livelihoods.

Germantowners Nancy Gordon and Paul Swedenburg, whose hightech company HAVE, Inc. is located in Hudsons former Simpsonville neighborhood, were among the first to step out of ranks with those businesses falling in line behind SLC.

Before taking any position, they invited then-project managers Dirk Cox and Phil Lochbrunner to a discussion with me at their offices. They insisted on an open debate, with both sides present. After considering what theyd heard, Nancy and Paul issued a strongly-argued op-ed, setting forth precisely how the project would harm their business, and the commitment theyd made to employing local people. Richard Katzman, then a major employer in Hudson- Greenport, also gathered his own facts, and after losing confidence in the company, came out against it. He proceeded to underwrite the construction of a giant scale model of the plant, quarry and dock facility, and sponsored telephone polls (conducted by the same firm used by President Clinton and Mayor Michael Bloomberg) showing that by 2002, plant opponents had outnumbered supporters.

Toward the end of the fight, many of these same business leaders along with others such as Martina Arfwidson of FACE Stockholm, Don and Marnie MacLean of Thompson- Finch Farm, Deborah Bowen of The Inn at Green River, and David Rubel of Agincourt Press, worked with us to craft a Statement of Values for promoting greener, more sustainable development in the region: To ensure continued growth and stability, we need to protect our high quality of life. This includes a healthy environment and workforce, clean air and water, scenic and historic resources, and public enjoyment of our unique natural surroundings. [We conclude] that the overall scale, design, location and impacts of the St.Lawrence Cement facility proposed for Hudson and Greenport pose too great a risk of harming the health, quality of life, and economic viabililty of our region, and therefore it is not the right fit for our communities.

By the time this letter was presented to the State, more than 200 businesses representing over 1,150 full-time and another 450 part-time jobs in the area, had signed on. Their message was clear: in the mid-Hudson Valley, the fate of the environment and the economy are inextricably linked. We were fighting not only to stop something, but also to preserve the possibility of a brighter future.

THE EXPERTS Citizens groups always are held to a higher standard of accuracy than slippery politicians. We knew we had to be painstakingly accurate in our public statements, and to back them up with full documentation and professional confirmations by independent experts.

One such expert was living right under our noses in Claverack: toxicologist and EPA consultant Travis Kline (son of Pamela Kline, founder of Traditions). Kline was asked to speak at an SLC forum, set up by the company in hopes that theyd control the dialogue and make opponents appear marginal and ill-informed.

But the opposite occurred, as major public attendance forced the events to move to a large Columbia-Greene Community College auditorium. As panelists were peppered with tough questions from the well-prepared audience, they were emboldened to step outside the limited scripts SLC expected theyd stick to. Much to the companys chagrin, Travis made a devastating presentation about the health risks of volatile organic compounds and products of incomplete combustion resulting from the burning of impurity-laden limestone and coal. Calling for a multi-disciplinary risk assessment and test burns, he warned that the existing regulatory process was inadequate to protect residents from harm. By his second forum appearance, SLC had lost control of the dialogue, causing some of its supporters to lose their cool. Four young guys feeling their oats, sporting the companys free blue tshirts, attempted to menace Travis, who was escorted out of the hall for his own safety by State Police Investigator and forum member Gary Mazzacano. These occasional and pathetic attempts at intimidation only made SLC look worse.

One day in 1999, Hudson art dealer John Davis had a visit from a loyal client named Gabe Miller. Gabe spotted one of our flyers on Johns desk and said: You really dont want something like this in your community.I know, because I build these things. An NYU chemistry professor and senior engineer at Camp Dresser & McKee, among the largest international industrial consultants based in the Northeast, John arranged for Gabe to meet me for lunch at the St.Charles Hotel, whereupon we became the first environmental group ever represented by CDM. His firms work was supplemented by Dr.

Alex Sagady, a pit bull of an engineer from Michigan, who represents citizens groups at discount rates. Alexs preferred method of working was to file Freedom of Information requests with State agencies, then fly to Albany to camp out in the offices of the Department of Environmental Conservation, where hed invariably find lots of useful information that bureaucrats, such as Project Manager Michael Higgins, had previously overlooked.

As our network expanded, similar finds began emerging on a regular basis. One after another, experts came to Hudson to educate our membership in public presentations: Neil Carman of the Lone Star chapter of the Sierra Club, Florida kiln activist and elected official Penny Wheat, Downwinders at Risk leaders Jim Schermbeck and Katy Hubener, Bonnie Sanders of South Camden Citizens in Action. Sanders, who died the following year, was particularly moving as she talked about her neighborhoods experience with SLC: They spread around a lot of promises of jobs and grants for local organizations. They led our church pastors to think that this company would do good for minority residents.

Once they had their permits, we learned that all they cared about was making money. We only gained a very small number of jobs. What we ended up with was pollution that made my grandchild, other kids and our seniors fight for breath, and truck traffic so heavy it shook house foundations. [But] even if SLC stood behind their promises, the hardships wouldn't have been worth it. You can't trust this company, and you don't want them in your area. The Allies From the start, we knew we couldnt go it alone. The fight had to be expanded to the whole Valley and into the downwind states of New England. After a lonely couple of years, one by one, more than three dozen groups stood with ussome contributing just their names, others biting off major pieces of the legal fight.

During one difficult winter meeting at City Hall in Hudson, a group of about five young, purposeful people in outdoor gear strode into the Council Chambers: Alex Matthiessen and his Riverkeeper crew had docked their boat and come up Warren Street like the cavalry to save the day.

