cylinder diameter stroke length and focre for briquette machine

long-stroke cylinder - all industrial manufacturers - videos

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... The new ISO 15552 cylinders of the Airwork CF series represent the new generation of ISO pneumatic cylinders that, thanks to the use of innovative materials and a state-of-the-art construction philosophy, ...

... The new ISO 15552 cylinders of the Airwork CF series represent the new generation of ISO pneumatic cylinders that, thanks to the use of innovative materials and a state-of-the-art construction philosophy, ...

Epoxy coating of both cylinder's heads to protect them from external agents and to improve cylinder's aesthetics Polyurethane high resistance seals for piston and rod Several sealing options: ...

The LAMBDA series is a line of electric cylinders engineered by RK. It is specifically designed for industrial applications, and those requiring a systems with an IP66 protection grade. The unit features a maximum ...

The SLZ 90 heavy duty cylinder can travel for a maximum of 25,000 Newtons. The SLZ thus provides extreme reliability as an interesting continuous runner which has an activation time of 100%. This makes it ideal for use ...

... them easier to carry. High tonnage compact cylinders with oil return in high pressure. Pushing force from 50 to 500 tons with a stroke range from 50 mm to 250 mm. Compact and versatile hydraulic cylinders, ...

... load in complete safety. Cylinders designed for heavy lifting, to support and hold bridges, viaducts and heavy structural steelwork. Hydraulic cylinders with gravity return, max pressure 700 ...

... industry. On request it is possible to obtain the cylinders with FKM seals for high temperatures (-20 C | + 150 C) or for low temperatures (-40 C | + 80 C), and special versions. The 6E series cylinders ...

Servo electric cylinder working principle:Servo electric cylinder is a modular product designed by integrating servo motor and ball screw, which converts the rotary motion of servo motor into linear motion, ...

briquetter machines & hydraulic balers

Hydraulic Horizonal & Vertical Baling Presses for every application. Automatic and manual systems. Combination shear-balers. Briquetters and "densifiers" for non-ferrous and UBC. Special briquetters for shredded products.

GENSCO offers Vertical Balers which are known for their rugged work ethic... year after year. Heavy duty construction with the best electrical and hydraulic components on the market. With many different models to choose from, whether processing OCC, Shredded ONP, UBC or light NF, Gensco can offer a baler to fit your companies needs.Low Profile Units High Density Units

GENSCO offers Vertical Balers which are known for their rugged work ethic... year after year. Heavy duty construction with the best electrical and hydraulic components on the market. With many different models to choose from, whether processing OCC, Shredded ONP, UBC or light NF, Gensco can offer a baler to fit your companies needs.Low Profile Units High Density Units

The MP Two-Ram Baler is for those demanding applications that require versatility and maximum production. The Two-Ram can switch from OCC to shredded paper, to aluminum cans, to P.E.T. and back to OCC without missing a beatdelivering uniform bales with integrity, time after time, bale after bale.

The MP Two-Ram Baler is for those demanding applications that require versatility and maximum production. The Two-Ram can switch from OCC to shredded paper, to aluminum cans, to P.E.T. and back to OCC without missing a beatdelivering uniform bales with integrity, time after time, bale after bale.

Request More Information Bale a variety of materials, including newspaper, extruded aluminum, UBC, bulk OCC, P.E.T. plastic, and textiles Heavy duty construction, with tubular steel frame and AR400 steel in high wear areas like the floor and packing platen Hydraulic regenerative circuit and air/oil cooler delivers high performance at lower oil temperatures Automatic wire tie system Left hand or right hand automatic eject

Up to 15% smaller footprint compared to our full size Two-Ram Baler Priced up to 30% less than full size Two-Ram MP System Integration All Components, From the Conveyor to the Electronics to the Streamlined Hopper, Are Engineered as a Package Design Features Same as our full size Two-Ram, including control system, high pressure hydraulics, heavy duty tubular steel construction, wire tie system and more Versatility Easily bale bulk occ, news and all types of paper, P.E.T. and other plastics, non-ferrous metals, and more Continuous power curve Load sensing, horsepower limited pump delivers constant flow and power throughout the baling process for maximum productivity Cycle times from 17.4 seconds to 19.58 seconds, depending on model Bale Sizes: 30x45x60 or 45"x30"x60 Bale Weights up to 1600 lbs. for newspaper, up to 950 lbs for P.E.T., up to 1500 lbs for bulk OCC Packing force up to 143,257 lbs. Operating pressure 2850-3000 psi

Designed from the ground up for the unique challenge of baling high memory materials, MP F Series balers will out perform even balers that cost significantly more. Wide mouth feed openings eliminate the need for shredders when foam goes into our balers; the spring loaded retention system keeps it in place; and our unique design provides superior bale escapement when youre done.

