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chrome devtools revolutions 2013 - html5 rocks

As the complexity and functionality of web applications has grown, so has Chrome DevTools. In this recap of Paul Irish's Google I/O 2013 talk Chrome DevTools Revolutions 2013, you get a look at the latest features that are revolutionizing how you build and test web applications.

Remotely debugging pages on Chrome for Android has been possible for a while, but the ADB extension makes connecting to Android devices simpler. Reverse port forwarding lets you easily connect to localhost on your development machine from your device.

Performance is always a concern in web applications, and DevTools has a number of new features to help you track down bottlenecks, including the new Flame Chart visualization for CPU profiling and several new tools for debugging performance problems related to rendering and memory use.

Workspaces let you map resources served from a local web server to files on disk, so you can edit any type of source file within the Sources panel and have those changes persist to disk. Similarly, changes you make in your external editor immediately appear in the Sources panel.

The screenshot below shows an example of workspaces in action. The Calendar site has been loaded over localhost, while the Sources panel shows the local file system view of the site's root folder. Edits you make to the files in this folder are persisted to disk. In the screenshot below, some unsaved changes have been made to Calendar.css, so an asterisk is placed next to the file name.

Only styles defined in an external CSS file can be changed. Changes to element.style or to inline styles are not persisted back to disk. If you have inline styles, they can be changed on the Sources panel.

Sass (CSS Source Map) debugging lets you live-edit Sass (.scss) files in the Sources panel, and view the results without having to leave DevTools or refresh the page. When you inspect an element whose styles are provided by a Sass-generated CSS file, the Elements panel displays a link to the .scss file, not the generated .css file.

For each SCSS source file it processes, the Sass compiler generates a source map file (.map file) in addition to the compiled CSS. The source map file is a JSON file that defines the mappings between the .scss file and the .css files. Each CSS file contains an annotation that specifies the URL of its source map file, embedded in a special comment:

Installing extensions from the Chrome Web Store isn't supported on Windows 8. If you have any problems installing from the Chrome Web Store, see Remote Debugging on Android for alternate installation instructions.

If you don't see any connected devices, check that your device is connected to USB, and that USB debugging is enabled in the Chrome for Android settings. For more detailed instructions and troubleshooting steps, see Remote Debugging on Android.

Commonly you have a web server running on your local development machine, and you want to connect to that site from your device. If the development machine and the device are on the same network, this is straightforward. But in some cases, like on restricted corporate networks, this may not be possible without some clever DNS tricks. A new feature in Chrome for Android called reverse port forwarding makes this simple to do. It works by creating a listening TCP port on your device that forwards traffic over USB to a particular TCP port on your development machine.

To use reverse port forwarding, you need to have your device connected for remote debugging, as described in Using the ADB extension. Then you need to enable reverse port forwarding and add a port forwarding rule for your application.

The horizontal axis is time and vertical axis is the call stack. Across the top of the panel an overview that shows the entire recording, and you can "zoom in" on a region of the overview by selecting it with your mouse, as shown below. The details view timescale shrinks accordingly.

In the details view a call stack is represented as a stack of function "blocks". A block that sits atop another was called by the lower function block. Hovering over a given block displays its function name and timing data:

Normally, Chrome only paints to the screen in response to a layout or style change, and only those regions of the screen that need updating. When you enable continuous page repainting, the entire screen is being constantly repainted. A heads-up display shows the time it's taking Chrome to paint the page, as well the range of times, and a graph showing the distribution of recent paint times. The horizontal line across the histogram indicates the 16.6 ms mark.

The benefit to using this is that you can walk the DOM tree in the Elements panel and hide individual elements (press the H key to hide the currently selected element), or disable an element's CSS styles. You can see how much time one element or style adds to the page render "weight", if any, by noticing changes to the page paint time. If hiding a single element brings the paint times down significantly, you know to focus on the styling or construction of that element.

Another option in DevTools is to show what rectangular regions of the display are being painted to. (Settings > Rendering > Show paint rectangles). For example, in the screenshot below a paint rectangle is being drawn over the region where a CSS hover effect was being applied to the purple graphic. This is good, since it's relatively small part of the screen.

You want to avoid design and development practices that cause the entire display to be repainted. For example, in the following screenshot the user is scrolling the page. One paint rectangle surrounds the scroll bar, and another surrounds the entire rest of the page. In this case the culprit is the background image on the body element. The image position is set to fixed in CSS, which requires Chrome to repaint the entire page on each scroll.

To maximize rendering performance, Chrome normally batches layout changes requested by your application and schedules a layout pass to asynchronously calculate and render the requested changes. However, if an application asks for the value of a layout-dependent property (such offsetHeight or offsetWidth), Chrome is forced to immediately and synchronously perform a page layout. These so-called forced synchronous layouts can significantly reduce rendering performance, especially when performed repeatedly on large DOM trees. This scenario has also been called "layout thrashing".

A Timeline recording alerts you when it detects a forced synchronous layout with a yellow warning icon () next to the corresponding Timeline record. Hovering over one of these records displays stack traces for the code that invalidated the layout, and the code that forced the layout.

Object allocation tracking is a new type of memory profile that shows allocation over time. When you start allocation tracking, DevTools takes heap snapshots continuously over time. The heap allocation profile shows where objects are being created and identifies the retaining path.

Finally, here's a completely experimental feature to explore. Canvas profiling lets you record and playback WebGL calls made on a canvas element. You can step through individual WebGL calls or call groups and see the rendered results. You also see the time it took to replay those particular calls.

Except as otherwise noted, the content of this page is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License, and code samples are licensed under the Apache 2.0 License.

77 css animation examples

David Khourshid and Stephen Shaw celebrate the new year with this fun 2020 animation using hand-drawn SVG paths while showing how to simplify stroke-dasharray/stroke-dashoffset animations with pathLength=1.

Recently was involved in a project where we had to do animations. We used After Effects > JSON > some plugin magic for it but I was wondering if I could replicate the exact same effect with CSS. - Olivia

Based on this - https://dribbble.com/shots/2802024-Satellite-Website-Prototype. Based on addition of just 2 classes with JS (and simple hover) this demo features a lot of cool chaining animations, combined with good performance and sort-of easy-to-maintain SCSS.

web design | 8000+ web designs 2021

Website design is a visual design of the site, pictures, photos, graphics, fonts, and colors that make up the site. It includes the UX user experience and web development that we see when we open the site, the UX design navigation system of the site, the content project resource, that is, taking into account its web development with web content management system of the site and social media instruments. Here we should take into account interaction design, which is the process that aims to create attractive web pages using motion graphics for web users with a logical and elaborate pattern of behavior and action. It is a design and development methodology that is not limited to a clear start or stop. Instead, it is a cyclical web design method that involves prototyping, planning, implementing, testing, and then repeating this process. Based on the results of the tests, changes are made to prepare the design (sometimes with video production) for the target audience that best suits the site visitors. So if you're unsure whether front-end development (HTML and CSS and so on) design is suitable for you, ready-made templates are for you. There are many tools for web designers to create a custom layout, no matter how complex the design has to be. Social media advertising and digital marketing become also important for a web designer. Contact us today, for example, give us a call for more detailed information.

