cone crusher verses jaw crusher

jaw crusher vs cone crusher | advantages and disadvantages

Jaw crushers and cone crushers both are a classic laminated crusher. Also is the most mainstream crusher type. Jaw crusher is usually used as a primary crusher and second-class crusher. Cone crusher is usually used as secondary crusher or three-stage crusher machine. Jaw crusher and cone crusher are usually arranged on the stone crusher plant in two stages.

Jaw crusher breaks the rock to 10 ~ 30 cm size. Cone crushing machine further broke the stone to below 10 cm. Large cone crushers (gyratory crushers) also can as head crushers. Fine jaw crusher also can as a two-stage crusher, crushing stone to cm grade particle size range.

Cone rock crusher and Jaw stone crusher are a laminated crushing principle. Which is commonly known as the impact crushing principle The nature of crushing doesnt change too much, although the actuator of crushing use of different structure. The cone crusher adopts the extrusion process between the grinding wall and the crushing wall. Jaw crusher adopts the extrusion process between the moving jaw plate and the static jaw plate.

Cone crusher and jaw crusher are widely used, but the applicability of the two types of crusher is different. Jaw crusher has the most extensive adaptability and can meet the crushing requirements of almost any kind of materials. Cone crusher is also very wide applicability, but the Metso cone crusher price is high. Low corrosive materials can choose a low-cost impact crusher. Therefore, the applicability of metsos cone crusher has been reduced in economic consideration.

Cone crushing main advantages: High productivity, less power consumption, work more stable, small vibration crushing ratio, product granularity is more uniform, any side can give ore, and can be crowded to ore.

Jaw crusher main advantages: simple structure, low manufacturing cost, convenient maintenance, reliable work, small machine height, easy to configuration, high viscosity for the water ore is not easy to block.

Cone crushing equipment main disadvantages: Complex structure, equipment high costs, height. And need a higher workshop, machine heavy, inconvenient to transport, not suitable for crushing sticky ore, operation and maintenance more complex.

Fine jaw crusher is more used as a secondary crusher machine. It can crush the materials below 200mm to cm level. two jaw crushers can be equipped with the complete crushing production line. The single machine capacity of fine jaw breaking is low, and the breaking capacity of less than 100 tph can only be obtained by means of parallel connection of two machines.

Cone crusher as second-level crushing equipment, single machine crushing capacity of several hundred tons per hour. It occupies the absolute advantage in production capacity. Therefore, the fine jaw crusher can only be used in the secondary crushing station with small capacity. The cone crusher can be used in the secondary crushing station with a large capacity.

The matching of jaw crusher and cone crusher is based on the crushing segmentation. It is necessary to consider whether the particle size of jaw crusher can enter the cone crusher to form secondary crushing. For example, Compound Cone crusher configured in the back process of jaw crusher. The jaw crusher equipment broken too large discharge will plug the cone crusher feed mouth. Resulting crusher plant can not run smoothly.

For the matching of jaw crusher and cone crusher. It is necessary to compare the particle size range of the two materials. And adopt to the best matching range can obtain the most efficient production running state.

Jiangxi Shicheng stone crusher manufacturer is a new and high-tech factory specialized in R&D and manufacturing crushing lines, beneficial equipment,sand-making machinery and grinding plants. Read More

jaw crusher vs cone crusher | which is the better crusher | m&c

In the makrket, two most popular aggregate crushing equipments include: Cone Crusher vs Jaw Crusher. Although the cone crusher and jaw crusher are used to crush materials, what is the difference between the two crushers?Table of Contents Jaw CrusherAdvantages of Jaw CrusherCone CrusherAdvantages of Cone CrusherWhats The Difference Between Jaw Crusher and Cone Crusher1. Different Working Principle2. Adapt To Different Material3. Different Feeding Method4. Different Final CostHow To Choose Right Crusher

Jaw crusher has a moving jaw plate and a fixed jaw plate, which are wear-resistant and pressure resistant. During the operation, the jaw plate simulates animal occlusion, and the feeding port is large, so it is very suitable to deal with the coarse crushing of large block materials;

Cone crusher, with various types, large processing capacity range, high efficiency, low energy consumption, uniform product size, which is suitable for medium and fine crushing of various ores and rocks.

Jaw Crusher: The crushing chamber of jaw crusher is composed of fixed jaw plate and movable jaw plate. The fixed jaw plate is fixed vertically on the fuselage body, and the movable jaw plate is in the inclined position. The movable jaw plate continuously moves to the fixed jaw plate periodically. When the two jaw plateare close, the material is crushed by extrusion. When the movable jaw plate is far away, the broken material slides down and is discharged from the crushing chamber.

Cone Crusher: The motor of the cone crusher drives the transmission shaft to drive the eccentric sleeve to rotate, and the movable cone swings back and forth under the force of the eccentric sleeve, the movable cone is periodically close to and far away from the fixed cone, and repeatedly extrudes and impacts the material until the material meeting the requirements falls to discharge from the crushing chamber.

The gyratory body of cone crusher is higher, twice or three times of jaw crusher, and the workshop cost is larger. The weight of cone crusher is larger than that of jaw crusher with the same output by 1-2 times, so the equipment cost is higher. The installation and maintenance of cone crusher is more complicated than jaw crusher.

Therefore, when crushing hard rocks and long rocks, the cone crusher should be preferred. This design is more favorable. When wet and viscous ore is crushed, or medium, small concentrators, jaw crushers are suitable.

The weight of cone crusher with the same output is about twice that of jaw crusher, so the cost of civil engineering and later maintenance is higher, but the cone crusher has deep crushing cavity, large capacity and low energy consumption.

comparison between cone crusher and jaw crusher - virily

All the heavy machine manufacturing in India has led to its development in the past. There are many heavy types of machinery manufactures in the country which has earned credits all around the globe. There are Jaw crushers manufacturers in India, as well as there are cone crusher manufacturers in India.

These machines are used majorly in the field of construction, metallurgy, chemical and silicate industry, mining, and road building. Its a no-brainer that the both these machines, i.e. the jaw crusher and the cone crushers find their utility in the crushing process.