Designed from the ground up for the unique challenge of baling high memory materials, MP F Series balers will out perform even balers that cost significantly more. Wide mouth feed openings eliminate the need for shredders when foam goes into our balers; the spring loaded retention system keeps it in place; and our unique design provides superior bale escapement when youre done.

Horizontal Foam Baler Bales foam and film as well as bulk OCC and bulk ONP Wide mouth feed openings from: 36 x 72 to 46 x 72 depending on model Passive spring loaded retention system eliminates spring back from high memory materials Dampened hydraulic system cushions the shock to hydraulics that can result from baling foam Bale size up to 48 x 36 x 60 Bale weights up to 1500 lbs. for polyurethane foam, up to 1860 lbs. for bulk ONP Packing force up to 130,690 lbs. at 2600 psi Available in 3 models

The All New MANTA ECO Briquetting baler is a compact machine designed with powerful folding compression wings and main ram cylinder. The machine has tremendous power and production capabilities in a small footprint. Suitable for all types of alloys

The All New MANTA ECO Briquetting baler is a compact machine designed with powerful folding compression wings and main ram cylinder. The machine has tremendous power and production capabilities in a small footprint. Suitable for all types of alloys

Highlights include: Bale Size: 20 x 16 compressed (508mm x 406mm) Standard Automatic Ejection Door 2 x Oscillation folding wings at 65 tons force 1 x Main ram at 95 tons force Optional electric 75HP motor or Diesel Engine Production: 20-25 Bales per hour at full capacity PLC control system with Radio remote control

The All NewGRIFONE ECO 66 Steel Briquetting baleris a compact machine designed with powerful folding compression wings and main ram cylinder. The machine has tremendous power and production capabilities in a small footprint. Suitable for all types of alloys

The All NewGRIFONE ECO 66 Steel Briquetting baleris a compact machine designed with powerful folding compression wings and main ram cylinder. The machine has tremendous power and production capabilities in a small footprint. Suitable for all types of alloys

Standard Automatic Ejection Door 2 x Oscillation folding wings at 240 tons force 1 x Main ram at 130 tons force Optional electric 100-150HP motor or Diesel Engine Production: 20-25 Bales per hour at full capacity PLC control system withRadio remote control

Briquetting Press for Recycling Wood Chips and Shavings Our hydraulic wood pressing machine is intended for small-large size carpentries and industrial companies to recycle wood chips and grinded chips with min.-max. 8-17% moisture content, transforming them into cylindrical briquettes of variable diameter (according to the press)

Briquetting Press for Recycling Wood Chips and Shavings Our hydraulic wood pressing machine is intended for small-large size carpentries and industrial companies to recycle wood chips and grinded chips with min.-max. 8-17% moisture content, transforming them into cylindrical briquettes of variable diameter (according to the press)

The briquettesare pressed with no addition of alloying elements or chemical additives and considerably reducethe volume.The briquetting press can be installed on silos or filtering units, on their internal or external side.

Metal Briquetting Press for TURNINGS Steel, Aluminum, Wood Swarf and scrap turnings from mechanical machining production can be recycled into cylindrical briquettes by means of specially designed presses. 5 models to choose from designed to meet any operation or production size. OEM processors or recycling operations. Advantages to puck briquetters - Volume Red Show More

Metal Briquetting Press for TURNINGS Steel, Aluminum, Wood Swarf and scrap turnings from mechanical machining production can be recycled into cylindrical briquettes by means of specially designed presses. 5 models to choose from designed to meet any operation or production size. OEM processors or recycling operations. Advantages to puck briquetters - Volume Reduction - Handling and freight costs - Recycling costs - Eco-friendly - increased return in value during melting process - recovery of oils and lubricants

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scrap metal baler, metal shearing machine products from china manufacturers - jiangsu dongfang hydraulic co., ltd. - page 1

Metal Baler, Metal Shear, Non-Metal Baler manufacturer / supplier in China, offering Hydraulic Scrap Metals Baling Press Machine Price Hot Selling, Horizontal Y81f-125 Metal Hydraulic Baler for Steel Shavings Borings Turnings, Vertical Hydraulic Paper Carton Cloth Waste Film Press Compactor in Stock and so on.

air consumption of cylinders - womack machine supply company

To calculate the HP load to be placed on an air compressor by a reciprocating air cylinder, the power to operate the cylinder with its circuit losses should first be calculated. Then, the additional HP needed for compression losses caused by compressing to too high a pressure and reducing through a pressure regulator should be estimated and added.

