Iron ore beneficiation begins with the milling of extracted ore in preparation for further operations to recoveriron values. Milling operations are designed to produce uniform size particles by crushing, grinding,and wet or dry classification. The capital investment and operation costs of milling equipment are high.
Crushing is a multistage process and may use dry iron ore feed. Typically, primary crushing andscreening take place at the mine site. Primary crushing is accomplished by using jaw crusher or gyratorycrushers. Primary crushing yields chunks of ore ranging in size from 6 to 10 inches. Oversize material is passed through additional secondary crushers and classifiers to achieve the desired particlesize.
In iron ore beneficiation operation, the raw iron ore materials will be first reduced to small particle size. It may require crushing the material tomaximize the production of minus 2mm. According to SBMs experience in crushing technology, we recommended the installation of acone crusher to reduce the minus 100mm pebblesand a VSI crusher machine to fine crush the cone crusherproduct.
The iron ore crushers with low price are also used in the industrial minerals, mining, recycling and general quarrying industries. A widerange of materials are processed through SBM iron crushers worldwide. SBM experts can customize crushing solution in iron ore beneficiation according to your requirements. Here are some popular iron ore crusher machine types. Please contact us for more information.
According to different final products applications, varioustypes of crusher equipment are required, such as jaw crusher for primary crushing, impact crusher and hammer crusher for secondary crushing, cone crusher for secondary and tertiary crushing. Iron ore crusher prices are different according to crusher types and production capacities.
The VSI crusher for iron ore beneficiation uses a unique rock-on-rockcrushing action whereby the feed materialgrinds and impacts against itself, minimizingwear costs and maintenance down-time. Thisis especially important in applications such asiron ore processing where the feed material istypically hard and abrasive and wear costs arepotentially very high.
Jaw Crusher Jaw crusher is available with stationary, mobile and portable applications. The jaw crushers combine a high reduction ratio and increased capacity with any feed materials: from extra hard rock to recycled materials. This is achieved through several unique features such as higher crushing speed, optimized kinematics, a longer stroke and easy adjustment.
Impact Crusher Impact crushers are based upon several decades of experience with the impact method. We offer a complete range of impact crushers for stationary, semi-mobile fully mobile applications in both primary and secondary crushing.
Cone Crusher Cone crusher is a stationary crusher. These crushers are hydraulic pressure crushers designed to crush a high ratio for high productivity. Cone crushers are ideal for secondary and fine crushing.
Granite is not easy to crush to sand, main equipment has PE-7501060 jaw crusher (coarse crusher), HP300 cone crusher (fine crusher), bin, 490110 vibrating feeder, B1000x22 conveyor belt, B1000x30m conveyor belt, B800x31 conveyor belt, 4YK2460 vibrating screen, etc. contact us!
In this case, we recommend the use of a PCZ1308 heavy hammer crusher with a feed size of 930x650mm, the feed particle size is less than 600mm, the motor power is 4P 132Kw, and the processing capacity of the equipment is 100-180t/h.
Eastman is a typical direct selling enterprise with green and standardized production plants. All the delivery of the equipment will be completed within the delivery period signed by the contract to ensure the smooth commissioning of the equipment.
Rock crushers have a wide range of suitable material to choose from, whether its soft or hard, or even very hard, rock crushers can reduce those large rocks into smaller rocks, gravel, or even rock dust.Here are some typical materials that break or compress by industry crushers, such as Granite, quartz stone, river pebble, limestone, calcite, concrete, dolomite, iron ore, silicon ore, basalt and other mines, rocks and slag.
Understanding the stages of crushing process and the types of crushers that best fit each stage can simplifies your equipment selection. Each type of crusher is different and used to achieve a certain end result.
Similarly, a certain output is expected at the end of each crushing stage for the next phase of the process. Aggregate producers who pair the correct crusher to the correct stage will be the most efficient and, in turn, the most profitable.
A jaw crusher is a compression type of crusher. Material is reduced by squeezing the feed material between a moving piece of steel and a stationary piece. The discharge size is controlled by the setting or the space between those two pieces of steel. The tighter the setting, the smaller the output size and the lower the throughput capacity.
