crushing production line hoi4

4 | 10/2

The starting position for Republican Spain is, naturally, the same as that for the Nationalists. They begin with the same 4 spirits, signifying the influence of Carlism, the Military's disloyalty, and the political violence and strikes that are escalating in the initial half of 1936 (see our previous dev diary for more information on these).

The Popular Front was a loose alliance of political parties that were only really united in their opposition of Fascism. The idea of a Popular Front was formulated by Stalin in the mid-1930s, suggesting that the rapid growth of Fascism required a more unified response than Communism alone could provide. Effectively, it gave permission to subordinate Communist parties to band together with less extreme socialist parties, and even outright bourgeois parties, solely to combat Fascism in national politics. In Spain, the Popular Front that opposed the Fascist/Traditionalist CEDA (Spanish Confederation of Autonomous Rights - sometimes called the "Nationalist Front") consisted of a variety of liberal, socialist, and communist parties, the most important of which (for the purposes of this diary) are the Communist Party of Spain (PCE), Workers Party of Marxist Unification (POUM), and the Republican Left (IR). This coalition was also supported by regional nationalists and the Anarchist Trade Unions CNT/FAI. This coalition paid off, and despite massive resources and an overwhelming election campaign by the CEDA, the Popular Front won the 1936 Spanish elections.

Popular Front2030/CEDAPCEPartido Comunista de EspaaPOUMPartido Obrero de Unificacin MarxistaIRIzquierda Republicana-CNT/FAICEDA1936

This victory was to be short-lived, however. Unbeknownst to the Republicans, in the aftermath of the failed elections the CEDA would hand over their sizeable campaign chest to the plotting military leaders to finance a rebellion, and political violence from both sides would escalate in the coming months. As with the Nationalist side, this is represented by various decisions and missions. The sole distinction is the change in perspective. As all state garrisons are initially fully controlled by the Republican side anyway (they all begin with a Nationalist control of None), the garrison control decisions are unavailable until the Nationalist side has begun contesting Republican control in any location. From that point on, it becomes possible to attempt to flip them back.


A second point that sets the Republicans apart from their Nationalist adversaries are the nature of their focuses. The full pre-Civil War path for the Nationalists has a total duration of 210 days to complete, which means that, as long as a player continuously takes focuses, they are guaranteed to finish the whole path before the civil can start, even at the soonest start date. Not so for the Republicans. Republican pre-Civil War focuses (after the initial choice) last twice as long as their adversaries, resulting in a total duration of 385 days to fully complete this path (therefore requiring the civil war to be delayed until after January 20, 1937). This should immediately make it obvious why it is advantageous for the Nationalists to begin the civil war as soon as possible - this will ensure the Republicans will only have time to complete their first two focuses. And as the impact of the Republican focuses progressively increases, this vastly weakens the initial position for the Republicans, relative to the Nationalists.


As the Civil War starts, the Republican side begins with all states that do not have Total Nationalist garrison control. However, states where the Nationalists have more control than the Republicans will spawn more Nationalist troops, making it likely that these will be lost soon afterwards. In addition, the Carlism Spirit is no longer relevant for the Republicans from this point on, and is removed, while a new Spirit Disbanded Army is added (again, regardless of whether Disband the Army as a focus is taken or not), representing the (quite frankly) disastrous impact the disbanding of the army historically had on the first months of the Republican war effort. Various focuses in the different branches diminish and remove this Spirit. Beyond this, the same Offensives decisions are available to the Republicans, as are available to the Nationalists (see more information about this again in our previous dev diary).

The Republican faction begins the civil war as Democratic, but as a whole it is even more internally divided than the Nationalists. Not three, but four different Republican factions vie for control of post-Civil War Spain, and this fight for supremacy will likely result into internal fracturing and outright violence even during the Civil War.

The Second Republic at the start of the Civil War struggled to defend itself against the rebellion, while also maintaining cohesion and singularity of purpose within the faction itself. On the one hand, the communist and anarchist militias that supported the Popular Front played a key role in preventing the outright success of the initial coup attempt in the first place, and they were invaluable to the Republican war effort in the opening months of the Civil War, when the government was in the process of recreating a new army after disbanding the old. On the other hand, these groups also had wildly differing viewpoints on how the post-Civil War society should be structured, and idealism and fanaticism on all sides could easily bloom into violence. Historically, major influence came from the Soviet Union, which provided the Republic with much-needed weapons and equipment, but also meddled extensively in internal affairs, attempting to root out any Communists who might be critical of Stalins leadership. Ultimately, this would serve to completely undermine the war effort, resulting in the virtual elimination of two of the Fronts four (broadly-speaking) distinct groups as active participants in the Civil War, not by Nationalist doing, but by their own hands.