If you're designing websites and you don't have the design experience, there is much software that you can download from a web browser and use to design responsive websites with modern content management systems. For example, Google's web designer maintains a wide range of formats for screen and visual ads on its online digital marketing services with dc content marketing (content marketing is aimed at attracting the target audience and building trusting relationships), internet marketing, and web marketing and tell us about how to create modern websites and their design elements. Design web design can be divided into four stages. During the design process, web designers like graphic designers often establish the ideological basis and agree on the development direction with the client. The development of the idea and visual concepts gives feedback on whether you have a unified vision of the project (whether this is the web site you want) and the development and design team. Make sure that the resulting concept accurately answers whether it is the best solution to the challenges at hand. The second step is to design high-quality structures. Loyalty depends to a large extent on the design of the graphical interface of the new website being consistent with the visual hierarchy, which not only looks nice but is functional. A good website design will have growing website traffic and ensure user flows.

It is necessary to establish such an order of site pages and essential design components, like design tips, screen size, search engine optimization (SEO), grid, web apps, buttons, a bottom line which reference users how to find useful information what they were searching, web forms, opening a new page, typography, animation, and other visual design elements with web design and web development editors, tools for a web designer, digital marketing agency services) concerning each other so that this structure is intuitively understandable to users. A creative web design page provides an enjoyable and straightforward human-machine interaction experience. Also, don't forget to post your privacy policy terms of service on your landing page is a great way to get it noticed. Building a premium design of a website is a business's offerings. It requires the seamless combination of several disciplinary areas, such as architecture, graphic design may with and development, and user interface design. Responsive design refers to an attitude that suggests that design and construction should match user behavior and the context, based on screen sizes and formats, locations, and focuses. Users can express their opinions and provide their email address before they write a comment about your website interaction design.

Web designers with web developers follow web standards and trends and trying to change important elements of websites and give them a modern web page outlook. Design trends have touched mobile gadgets, as the user research shows. It is crucial to keep in mind that the most popular social media apps are now top-rated among mobile apps. It is now prevalent to see social media storytelling that persuades the reader to buy some product or service by referring to a story about how it helped the author. In 2021, 2D technology, step by step, is giving way to 3D, a technique that could refresh a product design concept, making it modern and very interesting. Many articles have been written about color theory, color palettes, and their significance. Nowadays, the vivid colors of the web designer are trendy. There are many HyperText markup language (HTML) and CSS templates on various themes for websites. Web page design we call functional design when the web designing is user-friendly for the site's users, and the user gets the best practices from the interaction with the site. Responsive design is becoming more and more popular and you can make users use your website on different devices. Today, content marketing with effective web design and marketing services plays a very important role. With content marketing, your search engine rankings go up.

Nielsen Norman Group from the united states, which specializes in user interface analysis, has published the second edition of its "How People Read the Web" study nearly 15 years after the first. It will help evaluate the visual design and study more accurately your experience and user experience ( also such indicator as return on investment (ROI)) on the Internet, the company expects.

To learn graphic and development web design, you need to develop web different aspects of design and web design skills (like visual perception), and you have to know the design principles and don't need to know how to use code in coding language. You have to deal with navigation options, search box, email address blank, font, etc., and understand how they interact with each other. If you want a career in the web career in web page design, you have to follow the design manual. To become a web designer and be an expert in graphic design and digital marketing even if you dont know basic things, do not be scared. The difference between services offered by the web design team and development services is not very big, because all elements, like social media, digital marketing, etc. are related to each other.

Like some web designers, who create best practices for website design to improve possible user experience, you can use them for user modern design interaction. To design modern UX design without HTML and CSS design tools, or becoming a web designer and web developer, you need only diligence and minimal knowledge of web graphic design. To design a website with search engines optimization, beautiful user interface, responsive design which only looks good, use web design online tools, but also do not forget about color theory and typography. There's no need to learn HTML, JavaScript, or CSS (cascading style sheets) design (you are not a web developer) if you know the main principles. Web design and development services with content marketing services are the necessary resources that are important to create a modern attractive site. Marketing services help to increase your website traffic.

But, there are many phrases like markup language, visual feedback, information architecture, cognitive load, design patterns, iterative process, image credit, and others that you've to know, at least in theory. You can learn the basics and rules from the book design guidelines. The min read is the ultimate guide in this field. It will give you the foundation, but in various cases, the decision is up to you what youre designing. To avoid a poor user experience and bad reviews about the website only make sure that the site has a nice interface design with search engine optimization, motion graphics, digital marketing tools, and other most important elements. You do not need to do research about UX design or accumulate a large web design experience or do user research for interaction design, all it takes is a desire.

20+ free html resume templates 2021

If you are looking for some great HTML Resume Templates, then you have come to the right place. We have put together a list of 20+ free HTML resume templates to help you out. The list contains a diverse collection of designs so you can have the opportunity to showcase not only your qualifications but also your personality.

The template is designed using the popular Bootstrap Framework and is 100% responsive & retina ready. Powered by both JQuery and Ajax, it also ensures a robust user experience. As for you, there is a powerful admin panel bundled in to help manage and customize your template. Needless to say, you will get access to all the necessary pages to showcase your portfolio, experience, clients, testimonials, and so on.

The Draco HTML resume template would perfectly suit modern writers and online journalists. The design mimics a layout popular with contemporary, minimal magazine design styles. It uses a black and white color scheme, which also leads to better readability. There are also dedicated pages to help you display personal information, experience, achievements, and skills.

Editable Resume TemplateIf you are looking for a more traditional take on your resume, then you can give this one a try. The design is minimalistic and straightforward, divided into two columns. The left-hand sidebar contains contact details, skills, and references, whereas you can populate the main area with all relevant information the recruiter is looking.

C Resume delivers a colorful yet minimal resume template with a professional and modern appeal. It is designed on top of the Bootstrap framework making it completely responsive and mobile-friendly. You will also get access to added immersive features like smooth scrolling, seamless transition effects, and hover effects to provide better UI and UX.

Another Bootstrap CV/resume template, Kelly, comes with a clean mobile-friendly design. It is super flexible and can be easily customized to make it more personal. In terms of design and appearance, it is super clean and minimal with a focus on readability. It is perfect for any high profile corporate professionals to showcase their work experience, skills, and achievements to prospecting clients.

Another awesome resume template built using Bootstrap 4. Super clean and simple, the template is designed with minimalism at its core. You get the classic two-column layout, with one column used as a sidebar consisting of links to all the different pages experience, education, skills, interests, and awards. The template also has a lot of white spaces, which helps improve readability, ensuring recruiters get a bright look at all your credentials.

If you are a creative professional, then this is an excellent resume template worth consideration. Another black and white design style, the design focuses on simplicity and minimalism with a lot of white spaces. Also, being built on top of the Bootstrap framework, it is highly customizable and completely responsive. Besides all these, the template also bundles in a Carousel, which you can use to showcase and highlight featured aspects about your career.

Kelvin is built using the Bootstrap Framework and boasts a professional and modern looking one-page design. It is another great template for creative professionals looking to highlight their skills and portfolio on the market. It is meticulously detailed that will surely resonate with your experience and dedication in your craft. Some notable features include button-based navigations, smooth scrolling, Ajax powered contact forms, and so on.