As a compression crusher, jaw crushers generally produce the coarsest material because they break the rock by the natural inherent lines of weakness. Jaw crushers are an excellent primary crusher when used to prepare rock for subsequent processing stages.
Although the chamber is round in shape, the moving piece of steel is not meant to rotate. Instead, a wedge is driven around to create compression on one side of the chamber and discharge opening on the opposite side. Cone crushers are used in secondary and tertiary roles as an alternative to impact crushers when shape is an important requirement, but the proportion of fines produced needs to be minimized.
An impact crusher uses mass and velocity to break down feed material. First, the feed material is reduced as it enters the crusher with the rotating blow bars or hammers in the rotor. The secondary breakage occurs as the material is accelerated into the stationary aprons or breaker plates.
Impact crushers tend to be used where shape is a critical requirement and the feed material is not very abrasive. The crushing action of an impact crusher breaks a rock along natural cleavage planes, giving rise to better product quality in terms of shape.
Most aggregate producers are well acquainted with the selection of crushing equipment and know it is possible to select a piece of equipment based solely on spec sheets and gradation calculations. Still, theoretical conclusions must always be weighed against practical experience regarding the material at hand and of the operational, maintenance and economical aspects of different solutions.
The duty of the primary crusher is, above all, to make it possible to transport material on a conveyor belt. In most aggregate crushing plants, primary crushing is carried out in a jaw crusher, although a gyratory primary crusher may be used. If material is easily crushed and not excessively abrasive, an impact breaker could also be the best choice.
The most important characteristics of a primary crusher are the capacity and the ability to accept raw material without blockages. A large primary crusher is more expensive to purchase than a smaller machine. For this reason, investment cost calculations for primary crushers are weighed against the costs of blasting raw material to a smaller size.
A pit-portable primary crusher can be an economically sound solution in cases where the producer is crushing at the quarry face. In modern plants, it is often advantageous to use a moveable primary crusher so it can follow the movement of the face where raw material is extracted.
The purpose of intermediate crushing is to produce various coarser fractions or to prepare material for final crushing. If the intermediate crusher is used to make railway ballast, product quality is important.
In other cases, there are normally no quality requirements, although the product must be suitable for fine crushing. In most cases, the objective is to obtain the greatest possible reduction at the lowest possible cost.
In most cases, the fine crushing and cubicization functions are combined in a single crushing stage. The selection of a crusher for tertiary crushing calls for both practical experience and theoretical know-how. This is where producers should be sure to call in an experienced applications specialist to make sure a system is properly engineered.
Dewo machinery can provides complete set of crushing and screening line, including Hydraulic Cone Crusher, Jaw Crusher, Impact Crusher, Vertical Shaft Impact Crusher (Sand Making Machine), fixed and movable rock crushing line, but also provides turnkey project for cement production line, ore beneficiation production line and drying production line. Dewo Machinery can provide high quality products, as well as customized optimized technical proposal and one station after- sales service.
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The following is a post by Rafael Marrn Gonzlez which is making the rounds in Venezuela. For a refresher on Puerto Ordaz (sometimes incorrectly referred to as Ciudad Guayana) refer to posts,Life in an American CampandMining IIandGuayana: The Reverse Miracle.
I have witnessed the rise and the fall of one of the greatest cities of Venezuela. In the era when I arrived, Puerto Ordaz was beginning to see the world and, in its intimacy, due to its noble call to lead the development of great swathes of the country, it generated the 20th centurys last harmonious, multi-racial community on the planet.
I saw, day after day, the wonder of its architectural growth, both commercial and industrial. In her bosom, arose the most significant and complex metallurgical industry of Latin America. In those days, to go to America from Europe was to board a ship or plane to Puerto Ordaz to seek ones fortune. She was sort of a modern Babel, that wonderful Puerto Ordaz, composed of an adolescent population that persists in the memories of those of us who populated its streets with the dizzying dynamic of youth. How it hurts to see her today, prematurely aged, poorly bathed, and worstly dressed, with her depressed facades and her sidewalks burst through by unpruned trees with abandoned coronas infested with guatepajarito [parasitic bush: untranslatable].
