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Hengcheng offers complete solutions for Rock Gold Processing Plant. We are one of the leading project suppliers for Rock Gold Processing Equipment and we work closely with our customers to fulfill their specific needs for customized package solution. Specialized in the fabrication of these machines for 15+ years and this enables us to be in a leading position in the field of Rock Gold Processing/Mining.
At Hengcheng, we provide more than just gold gravity processing machines, but constantly strive to assist you in achieving overall business excellence. This is why when you partner with Hengcheng, you dont just get a diversified product offering, but form a relationship based on product refinement, a true understanding of gold process flow sheets and field service and maintenanceensuring that together we will create a solution that is suited specifically to your individual needs and that will optimize your process and lower your overall operating costs.
At Hengcheng, we provide more than just processing equipment, but constantly strive to assist you in achieving overall business excellence. This is why when you partner with Hengcheng, you dont just get a diversified product offering, but form a relationship based on product refinement.etc
Hengcheng offers complete project solutions for Alluvial Gold Processing Plant. We are one of the leading project suppliers for Alluvial Gold Wash Plant Equipment and we work closely with our customers to fulfill their specific needs for customized package solution. Specialized in the fabrication of these machines for 15+ years and this enables us to be in a leading position in the field of Alluvial Gold Processing.
Alluvialis a term that refers to soil sediments and the various sand, silt, gravel, clay or other deposited matter left behind by flowing water. Alluvial gold refers to the type of gold dust found in that kind of soil. When the beds of rivers or streams are scooped and panned for gold dust, the product is referred to asalluvial gold. Best way to extract such alluvial/soil gold is using gravity separation method, which is most cost-effective choice for miners now.
At Hengcheng, we provide more than just gold washing equipment, but constantly strive to assist you in achieving overall business excellence. This is why when you partner with Hengcheng, you dont just get a diversified product offering, but form a relationship based on product refinement, a true understanding of gold process flow sheets and field service and maintenanceensuring that together we will create a solution that is suited specifically to your individual needs and that will optimize your process and lower your overall operating costs.
At Hengcheng, we provide more than just processing equipment, but constantly strive to assist you in achieving overall business excellence. This is why when you partner with Hengcheng, you dont just get a diversified product offering, but form a relationship based on product refinement.etc
Traditionally, the resources necessary to refine, recycle gold, safely and effectively, have been available only to large scale jewelers and precious metal miners, refiners--seldom to small or medium-scale refineries and jewelry businesses, and never to individuals interested in buying scrap gold to turn it into a precious keepsake. That's all changed, though, thanks to Gold Refining Systems, Inc., a company devoted to helping jewelers and refiners of all sizes to refine, recover gold safely, efficiently, and with ease.
Our gold refining systems offer you what you need to refine gold of any kind-- whether its scrap gold, fine gold jewelry, karat gold, gold from mining, prospecting or gold of any other type. The system even works for other precious metals, including silver, platinum, and palladium. But what sets Gold Refining Systems, Inc. apart is our innovative technology:
For the first time ever, gold processing can be done with a high level of confidence and safety, from a very small jewelry business to medium scale refinery. The process is simple and easy. By using our REFINEIT system, all the user has to do is melt the gold in an ingot, submerge the gold in the gold refining equipment we provide, then wait. The next day, pure, 24-karat gold will be waiting!
Gold Refining Systems not only makes the gold refining, reclaiming process easy, but also clean and safe. By using our Safe Gold Refining Technology products, the jeweler or refiner eliminates the production of toxic fumes. Nothing like Aqua Regia, Miller process, inquarting - parting process, with large quantities of toxic fumes produced, toxic gases, boiling acids.
The gold refining systems we offer are cutting edge, and, unlike anything else on the market, they offer an effective alternative to commonplace refining processes like Miller, Wohlwill, Aqua Regia, and inquarting-parting. Our electrolytic machines take what is typically multi-step process dangerous process and turn it into a single-step procedure that can be done quickly, easily, and without the presence of dangerous or irritating fumes. Smelt your low karat gold, place in to the system, wash refined 24K gold, use it.