Meanwhile, at his office in Pittsfield, my all-time favorite conservation activist George Wislocki, founder of the Berkshire Natural Resource Council, used his decades of contacts and stockpile of credibility to convince EPAs New England Regional Administrator to issue a stern letter against SLCand her support was echoed by the Massachusetts DEP and Connecticut Attorney General Richard Blumenthal. Across the river, Athens officials such as Andrea Smallwood and Chris Pfister opened up a western front against SLC by passing a Local Waterfront Revitalization Plan and submitting strong letters cautioning against Hudson impairing the States investment in the Villages newly-restored park and docks along the Hudson.

THE GO-TO GUYS & GALS But for all the specialized skills and thoughtful analysis that go into long grassroots battles, possibly the most valuable asset of a citizens organization is to have plenty of worker bees ready to swarm out of the hive at a moments notice. We werent lacking in that department. Whether it was an urgent mailing to get stuffed and stamped, or rounding up auction items for our next benefit party, or needing a small crowd to assemble for an unexpected meeting, or volunteers to help set up for an event, people gave generously and endlessly of their time: Warren Collins, Fran DeGrazia, Bob and Monica Mechling, Diana Jelinek, Dick Donovan, Claire Oravec, Chloe Zerwick, Jennifer Arenskjold, Marty Davidson, Martha Lane, Carole Clark, Hillary Hillman...This list could go on forever, and still be missing important contributions.

We also lost some of our most valued soldiers over the years: the hilariously wise Cassandra Danz (a/k/a Mrs. Greenthumbs); the fearless Bud Mann; artist Hannah Williamson; Phyllis Herbert, who never threw out a single article about the plant; and the ever-ready Vinny DeGrazia, our favorite bartender and raconteur.Their contributions live on each time anyone looks toward Becraft and still sees a hill, rather than a 1,200-acre hole in the landscape.

*Readers who want to read the full, original OT article as edited by Enid Futterman and designed by John Isaacs can download it as a PDF right away byclicking here. A full, week-by-week chronology of the fight can be found atStop the Plant.com.

NOTE: This piece originally appeared in last years environment issue ofOur Town(the Columbia County quarterly), under the titleThe Bullet We Dodged: How the Cement War was Won.*Im offering it here in several installments over the next week, in a somewhat expanded form, and with added visuals and links, both for those who lived through the tumultuous years of 1998-2005, and for others who moved to the areamore recentlywho may wonder what all the fuss was about...

Invariably, the company behind the project is said to be vastly wealthy and influentialpolitically wired in. Accommodationists starting making lists of tepid compromises, empty concessions which benefit only themselves or their immediate circle.Defeatists sigh that theres no point fighting, since you cant fight City Hall.

The pattern in each of the fights listed in Part 1of this series was nearly identical, and went something like this: At first, the press only reported the company line, with Town, County and State officials dutifully toeing it. Jobs, jobs, jobs was the mantra, plus some token assurances that all environmental rules and standards would be met or exceeded. The few who dared ask even basic questions were automatically branded as a strident or vocal minority.

Those who merely expected their politicians and regulators to do a little due diligence before going all in on these projects were given derisive labels. They were CAVE People (Citizens Against Virtually Everything) with BANANA (Build Absolutely Nothing Anywhere Near Anyone) outlooks and NIMBY (Not In My Backyard) attitudes.

And thats the answer when people ask how we stopped the cement plantdespite the fact that SLCs parent was the largest cement manufacturer in the world, despite the initial widespread support of political officials and the County establishment, despite the companys $60 million expenditure on lawyers, consultants, experts, flacks, ads, mass mailings, campaign contributions, charitable donations, and more because everyone got involved.

If there is another giant controversy in the next decade, the people surely will prevail again; but only because people power is not a passive clich. It works. Theres no such thing as a done deal when local energies are properly organized and channeled into a focused, comprehensive campaign.

But how does this people power work in practice, rather than theory? The labor leader Cesar Chavez was often asked the secret to his success at organizing farm workers. First I talk to one person; then I talk to another person, was his standard reply.

Eventually the questioner would get that the secret of organizing relies not on any trick or scheme, but on the combined talents of many individuals working together as a communitycomplementing and amplifying each others skills, contacts and perspectives.

Naturally, any long campaign has to be constantly guided, shaped, strategized, narrowed, expanded, recast, reinvigorated, and re-imagined along the way. Early on, grassroots groups often will stumble over simple mechanical obstacles, such as group structure, personalities, fatalism, expertise, exhaustion, funding. But once a group gets its feet planted, and begins defending that home turf by beating the bushes for more like minds, anythings possible.

What follows is a partial chronicle of those who emerged from the Valley underbrush and made striking contributions to the Stop the Plant cause. Their stories not only deserve to be recorded, but may also inspire the next generation of accidental activists who find themselves fighting the next life-or-death battle for the soul of our region. Naturally, a full portrait of all who gave their time, energy, courage and imagination (not to mention dollars) to stop the plant would be impossible. The victory achieved was an amalgam of countless individual contributors, which transcended any single contribution.

THE LONGTIMERS Divide and conquer was SLCs key strategy from the get-go. The company blanketed the regions airwaves with inflammatory advertising, and filled mailboxes across five counties with what retired Hudson advertising maven Tom Mabley called commercialized hate mail, intended to ignite a culture war.

Dont let a group of millionaires from New York City deny Columbia County good-paying jobs, blared one glossy postcard. Meanwhile, the Register-Star churned out vicious, willfully ignorant editorials in favor of their biggest advertiser on a nearly weekly basiscaricaturing plant opponents as elitists attending wine and brie parties, while denying that the companys tens of thousands in annual ads had nothing to do with the papers position.