Walking about the lonely streets, empty joints, closed malls, centers, and streets abandoned for fear as soon as the sun begins to set, I do not recognize that city that never used to sleep but rather led a loud and long night until sunrise. Her best views have been invaded by the misery severely imposed by demagogic powers. A city now disrespected in her privileged spaces. There is no limit to the degradation of her expected end. Chaos is her daily bread.
Begging for food is now ubiquitous and neighbors on street corners despair for any transportation. Ignorance imposes preferences of poor taste; long held cultural practices now abandoned; ancient crafts are gone; and foolishness is now dressed up, crowned with titles on the anemic social pages. The cretinism of the newly (and suspiciously) rich, is heard by their loud applause at trashy performances, as they demand another grilled meat with cassava in the flea market of gastronomic decadence.
Her once florid freeway gardens have withered and a swarm of bars shout out the uncertainty that life has now become. A city that in her day, not so long ago, gathered the best in thought and technical expertise, both national and international, now displays its toothless ruins in Matanzas [the site of the citys teeming, massive industrial works], its enthusiasm now overwhelmed, shut down, and known by the flapping of bats wings in its giant industrial sheds.
The ancient stacks that once announced prosperity, today herald diseases of the skin and lungs. Their toxic excretions poison the waters of the Orinoco. Children are born with aluminum inside their skulls; neurological effects camp nearby.
Her basic enterprises, Venezuelas pride, undulate like a canoe in rough waters between the impact of intermittently paid salaries, technological obsolescence, and dashed productivity. Her laboring class now become engrossed in parasitic sadness in the service of an empowered ignominy which has emptied it of any conscience. Her history hides that tab that once she ostentatiously paid for suits and parties but now cowers with the embarrassment of being a have been. A swarm of damnable, protected thieves imposes sentences against dignity and permeates whats left of the night life with their nauseating presence, while those who labor and have labored for lifetimes, stand aside.
Alas! Alas! Puerto Ordaz! Now a mere gibberish of yellow pages and abandonment. A site of processions of thugs and murderers; of rude and gross speculators and carpetbaggers all looking for quick and easy money, of misery rooted in deplorable suburbs. A city of late awakening and shortened evenings. Of crime imposed for any posible error of interpretation. Of dead traffic lights, announcing at top volume the irresponsibility of brutish governors who accuse those who challenge them for their strident ineptitude. Like the underworld, they cannot be called out. There is no real authority. Only a payroll that demands paid vacations.
I have lived 53 years in her and refuse to exile myself. But when I drive its desolate streets, as I pass each corner or enter a long forgotten passageway, I oft recall the intensity of its snatched life. She did not deserve this assault of inmoral and inept rulers. This violent aggression of barbarians and savages in taxis, motorcycles, and trucks, all dubiously acquired.
How much they hated a city that was on its way to being another Germany! Now reduced to a solitary shack, run over by caretakers focused on the furious selling and transportation of gems on gondolas carrying riches from the proud north of Brazil. Not only isolated, but dependent!
In the initial euforia of concessions by the Venezuelan government to American oil and iron ore companies, was any thought given to where these companies employees, many of whom would come from countries other than Venezuela, would live?
As it turns out, President Marcos Prez Jimenez had given it much thought and had requested such companies establish open cities wherever possible. Puerto Ordaz, the crown jewel of Ciudad Guayana, whose impetus was The US Steel Company, was one result of the open city policy.
Jimenez understood that not all camps could be open cities. El Pao was deep in the Venezuelan jungle, relatively shut off from potential commercial centers, such as a major river, highway, airport, railway, etc.
On the other hand, the future Puerto Ordaz was situated at the confluence of two major rivers, one of which is the mighty Orinoco, the third or fourth largest in the world, measured by average discharge, meaning the rivers flow rate. I had to look this up and, from a laymans perspective, this is probably the best illustration: The volume of an Olympic-size swimming pool is 2,500 cubic meters. So the flow rate at the mouth of the Amazon [the worlds largest] is sufficient to fill more than 83 such pools each second.
As for El Pao, this area was explored by the Spanish 5 centuries ago. The Indians told them about a mountain which, when struck by lightning, would give off bright flashes. The Spanish investigated for themselves and confirmed the tales. They named the mountain, El Florero, meaning, Flower Pot, since the flashes looked like flowers on the mountain peak.
