coal washability and calculations

coal calculations | sgs

Accurate and precise calculations are vital to the success of your coal operation. These calculations are used to calculate various skeleton parameters including ash and calorific value that let you determine the grades of your coal.

SGS global teams of chemists and experts use a range of coal analytical calculations and indexes to arrive at the calorific values, total hydrogen, Coke Reactivity Index (CRI) and Coke Strength after Reaction (CSR) of your coal sample. Our third party test results and calculations provide you with reliable data that complies with international standards.

The following are some of the interesting protocols and calculations regularly used by SGS coal and coke specialists. These calculations are provided for your information, but SGS cannot guarantee that all data or formulas match the most current standards. Clients trading coal must familiarise themselves with the current standards being used in contracts.

Extract from COAL - D.W. Krevelen. (page 529) "All the empirical equations are modifications of the original Dulong equation with "some theoretical foundation", and are, by adaption to empirical CV data of coal, de facto empirical relationships. The correlations given by GIVEN (1986) and NEAVEL (1986) are the most reliable."

Net Calorific Value (NCV) Calculations and Conversion Factors Ref: Net Calorific Value (ASTM D5865-12) The heat produced by combustion of a substance at a constant pressure of 0.1 Mpa (1 Atm), with any water formed remaining as vapour. ASTM D5865-12 / D3180 at constant pressure Qv-p= 0.01 * RT * (Had / (2*2.016)) - Oad / 31.9988 - Nad / 28.0134) Qh = 0.01 * Hvap * (Had / 2.016) Qmad = 0.01 * Hvap * (Mad / 18.0154) Qmar = 0.01 *Hvap * (Mar / 18.0154) Qvar = Qvad *((100-Mar) / (100-Mad)) Qpad(net) = Qvad(gross) + Qv-p - Qh Qmad Qpd(net) = (Qvad(gross) + Qv-p - Qh) * (100/(100-Mad) Qpar(net) = ( Qvad(gross) + Qv-p - Qh) * (100 - Mar) / (100 - Mad) Qmar Where: Qv-p = The energy associated with this change in the volume of the gaseous phase for the combustion reaction R = the universal gas constant [8.3143 J/(mol *K)] T = the standard thermochemical reference temperature (298.15 K) Had = Had,m 0.1119 * Mad (total Hydrogen H in moisture) Oad = Oad,m 0.8881 * Mad (total Oxygen O in moisture) Hvap = heat of vaporization of water at constant pressure (43985 J/mol) Qh = heat of vaporization of hydrogen content in the sample Qmad = heat of vaporization of water content in the analysis sample Qmar = heat of vaporization of total moisture content in the sample Atomic Weights: O2 = 31.998 / N2 = 28.0134 / H2 2.016 / H2O = 18.0154 ISO 1928-2009 at constant volume Qv, net,m,J/g =( Q gr,v,d - 206.0 [ wHd ] ) x (1-0.01xMT) - (23.05x MT) Qv, net,m,kcal/kg = ( Q gr,v,d - 49.20 [ wHd ] ) x (1-0.01xMT) - (5.51x MT)

ISO 1928-2009 at constant pressure Qp, net,m,J/g = { Q gr,v,d - 212.2 [ wHd ] - 0.8 x [wOd + wNd] } x (1- 0.01MT) - 24.43 x MT Qp, net,m,kcal/kg = { Q gr,v,d - 50.68 [ wHd ] - 0.191 x [wOd + wNd] } x (1- 0.01MT) - 5.84 x MT

Seylers Formula Various parameters of coal can be estimated from the Ultimate Analysis and Calorific Value determinations, using Seyler's formula, and other similar calculations (e.g. Dulong's formula). ISO 1928 2009 Determination of Gross Calorific Value The ISO standard is the only international standard that allows for the estimation of hydrogen content to be calculated using Seylers Formula. Seylers calculation is only valid for most bituminous coals. Note 1. NOT valid when the estimated Hdb is less than 3% Note 2. NOT valid when the Odaf content is greater than 15% Note 3. NOT valid for estimation of H if coal shipments are a blend of low rank coal, or anthracite, or petcoke, and bituminous coals Note 4. NOT valid for low rank coal, anthracite, petcoke, or coke ISO 1928 2009 Part E.3.3 wH = 0.07 x w(V) + 0.000165 x qv,gr,m - 0.0285 x [ 100 - MT - w(A) ] w(H) - is the H content of sample less H contained in moisture, as % mass w(V) - is the VM content of sample with moisture content MT, as % mass w(A) - is the ash content of sample with moisture content MT, as % mass qv,gr,m - is the gross CV of sample with moisture content MT, in joules/g

Where: a,b,c,dh,j,k are the hole sizes, in mm., of successive sieves; 'A,B,C,DH,J,K are the cumulative percentage oversizes for each of the sieves. Note: The sieve with hole size 'a' is the smallest size through which all coke passes (i.e. A = 0%). The sieve with hole size "k" is the hypothetical sieve through which no coke will pass (k=0mm, K=100%).