Though neutral on the project at first, Cookie took a show-me stance, warning that You cant trust these cement company bosses farther than you can throw em. Their promises dont mean nothing unless its written down. Others who had lived here all their lives stepped forward. Deb Novack, a realtor and popular local bartender, joined opponents steering group after getting tired of hearing too much misinformation bandied about at Melinos Pub. Hudson matriarch Mary Lou Groll wore Stop the Plant buttons on her lapel to counteract some of her own family members Support the Plan(e)t banners.

Opponents were invited to speak everywhere from the Hudson Rotary Club to the Germantown Lions Club to the Ladies Auxiliary of the Elizaville Fire Department to the basement of St. James Church in Chatham, and no brie was in evidence.

We were graciously hosted by Dave Staats and other members of the Federation of Polish Sportsmen, where our big annual picnic was held each summer. We were likewise welltreated by the ladies managing the former St. Marys Academy gymnasium, the site of our yearly winter get-together, drawing over 500 attendees from all walks of life.

So while the company and its allies sought to distort the facts of the project and demean those who would have to live in its shadow, longtime residents stood alongside those who had lived here only ten, twenty, or thirty years, proving SLCs divisive rhetoric just as false as the rest of their far-fetched claims.

THE RESEARCHERS Whenever Id spot Elizabeth Nyland opening the door to my officein her usual long skirt, her hair in a bun, toting an armful of file folders bursting with Post-It notesI knew that our knowledge of the economic side of the plant argument was about to take another quantum leap forward.

A retired analyst for companies like American Express, living on Route 23B, a couple miles from the proposed stack, Elizabeth focused her forensic skills on the economic claims buried within SLCs 800-page application. Through the careful work of Elizabeth and others, it became clear that the project wasnt going to be an employment boon.

Claveracks Ian Nitschke, whose deliberate Australian drawl and patroon-like gold eyeglasses were familiar fixtures at our meetings, used expertise developed at the State Public Service Commission to locate more ammunition. Ian dug up 1970s testimony about the failed nuclear project, which spoke to the immense cultural importance of the Hudson Valley, noting how pertinent it was to this new fight. He had also worked closely on challenges to the Athens Generating plant with Laura Skutch, a Sleepy Hollow Lake resident who stumbled across a then-little-known set of regulations: the States 44 policies for managing lands within New Yorks Coastal Zone. Since the proposed plant would affect designated zones north and south of Hudson, these policies also applied to SLC. In the end, this was the legal handle we turned to stop the plant.

Taghkanics Moisha Blechman, though diminutive and outwardly delicate, brought a fierce and seasoned activist will to the battle. She proposed an idea which no one at first believed would ever come to fruition: writing a comprehensive manual covering every essential detail of the cement project and industry. The idea was to have a single reference source for all the questions that were constantly cropping up. Not only did Moisha complete the project, she obtained a grant to finance printing of 20,000 copies, handsomely packaged with graphics by her son, Nicholas. Though some old Sierra Club rivalries briefly threatened to derail the project, and some allies almost balked at distributing it, in the end SLC: Understanding the Impact proved an indispensable tool for organizing both thought and action, conferring the authority of a book upon the oppositions research. Knowledge is power, and for citizens faced with a wellfunded and politically-connected adversary, its one of the few affordable weapons availablefighting the companys PR fire with blazing facts.

*Readers who want to read the full, original OT article as edited by Enid Futterman and designed by John Isaacs can download it as a PDF right away byclicking here. A full, week-by-week chronology of the fight can be found atStop the Plant.com.

NOTE: This piece originally appeared in last years environment issue of Our Town (the Columbia County quarterly), under the title The Bullet We Dodged: How the Cement War was Won.* Im offering it here in several installments over the next week, in a somewhat expanded form, and with added visuals and links, both for those who lived through the tumultuous years of 1998-2005, and for others who moved to the area more recentlywho may wonder what all the fuss was about...

At the post office not so long ago, I ran into the internationally-respected lighting engineer Howard Brandston. We hadnt seen each other much since the end of the cement fight, and embraced like soldiers who once had fought side-by-side in the trenches of World War I.

Like thousands of others, Howard and his wife Melanie had given themselves selflessly to the cement plant fightpassing out signs and gathering signatures, holding meetings at their home, speaking at public meetings, writing detailed and forceful letters to the papers and agencies, raising and donating money to a legal defense fund, helping to craft our strategy, getting their friends involved, and much more.

Seeing Howard again made me consider forming an organization called the VLWfor Veterans of Local Wars, to gather the survivors of the pitched battles which consume this part of the Hudson Valley every decade or so:

During that nearly seven-year period, it became almost impossible to have a conversation that did not turn eventually to the dryest topic on earthcement. Two documentary filmmakers who wanted to make a movie about Hudson during this time without mentioning the plant gave in, since everyone they interviewed wanted to talk about SLC. Soon enough, they made the cement war the focus of their PBS film, Two Square Miles.

Dubbed a new industrial city by Moisha Blechman, the vast, sprawling complex would have featured a skyscraper-sized 40- story tower and a dozen other structures between 10 and 20 stories tall, atop Becraft Mountain, within a mile of the hospital, cemetery and thickly-settled neighborhoods.

This gun to our collective heads would have been loaded with 500 million pounds of coal annually, to pulverize limestone blasted from a 1,200-acre quarry nearly as large as the entire City of Hudson. Alternative fuels such as garbage, tires and hazardous waste could have been added to the cauldron a side of incinerator to go with your cement plant.