Here we have another well designed professional looking resume template following a modern and minimalistic design language. It uses plenty of whitespaces to put your content in the spotlight. Furthermore, the one-page design makes sure that a prospecting client gets to see every bit of information you intended them to see. Button based navigation is also provided so visitors can quickly jump between different sections.

Designed using Bootstrap 4 and the Now UI Kit, Creative CV boasts a polished modern look with stylish design elements. However, the overall layout is inspired by the popular minimal design language using a lot of whitespaces and elevated UI elements to help highlight your credentials and work experience. On top of that, the one-page layout ensures that visitors will not face any navigation issues.

Now, if you are a fan of one-page design styles paired with a two-column layout, then this is an excellent resume template for your consideration. Designed with the Bootstrap framework, this template is completely responsive and mobile-friendly. Not only that, but it is super flexible and customizable, allowing you to personalize the look and feel according to your needs easily. Button based navigation is also bundled in so that visitors can easily jump to different sections.

Osahan is yet another one page two column CV template inspired by the modern, minimal design language. The lefthand sidebar is basically the site menu and consists of navigation buttons to help visitors easily browse through the resume. Each section also has dedicated tabs and buttons to provide additional information. A carousel is also provided to slide through various testimonials from your clients to add a little bit of social proof.

The Resume template coming from Colorib is particularly designed for creative professionals looking to showcase their work and expertise through an online CV. It is perfect for freelancers and job seekers looking to woo their prospecting clients with unique welcome banners, skill bars, and a dedicated qualifications section. All details can be conveniently structured in its one-page layout; however, you can still have separate pages to contain additional information.

Here is an excellent resume template for professionals not interested in something flashy and just want their employers to focus on their skills and achievements. As such, it is very much inspired by the minimal design style and uses a lot of white spaces and block UI elements to highlight your unique skills and what you bring to the table.

Personal is a unique and colorful resume template, perfect if your industry favors bold characters. It is designed using the Bootstrap framework, which not only makes it fully responsive but also aids in customizability, which helps you to make the design even more personal. The template boasts the classic two-column design where the left-hand sidebar acts as the menu with navigation buttons to jump between the different sections.

Eric is an excellent resume template designed using the Bootstrap Framework and SASS. It comes in three different versions to choose from, which are various color schemes for the same layout. The template also boasts Ajax powered contact forms to deliver a better user experience. Other notable features include a responsive design, one-page layout, unique navigation options, and a bunch of different sections to populate with your skills and expertise.

If you are looking for a simple, straightforward resume template to post online, then this one is a good bet. Its a single page, short and crisp resume design divided into two columns. The left side shorter column contains your picture, contact details, social media handles, references, and other personal information. The main column showcases all other details, including an about me section and a direct link for interested clients to get in touch.

WebRes is a modern looking resume template designed for creative professionals. Its unique layout welcomes visitors with a colorful yet minimal, one-page plan. The sticky menu at the header consists of navigation buttons to help jump between different sections. By default, you get access to multiple areas to highlight your experience, personal information, portfolio, testimonials, contact details, and the services you provide. All of this can be easily customized to fit your needs.

Another clean and simple resume template with two different layout options boxed and full-width and eight color themes. Design-wise, it is super minimal without many design elements to ensure the visitors attention is always on your skills and experience. With that being said, there are some awesome UX enhancing features, including amazing CSS3 and SVG animations, 20 custom backgrounds, fancy custom forms, and much more.

Classic Cv is another HTML resume template that is ideal if you are looking for simplicity. It boasts a clean and minimal design style without any extra flash or flair. It seems like a regular CV but built using Bootstrap. In terms of personalization, you get access to multiple header styles, color schemes, and around 30 body backgrounds. Two different contact forms are also provided with validators to prevent spam.

The HTML resume template is crafted using the Bootstrap Framework to create a clean and minimal one-page layout to showcase your skills, experience, education, and personal information. The header contains a sticky menu with navigation buttons to quickly jump between the different sections. You also get a dedicated Hire Me button, which recruiters can use to get in touch.

25+ best collection of css tutorial websites css author

CSS is not complicated to learn, you have to learn the CSS syntax well before you deep Digg. CSS is set of rules to style an HTML website, CSS control the look and feel of a site. Many properties and values are there in CSS you need to learn each of them well.

Today in this post we have gathered a great list of websites to help you learn and master in CSS. These websites have the best possible details of each every aspect of CSS. It will take quite a bit to learn all these elements, but you will not be disappointed once you learn this.

100+ best free bootstrap 4 templates 2021 css author

Before we scroll let me explain to you what is bootstrap? Bootstrap is a front-end framework developed by Twitter. That means that when we creating websites, we can make use of a batch of cool pre build features. A grid system for building responsive layouts. UI elements such as popups and buttons. Reusable classes to style our content and many other things also.

Developers have already started using bootstrap 4 and is much Better than the previous versions. We have already found some great web templates and dashboards build upon bootstrap 4. We thought this might help you too.

Data analytics is the hot topic right now. for successful business analyzing data is an important factor. Dashboards and admin panels are the visual representation of these data. it helps easily understand and study the data. Building dashboards cost you a lot of money and time. This is the kind of situations when tools like bootstrap frameworks come into play. Bootstrap 4 built as a complete all-in-one admin and dashboard solution.

Using bootstrap 4 admin template cut down your development cost a lot. in this section, you can find some clean and customizable free bootstrap templates. Here You can Download the best free bootstrap admin template developed. All these free bootstrap themes are capable of visualizing data about your business.

50+ best free responsive tumblr themes 2021 css author

Themes are the backbone of personalization in the tumblr. Tumblr themes are essentially HTML based themes which we can edit quite easily. We have found that there are many serious tumbler bloggers out there and some of the blogs look fantastic. Tumblr themes can be easily customized for whatever your need. That might be the reason behind its immense success.

Tumblr blogs are easy to manage and maintain. You can alter the entire layout by changing the theme. There is a whole batch of themes are available for Tumblr. You have to be picky if you are serious about blogging. The main thing is the update frequency of themes, neat and clean coding, responsiveness etc.

As you might have noticed, I recently wrote about how I got started with CSS a quarter century ago, what Ive seen change over that long span of time, and the role testing has played in both of those things.

After all, CSS tests are most of how I got onto the Cascading Style Sheets & Formatting Properties Working Group (as it was known then) back in the late 1990s. After Id finished creating tests for nearly all of CSS, I wrote the chair of the CSS&FP WG, Chris Lilley, about it. The conversation went something like, Hey, I have all these tests Ive created, would the WG or browser makers be at all interested in using them? To which the answer was a resounding yes.

Not too much later, I made some pithy-snarky comment on www-style about how only the Cool Kids on the WG knew what was going on with something or other, and I wasnt one of them, pout pout. At which point Chris emailed me to say something like, We have this role called Invited Expert; how would you like to be one? To which the answer was a resounding (if slightly stunned) yes.

I came aboard with a lot of things in mind, but the main thing was to merge my test suite with some other tests and input from smart folks to create the very first official W3C test suite. Of any kind, not just for CSS. It was announced alongside the promotion of CSS2 to Recommendation status in December 1998.