This arrangement and flowsheet of a Mini Portable Gold Processing Plant permits several mineral separations by flotation and provides for the possible recovery of other minerals by gravity concentration. The flowsheet is ideal for a pilot-plant in field testing of ores to determine the economic feasibility of an ore deposit prior to the installation of a larger plant or for processing ore during the development stages of a mining property.
The arrangement shown here features the economy type rubber-lined Grinding Mill. This mill is roller-mounted with V-belt drive around the mill shell, driven from motor-connected gear reducer. Material discharged from the grindingmill is sized through a spiral screen ahead of a Cyclone Classifier. The flotation cells handling initial feed are equipped with patented discharge cones for return and recovery of a heavy mineral fraction by a jig.Tailings from the flotation machines are fed to a #6 Concentrating Table to assure gravity recovery of any valuable mineral not amenable to flotation. Pan Filters are provided to de-water concentrates.
One of the most serious problems confronting the mining industry today is how to profitably begin the small scale milling of ores from mines where insufficient ore has been developed to warrant an expensive mill installation, but where a large plant might be needed later. The same question arises in connection with the economical working of numerous small but relatively high grade ore deposits.
Portable Mills, and in particular, Truck Mills, are a most practical solution to this problem. For a relatively small investment a complete and efficient mill can be brought to the mine and speedily put into operation. When the high grade deposit has been worked or the formerly promising operation no longer fulfills the operators expectations, the mill may be transported as a complete unit to another location.
In the Truck Mill the portability has been carried out to the highest degree. All of the units are carried on a truck or semi-trailer, which serves as the operating floor for most of the units. Power for the entire milling unit is usually supplied with either a Diesel or gasoline driven electric generating set, but a belt driven mill can be supplied.
A small gold mine flowsheet is shown below together with cost data which clearly shows the results that can be obtained when handling a low grade ore by a simple process. There are many commendable features in such a set up and no complicated machines or practices are embodied in this plan. In fact, its simplicity is appealing and the results obtained prove the practicability of this flowsheet.
The rod mill product passes over a roughing table where a high grade gold concentrate containing most of the free mineral is sent directly to a Clean-Up Pan. The middlings from the table are sent directly to an 8-cell Sub-A Flotation Machine from which a high grade concentrate is obtained. The tailings from the flotation machine are sent over a pilot concentrating table for visual examination. A middling pump and a dewaterer can be installed to take care of the middlings for regrinding, should enough value be found in them to warrant such a treatment. In this concentrating mill, however, it has been found that the middling product is of so little value that it would not be economically profitable to regrind and retreat this product. The cost data above referred to has been compiled from actual operating results and shows the cost of milling both for the old 50-ton plant and the new 100 ton concentrator, as is now in use. Note the reduction in milling costs through the use of the new flowsheet which includes an 8-cell Sub-A Flotation Machine. The savings made in lower operation costs and lower maintenance costs are noticeable and this saving was also made in the face of a 12.5% increase in wages made when the new plant was started.
Many of our so-called small gold mines or low grade deposits could well take this simple and inexpensive flowsheet for an example and be rewarded by a good profit per ton of ore treated, if the owners or operators would adhere to these principles. These are namely a simple crushing, grinding, concentrating, and flotation circuit without frill or fancy theories, but with a constant supply of ore through the mill at a nominal profit per ton, operating continually 24 hours per day. In other words, it may pay to have a lower recovery with a higher net profit than a higher recovery with an actual loss.
You will note from the above chart, the fairly high cost of marketing concentrates, but with the addition of the Clean-Up Pan a large portion of the free gold can be recovered in the form of amalgani and then reduced to bullion for shipment direct to the mint. The treatment of concentrates even of a complex nature is now standardized and should result in additional profits.