The behemoth would have been connected to the Hudson waterfront by two miles of conveyor belts, through wetlands and across three major City entrances. At the waterfront, 700-foot-long Titanic-scaled HudsonMax barges would have constantly offloaded coal, slag, and gypsum, while onloading two million tons of finished cement each year.

Their wakes, fumes and noise would have endangered smaller craft on the river, and chased away residents trying to enjoy the adjacent public park. Meanwhile, back in Greenport, as many as 265 daily truck trips** would have serviced the main facility.

By SLCs own admission, the plant sought permits to emit up to 20 million pounds of pollutants per year, including greenhouse gases such as nitrogen and sulfur dioxides, heavy metals and volatile organic compounds: arsenic, benzene, cadmium, chromium, lead, mercury and more.

The medical staff of Columbia Memorial Hospital, following the lead of Drs. Jeff Monkash, Ira Marks, Michael Brown, Steve Kaufman and Stu Kaufman, concluded that emissions of fine particulate matter (PM 10 and PM 2.5) would result in more asthma among local kids, more premature heart attacks among older residents, and higher incidences of cancer among the general population. The American Lung Association concurred, stating that:

The pollution belched by this coal-burning plant would not only trigger asthma attacks in children and cause serious respiratory problems in seniors with lung disease, it would put at risk the health of those of us who do not currently suffer from respiratory problems.

Worse still, citizens discovered that SLC and its Swiss-owned parent company Holderbanknow called Holcimhad an appalling track record of fines for pollution and price-fixing violations. Whatever promises the company was making, it had broken similar promises to other communities worldwide. (The company had also used slave labor in Europe during World War II, and actively profited in South Africa during Apartheid.)

Indeed, the plant wasnt opposed only on environmental grounds. Over time, many business leaders and workers alike realized that the project would be the death of any sustainable local or regional economy. By the end, over 200 businesses representing over 1,000 jobs had signed on to the fight with a Statement of Values [PDF] explaining both their positive vision for a greeneer economy, and how SLC would that economy at risk.

To those who werent here, it must seem odd, even bizarre, that this colossally foolish idea wasnt just dismissed out of hand. Yet when first proposed, the cement plant was considered a done deal. And none of the above details would have become known in time to stop the plant, if it hadnt been for a cluster of fewer than 40 residents, who started to ask the tough questions avoided by the powers that be.

Before it was over, SLC had spent $58 millionover $1,000 per adult in Columbia Countyto no avail. In the next installment of this piece on Monday, Ill take a look at some history of local activism, and begin to explore how this massive industrial proposal was stopped against such long odds.

* Readers who want to read the full, original OT article as edited by Enid Futterman and designed by John Isaacs can download it as a PDF right away by clicking here. A full, week-by-week chronology of the fight can be found at Stop the Plant... Im currently working on another article for the next issue of Our Town, on the topic of the local media.

** This number is not much different than the traffic now proposed through Hudsons South Bay, which certain local leaders now say would require no permits; the Greenport proposal was subject to weeks of grueling hearings on traffic impacts, despite that Town having no zoning.

Over at Carole Osterinks new blog, The Gossips of Rivertown,* there are several posts addressing Hudsons draft Local Waterfront Revitalization Plan now under consideration by the Common Council and New York Department of State.

A little-known fact about the Waterfront is that the southernmost piece along the River was owned by the City until the early 1990s. In an amazingly short-sighted move, Hudson sold this prime real estate for a rock-bottom price to Independent Cement, later renamed St. Lawrence Cement, now known as Holcim.

And to add insult to injury: Several years ago while a member of the board of Clearwater, I was talking with a boat-builder in Saugerties who was repairing the organizations Sloop. When I mentioned that I lived (at the time) in Hudson, a look of chagrin passed over his face.

Hudson?" he said. Do you know that I wanted to move this business to Hudson? I tried to buy that piece of land they had on the river, but they gave me a huge runaround. Then I found out they sold it to the cement company. (He said the City attorney at the time who headed up the negotiations was Giff Whitbeck, of Rapport Meyers Whitbeck Shaw & Rodenhausen; this would have been during either the last Yusko or first Scalera term.)

So try to imagine what the LWRP would look like today if Hudson had an active-but-low-impact boat-building and repair business on the Waterfront... Imagine how much less pull Holcim would have had in its negotiations. And imagine how the presence of such a sustainable businessone which could train local workers in a highly-skilled tradewould add to proposals such as permanently docking the Halfmoon in Hudson.

ANOTHER HISTORICAL ANECDOTE: Years ago I was told by a prominent member of the Columbia County Sportsmen's Association that at the time the City obtained HUD funding to build what became the hulking L&B factory, the Sportsmen were very concerned about the fate of South Bay.In spite of its degraded state, the Bay attracted (and today still plays host to) a remarkable diversity wildlife, and many sportsmen had worked the area during the nearly two decades that ICC was ignoring it.

This sportsman told me that their organization had negotiated an assurance from the City as part of the L&B deal that nothing would be developed south of a certain point, and that markers were placed in the Bay to identify that line. However, once the cement controversy revved up, this source clammed up, as if he'd been told not to talk to any plant opponents.

Anyone with knowledge of whether or where such markers were place (or at least what back issues of local publications might be researched to find out more on the topic) can contact me via email by clicking here. The identify of the source of any such tips received will be kept strictly anonymous.

* The name derives from a 19th Century book of sketches by Alice Neal (not any relation to the 20th Century painter of the same name, to my knowledge). The full text of Neal's book can be read for free online.