I stayed an Invited Expert for a few years, but around 2003 I withdrew from the group for lack of time and input, and for the last 17-some years, thats how its stayed. Until now, that is: as of yesterday, Ive rejoined the CSS Working Group, this time as an official Member, one of several representing Igalia. And fittingly, Chris Lilley was the first to welcome me back.

Im returning to take back up the mantle I carried the first time around: testing CSS. I intend to focus on creating Web Platform Test entries demonstrating new CSS features, clarifying changes to existing specifications, and filling in areas of CSS that are under-tested. Maybe even to draft tests for things the WG is debating, to explore what a given proposal would mean in terms of real-world rendering.

My thanks to Igalia for enabling my return to the CSS WG, as well as supporting my contributions yet to come. And many thanks to the WG for a warm welcome. I have every hope that Ill be able to once more help CSS grow and improve in my own vaguely unique way.

She would have become a teenager this morning, but she didnt. She would have had her bat mitzvah ceremony this past weekend, as her best friend in the world actually did, but she didnt. So many more nevers.

I find myself not wanting to talk about it at all, and also wanting to talk about it all the time. This hole, this void, this screaming silent tear in the world that so many can feel but nobody outside that circle can see. How do I make someone who didnt know her understand? Why would I bring it up with someone who already knows? Where can I go to fill it, to make things complete?

After my post the other day about how I got started with CSS 25 years ago, I found myself reflecting on just how far CSS itself has come over all those years. We went from a multi-year agony of incompatible layout models to the tipping point of April 2017, when four major Grid implementations shipped in as many weeks, and were very nearly 100% consistent with each other. I expressed delight and astonishment at the time, but it still, to this day, amazes me. Because thats not what it was like when I started out. At all.

I know its still fashionable to complain about how CSS is all janky and weird and unapproachable, but child, the wrinkles of today are a sunny park stroll compared to the jagged icebound cliff we faced at the dawn of CSS. Just a few examples, from waaaaay back in the day:

I could go on. I didnt even touch on Operas bugs, for example. There was just so much that was wrong. Enough so that in a fantastic bit of code aikido, Tantek turned browsersparsing bugs against them, redirecting those failures into ways to conditionally deliver specific CSS rules to the browsers that needed them. A non-JS, non-DOCTYPE form of browser sniffing, if you likeone of the earliest progenitors of feature queries.

I said DOCTYPE switching saved CSS, and thats true, but its not the whole truth. So did the Web Standards Project, WaSP for short. A group of volunteers, sick of the chaotic landscape of browser incompatibilities (some intentional) and the extra time and cost of dealing with them, who made the case to developers, browser makers, and the tech press that there was a better way, one where browsers were compatible on the basics like W3C specifications, and could compete on other features. It was a long, wearying, sometimes frustrating, often derided campaign, but it worked.

The state of the web today, with its vast capability and wide compatibility, owes a great deal to the WaSP and its allies within browser teams. I remember the time that someone working on a browserI wont say which one, or who it wascalled me to discuss the way the WaSP was treating their browser. I want you to be tougher on us,they said, surprising the hell out of me. If we can point to outside groups taking us to task for falling short, we can make the case internally to get more resources. That was when I fully grasped that corporations arent monoliths, and formulated my version of Hanlons Razor: Never ascribe to malice that which is adequately explained by resource constraints.

In order to back up what we said when we took browsers to task, we needed test cases. This not only gave the CSS1 Test Suite a place of importance, but also the tests the WaSPs CSS Action Committee (aka the CSS Samurai) devised. The most famous of these is the first CSS Acid Test, which was added to the CSS1 Test Suite and was even used as an Easter egg in Internet Explorer 5 for Macintosh.

The need for testing, whether acid or basic, lives on in the Web Platform Tests, or WPT for short. These tests form a vital link in the development of the web. They allow specification authors to create reference results for the rules in those specifications, and they allow browser makers to see if the code theyre writing yields the correct results. Sometimes, an implementation fails a test and the implementor cant figure out why, which leads to a discussion with the authors of the specification, and that can lead to clarifications of the specification, or to fixing flawed tests, or even to both. Realize just how harmonious browser support for HTML and CSS is these days, and know that WPT deserves a big part of the credit for that harmony.

As much as the Web Standards Project set us on the right path, the Web Platform Tests keep us on that path. And I cant lie, I feel like the WPT is to the CSS1 Test Suite much like feature queries are to those old CSS parser hacks. The latter are much greater and more powerful than than the former, but theres an evolutionary line that connects them. Forerunners and inheritors. Ancestors and descendants.

Its been a real privilege to be present as CSS first emerged, to watch as its developed into the powerhouse it is today, and to be a part of that storya story that is, I believe, far from over. There are still many ways for CSS to develop, and still so many things we have yet to discover in its feature set. Its still an entrancing language, and I hope I get to be entranced for another 25 years.

It was the morning of Tuesday, May 7th and I was sitting in the Ambroisie conference room of the CNIT in Paris, France having my mind repeatedly blown by an up-and-coming web technology called Cascading Style Sheets, 25 years ago this month.

Id been the Webmaster at Case Western Reserve University for just over two years at that point, and although I was aware of table-driven layout, Id resisted using it for the main campus site. All those table tags just felt wrong. Icky. And yet, I could readily see how not using tables hampered my layout options. Id been holding out for something better, but increasingly unsure how much longer I could wait.

Having successfully talked the university into paying my way to Paris to attend WWW5, partly by having a paper accepted for presentation, I was now sitting in the W3C track of the conference, seeing examples of CSS working in a browser, and it just felt right. When I saw a single word turned a rich blue and 100-point size with just a single element and a few simple rules, I was utterly hooked. I still remember the buzzing tingle of excitement that encircled my head as I felt like I was seeing a real shift in the webs power, a major leap forward, and exactly what Id been holding out for.

Looking back at my hand-written notes (laptops were heavy, bulky, battery-poor, and expensive in those days, so I didnt bother taking one with me) from the conference, which I still have, I find a lot that interests me. HTTP 1.1 and HTML 3.2 were announced, or at least explained in detail, at that conference. I took several notes on the brand-new element and wrote CENTER is in!, which I think was an expression of excitement. Ah, to be so young and foolish again.

There are other tidbits: a claim that standards will trail innovationsomething that I feel has really only happened in the past decade or soand that Math has moved to ActiveMath, the latter of which is a term I freely admit I not only forgot, but still cant recall in any way whatsoever.

But I did record that CSS had about 35 properties, and that you could associate it with markup using , , or

. Theres a questionGradient backgrounds?that I cant remember any longer if it was a note to myself to check later, or something that was floated as a possibility during the talk. I did take notes on image backgrounds, text spacing, indents (which I managed to misspell), and more.

What I didnt know at the time was that CSS was still largely vaporware. Implementations were coming, sure, but the demos Id seen were very narrowly chosen and browser support was minimal at best, not to mention wildly inconsistent. I didnt discover any of this until I got back home and started experimenting with the language. With a printed copy of the CSS1 specification next to me, I kept trying things that seemed like they should work, and they didnt. It didnt matter if I was using the market-dominating behemoth that was Netscape Navigator or the scrappy, fringe-niche new kid Internet Explorer: very little seemed to line up with the specification, and almost nothing worked consistently across the browsers.