Air consumption for the cylinder and its circuit can be calculated from Table 1 below. Then the air consumption can be converted to compressor HP. Finally, any additional losses can be estimated and added.

How To Use Table 1 First, calculate the pressure behind the cylinder piston to just balance the load resistance. Then add the estimated pressure loss due to flow resistance in the circuit, through valves and plumbing. For most air circuits, unless the application is highly special, an additional 25% of pressure, above the load balance pressure will be sufficient, and the pressure regulator should be set for this pressure. This extra pressure is quite necessary. It pushes the volume of air required for the cylinder cycle rate through the flow resistance of valves and plumbing. It is consumed in the circuit and is not effective against the load while the cylinder is in motion, but does add to the HP load on the compressor.

Pressures along the top of the table represent the outlet setting of the pressure regulator. By using the regulator outlet pressure instead of load balance pressure, all circuit flow losses are included in the HP calculation.

Calculate load balance pressure, then add 25%. Use this pressure column in the table. With a specified cylinder bore diameter, take the figure in the table which is air consumption for a 1-inch stroke. Multiply times the number of inches stroke and by the number of cycles, forward and return which the cylinder will make in one minute. This gives the SCFM air consumption for this application.

Air consumption is calculated assuming the cylinder piston will be allowed to stall, at least momentarily, at each end of its stroke, giving it time to fill with air up to the pressure regulator setting. If reversed at either end before full stall occurs, air consumption will be less than shown.

Calculating Cylinder Horsepower After the SCFM air consumption has been calculated, convert into horsepower using the condensed table on the back side of this sheet, or for other than a 2-stage, piston-type compressor, see table on Data Sheet 72.

Compression of air is an inefficient process because a substantial part of the energy is lost as the heat of compression is radiated to atmosphere. By over-compressing the air and then reducing its pressure through a pressure regulator, these compression losses are increased. Also there is a small flow loss through the pressure regulator. Calculation of these losses is very difficult and we suggest the addition of an extra 5 to 10% HP above the calculated level to take care of these losses.

Calculation Example Estimate the compressor HP capacity to cycle an air cylinder having a 4-inch bore and 28-inch stroke, 11 cycles per minute. Assume the load against the cylinder is 800 lbs., and that a 2-stage piston-type air compressor is used.

*HP to compress 1 SCFM from 0 PSI to the values shown. Compression between adiabatic and isothermal is assumed, with a 2-stage piston-type compressor working at 85% efficiency. For a more complete chart, see Data Sheet 72.

Power Losses in a Pressure Regulator Power supplied to the inlet of a pressure regulator is delivered through to the outlet at a similar power level. Outlet power is at a lower pressure level but at a higher flow rate. The inlet would produce a higher force on a cylinder piston but with a slower movement. The outlet pressure would produce less force on the same cylinder but at a higher travel speed. The result would be the same HP except for certain energy losses or gains which occur inside the regulator.

Air expanding inside the regulator will absorb energy from the atmosphere if its temperature drops below ambient. On the other hand, flow loss produces heat which is an energy loss to atmosphere. Calculation of energy gains and losses through the regulator is impractical. As previously stated, we resort to approximations and rules-of-thumb which we have found give satisfactory practical results.

Increasing the Efficiency of an Air System Any change which will put more of the available pressure across the cylinder ports while the cylinder is moving, and less across the regulator, piping, speed control valves, 4-way valve, and other restrictions, will increase efficiency.

Pressure Conversion Chart Air volume calculations must be based on absolute zero pressure, PSIA. "Free Air" is defined as air at standard conditions of atmospheric pressure and temperature, and for the chart is taken as 14.7 PSIA or 0 PSIG. Compression ratio in the third column of the chart, is the number of times the pressure is greater than normal atmospheric pressure, again taken as 14.7 PSIA.

5 guidelines for selecting pneumatic cylinders

Pneumatic cylinders are the most accepted solution to create force and motion in OEM applications. The reasons for this is that they are simple in design, easy to install, economical in price, and durable in performance. Pneumatic cylinders are designed in a variety of sizes, styles, and configurations. OEMs need to choose the pneumatic cylinder carefully, so that it will support the application well. The easiest way to achieve this is to keep a few guidelines in mind.

Rod style cylinders can be designed in two ways single, or double acting. Single acting cylinders supply compressed air to only one side of the piston, thus creating force and motion only in one direction. Double acting cylinders supply compressed air to create enough force to extend as well as retract strokes. Single acting cylinders have limited extension due to the presence of a compressed spring in the design. The stroke length for double acting cylinders is unlimited, but the piston rod can bend or buckle after consistent use over a period of time.