It's heartening to see that the victory over St. Lawrence Cement(now rebranded as Holcim) is still fresh in Berkshire mindsparticularly, that the lesson about regional pollutants not respecting state boundaries is still being applied:

It was with good reason that Berkshire environmentalists joined the opposition to the giant cement plant proposed for construction along the Hudson River five years ago. Had it been built, the plant would have sent an estimated 10,000 tons of pollutants a year into the air over the Berkshires courtesy of the prevailing winds. It's those winds that the federal EPA must take into consideration in enforcing the new standards for smog-causing pollutants it proposed last Thursday. [...]The bucolic Berkshires are in violation of existing smog standards, let alone the new standards, even though the region produces little air pollution. Our smog comes flowing in from the west, just as the pollution from the cement plant would have. There may be areas of the Midwest that have better air than the Berkshires because pollutants from their industries are carried east.

how many cement plants are producing in the usa 2020? | datis export group

In the spring of 1866, David O. Saylor, Esias Rehrig, and Adam Woolever started the Coplay Cement Company. The Coplay Cement Company was located along the west side of the Lehigh River and along side of the Lehigh Valley Railroad (L.V.R.R). Early in the 1870s, Sailor began to experiment with the manufacturing of portland cement from rocks from his own quarry.

With this experimentation, Saylor discovered the possibility of making portland cement from raw materials at his disposal. He noticed that the harder burned portions of his Rosendale clinker produced cement that would show a tensile strength equal to that of the best imported portland cement, for a short period of time. However the cement had the problem of crumbling away with time. This problem was do to the raw materials not being properly proportioned.

Up until this experimentation, the trio of men manufactured natural rock cement. There were many other manufacturers of natural rock cement in the United States at this time. The Rosendale cement of New York had been on the market for over thirty years and manufacturers were already in operation on the Potomac, James, and Ohio River Valleys. Natural rock cements were made by driving off the carbonic acid from argillaceous (clay-bearing) limestones.

This was done at low temperatures in an ordinary upright kiln from 1,000 to 1,200 degrees Fahrenheit, and produced a soft yellow stone. This yellow stone was then ground into a powder and constituted the finished product. On the other hand, portland cement is an artificial mixture of raw materials, has a calcination at a temperature above 2,000 degrees Fahrenheit, and purer raw materials were used than necessary for natural cements.

The raw materials used in the manufacturing of portland cement at this time were cement rock, limestone, shale, and coal. At this period in time, portland cements were not available in the United States, and were imported from England and Germany.

The Lehigh deposits were very much different than those commonly used in Europe, but still were thought to be of suitable and sufficient purity for the manufacturing of portland cement. The deposits in this area were a natural mixture of carbonate of lime and clay in proportions approximating those required for the portland cement mixture. To the southeast of this area, the rocks and limestone were unfit for cement making, and to the northwest there was an abundance of shales and slates.

These deposits proved to be suitable, and Saylor turned out the first portland cement in 1875. In 1876, Saylors brand of cement received a medal for highest quality at the Centennial Exhibition in Philadelphia. The rocks used to produce this cement were taken from a quarry near the plant, and had variations in the composition of the rock at different strata. This meant that frequent changes were required to proportion the mixture correctly. Chemists determined these proportions several times daily.

In 1878, the plant had seven kilns for portland cement, producing 2,500 barrels per month. In 1893 a continuous kiln was built for experimental purposes. This kiln was charged with raw materials at the top, and clinker was drawn from the bottom day and night for months. The only time the fire stopped was for repairs. As of 1900, the Coplay cement plant, using continuous kilns, had a maximum production of 500 barrels of portland cement per day.

Before the raw materials reach the kiln, cement rock and limestone are wetted, crushed, and weighed separately. The cement rock and limestone were then discharged together when the weight proportions were right to produce a thoroughly homogeneous mixture so that chemical action between particles could take place. These two rocks were then mixed together and natural cement added to give the mixture a necessary plasticity. This mixture was then made into lumps or balls suitable for charging in a furnace or kiln.

All of these processes took place in the raw materials mill. These balls were then sent to the tunnel dryers where they became free from moisture. These balls were then elevated to the upper or charging floor of the continuous kiln.

This dried slurry was then charged through the doors on the top floor. All the while, the kiln was constantly kept full up to this point. The fuel was introduced through the stoke holes on the floor below. The long vertical shaft, the upper part of the kiln, served as a pre-heater for the bricks, or balls. The narrow section in the middle was a combustion chamber, or crucible, and the lower section cooled the clinker and heated the current of air.

This draft of air from below was heated by passing over the hot clinker before it reached the combustion chamber. The products of combustion heated the balls to a high temperature before they reached the fire. These kilns used gas coal for fuel and proved to be very economical because all of the heat was utilized.

The clinker arrived at the grate below, which was six feet above the lower floor, nearly cold. The burnt clinker is withdrawn form the corners of the kilns at regular intervals into wagons and these contents are weighed. The wagons were drawn up an incline by a cable to the second floor of the cement mill. Here the clinker was stored until it was needed on the first floor where it was ground and packaged.

These vertical kilns of the mill B still stand today serving as the David O. Saylor Cement Museum. In 1976, Coplay Cement was aquired by the Essroc Company which still produces Saylors portland cement today. Many portland cement plants still exists in the Lehigh Valley today including: Essroc I and Essroc III located in Nazareth, Hercules Cement located in Stockertown, Keystone Cement located in Bath, Allentown Cement located in Evansville, and Whitehall Cement located in Cementon.