So I started creating little test pages, tackling a single property on each page with one test per value (or value type), each just a simple assertion of what should be rendered along with a copy of the CSS used on the page. Over time, my completionist streak drove me to expand this smattering of tests to cover everything in CSS1, and the perfectionist in me put in the effort to make it easy to navigate. That way, when a new browser version came out, I could run it through the whole suite of tests and see what had changed and make note of it.

Eventually, those tests became the CSS1 Test Suite, and the way it looks today is pretty much how I built it. Some tests were expanded, revised, and added, plus it eventually all got poured into a basic test harness that I think someone else wrote, but most of the testsand the overall visual designwere my work, color-blindness insensitivity and all. Those tests are basically what got me into the Working Group as an Invited Expert, way back in the day.

Before that happened, though, with all those tests in hand, I was able to compile CSS browser support information into a big color-coded table, which I published on the CWRU web site (remember, I was Webmaster) and made freely available to all. The support data was stored in a large FileMaker Pro database, with custom dropdown fields to enter the Y/N/P/B values and lots of fields for me to enter template fragments so that I could export to HTML. That support chart eventually migrated to the late Web Review, where it came to be known as the Mastergrid, a term I find funny in retrospect because grid layout was still two decades in the future, and anyway, it was just a large and heavily styled data table. Because I wasnt against tables for tabular data. I just didnt like the idea of using them solely for layout purposes.

You can see one of the later versions of Mastergrid in the Wayback Machine, with its heavily classed and yet still endearingly clumsy markup. My work maintaining the Mastergrid, and articles I wrote for Web Review, led to my first book for OReilly (currently in its fourth edition), which led to my being asked to write other books and speak at conferences, which led to my deciding to co-found a conferenceand a number of other things besides.

And it all kicked off 25 years ago this month in a conference room in Paris, May 7th, 1996. What a journey its been. I wonder now, in the latter half of my life, what CSSwhat the web itselfwill look like in another 25 years.

Thanks to the long and winding history of my blog, I write posts in Markdown in BBEdit, export them to HTML, and paste the resulting HTML into WordPress. I do it that way because switching WordPress over to auto-parsing Markdown in posts causes problems with rendering the markup of some posts I wrote 15-20 years ago, and finding and fixing every instance is a lengthy project for which I do not have the time right now.

(And I dont use the block editor because whenever I use it to edit an old post, the markup in those posts get mangled so much that it makes me want to hurl. This is as much the fault of my weird idiosyncratic bespoke-ancient setup as of WordPress itself, but its still super annoying and so I avoid it entirely.)

Anyway, the point here is that I write Markdown in BBEdit, and export it from there. This works okay, but there have always been things missing, like a way to easily add attributes to elements like my code blocks. BBEdits default Markdown exporter, CommonMark, sort of supports that, except it doesnt appear to give me control over the class names: telling it I want a class value of css on a preformatted block means I get a class value of language-css instead. Also it drops that class value on the code element it inserts into the pre element, instead of attaching it directly to the pre element. Not good, unless I start using Prism, which I may one day but am not yet.

Pandoc, another exporter you can use in BBEdit, offers much more robust and yet simple element attribute attachment: you put {.class #id} or whatever at the beginning of any element, and you get those things attached directly to the element. But by default, it also wraps elements around, and adds attributes to, the pre element, apparently in anticipation of some other kind of syntax highlighting.

I spent an hour reading the Pandoc man page (just kidding, I was actually skimming, thats the only way I could possibly get through all that in an hour) and found the --no-highlight option. Perfect! So I dropped into Preferences > Languages > Language-specific settings:Markdown > Markdown, set the Markdown processor dropdown to Custom, and filled in the following:

Done and done. I get a more powerful flavor of Markdown in an editor I know and love. Its not perfectI still have to manually tweak table markup by hand, for examplebut its covering probably 95% of my use cases for writing blog posts.

A sizeable chunk of my work at Igalia so far involves editing and updating the Mozilla Developer Network (MDN), and a smaller chunk has me working on the Web Platform Tests (WPT). In both cases, the content is stored in large public repositories (MDN, WPT) and contributors are encouraged to fork the repositories, clone them locally, and push updates via the fork as PRs (Pull Requests). And while both repositories roll in localhost web server setups so you can preview your edits locally, each has its own.

As useful as these are, if you ignore the whole auto-force a browser page reload every time the file is modified in any way whatsoever thing that Ive been trying very hard to keep from discouraging me from saving often, each has to be started in its own way, from within their respective repository directories, and its generally a lot more convenient to do so in a separate Terminal window.

I was getting tired of constantly opening a new Terminal window, cding into the correct place, remembering the exact invocation needed to launch the local server, and on and on, so I decided to make my life slightly easier with a few short scripts and aliases. Maybe this will be useful to you as well.

First, I decided to keep things relatively simple. Instead of writing a small program that would handle all server startups by parsing shell arguments and what have you, I wrote a couple of very similar shell scripts. Heres the script for launching MDNs localhost:

Thus, when I type mdn-server in any command prompt, a new Terminal window will open and the shell script mdn-start.bsh will be run; the script switches into the needed directory and launches the localhost server using yarn, as per the MDN instructions. Whats more, when Im done working on MDN, I can switch to the window running the server, stop the server with C (control-C), and the Terminal window closes automatically.

As I mentioned before, I chose to do it this way rather than writing a single alias (say, local-server) that would accept arguments (mdn, wpt, etc.) and fire off scripts accordingly, but thats also an option and a viable one at that.

Today marks one month at Igalia. Its been a lot, and theres more to come, but its been a really great experience. I get to do things I really enjoy and value, and Igalia supports and encourages all of it without trying to steer me in specific directions. Ive been incredibly lucky to experience that kind of working environment twice in my lifeand the other one was an outfit I helped create.

That last one will be an entirely new area for me, as Ive never really worked with an embedded-device browser before. WPEWebKit is a WebKit port, actually the official WebKit port for embedded devices, and as such is aggressively tuned for performance and low resource demand. Im really looking forward to not only seeing what its like to use it, but also how I might be able to leverage it into some interesting projects.

WPEWebKit is one of the reasons why Igalia is such a big contributor to WebKit, helping drive its standards support forward and raise its interoperability with other browser engines. Theres a thread of self-interest there: a better WebKit means a better WPEWebKit, which means more capable embedded devices for Igalias clients. But after a month on the inside, I feel comfortable saying most of Igalias commitment to interoperability is philosophical in naturethey truly believe that more consistency and capability in web browsers benefits everyone. As in, THIS IS FOR EVERYONE.

And to go along with that, more knowledge and awareness is seen as an unvarnished good, which is why theyre having me working on MDN content. To that end, Im putting out an invitation here and now: if you come across a page on MDN about CSS or HTML that confuses you, or seems inaccurate, or just doesnt have much information at all, please get in touch to let me know, particularly if you are not a native English speaker.

I cant offer translation services, unfortunately, but I can do my best to make the English content of MDN as clear as possible. Sometimes, what makes sense to a native English speaker is obscure or unclear to others. So while this offer is open to everyone, dont hold back if youre struggling to parse the English. Its more likely the English is unclear and imprecise, and Id like to erase that barrier if I can.