Two primary types of pneumatic cylinders are compact, and guided. Compact cylinders are designed for light duty applications with less space and small stroke requirements. Guided cylinders provide precise motion solutions, and are used in heavy duty applications, where a guided, or large offset load is required.

The amount of force that a cylinder creates is also a guideline for selecting pneumatic cylinders. This can be established by examining the cylinders bore size, and air pressure. A general rule of thumb used here is, the force generated by the cylinder should twice as much as the load.

It is important to know the stroking speed of a cylinder. Factors that affect speed, such as port sizes, inlet and exhaust flow through control valves, and hose or tubing sizesshould also be considered. Also, look at cylinders that have flow controls at the cylinder ports.

Pneumatic cylinder air consumption takes place due to two factors. The first is the volume of air that the piston displaces during operation. The second is contaminated air volume that passes through the valves, ports, tubing, and end cover cavities. Customers should check whether the cylinder can supply air even in worst case conditions. If the pneumatic cylinder is able to meet all of these criteria, then you can be certain that the cylinder will perform well in your OEM application.

right-sized pneumatic cylinders ensure performance and efficiency

Rightfully, pneumatics is considered extremely simple, flexible and economical. Add to that, air-powered systems are quite durablethey routinely run for years trouble-free with little maintenance. Thats why theyre used in countless applications ranging from food, beverage and packaging operations to metalworking and automotive applications.

To get the most out of pneumatic systems, considering a few basic tips can help engineers save time and optimize system performance. Obviously, the components in a circuit need to be sized to provide the necessary force, speed and precision to do a job. But right-sized components are a prerequisite for low energy consumption, too. Energy costs make up more than half of total cost of ownership of pneumatics today, so not wasting compressed air pays off.

While every part of a pneumatic system plays an important role in proper engineering, arguably a good place to begin a design is where the application demands force and motionat the cylinder. Here are some basic tips on specifying pneumatic cylinders for load, speed and energy efficiency and, ultimately, lower purchase and operating costs.

Proper dimensioning Pneumatic cylinders come in countless standard and special versions, including compact, mini and short-stroke designs; with round or square profiles; in light-duty throwaway units and rugged tie-rod constructions; and in rod-type as well as rodless designs.

Regardless of the specific type, however, sizing an air cylinder for an application is essential. Engineers can rely on hand calculations to come up with suitable options, or turn to the latest software tools to generate results. Lets look at each alternative.

For manual calculations, start with the load. Knowing the force and stroke requirements, and the available air pressure, engineers can readily determine the minimum piston diameter to get the job done. Consider the math for the venerable double-acting cylinder. Calculate required cylinder force from:

F = PA Where P = pressure, psi; and A = cylinder piston area, in.2, noting that the area of the piston rod reduces the working area on the retract stroke. So calculate extend force: Fe = Pdc2/4 Where dc = piston diameter, in. And retract force is: Fr = P(dc2 dr2)/4 Where dr = rod diameter, in.

But never design a cylinder to just barely move the load, always allow a bit ofmargin. Select cylinder bore sizes to handle the expected load plus a reasonable safety factor. Depending on the application, experts generally recommend that pneumatic cylindersprovide an extra 33 to 100% of calculated force to overcome internal friction from seals, bearings, guides and other external forces; pressure losses from clogged filters or restrictions from other components in the circuit; and pressure losses due to leaks that can develop throughout a system over time.

However, the specifics of the application determine the amount of force margin necessary to ensure proper operation. Be aware that pneumatic cylinders with larger-than-necessary diameters increase air consumption and cycle time, and larger systems cost more to purchase and operate than properly sized ones. They are also heavier and take up more space, which can be critical when weight or mounting space is at a premium.

Flow considerations Another factor in sizing pneumatic cylinders is air consumption, and how it relates to other parts of the system. This takes into consideration the forces required to move a load at the specified pressure, extend and retract volumes and cycle times, and relating all that to air flow through the cylinder. Many U.S. manufacturers use standard cubic feet per minute (scfm) to size components, and also correlate that to flow coefficient Cv for other components. Calculating cylinder air flow lets engineers determine the correct size tubing, fittings, valves, filters and other components in the system.

First, size the cylinder for motion requirements. A good rule of thumb for attaining the necessary speed is to size the cylinder to handle double the load. (However, if speed is not important, using a force multiplier between 1.25 and 2.0 times the load may result in smaller cylinders and lower air consumption.)