To aid in arriving at approximate operating costs, we are giving four charts with curves showing operating costs for the different standard methods oftreating ores. These charts show the costs compiled from actual operating figures secured from a number of mills operating under varying conditions. These figures show that operating costs do not increase greatly as one would naturally suppose when smaller tonnages are handled.
In studying the various factors affecting milling costs, the one point that is most noticeable is the effect of operating time on these costs. Plants thathave mechanical difficulties show costs greatly in excess of those with full operating time working under comparable conditions, and this demonstrates clearly the importance of having fool proof and ruggedly designed machinery that will run 24 hours per day. Modern milling equipment must be able to take care of overloads and handle oversize material without choke-ups and the resulting shut-downs. One must always keep in mind that after all a machine, a mill, or a process is only as strong as the weakest link.
The EXAMPLE Gold Mine Operating Manual has been prepared to provide a practical reference for operators in the EXAMPLE Gold Mines Processing Plant. This manual contains basic information about the process and equipment used in the process. Each unit is identified by name and equipment number. The function of each unit, a process and control description, and operating information is discussed. The last two sections deal with general plant safety and the definitions of terms used in the context of the processing plant.
This manual is intended as a general guide to plant operations. It is NOT intended to supercede, contradict or in any way negate manufacturers instruction manuals, which contain detailed information about each piece of equipment. In the case of uncertainty or requirement for clarification and/or further details, readers are to refer to the manufacturers manuals.
The EXAMPLE Gold Mill is designed to process 500 tonnes per day of ore. The flowsheets are conventional and consist of two stages of crushing, single stage ball mill grinding, cyanidation and a Merrill-Crowe precipitation circuit for gold and silver recovery. In addition to the cyanide circuit, gold leach residue is treated in a flotation stage to recover un-leached silver (Argentite) minerals. This circuit is followed by a small cyanidation circuit for recovery of silver (and remaining gold) from the flotation concentrate. Precipitated gold and silver are refined in an induction furnace to produce dore bullion.
The crushing plant will operate independently of the mill. In addition, whereas the mill will be primarily run from local start/stop stations, the crusher is designed to be run from its control panel. The dividing point between the two plants lies at the fine ore bin; all equipment prior to this bin is considered in the Crushing Plant and all equipment subsequent to it in the mill.
PCF Capital Group, a provider of corporate advisory services to the mining and resource sector, has released a report, highlighting current gold all in sustaining costs (AISC) for Australian and New Zealand gold operations.
While we provide profiles of high performing mines and companies featured in the report, it is important to gain a thorough understanding of what makes up AISCs, and how important this metric can be especially during periods of commodity price volatility.
AISCs are the costs attributed to production at operating mines, and they are an important focus in gauging a projects commercial viability. It is important to note, that they dont include the costs such as building a plant and establishing the infrastructure required to bring a mine into production, commonly referred to as upfront capital expenditure (CAPEX).
AISC is a similar measure to what you might find in anything from manufacturing to retail, only in other sectors acronyms such as CODB (cost of doing business) and COGS (cost of goods sold) are applied.
Different treatment processes that may be required because of the composition of the mineral or the amount of waste that needs to be separated to extract the ore also impact the cost of the end product.
Factors such as these can impact decisions such as the economic viability of mining higher grade ore at lower depths where the potential revenue generation is weighed up against the increased mining and processing costs.
While this isnt a metric that necessarily comes into play in calculating AISCs as foreign exchange rates impact the top line, it does become a significant factor where companies benefit from the sale of by-products.
Simplistically, a mine operating in the US generates revenues of about US$1280 per ounce based on the current spot price, whereas an Australian mine based on an unhedged sale price is receiving $1850 per ounce in Australian dollars.
As a case in point, a mine that produces 100,000 ounces of gold and 10,000 tonnes of copper per year at a cost of US$1000 per ounce, not including revenues generated from the sale of copper, will have AISCs well below US$1000 per ounce after the by-product credits are taken into account.