The best way to submit a report is to send me email with [MDN] and the URL of the page youre writing about in the subject line. If youre writing about a collection of pages, put the URLs into the email body rather than the subject line, but please keep the [MDN] in the subject so I can track it more easily. You can also ping me on Twitter, though Ill probably ask you to email me so I dont lose track of the report. Just FYI.

The first week on the job at Igalia was it was good, yall. Upon formally joining the Support Team, got myself oriented, built a series of tests-slash-demos that will be making their way into some forthcoming posts and videos, and forked a copy of the Mozilla Developer Network (MDN) so I can start making edits and pushing them to the public site. In fact, the first of those edits landed Sunday night! And there was the usual setting up accounts and figuring out internal processes and all that stuff.

To be perfectly honest, a lot of my first-week momentum was provided by the rest of the Support Team, and setting expectations during the interview process. You see, at one point in the past I had a position like this, and I had problems meeting expectations. This was partly due to my inexperience working in that sort of setting, but also partly due to a lack of clear communication about expectations. Which I know because I thought I was doing well in meeting them, and then was told otherwise in evaluations.

So when I was first talking with the folks at Igalia, I shared that experience. Even though I knew Igalia has a different approach to management and evaluation, I told them repeatedly, If I take this job, I want you to point me in a direction. Theyve done exactly that, and its been great. Special thanks to Brian Kardell in this regard.

Im already looking forward to what were going to do with the demos I built and am still refining, and to making more MDN edits, including some upgrades to code examples. And Ill have more to say about MDN editing soon. Stay tuned!

html email templates getting started guide

Coding an HTML email isn't much different than coding a website was back in the late '90s. The same design tools are used to produce your final result. And the same general design principles are still in play: contrast, repetition, proximity, and alignment are all important. In this section, we'll go over some HTML email basics and introduce you to some Mailchimp-specific information to help you get started.

If youre new to email marketing, there are some basic principles and background information on HTML emails that every email designer and marketer should know. In this section, we'll go over some HTML email specifics so you can make sure your campaigns get delivered.

This is where the fun starts. Email is all about keeping your design simple and straightforward, and focusing on your message. In this section, we'll delve into the specifics of designing your email for desktop and web email clients, as well as mobile devices.

Time to get your hands dirty. While email development is an exercise in trial-and-error and a lesson in compromise, it's not *that* difficult once you understand the pitfalls. Here, we'll cover HTML, CSS, and various testing scenarios to help you build a rock-solid email.

Designing and coding HTML emails can be a daunting task, so we've compiled a list of resources to help you navigate the process as smoothly as possible. The tools in this section will help you create great emails and turn you into a lean, mean email machine.

build an html5 offline application with application cache, web storage and asp.net mvc

The modern web ecosystem is made up of many different types of scenarios of how users interact with online content. With the increasing popularity of mobile devices along with countless hours at Starbucks and on airplanes, users may often find themselves in a position of wanting to use web content while not being able to enjoy reliable and continual access to the Internet.

A website that is not configured to operate in a disconnected state is unavailable in any form if an Internet connection is not available. For instance, Figure 1 demonstrates the type of response you may encounter while trying to view http://msn.com while working without an Internet connection.

Fortunately offline web applications continue to work for users regardless of Internet connection status to the client. The availability is possible by the new HTML Offline Web Application API (http://www.whatwg.org/specs/web-apps/current-work/multipage/offline.html), also known as HTML Application Cache. An offline application is a packaged group of web pages, style sheets, and/or scripts files that are reliably available to the client whether or not a web connection is present.

Beyond simply serving pages to the user when an Internet connection is unavailable, often an offline application requires storage of users information. HTML Web Storage is able to store relatively large amounts of information on the client giving you the ability to save data locally and synchronize with the server as a connection to the web becomes available.

The example in this article uses the Application Cache and Web Storage APIs together to build an application that works offline to store user information and automatically synchronize with the server when available.

As stated above, an offline application is a packaged group of web pages, style sheets and/or scripts files that are saved on the users machine in the application cache. When a request for a file from the application is initiated, instead of requesting the file from the web server, the file is served from the application cache. In order to keep the application packaged and versioned correctly, a file called the application manifest maintains a master list of files in the application. When connected to the web, the manifest is checked for updates and any new versions of the applications files are downloaded in the background for the next visit to the page.

As with any new web technology, the question of browser support is often a determining factor for widespread use by web developers. The good news is that the latest versions of the mobile web browsers support offline applications along with some very early releases of many desktop browsers. Unfortunately, Internet Explorer support is not scheduled until the release of version 10. Table 1 details the browser support for offline applications for a wide array of desktop and mobile browsers.

There are a number of elements working in concert that enable an offline application to operate as intended. To get a quick understanding of the files, features and APIs involved in creating an offline application, review the different building blocks listed in Table 2. Each of the elements described in Table 2 play a crucial role in serving, enabling and maintaining offline applications.

The application manifest file acts as the master list of files for the offline application. The manifest is a simple text file that adheres to a few conventions as required by the Application Cache API. A typical manifest file may resemble the following example:

All files in the manifest are downloaded and stored in the application cache together. If a single file listed in the cache encounters a problem during transmission from the server to the client then an error is thrown and none of the files listed in the manifest are loaded into application cache. The all or nothing rule allows you to confidently rely on the existence of the applications files in the application cache if the manifest downloads without error.

This is a strict rule as you may not have whitespace, comments or any other information on the first line of the manifest. After leading with that term, then you have some flexibility as to how you craft the manifest file. The next section is the CACHE: section.

The CACHE: section includes the list of all HTML, CSS, images and scripts files that make up the application. Files listed in the CACHE section may include any files regularly found as a part of a web application. You may reference any application files in the manifest. In this context, application files include static HTML pages, CSS files, images and scripts as well as server processed pages or files. The manifest only cares about the resulting file as served to the browser.

The heading of CACHE: is optional. Any file listed in the manifest file that does not appear under any other section heading is assumed to be a file to load into the application cache. This flexibility may prove helpful if you choose to generate your manifest file programmatically. However, for consistency and clarity, consider using the CACHE: heading in order to make your manifest easily understandable.

This comment, however, serves a specific purpose. In the Understanding Application Cache Event Lifecycle section later in this article, youll learn how the manifest file is used as the only point of reference to trigger changes in the application. In other words, if you save an update to the text in an HTML file and fail to make a change to the application manifest, then that change is never sent to the client. You must make a change in the manifest file so the update events fire for the application cache, which triggers a re-download of all the applications files. Therefore, if you make a content change to an application file, you must have a mechanism for introducing change into the manifest file to prompt the client to re-download the contents of the manifest. A version comment works perfectly for this purpose.

Consider a page in the application that listed upcoming events as served from a database on the website. While this page is not accessible without an Internet connection, you want your users to see something other than an unable to connect error page (Figure 1) when they click on links to the Events page. The FALLBACK section maps server resources to alternatives available in the application cache.

The FALLBACK section creates a mapping of alternative pages to serve to the user if a request to the original file fails or the computer is working offline. Associations between actual paths on the website and the fallback replacement are made by listing the full relative path to each location separated by a space.