From that, calculate the total volume per cycle. Recognize that in double-acting cylinders, extend and retract volumes differ due to the volume the rod displaces and must be calculated separately. For a basic cylinder:

Multiply total volume per cycle by cycles/min to calculate total volume/min, in.3/min. Multiply in.3/min by conversion factor 1728 in.3/ft3 to determine cubic feet per minute (cfm) flow. Finally, convert cfm to scfm. This conversion requires the compression ratio of compressed air. This converts compressed air to standard conditions (14.7 psia, 36% relative humidity, and 68F) and gives the working pressure in absolute terms. In most industrial applications, ambient temperature and humidity can be ignored because they have little impact on the calculations. Compression ratio for air at 80 psi, for example, is (80 + 14.7)/14.7 = 6.44. Multiply compression ratio by cfm to get scfm.

Knowing the cylinders air requirements, use this information and manufacturers catalog data for scfm and Cv to properly size valves, fittings, flow controls, FRLs and other system components. Note that all components that conduct air resist flow to some degree, and pressure drop across each device will increase with flow. Cv specifications help evaluate typical circuits for potential bottlenecks, as the total system Cv is less than that of the component with the smallest Cv.

Online calculators Such tedious and, sometimes, error-prone calculations for forces, flows and pressure drops may be necessary when an OEM or designer needs to fine-tune a design for exacting performance or minimal costs. But often, engineers are better off turning to online calculators for fast, efficient and accurate component selection and overall design.

Thats why many pneumatics manufacturers have developed software tools that encompass theoretical operating parameters, well-established sizing equations, predetermined safety factors and real-world experience to arrive at conservative, but not overly designed, product selections.

The tools are very well-accepted. Users trust they will receive an answer that technically works well, with the understanding that there may be some room for minor adjustments away from the conservative side. However, different manufacturers tools may apply different safety factors in their calculation software, or adjust them based on specific cases like cylinder orientation, the effects of gravity, or even the type of application. But results from one tool to another are usually similar.

Interactive tools such as the AVENTICS CylinderFinder let the user describe the intended application in terms of loads, cycle times, system pressure, mounting orientation and the like, and in a few seconds the tool replies with the recommended cylinder dimensions and applicable products.

Results also include operating margins in terms of maximum load handling and speed, plus recommended valve sizes and hose dimensions. Other calculation tools are also available online, including air consumption calculators as a special feature. With online tools such as product configurators, engineers can conveniently choose functions, weigh alternatives, and select styles, mountings, and other accessories to create custom packages. Product data, including CAD models and pricing are also immediately available.

Speed and cushioning Another benefit of online calculators is that they recognize the limits of pneumatic cylinders. For example, thanks to ongoing seal and bearing improvements, cylinder speeds of 6 to 15 ft/sec and higher are certainly attainable. But not all cylinders are suited for such quick movements, and the software tools instantly recognize restrictions concerning a particular product.

Its one thing to get a cylinder moving fast. Its equally important to bring it to a stop without excessive impact loads that generate noise and vibration and can damage the cylinder and the machine itself. Software tools not only know maximum cylinder speeds, they take deceleration requirements into consideration as well.

Cylinder cushioning may not be necessary in low-energy applications that involve low speeds and light loads. In fact, probably the majority of throw-away type cylinders are made without cushioning. But any cylinder larger than about 1-in. bore with a stroke exceeding a few inches would expect to warrant some kind of cushioningwhether its an elastomeric bumper, pneumatic cushioning or even an external shock absorber. Today, more and more manufacturers are gravitating toward to building cushions into the cylinder.

AVENTICS, for example, offers what we call Ideal Cushioning, and it is a critical part of the cylinder selection process. Ideal Cushioning is a proprietary, adjustable method to optimize cushioning and reduce shock/vibration, noise and cycle times. It includes both adjustable, precision pneumatic cushions and elastic elements for impact cushioning. Its designed such that the direction of travel of the piston is the same throughout the entire cushioning sequence (no piston bounce), and such that the velocity can be exactly zero when the piston reaches the end of its travel, so impact and noise generation on contact are minimized. A shorter total cycle time is an additional valuable benefit; many OEMs and end users have used this method in rod-type and rodless cylinders to increase machinery productivity.

While this discussion focuses on the cylinder, getting air efficiently in and out of the actuator is important, too. Another recommendation is to make air-line lengths as short as possible. Reducing the tube volume between the valve and cylinder saves energy and shortens cylinder response times, because that volume pressurizes and empties every cycle. In fact, from an efficiency standpoint, the ideal place to mount a valve is directly on the cylinder, almost completely eliminating the tubing.

Also, each application has an optimum air-line ID. Choking flow to the cylinder from undersized tubing, fitting and valves will definitely limit cylinder power, stroke time and maximum acceleration. On the other hand, a larger line diameter increases Cv, but it also increases the volume that must be filled and emptied each cycle. And in short stroke, high-frequency applications, larger tubing can actually increase the cycle time and decrease throughput.