This would effectively provide the producer with a healthy margin of approximately US$900 per ounce at todays rates, making it a much more economical mine given a standalone gold operation would only be delivering a margin of about US$300 per ounce.
Of course, in the case of an Australian producer the cost of production offset would be in the order of $8700 per tonne of copper ($87 million based on production of 10,000 tonnes per annum) because of the favourable AUD:USD exchange rate.
This is only an overview of a much more comprehensive report, but it provides an interesting insight into the operations of companies of all sizes with one notable performance being an AISC of, believe it or not, negative $510 per ounce.
It also highlights some of the aforementioned contributing factors we referred to - bear in mind the current spot price is approximately US$1280 or AU$1850 based on an AUD:USD exchange rate of 68.8 cents.
Evolution Minings (ASX:EVN) part of the Ernest Henry operations was the lowest cost producer reporting an AISC of A$-510/oz followed by Newcrests (ASX:NCM) Cadia Valley operations with an AISC of A$206/oz, then by Kirkland Lakes' (ASX:KLA) Fosterville mine (A$442/oz).
The lowest cost gold only operations were Kirkland Lakes' Fosterville mine with an AISC of A$442/oz, then Westgold Resources' (ASX:WGX) Fortnum mine (A$937/oz) and Newmont's (NYSE:NEM) Tanami mine (A$953/oz).
Newcrests Cadia Valley operation took out top spot as Australias largest gold producer with 218,891 oz for the quarter, followed by Newmont's Boddington (155,000 oz) then Newmont's Tanami operation (131,000 oz).
Of the mines where gold is a by-product, Oz Minerals (ASX:OZL) Prominent Hill produced the most gold 32,947 oz followed by BHP's (ASX:BHP) Olympic Dam with 28,609 oz and Evolution's part of Ernest Henry 22,419 oz.
Grade wise, for the companies that report AISC, the average reported mill head/feed grade was 3.47 g/t (Open Pit (OP) - 1.71 g/t, Underground (UG) 5.33 g/t, Open Pit and Underground (OP/UG) - 2.35 g/t) which was down on the previous quarter, 3.91 g/t (-11.3%).
While March quarter production of 22,400 ounces at a very low head grade looks underwhelming on the surface, the production of 4800 tonnes of copper was instrumental in the group generating record net mine cash flow of approximately $60 million in the quarter.
S3 Consortium Pty Ltd (CAR No.433913) is a corporate authorised representative of LeMessurier Securities Pty Ltd (AFSL No. 296877). The information contained in this article is general information only. Any advice is general advice only. Neither your personal objectives, financial situation nor needs have been taken into consideration. Accordingly you should consider how appropriate the advice (if any) is to those objectives, financial situation and needs, before acting on the advice.
S3 Consortium Pty Ltd does and seeks to do business with companies featured in its articles. As a result, investors should be aware that the Firm may have a conflict of interest that could affect the objectivity of this article. Investors should consider this article as only a single factor in making any investment decision. The publishers of this article also wish to disclose that they may hold this stock in their portfolios and that any decision to purchase this stock should be done so after the purchaser has made their own inquires as to the validity of any information in this article.
The information contained in this article is current at the finalised date. The information contained in this article is based on sources reasonably considered to be reliable by S3 Consortium Pty Ltd, and available in the public domain. No insider information is ever sourced, disclosed or used by S3 Consortium.
As the first digital publication dedicated specifically to this space, Finfeed soon became the most trusted publication in the market, quickly garnering over two million page views a number that continues to rise.
Finfeed.com provides its readers with informative articles that tackle the latest in market moving #ASX small cap news, plus exclusive content you wont find anywhere else. It is aimed at those with an interest in investing, market education, company performance, start-ups and much more.
Over the years, the website has expanded beyond exclusively reporting on small caps, to profile Australias leading ASX listed small, mid and large caps as well as some of the countrys most successful CEOs and business leaders to find out what makes them tick.