One of the major issues facing the Democratic government of the Second Republic involves the recreation of a proper army, reducing reliance on idealistic and undisciplined militias that is represented in the Disbanded Army Spirit. Others deal with stemming the flow of the Nationalist advance, fortifying the various cities and towns in their path, and especially fortifying the Republican foothold in the Basque Country (if this is controlled at the Civil War's start). But above all, the single biggest threat facing the government in the short term is the inevitable uprising of the Anarchist and Independent Communist militias (always represented as Anarchists if this uprising occurs from the Democratic/Stalinist perspective), as Stalinist meddling and manipulations will eventually break down all remnants of trust within these groups and the government. This uprising may be delayed through the Anti-Fascist Unity focus and the decisions it unlocks, but these can only delay it somewhat, and never prevent it. They are only intended as a desperate measure if you really cannot afford the uprising right then. Just as with the Falangist and Carlists paths we discussed last week, a focus Crush the Revolution exists that will immediately trigger the civil-war-within-the-civil-war and provide a temporary combat bonus against them.


Together with Relocate the Gold Reserves, crushing the Anarchists and Independent Communists is a requirement for opening up the possibility of much larger Soviet aid than initially offered. This aid consists of various combat modifiers, tech bonuses, increased Volunteer caps for the Soviet Union, construction bonuses, and even tech sharing. It also opens up for a powerful Soviet Aid post-Civil War recovery branch. While powerful, as all this aid comes at a price, however Stalinist control over the government will increase, and while moving the Gold Reserves abroad may keep them out of the hands of the Nationalists, it will not keep them safe from foreign seizure Going down this path will result in the Second Republic being puppeted by the Soviet Union upon the conclusion of the civil war, and they will be unlikely to release their control over the country willingly...


Regardless of whether the player decides to pursue this aid, they will need to manage the influence of the Stalinists on their own government. It is possible to maintain true to the Democratic principles on which the Second Republic was based, but this will come at the cost of combat penalties that may well prove to be problematic during the Civil War - the Communists were an integral part of the anti-Fascist fight, after all. However, staying true to your Democratic foundations will allow you to eventually subvert Soviet control even if you pursued Soviet aid previously and were puppeted as a result. This finally opens up into a branch where, now that the Fascists have been defeated, Spain may fight a final War of Independence against the Communists and the Soviet Union, to finally earn their deserved freedom. In this, they may either seek membership of the Allies, or strike a pragmatic Deal with the Devil and request military aid from those who have experience in fighting the Soviets - the very same people who opposed them during the Civil War: Germany and Italy.

It is also possible to give in to the Stalinist pressure, and focus on defeating Fascism, even at the cost of Democratic principles. If this option is selected, the government will switch to Communist, and a future War of Independence becomes unavailable. Instead, it will become possible to Appeal for Increased Autonomy (on the Stalinist side), becoming a full-fledged member of the Comintern rather than a puppet. Finally, remaining focuses for the Democratic branch focus on rebuilding their army and navy, and preparing for a global Anti-Fascist Crusade.

The Stalinist Communists were the Communist Party of Spain (PCE), and are referred to as such because of their loyalty to the Stalinist Communist doctrine. Their branch shares a start with that of the other Communist faction that we will deal with later, but splits up already within a handful of focuses. Historically, they shared the outlook of the Government, in that both it and the Stalinists were more concerned with defeating the Fascists and maintaining the cohesion of their coalition rather than pushing for a social revolution as the other groups did. In the Focus Tree this is represented by many points of contact between the two branches.

Main points of interest during the civil war for the Stalinists branch relate to Stalins Popular Front strategy. Rather than alienate other classes, these must be incorporated into the fight against Fascism first, and re-educated later, when the frontlines have stabilized. A notable exception to this is the clergy, as anti-clericalism is a core component of the Republic's values. Church riches must instead be confiscated and used to finance the fight against the Nationalists, even if this will send the clergy into the arms of the Nationalists. Next, concessions must be obtained from the Republican government, at first with ministerial positions, but soon enough full control of the war effort must be demanded. And finally, just as with the Democratic branch, the recalcitrant independently-minded Anarchists and Communists must be eliminated for the good of the Republican cause as a whole.