Fortunately, online configuration tools and air consumption calculators also recommend the valve flow rate and tubing ID based on the application and the tubing length between valve and cylinder, to produce optimum results.

Demand-based pressure One additional note regarding pneumatic cylinders: The vast majority of pneumatic controls apply the same pressure for both cylinder extend and retract strokes, and that frequently wastes energy and money by supplying higher pressure than an actuator actually needs. For instance, in many applications cylinders either pull or push the load, but not both.

Fortunately, pressure regulators with a reverse flow/backflow mechanism can independently control a cylinders load and non-load pressure. Studies have shown that supplying the right pressure for each operation by using pressure regulators on a machine can lower air consumption and produce energy savings on the order of 25%. The key to non-load pressure regulation is to look for cylinders with significant differences in the forces required for each stroke action. And, in general, the larger the cylinder, the greater the efficiency gain.

Properly adjusted manual regulators are one option. And electro-pneumatic pressure regulators are useful in cases where loads can vary, say in flexible automation systems. For example, E/P regulators can be programmed to supply exactly the pressure needed to perform a specific operation on one type of parts, and then reset the pressure for a different product or operation. Savings increase even more because the user does not need to specify the maximum pressure needed for a range of operationsthe level can be tailored to each task.

Another benefit of pneumatic pressure regulation is higher cylinder speed. In addition to wasting energy, charging a cylinder to a higher-than-necessary pressure also reduces cylinder speed because the actuator wastes time charging beyond the level required, and it takes longer to empty the chamber. And overpressurizing can magnify internal and external leaks.

And one final note. Machine operators commonly increase supply pressure on regulators in hopes of improving performance. But this wastes air and increases costs for no actual benefitif components are sized correctly. Its important to monitor and ensure machine pressure remains within designated limits to avoid wasting energy.

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how to specify pneumatic cylinders | 2014-09-03 | assembly magazine

Rigid through-hole mounting is available on many short-stroke cylinder models. It provides counterbored holes drilled through the cylinder body for easy mounting with socket-head cap screws. Photo courtesy Fabco-Air Inc.

This short-stroke, tie-rod cylinder is essentially two cylinder bodies combined in a single package. Engineers can specify the same or different stroke lengths to set work positions as required. Photo courtesy Fabco-Air Inc.

Two single-rod cylinders can be assembled with their back end caps attached. By anchoring one rod end and allowing the cylinder body to float, four distinct end points can be obtained. Photo courtesy Fabco-Air Inc.

There are many ways to prevent the piston rod from rotating. Here, two guide pins incorporated inside the cylinder pass through the piston head. These pins prevent rotation of the rod with a tolerance of 1 degree. Photo courtesy Fabco-Air Inc.

Despite the multitude of standard options, pneumatic actuators are still selected for their ability to perform a specific function. The applications for air cylinders are endless. Here are a few examples:

To properly specify an air cylinder for any application, two questions must be answered before moving into the heart of the design. What type of work will it be performing? What types of cylinders are available to choose from? Several standard cylinders are usually available to fit any one application, but there are often design issues that keep a standard unit from meeting your specific requirements. Before charging into the specifics of your application, you should get a handle on the basics of what you need.

To size a cylinder properly, youll need to determine how much force it needs to produce. When the force is known, you can determine the bore size or the power factor (effective piston area) of the cylinder with the equation: force = air pressure x power factor. Or, put another way: power factor = force air pressure.

In this calculation, we have not considered any safety factors. So, as a starting point, lets use a 50 percent factor of safety. Therefore, multiply the power factor by 1.5 and use the result to calculate the cylinder bore from the equation: Power Factor x 1.5 = p (Bore)2 4.

Pulling force, produced when the cylinder retracts, brings the diameter of the piston rod into account. In retract mode, air pressure can act on only part of the piston, because the rod blocks the center portion of the piston. Thus, the power factor for retraction force is calculated as the piston area minus the rod area. Again, cylinder catalogs typically list rod areas to speed your calculations of pulling power factors.

If you do not have enough pressure to produce the desired force using the preferred bore size cylinder, then you must go to a larger unit. This will affect the package size and may create some space requirement issues. As a result, engineers may need to make some trade-offs.

How much stroke do you need? It depends on the application. Closing the door to a large oven might require a 15-foot stroke. Lifting a stop gate on a conveyor could require only a 2-inch motion, whereas pushing a load off a conveyor might require 30 inches or more. Staking a rivet wouldnt require much stroke at allmost likely only a fraction of an inch.