From 1893 to 1904 the nine vertical kilns of the Coplay Cement Company were used for the production of portland cement. Built as an improvement in kiln technology over the bottle or dome kiln then in use, the 90 foot high vertical kilns had the advantage of producing a higher quality product than dome kilns and produced it on a continuous basis as well.

However, they were almost immediately superseded by rotary kiln technology that required very little labor to operate. In 1904 the company shut down its vertical kilns and in the 1920s demolished the surrounding buildings and removed the upper 30 feet of the kilns. Lehigh County acquired the kilns in 1976 and launched a rehabilitation campaign. The restored and stabilized kilns now house a cement industry museum.

Not only do these structures represent the transition in kiln technology from the bottle or dome kiln to the rotary kiln, but they stand as a fitting monument to the pioneering role of David O. Saylor, the Coplay Cement Company, and the Lehigh Valley area in the development of the American portland cement industry.

Several years before he constructed his first cement plant in 1866, Saylor purchased the land where it and the future mills of the Coplay Cement Company would be located. His first mill, often referred to as plant A, where he made his first portland cement in 1871, was utilized well into the 1890s but was demolished early in the 20th century. In 1892, eight years after Saylors death, the Coplay management, faced with a growing demand for its product, decided to erect a new mill, and eventually 11 Schoefer kilns, which were a Danish modification of an upright kiln originally developed in Germany were built.

Constructed of locally made red brick, these kilns were utilized for the production of portland cement. By 1900 this region provided the nation with 75 percent of its cement and had been the scene of a number of technological breakthroughs like the development of the rotary kiln.

In the long run, this growth, which was made possible by Saylor and his company, enabled the United States to become the worlds leading producer of cement, manufacturing by the 1920s four times as much as Great Britain, its nearest competitor.The Coplay Cement Company Kilns are located on North Second St., in Coplay.

The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic that stretches from the Atlantic to Pacific Oceans across the continent of North America. It has borders with Canada to the north and Mexico to the southwest.

The 48 contiguous states (and the District of Columbia) stretch for more than 3000km east to west and 2700km north to south. The state of Hawaii consists of an island chain in the Pacific Ocean and Alaska, the largest state, is separated from the contiguous states by western Canada.

With European settlers originally coming to the fertile and temperate plains in the north and east of the country, the first US cities were established on or near to the east coast. These have since been developed extensively. The Mississippi River system, which stretches throughout the east and south east, aided early movement into the area now known as the midwest.

The western states, in contrast, are sparsely populated, especially in the north. A combination of mountains and deserts made early exploration here difficult. Exceptions to this rule include Washington, California and Hawaii.

The land that comprises the USA was discovered by Christopher Columbus in 1492, although the USA itself was not formed until the signing of the Declaration of Independence on 4 July 1776. Prior to 1776, the eastern side of the modern US territory had been under the control of the British, who had fought with France, Spain and other colonial powers for control of the new world.

Based in the east of the current USA, the 13 original states acquired land slowly-but-surely across the rest of central North America by the mid-1800s. The most notable acquisitions included the Louisiana Purchase of 1803 (from France), the Mexican Cession of 1819 (from Mexico) and the annexation of Texas, which was an independent republic until 1845.

The most notable period of unrest was the Civil War. In 1861 11 states in the south east of the country attempted to leave the Union in a dispute with President Lincoln over the abolition of slavery. The war was fought mainly in the southern states as the north looked to regain control, something that it achieved in 1865 after four years of bloody conflict.

The USAs longest conflict to date was the Cold War with the USSR, the defining backdrop to the second half of the 20th Century. This unconventional conflict saw both sides fight to contain one anothers ideology through a variety of means. These included a mixture of military strategy, an arms race, espionage, the provision of aid to venerable allies and proxy wars in Afghanistan, Korea and Vietnam, until the collapse of the USSR in 1991.

The US has a service-based economy (77% in 2011) with an historical emphasis on production and manufacturing, particularly of oil/gas, vehicles, domestic appliances and high-end electronics. Despite taking up 22% of the economy and maintaining a steady contribution to the US economy from the 1950s onwards, the labour force engaged in manufacture has dropped by two thirds in 60 years, from 33% of employees in 1947 to around 10% in 2009.

This decline, the result of improved technology, higher efficiency and the importation of cheaper manufactured goods from the Far East, has left some areas, notably in the north east and New England, with high unemployment and social deprivation.

A switch to modern and more high-tech research and manufacturing has only partly helped the situation, especially in cities like Detroit, nicknamed Motor City, and Motown in the 1950s and 1960s due to the prevalence of the motor industry. While the city still hosts the worldwide headquarters for General Motors, it also reported unemployment of 20% in May 2011.

The US cement industry is one of the largest in the world, with an estimated installed capacity over 100Mt/yr. The 2012 edition of the Global Cement Directory puts the country third in terms of active and mothballed capacity (>113Mt/yr), behind China (>1400Mt/yr) and India (>230Mt/yr).

Its rise to this position started in the second quarter of the 19th Century, with the introduction of intermittent and continuous shaft kilns in the areas surrounding New York city. In 1825 the Erie Canal, between Buffalo to Lake Erie, an ambitious 584km-long construction project, was completed. Its construction was in large part thanks to recently discovered meagre lime in the area.

An increasing number of limestone discoveries in the east and the ease of transport along the Mississippi River system in the Midwest led to the rapid establishment of a cement industry. Much of the industry is still concentrated in this area, with 25% of US cement being involved in some way with the system.