While there are no wild cards allowed in fallback mapping definitions, URL patterns are respected in the FALLBACK section. For instance, if this website included thousands of headshots for every individual listed on the site, then you would not want to add each headshot to the manifest file. Adding all these files would bloat the payload of the application to include images that the user may never use. Instead, the FALLBACK section examines the /images/headshots/ path and knows that any path that includes /images/headshots/ is a part of the FALLBACK pattern and is served the mapped offline resource instead.

The intent around the application manifest file is to define clear boundaries around the given application to ensure all the required resources are available on the client when there is no access to the Internet. While providing a cached option to the user is often possible, not all server resources are candidates for caching.

Search pages, dynamically constructed lists, user input forms and any other page that simply does not operate without the web server is not available for caching. The NETWORK section creates a whitelist of URLs that are excluded from control of the application cache.

This example lists the URL to the customer list page which is built from the database. Even though this URL is not listed in the CACHE section, without the entry in the NETWORK section, any requests for URL that are not cached are cancelled by the browser. Adding the path to the NETWORK officially excludes the given URL from the browsers control to maintain the application cache and directly sends all requests to the server.

While wildcards are not allowed in the NETWORK section, the asterisk character (*) will whitelist any URL that is not explicitly listed in the CACHE section of the manifest file. Using the asterisk would change your NETWORK section to:

You may configure your web server to serve all files with the .appcache extension with the right mime type and content encoding. Alternatively, you may choose to set the mime type and encoding on the server for individual files. The example in this article configures each file individually.

To reference a manifest file in an HTML page, you use the new manifest attribute of the html element to point to the manifest file. If your manifest is a static file you may reference the file with the established .appcache file extension convention:

The Application Cache API uses a well-defined event lifecycle in order to help keep track of the state and status of application files. When a page pointing to a manifest file is encountered for the first time, the browser checks the application manifest to determine which files must be downloaded and added into the application cache. As each file is served to the client, the downloading and progress events fire until the entire contents of the files listed in the manifest are successfully loaded into application cache.

Any subsequent requests to the host page trigger the checking event to the manifest file. If the computer is offline then the contents of the application cache are used. If a connection is present then the checking event is fired and the manifest is examined to see if any changes are present. If there are no changes to the manifest, then once again, the contents of the application cache are used to render the application. However, if the manifest is changed then the files listed in the manifest are downloaded once again and the process repeats. Table 3 lists in detail each application cache event and the context in which it fires.

HTTP (or browser) caching is the mechanism of saving a copy of a web page, image, script or style sheet to the browser cache when you visit a web page. This behavior is desirable and essential so web servers across the world are not inundated with unnecessary requests for files that are already present on a users machine. The files cached in the browser cache are often set to have relatively long (days, weeks and even sometimes longer) expiration dates in order to help improve the webs performance.

The purpose of the application cache isnt to save the server requests for performance reasons, but to make the applications files available even when working offline. The problem is these two caching mechanisms may collide, giving you unexpected results from your application.

Consider a page configured to be available offline, but is cached in the browser cache for 24 hours. If you push a change to your offline application, it would take a full day before you were able to see the change to the page. Therefore you often need to disable browser caching on files saved in the application manifest in order to facilitate accurate file synchronization.

While no server-side framework technologies are required to enable HTML offline applications, the example featured in this article uses ASP.NET MVC in order to render the HTML and manifest files with browser caching disabled on the individual files.

The approach of disabling caching on a file-by-file basis on the server is used here for two reasons. The reason to use the server is that the use of HTML META tags is ineffective. There are META tags that purportedly are able to halt browser caching, but unfortunately these tags are often ignored by modern web browsers and therefore the desired result is not consistent or reliable. The reason to configure the caching rules on a file-by-file basis is to make the sample code portable. Rather than requiring you to make a number of changes in IIS before running the associated sample application with this article, programmatic configuration makes the example portable and able to run without any necessary web server customizations.

Web Storage takes client-side data persistence to the next level beyond the traditional HTTP cookie. In the past, the only option available to web developers to save information on a users machine was to write a cookie. While cookies are sufficient in many cases, often developers required a persistence mechanism that offered a higher capacity and more structured API.

Whereas the contents of a cookie are transmitted with each HTTP request and response, data saved in Web Storage remains exclusively on the client. The "client-only nature of Web Storage data opens up the possibility to save much more information on the client than was ever possible before using HTTP cookies. While capacity limits may vary by browser and user settings, in general, Web Storage capacity is often approximately 5 MB on a users machine.

Web Storage is available under two different modes, local storage and session storage, as detailed in Table 4. While the scope and lifecycle of data stored in local vs. session storage varies, the API interface for accessing either type is exactly the same.

Consider a field sales staff that regularly interacts with potential and existing clients. During the sales process, the salespeople must keep notes about each customer and need a system to collect feedback.

You are tasked with implementing a web application to manage the new data and existing customer data. A critical obstacle you must overcome is the fact that often the salespeople are in locations with little to no Internet connectivity available. In order to meet the requirements of your project, you must create an application that is capable of the following:

"AlwaysNote is the name given to the application implemented in this article that fulfills each of the stated requirements. AlwaysNote responds to the online and offline status of the computer and displays a green "online status message in the upper right corner of the form as depicted by Figure 2. When the computer is offline, the status message updates to a red "offline message to indicate to the user that they are now working in offline mode as shown in Figure 3.

While working in a connected mode, user data is first saved into local Web Storage and then sent to the server as shown in Figure 4. When disconnected, as demonstrated by Figure 5, the data is stored only in local storage and will synchronize with the server as soon as an outside connection is available.

When a connection to the web is once again available, the application handles the online event and then sends all the records added or edited since the unavailabiltiy of the outside connection. Figure 6 demonstrates how the application responds to the recent availability of a network connection.

When the user clicks on the Events link, the offline version of the events file is served from the application cache instead of sending the request to the server when working offline, as shown in Figure 7.

As you build up the code in this article youll add a number of files into a Visual Studio solution. Table 5 details the purpose of each file discussed in this example and Figure 8 depicts the structure in the Solution Explorer.

The database for AlwaysNote is made up of a single table. The Customers table includes CustomerID, Name and Note to store customer information. Figure 9 shows the configuration of the table in SQL Server.

Beginning at the lowest level of the application, the server logic implemented for AlwaysNote is responsible for writing data to the database, processing persistence requests from the client and configuring pages for use as an offline application. To begin, lets review data access implementation found in the customer repository.

The CustomerRepository class is responsible for doing the actual work of updating the database, which in this case, is the Customer table. Both the Update and Add methods use standard LINQ to SQL syntax to commit changes to the database. You can see the full code listing for the CustomerRepository class in Listing 1.

To facilitate interaction between the view and the model layer there are a few support classes used to act as containers for messages between layers. The CustomerInputModel is used to encapsulate the data coming from the UI layer into the controller.

The Name and Note properties are self-explanatory. The ID property holds the value of the CustomerID record in the Customer table. The Key property contains the index number of the record as it is entered into the local storage on the client. Tracking these two values independently makes synchronization a trivial task.

While the CustomerInputClass is responsible for carrying data coming from the UI, the CustomerViewModel is used to model data returned to the view. In this class the ID and Key properties fulfill the same purpose as described in the CustomerInputClass.