Whatever the task, knowing the stroke starts to define the type of cylinder youll need and the envelope size required for mounting it. For the purposes of discussion, cylinders can be classified into four categories according to their strokes: short stroke, intermediate stroke, long stroke and specialty stroke. Note that some cylinders may overlap all four categories.

Intermediate-stroke cylinders have strokes up to 36 inches. These tie-rod cylinders are popular for fast-acting, light-duty automation applications. Aluminum construction reduces weight and cuts manufacturing costs.

NFPA-interchangeable, long-stroke cylinders can have strokes up to 99 inches, but they are well-adapted to applications calling for strokes as small as 4 inches. (NFPA stands for National Fluid Power Association. This organization set up standards for all manufacturers of tie-rod cylinders. Mounting codes were established to ensure that all such cylinders, regardless of brand, would be dimensionally interchangeable.)

Specialty-stroke cylinders can have strokes of more than 99 inches. Cable cylinders, made by several manufactures, are one example. With this type of cylinder, a clamp can be pulled left or right by a cable attached to the cylinders piston. A cable cylinder with a 15-foot stroke could be used to control that 15-foot oven door I mentioned earlier. Because the cable can be any length, the cylinder can be mounted anywhere that is convenient for your designdirectly on the oven or across the room, if need be.

Mounting can be a challenging issue. At this point, its time to determine how you want to mount the unit and decide if you have the proper structure and space to do so. This seems like a basic concept, but failure to plan here can demolish your plans quickly. For example, if you want to flange-mount a unit, but a fitting is in the way of the mounting surface, you may be forced to redesign the system for a bottom mount. In that case, an additional plate may need to be added.

For pushing, pulling or lifting along a straight line, you want the cylinder to be rigidly mounted. You could bolt the cylinder to your equipment either by tapped holes in the bottom, or stand it on end and run bolts into sleeve nut mounts in the end cap. Or, you could choose any of 16 standard, interchangeable, rigid mounts established by the NFPA.

If the cylinder will be turning a crank arm, it would need to pivot. A rear clevis mount attached to the cylinder will allow it to pivot, but restrain lateral motion. By attaching the crank to the piston rod with a flexible coupling, we can secure the desired motion.

Short stroke cylinders have many of the same mounts as the big boys. For example, eye mounts can be attached to a round-body, short-stroke unit. These mounts also provide a pivot point attachment to allow pivotal motion of the cylinder. To further assist with these types of flexible mounts, rod clevises, rod eyes and mounting brackets are widely available.

Most cylinder styles have mounts similar to the NFPA mounts, even if they arent the standard tie-rod design. As example, trunnion mounts are available on stainless steel body cylinders. Dimensions differ from the NFPA mounts, but they function the same.

When designing in a custom cylinder, its easier if you start with a particular family of cylinderssuch as NFPA-interchangeable, compact, or non-repairablethat will be conducive to your application.

You probably know how you plan to mount the unit. Engineers often find that mounting a cylinder will require a special bolt pattern or mounting style that is nonstandard. In that case, youll have to ask how the cylinder can be modified to fit the pattern for a minimum cost. Will it require special parts to be manufactured? Will it need unique mounting hardware, such as plates, flanges or brackets?

Beware: In cases where the mount is built into or uniquely attached to your cylinder, costs will increase along with manufacturing lead times. For example, nose mounting might require that unique end caps be produced. Integral lug mounts could require special extrusions, welding or other creative attachment concept to be employed. In lieu of lugs, is there room to drill and tap your cylinders end caps (or body) with special bottom- or side-mounting holes? Would you have enough depth of thread?

Now, youll want to address the motion elements of your cylinder. Are there special movements, sensing, or side loads being applied that will require special modifications to the cylinder? If so, youll need to accommodate them.

If the load must stop at an intermediate position, youre in luck. You can get three or more rod positions from a single cylinder! Many cylinder styles are offered with three-position options. Short-stroke, tie-rod cylinders are available that are essentially two cylinder bodies combined in a single package. You can specify the same or different stroke lengths to set your work positions as required.

Whats more, numerous cylinder styles are available in in back-to-back configurations that enable positioning at up to four end points. As the name implies, two single-rod cylinders are assembled with their back end caps attached. By anchoring one rod end and allowing the cylinder body to float, four distinct end points can be obtained.

For applications in which anti-rotation and registration are critical, there are solutions. Maintaining the loads fixed orientation can be accomplished in several ways. In one method used on tie rod cylinders, two guide pins incorporated inside the cylinder pass through the piston head. These guide pins prevent rotation of the rod with a tolerance of 1 degree. A rubber disk is included at the end of each guide pin to take up end play and firmly seat the pins in the precision guide-pin holes.