It was in the early 1900s, however, that cement production really took off in the US, with the introduction of the rotary kiln. As early as 1900 there are accounts of the Lehigh Valley having 29 rotary kilns, which, though small by modern standards, each produced at more than twice the rate of previous methods. Incremental improvements led to higher and higher outputs, with the industry experimenting with preheaters and precalciners from the 1950s onwards and increasingly sophisticated automated production since then.

The industry has been overseen for the majority of its existence by a nationwide association, first known as the Association of American Portland Cement Manufacturers (AAPCM). The AAPCM was formed in 1902 to safeguard the interests of the industry. It was renamed the Portland Cement Association (PCA).

Despite its high modern capacity, the cement industry in the US is currently operating well below its headline figures. The PCA reports that in 2005, before the onset of the current fiscal problems, the US consumed approximately 122Mt of cement.

In 2006 this value held steady at 122Mt, in 2007 it dropped to 110Mt and in 2008 it fell to 93Mt. Even worse consumption was seen in 2009 and 2010, when the country consumed just 67-68Mt, nearly half of the level just five years previously. This represented a capacity-utilisation rate of just 67%.

The extent of the damage inflicted by the current economic downturn on the US cement industry can be seen by looking at cement consumption statistics from 2005, the peak of US cement demand, and 2010. Please refer to the tables below.

Over these five years 48 out of the 50 US States observed a decrease in cement consumption. Most badly affected were Arizona, (-69%), Florida (-68%), Nevada (-68%), Georgia (-61%) and California (-60%).

In addition to the states in the over 60% bracket, a further 23 states; Alabama, Colorado, Connecticut, the District of Columbia, Hawaii, Idaho, Illinois, Kentucky, Maine, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, New Hampshire, New Jersey, North Carolina, Ohio, Oregon, Washington, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Tennessee and Virginia, saw drops of 40% or more.

Notable among these is Missouri, which, like Florida, saw its installed capacity increase massively in the middle of 2009 with the arrival of Holcims 4Mt/yr Ste. Genevieve plant on the Mississippi River.

Many other states saw decreases well into double-digits over the same period, with only two states seeing a net increase in cement consumption over the same time period. These were Louisiana, where consumption increased by over a quarter, and North Dakota, where consumption was up by 17%, albeit at a low level.

Neither of these states has its own integrated cement plant and their combined consumption in 2010 was 3.15Mt, just 4.5% of the total consumption in the US in 2010. The only state to come out of the analysis relatively unscathed is South Dakota, one of the least populated states in the country, with an apparent drop in consumption of 6% between 2005 and 2010.

In 2011 cement consumption was again low at just 66Mt, still far down on the record production levels seen in 2005. Of the 50 US states, the top seven producers (in desending order by volume: Texas, California, Missouri, Florida, Pennsylvania, Michigan and Alabama) accounted for 53% of total US cement production for the year.

Like many countries in the world, the USA has significant amounts of cement produced by the major multinational cement firms, Lafarge, Cemex, Holcim and HeidelbergCement. Between them the big four control around 40% of the integrated cement plants and 48-50% of the operational and mothballed capacity.8 Smaller multinationals like Titan and Buzzi Unicem and homegrown producers like Ash Grove Cement and Texas Industries take up the remaining share of the market.

The cement production in the USA is mostly controlled by multinational companies for instance CRH Plc, Cemex, Lafarge Holcim, Lehigh Hanson, Argos USA Corporation, and Buzzi Unicem. Nonetheless, there are few numbers of domestic companies such as Ash Grove Cement and CalPortland Company.

Lafarge Holcim was established in 2015 by combining assets of former multinational producers Lafarge and Holcim. It is reported that, Lafarge Holcim own a total of 220 plants and 345.2Mt/yr of cement capacity; 149 of which are integrated cement plants with a total capacity of 287.3Mt/yr, as well as 57.9Mt/yr of grinding capacity across 71 plants.

It is a Mexican company which started its operation in the United States in 1994 by acquiring Balcones cement plant. Cemex is one of the greatest cement manufacturer in the world since 2000. However it has suffered significant recession.

Cemex own a total of 61 plants; 52 active integrated plants and nine active grinding plants which yields a total of 91.6Mt/yr of cement capacity. It operates 13 plants and 46 cement terminal in the united states. Cemex headquarter based in Houston.

The North American arm of the Ireland-based CRH plc. CRH established in 1990 and started operations in the USA in 1990. It operates in the entire united states, six Canadian provinces, and other twenty-nine countries.

CRH grew rapidly between 2015 and 2016 due to its acquisition of a range of assets from the merging Lafarge and Holcim. It has 50.5Mt/yr of cement production capacity across 39 integrated and 15 grinding plants. CRH considers itself the largest building materials company in North America. its headquarter in the United States located inAtlanta.

It considered to be one of the leading cement manufacturing companies in the US. Buzzi Unicem established by combining of Buzzi Unicem SpA and Lone Star Industries in 2004. Buzii Unicerm possesses seven cement plants with a production capacity of nearly 9million metric tons.

The types of cement the company manufacture within the guidelines of ASTM C150 are Type l normal, general purpose, Type IA normal, air entrained, Type ll moderate sulfate resistance, and Type lll high early strength. The company operates 34 cement terminals across the US to distribute the cement into 21 states.

Argos Cement Company founded in 1936 in Columbia and becomes one of the most significant company in that country. Nonetheless, its operation in the United States started when Southern Star Concrete and Concrete Express in the United States were acquired in 2005.

According to the official website of the company, it has become the fourth largest cement production company in the United States in 2011. In 2015, For the second consecutive year, Argos received distinction and included in the 2014 RobecoSAM Sustainability Yearbook.