For the Stalinists, Soviet Aid is much more of a no-brainer. Yes, you will get puppeted, but many of your strongest focuses tie in with this branch anyway, and there is always the Appeal for Increase Autonomy. Post-Civil War, the branch focuses heavily on fortifying the country, strengthening it as a bulwark from which to wage a two-front war with the Fascist nations lodged between Spain and the Soviet Union, should it come to that. Finally, focuses allow for the conquest of Portugal, the supporting of French Communists, and exacting vengeance on all nations who dared send Volunteers to the Nationalists during the Civil War.

The Independent Communists represent the POUM, a second Communist party in Spain that broke with both the Trotskyist and Stalinist Communist doctrines, opposing the latter heavily, and was a member of the "International Revolutionary Marxist Centre", also called the "London Bureau" (nicknamed the 3 International); a grouping of similar independently-minded Communist parties from various countries. Notably, in the Civil War George Orwell would fight with POUM militias, and the way the Stalinists undermined, manipulated, and repressed the party would greatly impact his thinking and later writings. Historically, this repression culminated in the May Days, a period of 5 days in May 1937 where actual street fighting occurred between the Stalinist Communists and the Government on the one hand, and the POUM and Anarchists on the other. After this, the Anarchists would be increasingly divided internally and its influence on the Civil War would wane, and the POUM would soon be outlawed altogether.

POUMLondon BureauMay Days193755//

As the POUM, the major antagonist, other than the Nationalists, are the Stalinists. Early on steps must be taken to curtail Stalinist influence and interference, maintaining the partys independence and putting a stop to the indiscriminate political assassinations perpetrated by the NKVD. International Brigades provides a steadily ticking manpower pool for the duration of the Civil War, aiding their cause somewhat. Unlike the Stalinists, the purpose of the POUM is social revolution, and so the Class War must be pursued. The fact that the Government opposes this and increasingly attempts to crack down on them means that eventually the step must be taken to Seize the Gold Reserves and use these to finance a full-blown uprising along with the Anarchists, to enable the Revolution to flourish.

NKVDInternational Brigades

Post-Civil War parts of the tree focus on industrial and military improvements, as well as the formation of a People's Fleet. Some industrial focuses are shared with the Anarchists, and some with the Stalinists. Unify the London Bureau will create a unique faction and invite all Communist nations that are not in a faction (or are Soviet Union or a Communist Mexico led by Trotsky). Further focuses generate wargoals against Fascist nations in Europe, nations led by Stalin or Trotsky, and finally the focuses to conquer Portugal and Avenge Foreign Interference are shared with the Stalinists.

The Anarchists are the final available branch for the Republican side. This branch represents the various autonomous communes that rose up in the area of Aragon and Catalonia during the civil war, and in which the fight against Fascism was most clearly accompanied by the Spanish Revolution. These communes organized themselves under a single Regional Defense Council of Aragon, and in the territory controlled by them collectivization of the workplace became a common theme. However, the independence with which they conducted themselves was a perpetual thorn in the eyes of the government and the Stalinists, and, as with the POUM, the May Days saw their influence severely curtailed. As Anarchist society is inherently incompatible with the way Nation-States are represented in HoI4, we've had to get creative with their representation. A key part of this ties in with the concept of the "Regional Defense Council", as historically used by the Anarchists during the civil war.

Regional Defense Council of Aragon

The initial action points for the Anarchists involve the collectivization of all aspects of society - seizing the means of production, giving workers autonomy and self-management, seizing public transport, and increasing communal farming. Rather than recreate an army, like the other branches focus on, the Anarchist focus on arming the people themselves, preferring to rely on self-organized militias. Just like the Communists, they also gain access to the International Brigades Spirit. Eventually, though, the government will crack down on the Revolution, but, as with the Independent Communists, the player will be able to take a focus to launch the uprising from their side instead, gaining a temporary combat bonus.