The information in this website is general information only. Any advice is general advice only. Your personal objectives, financial situation or needs have not been taken into consideration. Accordingly you should consider how appropriate the advice (if any) is to those objectives, financial situation and needs, before acting on the advice. S3 Consortium Pty Ltd (CAR No.433913) is a corporate authorised representative of LeMessurier Securities Pty Ltd (AFSL No. 296877).
Andheri East, Mumbai 116/B, Plot No. 150, Gokul Industrial Estate, Marol Co Operative Industrial Area Sagbag, Off. Andheri-Kurla Road, Marol, Andheri East, Andheri East, Mumbai - 400059, Dist. Mumbai, Maharashtra
Mahendikuva, Ahmedabad No. 1, Panchal Yuvak Estate Near Shahpur Fire Brigade, Station Road, Mahendikuva Char Rasta, Mahendikuva, Mahendikuva, Ahmedabad - 380004, Dist. Ahmedabad, Gujarat
Hass McCook is a chartered engineer and freshly minted Oxford MBA. He has been researching bitcoin over the past several months and recently joined the Lifeboat Foundations New Money Systems advisory board.
This article is the second in a series on bitcoins sustainability.Having previously examined the cost of bitcoin mining, here McCook seeks to quantify theeconomic and environmental factors involved in mining gold.
As the data below indicates, 52% of all gold ever mined is used for jewellery and palatial adornments. In terms of protection, central banks hold 18% of the worlds gold supply and other investors hold 16% (Hewitt, 2008).
However, the metal also has practical applications, with 10% of yearly demand coming from industry (World Gold Council, 2012). Almost 12% of the worlds supply of gold is contained within technological products, and is lost forever unless recycled which has its own costs attached to it.
Gold is valuable is due to its intrinsic properties: it is highly durable, malleable and never loses its lustre. Most importantly, it is scarce, and becomes increasingly more difficult and expensive to mine so it is safe from inflation.
It is for these reasons, as well as its applications for industry, that the metal has demand, and by extension, value.The following paragraphs seek to quantify the lifecycle of gold, as well its economic, environmental and social costs.
Relative labour costs are also increasing dramatically, which could be a large driver in the metals future mining cost. As most of the energy used in mining comes from non-renewablefossil fuels like diesel, there isnt much hope for reducing its carbon footprint in the near future.
As can be seen from the graphic below (Minerals Council of Australia, 2014) the mining of gold is an intensive process, and the lifecycle of a mine is typically quite long and varied (upwards of 20 years).
Mine construction provides the necessary infrastructure to allow for a productive mine; this includes bulk earthworks and the construction of roads and facilities. It can generally take several years to complete.
Rehabilitation involves returning the land as close to its pre-mining condition as possible to allow plant and animal life to flourish, or the original owner to use it as they please. Although these activities have both impacts and costs associated with them, these pale in comparison to production itself.
Figure 4 shows the process of extracting gold from the ground.Whilst we will not discuss the activities involved in the process chain, you will notice that large volumes of rock, water, and cyanide are used to produce gold.
There is a plethora of peer-reviewed scientific literature and industry-based data on the economic, environmental and social impacts of these processes, and they will be discussed in the following sections of this report.
In early February 2014, the World Gold Council noted that the average industry cost of production is $1,200/ounce, with 30% of the industry becoming unprofitable if the gold price drops below that level (Rudarakanchana, 2014).
Recycling is significantly less energy intensive than mining gold, however, definitive data does not exist as to the exact energy savings (US EPA, 2012). As an indication of how much energy is saved recycling, here are statistics for other metals and products (The Economist, 2007):
The most consistent approach to converting GJ of energy to tCO2 would be to use a weighted average of tCO2 produced by the source of primary energy supply. This is calculated in the table below (Moomaw, et al., 2011), (Sovacool, 2008), (US Department of Energy, 2013):
1GJ is equivalent to 277.77 kWh or 0.2777 MWh, therefore, 25 million GJ results in 4 million tonnes of CO2 produced at 600g/kWh.To sense-check these results, mined gold results in 54 million tonnes of CO2.