Actually, the area was rich in orchids and also an abundance of purguo, a tree which yielded very high quality rubber. In fact, the era in which the ore was discovered, was known as la fiebre del balat (the balat fever). Balat refers to a natural gum of high quality found in the purguo. Mr. Aturo Vera, whom, years later, my father would often contract to drive us to fishing spots on the Caron River, explored that area with his own father in the 1920s. On one such journey, father and son espied a splendid ore specimen and took it with them to their home near the Caron.
Word spread quickly and a miner, Simn Piero, accompanied by his boss, entrepreneur Eduardo Boccardo, also explored and contracted an engineer, Frank Paglucci, to stake a claim. Mr. Vera, seeing all the excitement, also staked his claim, and rightfully so.
On June 3, 1944 (3 days before D Day) , The New York Times reported, The Bethlehem Steel Corporations big Venezuelan iron ore development, first disclosed as a prospect a few weeks ago, is now under way. Twenty American engineers and technicians are in charge, with some 600 native Venezuelans, skilled and unskilled, at work on the big project. This project represented capital investments of $50 million ($1 billion in todays money) and more in Puerto de Hierro (Iron Port), their deep sea port on the Atlantic.
By July, 1950, the first train load of ore was transported from El Pao to Pala, the companys river port on the Orinoco for transshipment to Puerto de Hierro. And in 1951, the seaport yielded its first shipment to the United States. The March 23 New York Times headline read: First Cargo of Venezuela Iron Ore Arrives for Bethlehem Steel Plant; Sparrows Point Pier in Maryland Is Scene of Significant Ceremony Marking Start of 3,000,000-Ton-a-Year Shipments. The articles lead sentence read, Vessels laden with iron ore have docked here for decades, but special significance attached to the arrival of an ore boat this morning.
Well speak more of life in an American camp in future posts. For now, Ill end this post by quoting some recent comments by folks who, when children, lived in Puerto de Hierro. This will give an idea of life in an American camp in Venezuela and also the pull of the land.
That is the place of enchantment and he who has lived or even visited it will remember it for all of life. And I had the fortune of having been born there. Those good years of the 1950s, 60s, 70s, 80s. The best ?
The best town and the most beautiful place in Venezuela; the only beach with a diving board in the ocean. I developed my life there along with my parents and siblings. Eternal memories and the best times of my childhood and my youth. My best friends of my life were from there.
To add to the prior post, I thought it good to tell a bit more about El Paos background and impetus as something of a microcosm of the myriad mining and petroleum camps dotting Venezuela in the 1950s.
As noted in the Time Magazine article cited in the previous post, El Pao was a Bethlehem Steel iron ore mining camp built in the 1940s in the Venezuelan southeastern interior, within a low and gentle mountain range in an area of dense, seemingly infinite jungles, just beyond theGran Sabanaprairies and plains whose boundaries seemed to melt with the sky.
The company, along with US Steel had negotiated concessions with the government of Marcos Prez Jimenez, the shortest-lived of the numberless military dictatorships in Venezuelas history.Actually, these concessions were signed prior to Jimenezs official assumption of the presidency, but everybody knew he was actually in charge a few years before his official ascension in 1952. Perez Jimenez sought to enhance Venezuelas independence by promoting oil and ore concessions and improving and expanding the transit infrastructure. He insisted, wherever possible, the companies build open cities as opposed to closed camps. US Steel did just that, which impelled the phenomenal growth of the thriving metropolis of Puerto Ordaz, at the confluence of the Orinoco and Caron rivers. As for Caracas, it was modernized with skyscrapers, including the symbolic Humboldt Hotel, overlooking the capital city from atop Mt. vila. The hotel was named after the famous naturalist and explorer, Alexander Von Humboldt, who explored and studied much of Venezuela in the late 18th century. Well be seeing more of him in later posts. Construction projects were launched to build large public housing projects, bridges, and South Americas finest highway system, most of which would still be in use into the 21stcentury, including the then spectacular La Guira Caracas expressway in 1953 and the Tejeras Caracas expressway in 1954.