A layman is ought to use the names for these machines alternatively, but there are many differences between the two popular machines. Let us walk through a comparative analysis between the cone crusher and the jaw crusher.

A Jaw crusher is made up of two jaws- the fixed one and the moving one. The machine is used to crush larger sized rocks in a motion resembling that of a nutcracker. The crushing process reduces the size of the stones. The chute that filters the rocks is built in such a way that it narrows towards the base. This helps in filtering the rocks and allows only a particular size of rocks to pass through.

A cone crushers components that is the fixed and the movable cones are similar to that of a jaw crusher. The major operational difference is that the cone crusher utilizes both the cones to grind ores and rocks into smaller pieces. The input is fed in between the two cones and the output is discharged from the discharge hole at the bottom of the cones.

A cone crusher, on the other hand, operated on the principle of rotating oscillatory motion. The pressure on the stones acts when in between the two cones. The two cones do the eccentric swinging movement and produce a force strong enough to crush the hard rocks. The bending force, shearing force and friction force result into a strong force which ultimately breaks the rocks.

A cone crusher is used for secondary crushing. The input to the cone crusher is much smaller and fragmented than that in the jaw crusher. The granularity of the materials that are crushed in the cone crushers is about 35mm to 350 mm. A cone crusher is best suitable for crushing of materials with high hardness like granite, marble, pebbles, dolomite, rhyolite, and diabase.

A Jaw crusher is used in the fields of quarrying, mining, recycling, infrastructure, and construction. It plays the primary role in the crushing of huge stones. Some of the features of the Jaw crushers are:

choosing the right rock crushing equipment

Stone crushing can be classified into four stages depending on the degree to which the starting material is fragmented. These four stages are primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary stages. Primary and secondary stages involve crushing of coarse materials while the tertiary and quaternary stages involve the reduction of ore particles to finer degrees. Activities at the primary stage will depend on gyratory, jaw or impact crushers. Cone crushers, roll crushers and impact crushers are mostly used at the secondary stages. The tertiary and quaternary stages mostly require the utilization of cone crushers, although some functions may require vertical-shift impact crusher. In order to control the size and quality of the product and at the same time reduce wastage, you must ensure that the reduction of aggregates is evenly spread over the four stages.

A gyratory crusher consists of a concave surface and a conical head constructed from heavy steel casting. It works by using a mantle that gyrates within a concave bowl. This rock crushing equipment uses compressive force to fracture the rock and this happens when the mantle makes contact with the bowl during gyration. Gyratory crushers are often built into a cavity in the ground and are mostly used to crush rocks that have high compressive strength.

A jaw crusher also uses compressive force and the materials are allowed into a gap at the top of the equipment between two jaws. One of the jaws is fixed while the other reciprocates by moving back and forth relative to the stationary one. The gap between the two jaws is known as the crushing chamber. The moving jaw exerts a compressive force against the stone in the chamber causing it to fracture and reduce. The rock remains in the jaws until is small enough to move down the chamber to the opening at the bottom. Jaw crushers can work on a range of stone from the softer ones like limestone to harder basalt or granite.

A cone crusher is similar to a gyratory crusher because it operates using a mantle that rotates within a bowl, but it has less steepness in the crushing chamber. It has a short spindle which is supported by a curved universal bearing located beneath the cone. They use compression force to break the rock between the gyrating spindle and the enclosing bowl liner. The rock becomes wedged and squeezed as it enters the top of this rock crushing equipment. The cone crusher breaks large pieces of ore once into smaller particles that fall to a lower position where they are broken again. The pieces are continually crushed until they are small enough to move through the narrow opening at the bottom of the crusher.

Roll crushers are a compression-type reduction crusher with two drums rotating about a shaft. The gap between the drums is adjustable. The particles are drawn into the crushing chamber by the rotating motions of the rolls and a friction angle is formed between the particles and the rolls. The stone fractures from the compression forces presented by the rolls as they rotate. The crushed particles are then forced between the rotating surfaces into the smaller gap area. Roll crushers are mostly used in smaller scale production to crush ores that are not too abrasive. This type of rock crushing equipment gives a very fine product size distribution with very little dust production.

Impact crushers do not use force to crush materials, instead, they use impact. The material is contained within a cage that has openings on the bottom or side to allow for the crushed materials to escape. Impact crushers can be classified into two categories: vertical shaft impact crushers (VSI) and horizontal shaft impact crushers (HSI).

VSI crushers use high-speed rotors with wear resistant tips that catch and throw the feed stone against anvils lining the crushing chamber. Rock is fractured along its natural fissures when its thrown against the anvils to produce materials with consistent cubical shapes.

The HSI crusher has a shaft that runs on a level plane through the crushing chamber. It works by impacting the rock with hammers that are fixed on a spinning rotor. It also works on the principle of throwing the stone to break the rock. Horizontal shaft impact crushers can be primary or secondary. They are better suited for softer, less abrasive stone in the primary stage and more abrasive and harder stone in the secondary stage.

gyratory vs jaw crushers: advantages & disadvantages

Nodiscussion of primary crusher selection would be complete without a comparison of the two leading types: the standard gyratory crusher and the Blake jaw crusher. Although their fields of application overlap to a considerable degree (at least in the realm of primary crushing) there is no real conflict between these two machines; one supplements the other and, between them they very effectively cover an imposingly large proportion of the entire field of primary crushing applications. This does not mean that other types, such as the sledging rolls, for example, are not better suited for certain applications; but there are very few primary crushing jobs to which the gyratory or jaw crushers, or both of them cannot be applied with at least a fair degree of satisfaction.

Either of the two types can be built to handle the hardest and toughest rock or ore that can be economically mined or quarried. The jaw crusher, because of its box-frame construction, and simple toggle mechanism, is especially well adapted to extra heavy design for the crushing of extremely tough materials: in this respect it holds some advantage over the gyratory type, because the extra strength necessary for such work can be built into it at less cost than is required for the gyratory with its more complex shell castings. However, cases where extreme brute strength enters into the selection problem are relatively rare, either type can be used for the great majority of materials encountered in crushing practice, either in standard form or in reinforced design. Strengthening of these machines for extra-heavy duty follows certain well established practices which have been proven to be necessary or desirable. Usually it is a matter of selecting stronger metals, or adding weight in the frame, or both; seldom is it necessary to change the proportions of the working mechanism.