Therefore, it can be concluded that carbon emissions are cut by90% if gold is recycled, so long as the above assumptions hold true. This conclusion seems logical, due to not having to deal with huge amounts of waste rock, water, cyanide and other chemical by-products during recycling.
The obvious major social costs of gold mining are native land-owner rights, the human rights abuses involved in obtaining conflict gold, and the unacceptably high worker fatality rates. According to research by Oxfam (2004), 50% of all newly mined gold is taken from native lands.
In a one-off event, BRE-X, a Canadian gold mining scam, cost investors $6.5bn in the biggest mining scandal of all time (Ro, 2012). There are several other documented and undocumented large-scale precious metal frauds that have occurred throughout history, which would be impossible to completely quantify.
Now weve looked at the costs of gold production, its time we compared it with the cost of generating other stores of value. Check back next week for the third article in the series, in which Hass McCook examines the sustainability ofprinting and minting currency. If you missed the first part of the series on the true costs of bitcoin mining, be sure to check it out.
The leader in news and information on cryptocurrency, digital assets and the future of money, CoinDesk is a media outlet that strives for the highest journalistic standards and abides by a strict set of editorial policies. CoinDesk is an independent operating subsidiary of Digital Currency Group, which invests in cryptocurrencies and blockchain startups.
Prominer maintains a team of senior gold processing engineers with expertise and global experience. These gold professionals are specifically in gold processing through various beneficiation technologies, for gold ore of different characteristics, such as flotation, cyanide leaching, gravity separation, etc., to achieve the processing plant of optimal and cost-efficient process designs.
Based on abundant experiences on gold mining project, Prominer helps clients to get higher yield & recovery rate with lower running cost and pays more attention on environmental protection. Prominer supplies customized solution for different types of gold ore. General processing technologies for gold ore are summarized as below:
For alluvial gold, also called sand gold, gravel gold, placer gold or river gold, gravity separation is suitable. This type of gold contains mainly free gold blended with the sand. Under this circumstance, the technology is to wash away the mud and sieve out the big size stone first with the trommel screen, and then using centrifugal concentrator, shaking table as well as gold carpet to separate the free gold from the stone sands.
CIL is mainly for processing the oxide type gold ore if the recovery rate is not high or much gold is still left by using otation and/ or gravity circuits. Slurry, containing uncovered gold from primary circuits, is pumped directly to the thickener to adjust the slurry density. Then it is pumped to leaching plant and dissolved in aerated sodium cyanide solution. The solubilized gold is simultaneously adsorbed directly into coarse granules of activated carbon, and it is called Carbon-In-Leaching process (CIL).
Heap leaching is always the first choice to process low grade ore easy to leaching. Based on the leaching test, the gold ore will be crushed to the determined particle size and then sent to the dump area. If the content of clay and solid is high, to improve the leaching efficiency, the agglomeration shall be considered. By using the cement, lime and cyanide solution, the small particles would be stuck to big lumps. It makes the cyanide solution much easier penetrating and heap more stable. After sufficient leaching, the pregnant solution will be pumped to the carbon adsorption column for catching the free gold. The barren liquid will be pumped to the cyanide solution pond for recycle usage.
The loaded carbon is treated at high temperature to elute the adsorbed gold into the solution once again. The gold-rich eluate is fed into an electrowinning circuit where gold and other metals are plated onto cathodes of steel wool. The loaded steel wool is pretreated by calcination before mixing with uxes and melting. Finally, the melt is poured into a cascade of molds where gold is separated from the slag to gold bullion.
Prominer has been devoted to mineral processing industry for decades and specializes in mineral upgrading and deep processing. With expertise in the fields of mineral project development, mining, test study, engineering, technological processing.