The company established in 1882, but the first cement production plant opened in 1908. According to the official website of the company, its the fifth largest cement production company in the United States. It owns eight cement plants across the united states and 27 cement terminals, in addition to two deep water import terminals.

This cement producer company established in 1960 by opening Nevada cement plant. Eagle Materials cement manufacturing facilities are located in Illinois, Missouri, Nevada, Ohio, Oklahoma, Texas, and Wyoming. The latest upgrade and expansion activities increased the production capacity by nearly five million tons per year.

It established as a single mill operation in 1897, producing Portland cement. At the moment, Lehigh Hanson operates as part of Heidelberg Cement. So, the Heidelberg, which is one of the worlds leading producers of cement, established its presence in the United States with the acquisition of the Lehigh Cement Company in 1977.

Lehigh Hanson produces a variety of cement, and owns 19 cement plants and more than 70 distribution terminals strategically located across the United States and Canada. Its headquarters are located in Irving, Texas, United States.

It was founded in 1891 with the opening of the Colton Plant. CalPortland is recognized as the leader in quality cement production and innovation. It produces several types of cement: for instance Portland cement part I to part V, blended Portland-limestone type IL cement, oil ad well cement glass g, and many more.

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has recognized CalPortland forfourteen consecutiveyears 2005 2018. It has been recognized nationally for energy conservation, emission reduction, recycling, and plant safety.It operates thirteen cement production plant in the USA.

It is founded in 1866 as Coplay Cement Co, and the production of Portland cement started in 1872. The Coplay acquired by Ciments Francais in 1976. Then,the name of the company changed to Essroc cement corp. After that, theItalcementi SpA acquired the Ciments Francais in 1992.

ESSROC Cement Corp. produces cement and offers bulk cement, such as Portland cements and supplementary cementing materials, general purpose cement, slag cement, hydraulic cement, limestone cement, and blast furnace slags.

Lafarge Holcim was established in 2015 by combining assets of former multinational producers Lafarge and Holcim. It is reported that, Lafarge Holcim own a total of 220 plants and 345.2Mt/yr of cement capacity; 149 of which are integrated cement plants with a total capacity of 287.3Mt/yr, as well as 57.9Mt/yr of grinding capacity across 71 plants.

In 2019, U.S. portland cement production increased by 2.5% to 86 million tons, and masonry cement production continued to remain steady at 2.4 million tons. Cement was produced at 96 plants in 34 States, and at 2 plants in Puerto Rico.

U.S. cement production continued to be limited by closed or idle plants, underutilized capacity at others, production disruptions from plant upgrades, and relatively inexpensive imports. In 2019, sales of cement increased slightly and were valued at $12.5 billion. Most cement sales were to make concrete, worth at least $65 billion.

In 2019, it was estimated that 70% to 75% of sales were to ready-mixed concrete producers, 10% to concrete product manufactures, 8% to 10% to contractors, and 5% to 12% to other customer types. Texas, California, Missouri, Florida, Alabama, Michigan, and Pennsylvania were, in descending order of production, the seven leading cement-producing States and accounted for nearly 60% of U.S. production.

Construction spending decreased in 2019, owing to a decline in private residential and nonresidential spending. Cement shipments into North Carolina and South Carolina increased owing to reconstruction following a hurricane in 2018. The leading cement-consuming States were Texas, California, and Florida, in descending order by tonnage.

No new company mergers were reported in 2019, but one European cement company entered into an agreement to purchase a Mexican cement companys plant in Pennsylvania, pending regulatory approval.No major cement plant upgrades were completed during the year, but several minor upgrades were ongoing at a few domestic plants. One cement company began work on an upgrade to one of its plants in Indiana, with completion expected in 2022. Another company continued to work on securing permits for a new white cement plant in Texas, which would be the third white cement plant in the country. Many plants have installed emissions-reduction equipment to comply with the 2010 National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP). It remains possible that some kilns could be shut, idled, or used in a reduced capacity to comply with NESHAP, which would constrain U.S. clinker capacity.

It was forecast that cement projection would rise over the last few years, reaching 100 million metric tons in the United States. This projection was supported by both residential and non-residential construction trends as well as an overall, positive economic impact. Under recent historical figures, it was found that domestic production of both Portland and masonry cement as well as cement clinker have mostly increased since the 2008 Recession, although not completely recovered.

The Future of Cement Market in United States report is a comprehensive analytical work on United States Cement markets. The research work strategically analyzes the United States market, assessing the future trends, drivers and challenges across multiple dimensions including growth, demand, pricing, competition, Infrastructure, regulatory policies and others.

The global cement market size is expected to reach USD 682.3 billion by 2025, expanding at a CAGR of 7.8% during the forecast period. The market is anticipated to register rapid growth due to growing infrastructural development across the globe.

The global infrastructure investment is dominated by countries such as India, China, and the U.S. Soaring need for infrastructure upgrade and modification in the U.S. is likely to fuel the demand for cement over the forecast period.

Demand for residential properties is growing due to increasing urbanization and rising household income. In addition, improving economic conditions in countries such as India and China is stimulating the demand for retail and commercial spaces. Both countries are estimated to observe a remarkable rise in establishments in urban areas over the forecast period, thus providing a fillip to the cement market.

We hope you find detailed information about the answer to the question of How many cement plants are producing in the USA 2020 in this article.Datis Export Group supplies all types of Portland Cement (Grey, and White) and Cement Clinker. Our sales team will manage to export the Cement to any destination port for Bulk and Bagged containerized cargoes.