In most cases selection of one type or the other can be made on the basis of performance characteristics, receiving openings, space requirements, and so forth, without regard to relative strength of design. In choosing between the two for any specific application it is helpful to have a list of the salient features of each type, in a form that will permit quick and easy comparison. The following lists emphasize the favourable characteristics of each machine.

Neither machine is particularly well suited to handling very soft, or mushy materials, although the jaw crusher is superior to the gyratory for such service. Loosely cemented minerals, such as soft sandstone, will not work well in the gyratory crusher; packing on the diaphragm behind the pipe is almost certain to cause trouble. The jaw crusher will handle rock of this character if it is reasonably free-flowing. The action on all very soft materials is inclined to be sluggish and, unless it is at the same time of a free-flowing nature, packing in the crushing chamber is an ever present hazard. The jaw crusher will handle rock and ore containing a considerable proportion of loam, or similar contamination, provided that the admixture is not so viscous that it builds up on the jaw plates. The gyratory should never be used for materials containing more than a small percentage of such contamination, the allowable amount being that which the clean crushed rock will keep scoured off of the diaphragm. Flushing the diaphragm will prevent packing of this dirty material, but this practice is usually not permissible in the crushing plant.

We have had occasion to use the expression, comparable sizes, a number of times in this work, with reference to comparisons between two types of crushers, particularly the jaw and gyratory types. This expression has been used by many writers on the subject; usually without any attempt to define exactly what it implies. As a matter of fact, it is a difficult term to define with any degree of accuracy. The Old Quarryman says, It means two machines, one of which you would buy if you didnt buy the other one, providing you had enough money to buy either one of them. That comes about as near as any definition. Comparable sizes of gyratory and jaw crushers are those sizes which the engineer or operator pairs off against each other when making a selection to fit his specific problem, and these pairings may not be the same for all problems. One job may involve capacity as the most important factor; the next one may demand special emphasis on receiving opening. Obviously these different requirements may call for setting up acomparison between different sizes of one or the other type.

Usually, in selecting the primary crusher, receiving opening is the prime consideration; admitting of course that capacity must be adequate. The following list is an attempt to pair off gyratory and jaw crushers on the basis of effective receiving openings, bearing in mind that each shape of opening has its advantages for certain shape-characteristics of the feed, as has been pointed out.

Sometimes, in making a comparison of receiving openings, it is helpful to make a scale drawing of both openings, superimposing one upon the other. The rectangular jaw opening is simple and easy to layout. To draw the gyratory opening, it is necessary to know the top diameter of the crushing head; to make a complete sketch, the diameter of the spider hub and the width of the spider arms should also be known, but this information is not absolutely essential in making the comparison. Taking half the top diameter of the head as a radius, draw the circle which represents the top of the head; then, increasing the radius by the actual opening between head and concaves at their tops, draw the circle representing the concave ring at the top of the crushing chamber. Then superimpose the diagram of the jaw crusher opening, laying it in tangent to the head circle.

To facilitate this work for the line of Superior McCully gyratory crushers, we list in the following table the top diameters of the heads, and openings between head and concaves for straight-face, and non-choking, concaves.

Laying in the plan view of the spider hub and arms will, of course, give a more complete picture of the gyratory crusher receiving openings, but the picture is likely to be a littlemisleading unless it is borne in mind that the maximum diameter of the spider hub is some distance above the upper rim of the crushing chamber, and therefore does not restrict the receiving opening as much as the plan view indicates. The true effective receiving opening can only beshown in its proper proportions by tilting the plan view; that is, by an angular projection normal to a plane which is tangent to the bulge of the spider hub, and to the top of the crushing head, To draw such a view requires more information, and usually more drafting skill, than the average man has at his disposal. The circle method described in the second preceding paragraph is sufficiently close for all practical purposes.

If the material to be crushed is of a slabby nature, for example, a thinly stratified limestone or shale; the product of the jaw crusher is certain to contain slabs, some of which may be quite large, particularly so if some of the strata in the deposit are thinner than the discharge setting of the crusher. Nor is this tendency to slab in the crusher confined to stone of stratified formation. Some rocks of massive formation may contain parallel cleavage planes in certain sections of the deposit. Such material will slab in the crusher just the same as those rocks which wereformed in definite layers, or beds.

The gyratory crusher by virtue of its annular discharge opening is an effective slab breaker. This faculty, coupled with the fact that its receiving openings are especially well suited for admitting slabby feed, give it a very definite advantage over the jaw crusher in the handling of such material. In the foregoing comparison of these two leading types of primary breakers we have endeavoured to present the case for each of them in a fair and impartial manner. It would be difficult, and probably more than a little tedious for the reader, if we were to attempt a more definitive analysis or to set up fixed rules of procedure for selecting one or the other machine; a process which is always fraught with pitfalls in such a broad and empirical branch of engineering as the processing of rocks and ores. Usually the matter of choice can quickly be narrowed down to a comparison of one size in each type. These two machines may then be tabulated with respect to capital investment, capacity, power requirements, space requirements, and so forth; their receiving openings may be compared, as we have suggested, and all of the factors we have discussed in this section checked against the features and limitations of each machine to determine its ability, or inability, to fit into the plan.

cone crusher vs. impact crusher | quarrying & aggregates

Not every crusher is suitable for every application. When choosing the best crusher for aggregate applications, it is important to understand how the crusher works and its impact on efficiency, operating costs and final products. When designing aggregate processing production line plans, there are usually differences in the choice of impact and cone crusher. What is the difference between impact crusher and cone crusher? Which is the best fine crushing equipment?

For impact crusher, the high-speed rotating rotor throw stone into impact plates, stones are crushed via impact energy produced rotating rotor. So, impact crusher is good to crush soft material of brittle stone.