The Save method accepts an instance of the CustomerInputModel and attempts to save new or updates to customer information. If an ID value is present, then the values are updated, otherwise a new customer record is created.

A Key value is always available since the data is saved first on the client. Whether the date is new or updated the records ID is returned to the view. When the web page recognizes a response from the server, then the Key is used to look up the data saved in local storage and the ID value is updated to make sure the data stays in sync.

The HomeController is responsible for returning the appropriately formatted view for the application. In this instance, browser caching is disabled for both the index and manifest pages. The manifest is further configured to return the text/cache-manifest mime type (through the ContentType property) and the page encoding is set to UTF-8 via the ContentEncoding property.

The script for the view begins by handling the document ready event using the traditional jQuery syntax. All the other functions discussed in this article are scoped inside the ready function (as indicated by the ellipsis at the end of the code snippet).

The customerIndex variables purpose is to keep track of the locally-stored index of the current customer record. Many of the functions throughout the script reference this variable. The logMessage function is used to display messages to the user by adding items to an unordered list. The clearUI function removes any entered data from the form elements and clears the log list as filled out by logMessage.

While the function simply returns the value of a single property, wrapping the call to the value may prove helpful during development. Once wrapped up, you can override the propertys actual value to test how your script is working in an offline mode without having to disable your wireless networking hardware. Further, you may choose to extend support for network detection as discussed in the sidebar, Rock Solid Connectivity Detection.

Now that you are able to detect the status of the Internet connectivity, the next step is to update the page to report the connection status. The reportOnlineStatus function uses the value from the isOnLine function to decide how to change the UI to reflect the network availability.

There are two events that the browser fires when a connection to the web changes availability. By subscribing to the online event, the page can easily update the UI to reflect the presence of an Internet connection and then send all the data entered while the connection was unavailable to the server.

When a new version of the application is made available, then the manifest is updated in order to push a change notification to the client. The updateready event fires once the manifest is checked for changes and all the files listed in the manifest are successfully downloaded. The event handler for the updateready event is available on window.applocationCache.onupdateready. When this event fires then you must swap in the new version of the files and then reload the page.

Swapping the cache is necessary because the version of the files the user sees at the time of download is the old version of the files. Once the new files are available on the client, they must be loaded into the cache. Once the new page is loaded into the cache then the browser must read the latest version of the page to display to the user. The easiest and most unobtrusive way to accomplish reloading the page is to programmatically reload the page in JavaScript.

The first step in saving changes is to get an instance of the JSON object used to model data entered through the form. The interface for the model on the client is exactly the same as the CustomerInputModel on the server, except for the IsDirty property. The IsDirty property is switched to true when changes are made to a particular customer record so that only changes to edited (or new) records are sent to the server for processing.

The getModel function first defines the JSON object with the appropriate interface and then attempts to get an instance of that object from local storage based on the selected customer index value. Since the data is stored in local storage as a flat string, if a record is found then the string is parsed into a full JSON object by using the JSON.parse function.

The next two functions are responsible for doing the explicit work of saving any new changes first to the client and then to the server. The saveToLocal function begins by calling getModel and passing in the current customer index value. Once the model is available then all the latest values for each property are read from the form elements and placed into the model object. Next, the object is marked as dirty so the procedure that sends the changes to the server will know to send this object to the server. Then the JSON object is serialized into a flat string and then saved into local storage using the setItem function using the current customer index value as the key. Finally, the user is notified that the information is saved locally by calling logMessage to add an item to the unordered list on the page.

When the page is ready to take the data saved in local storage and send those changes to the server, the saveToServer function is called. The first operation in saveToServer is to loop through each of the items stored in local storage. During each loop iteration, the current model is extracted from local storage. Then the object is evaluated to see if IsDirty is set to true, which signifies that the object requires server processing. Figure 10 demonstrates how the JSON data appears when stored in local storage as a string.

If the object requires server processing then the jQuery post function is used to send the JSON object to the Save action on the CustomerController. When a response is returned from the server then the Key value is used to extract the model from local storage, set IsDirty to false and update the ID value from what came from the server. Then the JSON object is again serialized and saved into local storage. Finally, the UI is updated to notify the user that the changes are saved on the server.

Tying each of these functions together is the logic implemented in the save buttons click handler. First, the browsers support for local storage is detected by using Modernizr. If local storage support is available then the latest changes are saved by calling the saveToLocal function. Next, if a connection to the Internet is available, then any changes marked as IsDirty are sent to the server by calling the saveToServer function.

If local storage isnt available then, for example purposes here, the user is simply alerted that the current browser is not supported. In the real world you may want to implement a more user-friendly approach.

In order to show the latest customer information to the user, the showCustomer function begins by calling getModel to extract the selected customer model. If the customerIndex is pointing to a record position that doesnt have a value, then the model returns null. In the event of a new record then the UI is cleared of any previously entered values.

Once the manifest is crafted to include all the necessary files for the application, the next step is to reference the manifest from the HTML page. To create the link, you use a new manifest attribute off the html element to point to the manifest file:

Recall from the manifest file that the server events page is mapped to the local events page in the FALLBACK section of the application manifest. In order for the application to work properly, you must also include the fallback page in the CACHE section of the manifest. You can see the full code listing for the events fallback page in Listing 6.

Together, HTML Web Storage and Application Cache create a compelling and viable path to creating offline web applications. While some hurdles still exisg with Internet Explorer not yet supporting the application cache, nearly every other modern browser is capable of providing the environment you need in order to build disconnected applications that dont skimp on rich features.

Technically, the HTML files included in an offline application are not required to be listed in the manifest as any file that references the manifest is automatically loaded into application cache. In some cases, omitting the HTML files may be desirable so that only the pages visited by the user are saved in application cache. Since all the files listed in the manifest are downloaded together, this implied approach may save from a potentially large payload of files to send to the client. While this method may be attractive for performance reasons, pushing updates to the application may prove very difficult if there is no centralized list of all the files in the application. Therefore consider listing all HTML files in the manifest until your situation gives you reason to attempt to use an implied approach in the manifest.

The capabilities offered by Web Storage give you a significant amount of space available to store data on the client. However, a drawback of using Web Storage includes the fact that storage data is exposed to manipulation by the user. Using JavaScript debug tools, users can tamper with stored values or through option screens one can turn off access to Web Storage entirely. Remember: never trust user data.

In order to keep the scope of this article tight, the example features a rudimentary method for detecting the online status of the browser. Unfortunately, the window.navigator.onLine property can return varying results depending on the browser. For further details on an approach for implementing a more robust online detection procedure, please read Working Off the Grid with HTML5 Offline by Paul Kinlan available at: http://www.html5rocks.com/en/mobile/workingoffthegrid.html

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cant link to css in html in localhost - stack overflow

I can't linked to my CSS file in my HTML file in localhost. I have my index.html and styles.css in /var/www/html/project I call it in the browser with localhost/project/index.html and only the html is printing. When I just open the html in the browser, it's working fine.

So I added type = text/css and thx the CSS is working, but if I move my CSS in a CSS folder css/styles.css is not working with my html file in /var/www/html/project/index.html and my css file in /var/www/html/project/css/styles.css

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