Once complete gender equality has been achieved through Mujeres Libres and the uprising has been started, either through government crack-down or through taking the focus Masters of Our Own Fate, the pivotal focus All Must Bear the Torch becomes available. This has a number of effects that impact the playstyle of the Anarchists:

The end result of this is that an Anarchist Spain will be perpetually stuck at 0% stability. However, any negative effects they might experience from this are disabled or compensated for, with the sole exception of Political Power gain. The massive production speed bonuses inherent in the Collectivized Society economic law are purely intended to compensate for the -50% production bonus that is applied due to having 0% stability. Bad effects relating to low stability, such as Strikes, will not occur when playing as the Anarchists.

This all comes at a cost, however: every single other nation on the face of the planet will hate you. Initially, during the civil war itself, this is only noticed by the fact that no nation will want to aid you, and will instead support hostile Spanish factions against you. However, once the civil war ends, this will result in major powers taking steps to actively quell the Anarchist Revolution - with nations receiving AI modifiers to act in a hostile manner towards the Regional Defense Council. As the Anarchists, you stand alone against the world.

The next part of the tree focuses on defending against this coming threat. Focuses will revolutionize military thinking, give combat bonuses to defense on core territory, and greatly increase War Support. A side branch will allow the Anarchist revolution to 'spill over' the Portuguese border, when the Anarchists share a border with them. The Portuguese Anarchism focus creates a civil war in Portugal, puppeting the Anarchist tag it creates, and annexing them once the Portuguese civil war has ended. Once this is complete, and the Spanish Civil War itself is also won, a new Regional Defense Council may be called into being: the Regional Defense Council of Iberia. This will core all Portuguese states, as well.

Regional Defense Council of Iberia

Finally, the finisher focuses focus greatly on preparing the Communes militarily for the Inevitable Counterblow. The success of the Revolution is a threat to the very way of life of the rest of the world, and they cannot let this stand. When they are done fighting among one another, they will come after you (and possibly even before). But the Defense Council does not need to sit on its hands and wait for this to happen. Anarchism Knows No Borders provides a spirit that increases War Support even further, but also drastically increases justification time for War Goals. Plant the Seeds of Revolution allows for creating uprisings of Anarchists troops behind enemy lines, under your control. And finally, Global Defense Council will rename the country once again, illustrating its nature as an entity that has spread far beyond the confines of the Iberian peninsula. In addition, it allows for dynamically coring controlled hostile land in which Compliance has been raised to a sufficiently high level, as they simply reorganize into their own autonomous communes and join under the umbrella of the Defense Council.

...Global Defense Council

Playing as the Anarchists will pose significant challenges, as you are effectively expected to take on the entire world alone, with a (at least initially) limited economic powerbase. However, it also provides significant rewards for a player that manages to succeed and push their enemies back, dynamically growing their powerbase much more efficiently than other countries can.

On today's HoI4 stream I will be joining @Da9L to take a look at the new Spanish trees, and in particular the new Republican tree. This will be followed by a Q&A session, where we'll take your questions about them :) The stream will be from 15:00-16:00 CET, and can be viewed here.

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production - hearts of iron 4 wiki

Production refers to the manufacturing of equipment such as tanks, guns, planes and ships used by the military to conduct a country's war. The construction of buildings in states and provinces, including both military installations and economic development, is known as construction.

The main output modifiers for military factories and naval dockyards are Concentrated or Dispersed industry technology, while civilian factories are mainly affected by Construction industry technology and the economy law.

Production of military and naval factories/dockyards are organized into production lines, each of which produces a single type of equipment at a time. Up to 150 factories may be assigned to a single production line, but a country can operate multiple lines producing the same item. Ships have a lower limit of dockyards that can be assigned to build them. Capital ships may, at any given time, have no more than 5; screen ships, 10; submarines and convoys, 15.

Each production line has its own efficiency level which determines how good it is at producing its current equipment. The higher the efficiency, the faster the production line produces equipment, up to a maximum value. Running the same production line continuously gradually increases its efficiency.

Production efficiency starts at a base (10% without modifiers) and increases each day up to a production efficiency cap (50% without modifiers). All of these can potentially be increased by industry technology, research, and national focuses. The base production efficiency growth per day is:

Therefore it takes at most 500 days for a fully-supplied line to reach the cap. This represents a shortfall of at most 166.6 factory-days of output relative to a factory running at cap for the same period.