Initial High-manganese steel is softer than high-chrome steel, but high-manganese steel has features of high tenacity, that means after many times strike and crushing stone, this high-manganese steel will become harder and harder, so, high-manganese steel is usually used to crush hard stone, and its service life will be very long. So, both jaw plates of jaw crusher and bowl liner & mantle of cone crusher are made from high-manganese steel.

High chromium iron is very hard, but it is a little brittle, so, it usually used to crush soft material like lime stone. Therefore, the most common blow bar/hammer material of impact crusher is high chromium iron.

According to our experience in Zambia and Nigeria, most of the local raw materials are hard stones like granite, so most investors or equipment owners in Zambia and Nigeria usually use cone crushers as secondary crushers. Because of its high production efficiency and low maintenance costs for hard stones.

Due to the different types, sizes and uses of stone crushers, and the large investment required to purchase stone crushers, it will make the purchase of equipment difficult. When you are looking for crushers or other aggregate equipment, please contact our aggregate equipment experts to help you make the right choice in the first time.

cone crusher vs gyratory crusher - jxsc mine

{Cone Crusher vs Gyratory Crusher}Both cone and gyratory crushers have a cone, and their outline that looks have a little resemblance. The two crushers can continuous working, and their working principle in the same way. But the cone crusher vs gyratory crusher, their structure and performances are different.

The cone liners of the gyratory crusher are steeply inclined. The movable cone that up part is small and lower structure is large, while the fixed cone in which the top is big and the bottom is small. Therefore, it can increase ore feeding capacity. The cone of cone crusher is gently inclined, and the movable cone and fixed cone are placed in the truncated cone. There is a certain length of parallel ore crushing zone between the two parts, which can better control the size of ore discharge. Under the action of the high rotating speed movable cone, the ore is guaranteed to be crushed at least once in the parallel zone. As a result, the product has a uniform particle size.

The movable cone of the gyratory crusher is suspended on the crossbeam, and the movable cone of the cone crusher is supported on the spherical bearing. If it also uses suspension structure which will affect the uniform feeding. The dust-proof device of the cone crusher is more strict, and the water seal dust-proof device is often used.

The discharge gate of the gyratory crusher is large, so the size of the small non-broken things such as hammer allowed through. There isnt much required in its safety device. But the cone crusher must be equipped with a safety device, and the requirements of reliable work. A precompression spring safety device or a hydraulic safety device is usually used.

There is hardly any effect that the gyratory crusher because of the liner wore to make the discharging ore increases little. Therefore, it is usually used to adjust the size of the outlet by moving the cone up or down. Cone crushers require the uniform size of ore discharge, and the scope of increasing the size of ore discharge is very small because of the wear of the lining plate. Because the ore discharge opening is frequently adjusted, the adjusting device is required to be easy to operate. For example, a spring cone crusher can adjust the height of the fixed cone to change the size of the outlet. It should be noted that since the introduction of hydraulic adjustment and hydraulic insurance, the adjustment mode of the gyratory crusher and cone crusher is not very different. Jaw Crusher VS Gyratory Crusher

1. The rotating speed of the movable cone of the gyratory crusher is low, the stroke is small. And the ore is mainly crushed and broken and bent. The cone crusher has 2.5 times higher rotating speed and 4 times larger swinging angle than the gyratory crusher, so the ore is impacted quickly. Therefore, it is advantageous to the ore crushing, the crushing efficiency is high.

2. Different applications. In large quarries, gyratory crushers are often used as primary crushers. But the cone crusher is used as secondary and tertiary crushing more often and often used in sand plants and mines.

The cone crusher has the characteristics of high efficiency, high crushing ratio, low power consumption, and uniform product. So, since the end of the last century, it has been widely used in the world. And the crushers are constantly improvement and perfection on its itself structure. Cone crusher is suitable for medium and fine crushing of materials of various hardness.

Jiangxi Shicheng stone crusher manufacturer is a new and high-tech factory specialized in R&D and manufacturing crushing lines, beneficial equipment,sand-making machinery and grinding plants. Read More

impact crushers vs jaw crushers

The efficiency of operations can be different when you are crushing stones with different types of crushers. We need to know the crushers well before we choose the crusher to meet our requirements. As a type of powerful stone crusher, impact crusher may be not your final choice, but it is really worth your consideration.

Impact crushers use the impact force to crush the materials. The feed materials are first crushed by the rotating bars and then the crusher materials are thrown against the breaker plates for secondary crushing. We should make the speed of the rotor cooperate with the speed of the feed material to avoid unnecessary and unwanted wear. According to the outstanding performance of the impactor, the machine can achieve the reduction ratios of 10:1 to 20:1.

Compared with the impact crushers, jaw crushers use the compression force to break down materials. When the material is poured into the chamber and fall though chamber, it will be crushed 2 to 4 times. The reduction ratio of this machine is about 6:1.

Besides the higher reduction ratios, the impact crushers is more useful to make a more cubical output. So take both quality and quantity under consideration, impact crusher is a better choice. And what's more, the higher reduction help to reduce the load on the secondary crusher and allow you to choose a smaller secondary crusher to cut down your costs.

Sanme is the main manufacturer of crushers in China and we supply different stone crushers, such as impact crushers, jaw crusher and cone crusher. If you need to choose a type of crusher, please contact with us and we will give your professional advice. Or you can visit out website to find more information by yourself: http://www.sanmechina.com

Why to Choose Jaw Crusher With Long Service Life Why Use Impact Crusher Instead of Other Crushers Why Should We Buy Jaw Crusher Instead of Others What Are the The Advantages of Jaw Crusher? Seven Main Structures of Jaw Crusher

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jaw crusher vs gyratory crusher - jxscmachine

Jaw crusher and gyratory crusher as the primary crusher, play an important role in the crushing process. How to choose the suited primary crusher from the jaw crusher? Whats the difference between a jaw crusher and a gyratory crusher? JXSC starts with the following points: structure, capacity, energy consumption, maintenance.