When coke descends in the blast furnace, it is subjected to reaction with countercurrent CO2 and abrasion. These concurrent processes weaken the coke and chemically react with it to produce excess fines that can decrease the permeability of the blast furnace burden. SGS conducts CRI and CSR testing to provide high accuracy results with good turnaround times. CRI and CSR tests determine how much energy your coal will produce when being burned in the furnace.

The CRI/CSR test measures coke reactively in carbon dioxide at elevated temperatures and its strength after reaction by tumbling. In the test, duplicate 200g samples of x (19 x 22 mm) sized coke are extracted from a minimum 1kg parent sample and reacted in a vessel with CO2 gas for two hours at 1100C. The weight loss after the reaction equals the CRI. The reacted coke is then tumbled in an I-shaped tumbler for 600 revolutions at 20 rpm and is then weighed. The weight percent of the + coke equals the CSR. Most blast furnaces will require a coke with a CSR greater than 60 and CRI less than 25.SGS is committed to providing accurate, cost effective blast furnace coke analysis for your operation.

coal cleaning calculations based on alternatives to standard washability curves - sciencedirect

The relative merits of standard washability curves and other graphical methods of representing coal cleaning potentials are discussed with particular reference to prediction of cleaning results and process optimization. Specifically, the ash/density relationship, the M-curve and the combustibles recovery plot are considered. A distinction is made between a fundamental washability characteristic, namely the ash/density relationship, and a location and mining dependent characteristic represented by the yield/density relation. The usefulness of alternative relationships in connection with optimization calculations is explained. It is concluded that some expansion of standard specifications might merit consideration, augmenting the standard curves with other relationships of particular usefulness for prediction of results, and stressing their advantages in computerized methods.

washability | article about washability by the free dictionary

a technical estimate of the potential extent of extraction of valuable components from ores and coals by concentration of the useful minerals. The property depends on the mineralogic-petrologic and structural composition of the useful mineral and on the method of extraction. Studies of washability are performed to develop the technology of processing of a mineral for the purpose of designing a concentration plant; to improve industrial processes, equipment, and concentration conditions; to evaluate new flotation reagents; and to study the mechanisms of concentration.

Washability studies are performed on material obtained as a result of sampling of the mineral deposit. Studies of the material composition of the sample by mineralogic-petrologic granulometric, phase, and chemical analysis are followed by the plotting of washability curves in coordinates of the yield of the product being concentrated versus the content and extraction of a component. The sample is then concentrated according to the method selected, and the results are evaluated by means of technical and economic analysis. In some cases the electrical, magnetic, and adsorption properties of minerals are determined at the same time.

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washability - definition of washability by the free dictionary

All content on this website, including dictionary, thesaurus, literature, geography, and other reference data is for informational purposes only. This information should not be considered complete, up to date, and is not intended to be used in place of a visit, consultation, or advice of a legal, medical, or any other professional.

design of coal preparation plants: problems and solutions | springerlink

With the increase of coal production, the requirements to its quality are also increasing. Improvement of coal quality is only possible with the use of coal preparation methods. The main objective is to achieve 100% treatment volume of the mined coal. In recent years, only in the Kuznetsk Basin 15 coal preparation plants have been built. Addressing coal research and design is an important stage in construction and operation of coal preparation plants. At present time the calculation of flow sheets is based on the initial data of the study of operational samples (industrial) samples, taken directly from the mine (open cast) without taking into account breakage on handling of coal from the mine (open cast) to the coal preparation plant. Analysis of CPPs operation has shown that the design data do not meet the actual performance data. One of the reasons is the wrong approach to flow sheets calculations and to the choice of equipment. The report presents the design problems and their solutions. During the process of coal transportation from the mine (open cast) to the CPP the coal grinding occurs. Its composition varies in both size and quality of individual size grades. Size grades washability changes, thus affecting the choice of preparation methods and equipment. The report presents examples of qualitative changes of the mined coal during transportation and recommendations on the correct choice of input data for the design of new CPPs and reconstruction of the existing ones.