Production efficiency is tracked separately for each factory. Adding one or more new factories to an existing production line reduces production efficiency of the added factories. It is important to know that the factories already in the line do not lose efficiency - what they are making has not changed. Only the new factory has minimum efficiency.

Caution: When military factories are lost or damaged and total factory count declines, the loss comes off the bottom of the list and those factories lose their efficiency. A wise precaution is to move your high priority and high efficiency production lines up in the list.

Also, switching a production line to a related type of equipment cancels production of the current unit and the time spent on it, and reduces its efficiency depending on how drastic the change is. However, the player gets to keep a% of efficiency based on the change type. See below.

When a production line is switched while having Dispersed Industry unlocked and/or Flexible Line unlocked, the new Production Efficiency is not the result of a simple addition of the efficiency retention (listed in red in the previous section) and the Production Efficiency Retention bonus obtained from the technologies. As the in-game modifier describes, the retention bonus is applied as a percentage of the loss in production efficiency (e.g. 10% retention incurs a 90% loss, so a 10% bonus would reduce the loss by 10% of 90% or 9%. This would give you a new retention of 19%.)

The new Production Efficiency can be calculated in three steps. First, determine the bonus efficiency by multiplying the retention modifier and the efficiency loss. Second, add that product to the original efficiency retention (listed in red in the previous section). This is you new efficiency retention. Finally, multiply your current production efficiency and your new efficiency retention. This is your new production efficiency.

Ships, submarines and convoys are produced in dockyards, which do not have production efficiency but are still affected by output tech. Instead, every dockyard produces a flat 2.5 per day, plus any output boost. Although all progress (and so time) on an incomplete ship is lost if the line changes to another ship, the dockyard will function at 100% efficiency as it starts work on a selected alternative ship design.

The total amount of resources can be increased by researching the Excavation technologies (under the tab 'industry'). Each level of Excavation technology gives a resource gain efficiency increase of +10% to the total of all extracted resources (extracted resources are those that come from the ground via drilling or mining or that are produced via a Synthetic Refinery; it does not include resources from trade). There are five (5) levels of Excavation technology; researching all of them will give a +50% bonus to the extracted resources total.

The total amount of resources can also be increased by building infrastructure. Each level of infrastructure gives a resource increase to the total of all extracted resources (except those resources produced by a Synthetic Refinery or resources acquired via trade) in a state. The increase varies with both the starting quantity of resources and starting level of infrastructure. This is shown in the example table below for the resource Steel.

Different kinds of equipment require different resources to produce. Lacking sufficient resources will apply an increasing efficiency penalty up to -100% to the lowest priority production lines. The penalty increases by -5% per missing unit of resource per type and the highest applicable penalty is applied to individual factories. For example, when having 2 units of steel and 0 units of aluminum available and adding a new production line for Support Equipment (needs 2 steel, 1 aluminum) with 11 factories, the first factory receives a penalty of -5% because it misses one unit of aluminum.

The second factory receives -10% penalty because it both misses two units of steel and the second unit of aluminum. For each of the remaining factories the penalty increases by -10% because they need two additional steel, the last one getting a -100% penalty. The production line shows the average penalty across all factories, -50%. This penalty stacks multiplicatively with other modifiers.

Land divisions and air wings are not produced as atomic units. Instead, factories produce individual tanks, airplanes, and so forth. This equipment is then sent to fill out the country's land divisions and air wings. Unlike resources, equipment can be stockpiled. The stockpiles can be viewed under the Logistics Tab.

Nations may pay for production licenses from nations that already have researched a technology. The cost is generally 1 civilian factory. The factory goes to the nation whose equipment is being licensed.

A nation with good relations with a foreign nation can request a license from them to produce the foreign equipment. The equipment type a nation is willing to license out is dependent on their relations. Germany, for example, may not be willing to license out their latest tank or fighter designs, but would be happy to provide Panzer IIs to friendly or neutral nations. National focuses may also provide a way to gain licenses or provide bonuses to license production.

Producing licensed equipment will not be quite as efficient as producing the player's own designs. A cutting edge license production will have a noticeable output penalty, but a design a few years old will be almost as efficient to produce as a self-owned technology. If you aren't in the same faction as the owner of the design, you will also receive a little bit less technical support and manufacturing assistance.