All in all, if one set jaw crusher can achieve the needs of production, buy jaw crusher; if need two sets of jaw crusher, that would be better to buy a gyratory crusher. You may interest in 1. Single Toggle vs Double Toggle Jaw Crusher 2. Jaw Crusher Operation

cone crusher - an overview | sciencedirect topics

Cone crushers were originally designed and developed by Symons around 1920 and therefore are often described as Symons cone crushers. As the mechanisms of crushing in these crushers are similar to gyratory crushers their designs are similar, but in this case the spindle is supported at the bottom of the gyrating cone instead of being suspended as in larger gyratory crushers. Figure5.3 is a schematic diagram of a cone crusher.

The breaking head gyrates inside an inverted truncated cone. These crushers are designed so that the head-to-depth ratio is larger than the standard gyratory crusher and the cone angles are much flatter and the slope of the mantle and the concaves are parallel to each other. The flatter cone angles help to retain the particles longer between the crushing surfaces and therefore produce much finer particles. To prevent damage to the crushing surfaces, the concave or shell of the crushers is held in place by strong springs or hydraulics which yield to permit uncrushable tramp material to pass through.

The secondary crushers are designated as Standard cone crushers having stepped liners and tertiary Short Head cone crushers, which have smoother crushing faces and steeper cone angles of the breaking head. The approximate distance of the annular space at the discharge end designates the size of the cone crushers. A brief summary of the design characteristics is given in Table5.4 for crusher operation in open-circuit and closed-circuit situations.

The Standard cone crushers are for normal use. The Short Head cone crushers are designed for tertiary or quaternary crushing where finer product is required. These crushers are invariably operated in closed circuit. The final product sizes are fine, medium or coarse depending on the closed set spacing, the configuration of the crushing chamber and classifier performance, which is always installed in parallel.

For finer product sizes, i.e., less than 6mm, special cone crushers known as Gyradisc crushers are available. The operation is similar to the standard cone crushers, except that the size reduction is caused more by attrition than by impact [5]. The reduction ratio is around 8:1 and as the product size is relatively small the feed size is limited to less than 50mm with a nip angle between 25 and 30. The Gyradisc crushers have head diameters from around 900 to 2100mm. These crushers are always operated under choke feed conditions. The feed size is less than 50mm and therefore the product size is usually less than 69mm.

Maintenance of the wear components in both gyratory and cone crushers is one of the major operating costs. Wear monitoring is possible using a Faro Arm (Figure 6.10), which is a portable coordinate measurement machine. Ultrasonic profiling is also used. A more advanced system using a laser scanner tool to profile the mantle and concave produces a 3D image of the crushing chamber (Erikson, 2014). Some of the benefits of the liner profiling systems include: improved prediction of mantle and concave liner replacement; identifying asymmetric and high wear areas; measurement of open and closed side settings; and quantifying wear life with competing liner alloys.

Various types of rock fracture occur at different loading rates. For example, rock destruction by a boring machine, a jaw or cone crusher, and a grinding roll machine are within the extent of low loading rates, often called quasistatic loading condition. On the contrary, rock fracture in percussive drilling and blasting happens under high loading rates, usually named dynamic loading condition. This chapter presents loading rate effects on rock strengths, rock fracture toughness, rock fragmentation, energy partitioning, and energy efficiency. Finally, some of engineering applications of loading rate effects are discussed.

In Chapter4, we have already seen the mechanism of crushing in a jaw crusher. Considering it further we can see that when a single particle, marked 1 in Figure11.5a, is nipped between the jaws of a jaw crusher the particle breaks producing fragments, marked 2 and 3 in Figure11.5b. Particles marked 2 are larger than the open set on the crusher and are retained for crushing on the next cycle. Particles of size 3, smaller than the open set of the crusher, can travel down faster and occupy or pass through the lower portion of the crusher while the jaw swings away. In the next cycle the probability of the larger particles (size 2) breaking is greater than the smaller sized particle 3. In the following cycle, therefore, particle size 2 is likely to disappear preferentially and the progeny joins the rest of thesmaller size particles indicated as 3 in Figure11.5c. In the figures, the position of the crushed particles that do not exist after comminution is shaded white (merely to indicate the positions they had occupied before comminution). Particles that have been crushed and travelled down are shown in grey. The figure clearly illustrates the mechanism of crushing and the classification that takes place within the breaking zone during the process, as also illustrated in Figure11.4. This type of breakage process occurs within a jaw crusher, gyratory crusher, roll crusher and rod mills. Equation (11.19) then is a description of the crusher model.

In practice however, instead of a single particle, the feed consists of a combination of particles present in several size fractions. The probability of breakage of some relatively larger sized particles in preference to smaller particles has already been mentioned. For completeness, the curve for the probability of breakage of different particle sizes is again shown in Figure11.6. It can be seen that for particle sizes ranging between 0 K1, the probability of breakage is zero as the particles are too small. Sizes between K1 and K2 are assumed to break according a parabolic curve. Particle sizes greater than K2 would always be broken. According to Whiten [16], this classification function Ci, representing the probability of a particle of size di entering the breakage stage of the crusher, may be expressed as

The classification function can be readily expressed as a lower triangular matrix [1,16] where the elements represent the proportion of particles in each size interval that would break. To construct a mathematical model to relate product and feed sizes where the crusher feed contains a proportion of particles which are smaller than the closed set and hence will pass through the crusher with little or no breakage, Whiten [16] advocated a crusher model as shown in Figure11.7.

The considerations in Figure11.7 are similar to the general model for size reduction illustrated in Figure11.4 except in this case the feed is initially directed to a classifier, which eliminates particle sizes less than K1. The coarse classifier product then enters the crushing zone. Thus, only the crushable larger size material enters the crusher zone. The crusher product iscombined with the main feed and the process repeated. The undersize from the classifier is the product.