Furthermore, his tenure saw the creation, in 1956, of cable car transport to the 6,000 ft., Mt. Avila, which stands like an imposing sentinel over Caracas. He also commissioned the building of the even more remarkable cable car system to the 20,000 ft. Pico Bolivar in the Andes in the western state of Mrida. Both systems were built by Swiss engineers and materiel. Venezuela was transformed into the most modern nation of South America: modern defined as excellent infrastructure, breathtaking skylines, and a rapidly growing middle class. Today, some old timers say it was the Dubai of the 1950s.
A telling but quickly forgotten change imposed by Perez Jimenez was the revision of the official name of the nation. Since 1864 the countrys name was United States of Venezuela, reflecting Simn Bolivars admiration for the United States, but not his conviction that South America should not seek to emulate a similar type government because, as he put it, the United States form of government will only work for saints, which is what they are [and what we are not]; Marcos Prez Jimenez, apparently understanding Bolivars admonition, changed the name to Republic of Venezuela, a name which stuck until, in the 21stcentury, another authoritarian politician changed the name yet again, but left Venezuelas 20 states intact. El Pao was in the large state of Bolivar, to the southeast of the country, bordering on Brazil to the south and British Guiana to the east.
A plebiscite was held in December, 1957 which Jimenez won by a wide margin, but which opponents insisted was a rigged exercise. He went into self-imposed exile in Miami Beach, in 1959, only to be deported later by the Kennedy administration, which vainly believed it could afford to break the United States promise of asylum in exchange for the applause of Venezuelan politicians: honor out; applause, in. But, as often happens with asymmetrical swaps, Kennedy succeeded with the former, weightier matter; and failed with the latter, transitory one.
Unbelievably, Jimenez was, in 1968, elected to the Senate, even though he ran in absentia from Spain; however, the Venezuelan politicians succeeded in overturning his election on technicalities. In 1973 his supporters nominated him for the presidency of Venezuela; however, the political parties amended the constitution, in effect prohibiting him from running for president again.
He never returned to Venezuela. Nevertheless, love him or hate him, his administrations negotiations with the American steel and petroleum industries brought matchless prosperity to the country. This promise of future increase and liberality was reversed by the overturning of his economic policies, which tended to favor free enterprise locally coupled with pragmatic agreements with foreign companies, within a low tax and regulatory environment.
Amazingly, all major projects undertaken by the Perez Jimenez administration still stand, unsurpassed: either still in use, such as in the case of the magnificent, now barely maintained, and, therefore, in some places dangerous expressways, or as silent, empty monuments of a long past era, such as the Humboldt Hotel, alone and padlocked, alternating between stints as a reflector of countless brilliant sparkles of sunlight or as a lone sentry shrouded in clouds atop Mt. vila, reminding all who look and wonder, that historical eras ought not be facilely catalogued as bright or dark, evil or good. Much depends on who tells the story, how its told, ofwhomit is told, and, of course, bywhomit is told.
But the foregoing was yet in the future. Most, if not all, Americans who came to Venezuela when Prez Jimenez was either in power or was the power behind the throne, that is, from the late 1940s through the 1950s, were quite apolitical and gave little thought to the countrys civil government. Streets were safe, people were courteous, Americans were respected and admired, and work was abundant for both Americans and Venezuelans. What mattered to them, and to their companies, was that Venezuela became their largest supplier of iron ore, by far ore ultimately incorporated in Americas magnificent bridges, skyscrapers, monuments, homes, and automobiles.
For those of you interested in Marcos Prez Jimenez, you might want to check out the series of interviews (in Spanish) he granted not too long before his death. The link below is for the sixth of the series.
Any blog on Venezuela must include posts on mining. In the future, I hope to have a post or two from guests with more expertise on the more technical aspects of the mining industry in Venezuela and their complex engineering facets. Meanwhile, we can certainly post things of interest or of general introduction.
Depending on your sources, Venezuela was one of the worlds largest producers (some sources had it as the largest) of direct-reduced iron (iron ore which is reduced to a smaller form, usually pellets by means of a specially formulated gas). It was in the top ten of the worlds producers of iron ore, aluminum, and bauxite. And it still ranks as possessing one of the worlds largest known reserves of crude oil, second only to Saudi Arabia, although some say the United States has surpassed both.