geological modelling & mine planning - minescape - datamine

From nickel mining in Russia, platinum group metals mining in South Africa, to coal mining in Indonesia, MineScape provides mining operations worldwide with a suite of integrated solutions designed for both open pit and underground mines for coal and metalliferous deposits. Delivering extensive geological modelling and mine planning and design functionality, MineScape offers exceptional ease-of-use through: A true simultaneous multi-user environment allowing access to all 3D data and models over networks. Advanced CAD features. A sophisticated 3D graphics engine. Complex stratigraphic modelling functionality including reverse faulting. Integration of the geological database with modelling and the 3D graphics environment. Sophisticated drill and blast design tools. Surface/stratigraphy-bound block model interpolation. Volume and reserves calculation. MineScape is a geological modelling and mine planning solution within Datamine's suite of mining software, the most comprehensive and effective IT solution for the mining industry. We seamlessly integrate information flows between all mining activities and lower mining costs through smarter use of technology and information management systems. Customise the right solution for you using the various modules we offer below:

From nickel mining in Russia, platinum group metals mining in South Africa, to coal mining in Indonesia, MineScape provides mining operations worldwide with a suite of integrated solutions designed for both open pit and underground mines for coal and metalliferous deposits. Delivering extensive geological modelling and mine planning and design functionality, MineScape offers exceptional ease-of-use through:

MineScape is a geological modelling and mine planning solution within Datamine's suite of mining software, the most comprehensive and effective IT solution for the mining industry. We seamlessly integrate information flows between all mining activities and lower mining costs through smarter use of technology and information management systems. Customise the right solution for you using the various modules we offer below:

In my opinion, GDB is one of the best tools for coal Geologists. Its validation settings mean that the data cant be uploaded unless its clean, which means that it can be relied upon in the development of the geological model. I 100% agree that its a time saver! It also integrates with Stratmodel to allow for stratigraphic and coal quality models to be constructed without the need to import data from spreadsheets and other sources. Everything from exploration planning through to mine planning can be done and stored in MineScape, therefore it has to be one of the most robust solutions for using and interrogating geological data for decision making in mining. -Danique Gerber, Senior Coal Geologist, RPMGlobal.

In my opinion, GDB is one of the best tools for coal Geologists. Its validation settings mean that the data cant be uploaded unless its clean, which means that it can be relied upon in the development of the geological model. I 100% agree that its a time saver! It also integrates with Stratmodel to allow for stratigraphic and coal quality models to be constructed without the need to import data from spreadsheets and other sources. Everything from exploration planning through to mine planning can be done and stored in MineScape, therefore it has to be one of the most robust solutions for using and interrogating geological data for decision making in mining.

GDB stores downhole survey, lithology and quality data and also produces standard, summary and custom, user-defined reports. It graphically displays data such as lithology, intervals, downhole geophysics as well as allowing geologists to conduct correlations, composition, washability calculations and classical 2D geostatistical studies.

Stratmodel empowers geologists with the ability to complete stratigraphic modelling of inherently complex environments. Stratmodel's advanced structural capabilities enable geologists to gain accurate and detailed understandings of subsurface structures influencing their deposits.

Block Model has the ability to efficiently and accurately model both stratified and non-stratified deposits using conventional and industry standard block modelling tools and processes. Users can generate models and interpolate geological data to develop wireframe solids as well as export to 3rd part optimisation engines.

Open Cut allows mine design and planning engineers to generate and test mine designs for short-term production operations and long-term feasibility studies. Engineers can also design haul roads interactively in 3D and determine cut and fill requirements for mass balancing and optimisation.

MineScapes Dragline module allows mine design engineers to apply a variety of burden movement techniques including pre-strip, cast blasting and production earthworks to simulate the execution of total pit burden removal strategies.

This module has sophisticated tools to quickly lay out an optimum blast pattern, project blast holes to surfaces, and renumber, resequence and export hole layout reports to GPS equipped drill rigs. It also produces plans showing blast exclusion zones for simple communications around operational blasting.

This module quickly produces and tests short and long term plans for longwall and room & pillar mine designs. It then visualises and manipulates these designs at any stage of the plan development using MineScape's interactive 3D CAD suite.

This powerful and customisable scheduling engine enables mine planning engineers to optimise mining methods and sequences by providing material movement and machine activity forecasts for short/long term operations, delivering better predictability and reliability with respect to tonnage and production outputs.

A purpose-built module for underground metals mining operations, it has the ability to create designs for block caving operations, long-hole and cut & full stope mining methods. Design parameters can be replicated and semi-automated through the use of templates saving time and resulting in accurate, repeatable designs.

A simple, easy-to-use solution to delineate an ultimate economic pit shell. Pit optimisation utilises the power of MineScape's CAD suite while directly accessing MineScape block models to simplify the pit optimisation process.

This release is aimed at improving performance and visualisations, expanding big data capabilities and revamping the user interface and customer experience. Our goal is to make MineScape as friendly and intuitive as possible to facilitate productivity and streamline your business processes.

This release is aimed at improving performance and visualisations, expanding big data capabilities and revamping the user interface and customer experience. Our goal is to make MineScape as friendly and intuitive as possible to facilitate productivity and streamline your business processes.