While considering the above aspects of a model of crushers, it is important to remember that the size reduction process in commercial operations is continuous over long periods of time. In actual practice, therefore, the same operation is repeated over long periods, so the general expression for product size must take this factor into account. Hence, a parameter v is introduced to represent the number of cycles of operation. As all cycles are assumed identical the general model given in Equation (11.31) should, therefore, be modified as

Multiple vectors B C written in matrix form:BC=0.580000.200.60000.120.180.6100.040.090.20.571.000000.700000.4500000=0581+00+00+000.580+00.7+00+000580+00+00.45+000.580+00+00+000.21+0.60+00+000.20+0.60.7+00+000.20+0.60+00.45+000.20+0.60+00+000.121+0.180+0.610+000.120+0.180.7+0.610+000.120+0.180+0.610.45+000.120+0.180+0.610+000.041+0.090+0.20+0.5700.040+0.090.7+0.20+0.5700.040+0.090+0.20.45+0.5700.040+0.090+0.20+0.570=0.580000.20.42000.120.1260.274500.040.0630.090

Now determine (I B C) and (I C)(IBC)=10.5800000000.210.42000000.1200.12610.27450000.0400.06300.0910=0.420000.20.58000.120.1260.725500.040.0630.091and(IC)=000000.300000.5500001

Now find the values of x1, x2, x3 and x4 as(0.42x1)+(0x2)+(0x3)+(0x4)=10,thereforex1=23.8(0.2x1)+(0.58x2)+(0x3)+(0x4)=33,thereforex2=65.1(0.12x1)+(0.126x2)+(0.7255x3)+(0x4)=32,thereforex3=59.4(0.04x1)+(0.063x2)+(0.09x3)+(1x4)=20,thereforex4=30.4

In this process, mined quartz is crushed into pieces using crushing/smashing equipment. Generally, the quartz smashing plant comprises a jaw smasher, a cone crusher, an impact smasher, a vibrating feeder, a vibrating screen, and a belt conveyor. The vibrating feeder feeds materials to the jaw crusher for essential crushing. At that point, the yielding material from the jaw crusher is moved to a cone crusher for optional crushing, and afterward to effect for the third time crushing. As part of next process, the squashed quartz is moved to a vibrating screen for sieving to various sizes.

Crushers are widely used as a primary stage to produce the particulate product finer than about 50100mm. They are classified as jaw, gyratory, and cone crushers based on compression, cutter mill based on shear, and hammer crusher based on impact.

A jaw crusher consists essentially of two crushing plates, inclined to each other forming a horizontal opening by their lower borders. Material is crushed between a fixed and a movable plate by reciprocating pressure until the crushed product becomes small enough to pass through the gap between the crushing plates. Jaw crushers find a wide application for brittle materials. For example, they are used for comminution of porous copper cake. A Fritsch jaw crusher with maximal feed size 95mm, final fineness (depends on gap setting) 0.315mm, and maximal continuous throughput 250Kg/h is shown in Fig. 2.8.

A gyratory crusher includes a solid cone set on a revolving shaft and placed within a hollow body, which has conical or vertical sloping sides. Material is crushed when the crushing surfaces approach each other and the crushed products fall through the discharging opening.

Hammer crushers are used either as a one-step primary crusher or as a secondary crusher for products from a primary crusher. They are widely used for crushing hard metal scrap for different hard metal recycling processes. Pivoted hammers are pendulous, mounted on the horizontal axes symmetrically located along the perimeter of a rotor. Crushing takes place by the impact of material pieces with the high speed moving hammers and by contact with breaker plates. A cylindrical grating or screen is placed beneath the rotor. Materials are reduced to a size small enough to pass through the openings of the grating or screen. The size of the product can be regulated by changing the spacing of the grate bars or the opening of the screen.

The feature of the hammer crushers is the appearance of elevated pressure of air in the discharging unit of the crusher and underpressure in the zone around the shaft close to the inside surface of the body side walls. Thus, the hammer crushers also act as high-pressure, forced-draught fans. This may lead to environmental pollution and product losses in fine powder fractions. A design for a hammer crusher (Fig. 2.9) essentially allows a decrease of the elevated pressure of air in the crusher discharging unit [5]. The A-zone beneath the screen is communicated through the hollow ribs and openings in the body side walls with the B-zone around the shaft close to the inside surface of body side walls. As a result, the circulation of suspended matter in the gas between A and B zones is established and the high pressure of air in the discharging unit of crusher is reduced.

Crushers are widely used as a primary stage to produce the particulate product finer than about 50100 mm in size. They are classified as jaw, gyratory and cone crushers based on compression, cutter mill based on shear and hammer crusher based on impact.

A jaw crusher consists essentially of two crushing plates, inclined to each other forming a horizontal opening by their lower borders. Material is crushed between a fixed and a movable plate by reciprocating pressure until the crushed product becomes small enough to pass through the gap between the crushing plates. Jaw crushers find a wide application for brittle materials. For example, they are used for comminution of porous copper cake.

A gyratory crusher includes a solid cone set on a revolving shaft and placed within a hollow body, which has conical or vertical sloping sides. Material is crushed when the crushing surfaces approach each other and the crushed products fall through the discharging opening.

Hammer crushers are used either as a one-step primary crusher or as a secondary crusher for products from a primary crusher. They are widely used for crushing of hard metal scrap for different hard metal recycling processes.

Pivoted hammers are pendulous, mounted on the horizontal axes symmetrically located along the perimeter of a rotor and crushing takes place by the impact of material pieces with the high speed moving hammers and by contact with breaker plates. A cylindrical grating or screen is placed beneath the rotor. Materials are reduced to a size small enough pass through the openings of the grating or screen. The size of product can be regulated by changing the spacing of the grate bars or the opening of the screen.

The feature of the hammer crushers is the appearance of elevated pressure of air in the discharging unit of the crusher and underpressure in the zone around of the shaft close to the inside surface of the body side walls. Thus, the hammer crushers also act as high-pressure forced-draught fans. This may lead to environmental pollution and product losses in fine powder fractions.

A design for a hammer crusher (Figure 2.6) allows essentially a decrease of the elevated pressure of air in the crusher discharging unit [5]. The A-zone beneath the screen is communicated through the hollow ribs and openings in the body side walls with the B-zone around the shaft close to the inside surface of body side walls. As a result, circulation of suspended matter in the gas between A- and B-zones is established and high pressure of air in the discharging unit of crusher is reduced.