It holds one of the worlds largest reserves of gold and was second only to South Africa in diamond production. Countless gems and precious stones have been mined there, especially in the interior state of Bolivar and the giant Territorio Amazonas.
The attentive reader will note the use of the past tense in the second and third paragraphs above. The past tense is used because extraction and production have suffered precipitous declines since the late 1990s and early 2000s. I would not be surprised by the discovery of vast new deposits and reserves, alongside the return of successful mining and production, once the investment climate improves. (Meanwhile, we should not be surprised by the intense interest focused on Venezuela by China and Russia.)
Inland from Venezuelas Caribbean coast some 200 miles, the swift, black Caroni River plunges into the chocolate-colored Orinoco. Southward from this junction of two mighty streams lie jungles and sandy scrublands studded with low, reddish mountains. This poor-looking expanse is one of the worlds great storehouses of iron. West of the Caroni looms Cerro Bolivar, blanketed with 500 million tons of high-grade ore. Farther west lies another iron mountain, El Trueno, endowed with 150 million tons. On the other side of the Caroni, Bethlehem Steel Corp. gathers up 3,000,000 tons of ore a year from El Pao.
Poetically and dramatically, the article captures the vastness of the countrys riches in iron ore alone. The country is awash with natural resources, even including coltan. We are told that Venezuela is one of only seven countries in the world that have known coltan reserves in sufficient quantities to export. It is a black mineral that is used in mobile (cell) phones and computer chips.
According to recent publications, metal production is at all-time lows; even oil has suffered catastrophically. Here is a recent headline from a technical publication which will suffice for all: Venezuelas Iron Ore Mines Operate At Less Than 10% Of Capacity.
The iron mines of El Pao, where I was born, had massive structures such as a giant ore crusher which was loaded from trucks carrying about 30 tons of ore from the dynamite sites. The crusher ground the ore down to chunks of about 8 inches. Then its covered conveyer carried the reduced ore to a secondary crusher which crushed it further down to 2 or 3 inches. Finally, that ore was poured into 34-car trains which transported 4,500 tons of crushed ore 35 miles daily to the company port on the Orinoco River from whence it was shipped to a deeper water port on the Caribbean coast, transshipped to larger oceangoing vessels, and delivered to Sparrows Point, Maryland, the worlds largest steel mill at the time.
That accounts for a fraction of the investment required by one company to successfully extract and produce steel. To that, must be added roads, bridges, hundreds of houses for miners and their families, schools, churches, recreational facilities, commissaries, airports, and more. Multiply that by the dozens of American and European companies who came to Venezuela for iron ore, petroleum, and other minerals, and you begin to get an idea of the gargantuan investment made in the country in the first fifty or so years of the 20th century. For example, US Steels investment greatly surpassed Bethlehem Steels. And so did the oil companies.
Circa 1958, my beloved aunt visited us from Miami, Florida. Although a busy homemaker, she was of that generation who would, nevertheless, find time to experience and appreciate the natural world that surrounds us. So, naturally, we would go on day excursions to different parts of Guayana. Once, in the interior, as we drove over a small stream she asked my father if hed stop the car so that we could walk around a bit. We got out and made our way to that stream and my aunt promptly took her shoes off and waded in, carefully stepping on the rocks and smooth stones under the water.
I, regrettably, never learned why she thought that, although I do recall spirited conversations between my parents, my godmother, and my aunt about the possibilities. Then, all possibilities having been exhausted in conversation as we wandered around, we embarked and continued on our journey.
A country might be supremely rich in natural resources; it may have people, like my aunt, who can discern the riches under the surface. But if it discourages investment and healthy incentives, what can we say about all those natural resources other than, Why cumbereth it the ground?
Richard M. Barnes and ThePulloftheLand.com, 2019. Unauthorized use and/or duplication of this material without express and written permission from this sites author and/or owner is strictly prohibited. Excerpts and links may be used, provided that full and clear credit is given to Richard M. Barnes and ThePulloftheLand.com with appropriate and specific direction to the original content.