For a particular operation where the ore size is known, it is necessary to estimate the diameter of rolls required for a specific degree of size reduction. To estimate the roll diameter, it is convenient to assume that the particle to be crushed is spherical and roll surfaces are smooth. Figure6.2 shows a spherical particle about to enter the crushing zone of a roll crusher and is about to be nipped. For rolls that have equal radius and length, tangents drawn at the point of contact of the particle and the two rolls meet to form the nip angle (2). From simple geometry it can be seen that for a particle of size d, nipped between two rolls of radius R:

Equation (6.2) indicates that to estimate the radius R of the roll, the nip angle is required. The nip angle on its part will depend on the coefficient of friction, , between the roll surface and the particle surface. To estimate the coefficient of friction, consider a compressive force, F, exerted by the rolls on the particle just prior to crushing, operating normal to the roll surface, at the point of contact, and the frictional force between the roll and particle acting along a tangent to the roll surface at the point of contact. The frictional force is a function of the compressive force F and is given by the expression, F. If we consider the vertical components of these forces, and neglect the force due to gravity, then it can be seen that at the point of contact (Figure6.2) for the particle to be just nipped by the rolls, the equilibrium conditions apply where

As the friction coefficient is roughly between 0.20 and 0.30, the nip angle has a value of about 1117. However, when the rolls are in motion the friction characteristics between the ore particle will depend on the speed of the rolls. According to Wills [6], the speed is related to the kinetic coefficient of friction of the revolving rolls, K, by the relation

Equation (6.4) shows that the K values decrease slightly with increasing speed. For speed changes between 150 and 200rpm and ranging from 0.2 to 0.3, the value of K changes between 0.037 and 0.056. Equation (6.2) can be used to select the size of roll crushers for specific requirements. For nip angles between 11 and 17, Figure6.3 indicates the roll sizes calculated for different maximum feed sizes for a set of 12.5mm.

The maximum particle size of a limestone sample received from a cone crusher was 2.5cm. It was required to further crush it down to 0.5cm in a roll crusher with smooth rolls. The friction coefficient between steel and particles was 0.25, if the rolls were set at 6.3mm and both revolved to crush, estimate the diameter of the rolls.

It is generally observed that rolls can accept particles sizes larger than the calculated diameters and larger nip angles when the rate of entry of feed in crushing zone is comparable with the speed of rotation of the rolls.

Jaw crushers are mainly used as primary crushers to produce material that can be transported by belt conveyors to the next crushing stages. The crushing process takes place between a fixed jaw and a moving jaw. The moving jaw dies are mounted on a pitman that has a reciprocating motion. The jaw dies must be replaced regularly due to wear. Figure 8.1 shows two basic types of jaw crushers: single toggle and double toggle. In the single toggle jaw crusher, an eccentric shaft is installed on the top of the crusher. Shaft rotation causes, along with the toggle plate, a compressive action of the moving jaw. A double toggle crusher has, basically, two shafts and two toggle plates. The first shaft is a pivoting shaft on the top of the crusher, while the other is an eccentric shaft that drives both toggle plates. The moving jaw has a pure reciprocating motion toward the fixed jaw. The crushing force is doubled compared to single toggle crushers and it can crush very hard ores. The jaw crusher is reliable and robust and therefore quite popular in primary crushing plants. The capacity of jaw crushers is limited, so they are typically used for small or medium projects up to approximately 1600t/h. Vibrating screens are often placed ahead of the jaw crushers to remove undersize material, or scalp the feed, and thereby increase the capacity of the primary crushing operation.

Both cone and gyratory crushers, as shown in Figure 8.2, have an oscillating shaft. The material is crushed in a crushing cavity, between an external fixed element (bowl liner) and an internal moving element (mantle) mounted on the oscillating shaft assembly. An eccentric shaft rotated by a gear and pinion produces the oscillating movement of the main shaft. The eccentricity causes the cone head to oscillate between the open side setting (o.s.s.) and closed side setting (c.s.s.). In addition to c.s.s., eccentricity is one of the major factors that determine the capacity of gyratory and cone crushers. The fragmentation of the material results from the continuous compression that takes place between the mantle and bowl liners. An additional crushing effect occurs between the compressed particles, resulting in less wear of the liners. This is also called interparticle crushing. The gyratory crushers are equipped with a hydraulic setting adjustment system, which adjusts c.s.s. and thus affects product size distribution. Depending on cone type, the c.s.s. setting can be adjusted in two ways. The first way is by rotating the bowl against the threads so that the vertical position of the outer wear part (concave) is changed. One advantage of this adjustment type is that the liners wear more evenly. Another principle of setting adjustment is by lifting/lowering the main shaft. An advantage of this is that adjustment can be done continuously under load. To optimize operating costs and improve the product shape, as a rule of thumb, it is recommended that cones always be choke-fed, meaning that the cavity should be as full of rock material as possible. This can be easily achieved by using a stockpile or a silo to regulate the inevitable fluctuation of feed material flow. Level monitoring devices that detect the maximum and minimum levels of the material are used to start and stop the feed of material to the crusher as needed.

Primary gyratory crushers are used in the primary crushing stage. Compared to the cone type crusher, a gyratory crusher has a crushing chamber designed to accept feed material of a relatively large size in relation to the mantle diameter. The primary gyratory crusher offers high capacity thanks to its generously dimensioned circular discharge opening (which provides a much larger area than that of the jaw crusher) and the continuous operation principle (while the reciprocating motion of the jaw crusher produces a batch crushing action). The gyratory crusher has capacities starting from 1200 to above 5000t/h. To have a feed opening corresponding to that of a jaw crusher, the primary gyratory crusher must be much taller and heavier. Therefore, primary gyratories require quite a massive foundation.

The cone crusher is a modified gyratory crusher. The essential difference is that the shorter spindle of the cone crusher is not suspended, as in the gyratory, but is supported in a curved, universal bearing below the gyratory head or cone (Figure 8.2). Power is transmitted from the source to the countershaft to a V-belt or direct drive. The countershaft has a bevel pinion pressed and keyed to it and drives the gear on the eccentric assembly. The eccentric assembly has a tapered, offset bore and provides the means whereby the head and main shaft follow an eccentric path during each cycle of rotation. Cone crushers are used for intermediate and fine crushing after primary crushing. The key factor for the performance of a cone type secondary crusher is the profile of the crushing chamber or cavity. Therefore, there is normally a range of standard cavities available for each crusher, to allow selection of the appropriate cavity for the feed material in question.

The main task of renovation construction waste handling is the separation of lightweight impurities and construction waste. The rolling crusher with opposite rollers is capable of crushing the brittle debris and compressing the lightweight materials by the low-speed and high-pressure extrusion of the two opposite rollers. As the gap between the opposite rollers, rotation speed, and pressure are all adjustable, materials of different scales in renovation construction waste can be handled.

The concrete C&D waste recycling process of impact crusher+cone crusher+hoop-roller grinder is also capable of handling brick waste. In general, the secondary crushing using the cone crusher in this process with an enclosed crusher is a process of multicrushing, and the water content of waste will become an important affecting factor. The wet waste will be adhered on the wall of the grinding chamber, and the crushing efficiency and waste discharging will be affected. When the climate is humid, only coarse impact crushing is performed and in this case the crushed materials are used for roadbase materials. Otherwise, three consecutive crushings are performed and the recycled coarse aggregate, fine aggregate, and powder materials are collected, respectively.

The brick and concrete C&D waste recycling process of impact crusher+rolling crusher+hoop-roller grinder is also capable of handling the concrete waste. In this case, the water content of waste will not be an important affecting factor. This process is suitable in the regions with wet climates.

The renovation C&D waste recycling process of rolling crusher (coarse/primary crushing)+rolling crusher (intermediate/secondary crushing)+rolling crusher (fine/tertiary crushing) is also capable of handling the two kinds of waste discussed earlier. The particle size of debris is crushed less than 20mm and the lightweight materials are compressed, and they are separated using the drum sieve. The energy consumption is low in this process; however, the shape of products is not good (usually flat and with cracks). There is no problem in roadbase material and raw materials of prefabricated product production. But molders (the rotation of rotors in crusher is used to polish the edge and corner) should be used for premixed concrete and mortar production.

impact vs cone crushers: which is more effective? - quarry

The post-primary crushing sector is largely divided into impact crushers for the processing of softer stone and cone crushers for the processing of harder, more abrasive stone. The advantages of both machines are well known.

The impact crusher, for example, has a higher co-efficient of reduction, produces crushed material with an optimal cubic shape for asphalts and concretes, allows faster and simpler maintenance, has a lower acquisition cost, gives continuous production curves with no irregularities or breaks between sizes (see Figure 1), permits bigger feed sizes and delivers higher production of small sizes. The cone crusher, on the other hand, has the advantage of fewer wear parts.

The vast majority of impact crushers have been conceived and designed to process relatively soft stone. Accordingly, their construction materials and components are strong enough to cope with this kind of material but are generally insufficiently robust to crush harder, more abrasive materials such as granite, flint, basalt and iron ore.

However, what would happen if impact crushers could match cone crushers in terms of performance and wear costs? In emerging markets such as Russia, Africa, east Asia and South America among others, cone crushers are increasingly being replaced by impact crushers in granite and basalt quarries, providing an improvement in the quality of crushed material and a reduction in the cost per tonne, thereby increasing the competitiveness of some companies against their local rivals.

But how have impact crushers reached the wear parameters of cone crushers? In the past, the use of impact crushing for hard and abrasive stone was mostly limited to very small niche markets, especially in countries such as Spain and Germany. It was in markets such as these that the impact crusher evolved and matured for 50 years to become the trusted product it is today.

Based on innovation and experience, and an awareness of the advantages and disadvantages of impact crushers compared with cone crushers and the opportunities that this implies in overcoming the problem of wear, a few manufacturers have worked on two key areas: improving impact crusher efficiency and wear parts management; and developing the technology of the materials from which the parts are made.

{{image3-a:r-w:620}}The development of ceramic chrome alloys to increase the durability and abrasion resistance of wear parts, together with evolution in the management of these parts during use, has resulted in a significant reduction in the cost per tonne of material produced.

The smaller the output size, the more competitive impact crushers become because their percentage of finished product in the first pass is considerably higher than cone crushers. Combined with an upgrade to wear parts materials, this can allow impact crushers to reach a lower wear-cost ratio (per tonne) than cone crushers (see Table 1).

While it cannot be denied that the useful hours of impact crusher wear parts have not yet reached the useful hours of cone crusher wear parts in tertiary stage works, they have been upgraded enough to be a better option than cone crushers in some situations, allowing them to reach figures such as those shown in Table 1.

Because of an impact crushers ability to deal with bigger feed sizes, the primary stage equipment can be smaller (ie lower purchase cost) or production through existing primary stage machines can be increased, because the jaw crusher will be able to work at a wider setting.

Impact crushing is also more eco-friendly and can help save energy. A cone crusher will require the installation of a downstream VSI to achieve a similar cubic shape as that of an impact crusher, ie two machines instead of one and double the energy consumption.

Also, the friction-free movement and physical weight of the rotor and blow bars in an impact crusher help facilitate rotation, thereby drawing less power from the motor. This does not apply with cones because of the continuous friction involved in achieving the cone crushing action.

The reason impact crushing has not been developed in this way before is because most manufacturers produce both cone crushers and impact crushers, and each product is focused on its own market segment. Moreover, cone crushers are more expensive to purchase than impact crushers and provide greater returns for manufacturers. Most manufacturers, therefore, are not interested in developing their impact crushing lines out of the soft stone segment, and prefer to invest their R&D resources in upgrading their cone crusher lines. Only a small number of manufacturers, such as Spains ARJA Group, have focused their activity solely on manufacturing and developing impact crushing technology.