Because the guide pins are inside the cylinder, they are protected from the environment and physical damage, and they are lubricated by the system lubrication. They require no additional space, leaving the rod end area free for attachments and tooling as required by your application.

Twin piston rods can also be incorporated into the cylinder head to provide anti-rotation. The rods are securely fastened to the piston and tied together externally by a rod end tool bar. The tool bar ensures that the rods move in tandem and provides an ideal mounting surface for attachments required by your application. The tool bar is furnished with threaded mounting holes or optional counterbored mounting holes.

An adjusting screw with a thread-sealing locknut mounted in the rear end cap provides a simple, yet rugged adjustment of the cylinder stroke in the retract direction. A fine thread on the adjusting screw will provide precision adjustment. Adjustable retract strokes are offered as optional features for many cylinder styles.

It is also possible to use the back end of a double-rod cylinder to adjust the extend stroke. A stop collar, bumper and some kind of impact plate could do the trick. However, if taking this approach, use caution and consider a safety cover to avoid leaving the pinch point exposed!

The need for sensing can often change the cylinder design, depending on what type of sensor is needed. Standard electronic switching will require magnets to be added to the piston. Proximity switches may require internal or external changes to the cylinder, so that the sensing probes will have targets that they can read. Transducers may also require a variety of internal or external changes to a unit.

Cylinder piston rods are supported by a bearing in the front head of the cylinder and the piston itself running inside the cylinder walls. As the rod nears full extension, the distance between support surfaces becomes shorter. The piston rod assembly tends to cock causing uneven wear on the bearing surfaces and shortening seal life.

One solution to the problem is to install an internal stop tube. The stop tube blocks the piston from reaching the front head, thereby increasing the minimum distance between support points. Component wear is reduced and cylinder operating life is extended.

If you have room available, a double-rod cylinder gives you the best piston rod assembly support. Rod bearings in both end caps reduce the load on the piston. This design also ensures maximum distance between support points.

External issues are items that will cause harm to the outside of the cylinder. Certain wash down or wet environments often require that material changes be made to the basic cylinder components. End caps, tubing, tie rods and other parts might have to be made of stainless steel or a unique type of plastic. In lieu of material changes, a chemical coating process may be required to use the cylinder in a harsh environment.

Special cylinder applications can get quite complicated. But, by providing cylinder manufacturers with answers to these questions, you will greatly help them in their efforts to provide exactly what you need.

Keep in mind that each deviation from the standard product may cause special parts to be manufactured, purchased or designed. When you are looking at your next design project, I would suggest that you try to fit it into a standard product if at all possible. The fewer parts that have to change from a standard product, the less likely the cost will have to increase. However, when a total custom cylinder is required, you will need to plan on a longer lead-time because these items will be designed to your specific needs.

As more companies automate their screwdriving processes with collaborative robots, there are many factors to consider to ensure employee safety, consistent required torque high degree of repeatability and zero defect products. Join Universal Robots and screwdriving experts Atlas Copco for this joint webinar featuring the latest developments in automated screwdriving.

homemade mini hydraulic press machine | mistry maketool

Ahydraulic pressis a machine using ahydraulic cylinder to generate a compressive force. It uses the hydraulic equivalent of a mechanical lever. A hydraulic press is a machine that has a plate in which the metallic material is placed so that it can be crushed, straightened or moulded. Unlike their mechanical counterparts, hydraulic press machines can compress any material to a full extent. Also, hydraulic presses take only half of the space that the mechanical ones take because they have the ability to compress a large pressure in a cylinder having a less diameter.

Hydraulic presses are commonly used forforging, clinching,moulding, punching, deep drawing, and metal forming operations. With the growth and importance of light-weighting in the aerospace and automotive industry, more applications are present in Thermoplastics, Composites, RTM Resin Transfer Molding, GMT Glass Mat Transfer and Carbon Fiber Molding. All of these applications require precise control and repeat-ability.

An industrial sized hydraulic press machine is extremely heavy and expensive, but a smaller version can be made using a standard 5 ton bottle jackthe same type used to change a car tire. A blast shield and safety glasses should always be used when crushing anything, especially if its hard material.

First step to make a hydraulic press is cutting of required metal parts. So, I cut everything to its proper length and dimension such as L-section angle, square pipe etc. Then next step is drilled a holes for proper assembly of all cutting metal parts to make a frame of hydraulic press.

For cutting and drilling of parts you must ensures the safety protection. A pair of work gloves is good insurance against a wire brush if it should slip, as well as cutting down on the vibration being transmitted to your hands.

With that in mind, eye and hearing protection is a must. An angle grinder with a cut off blade makes a racket which soon causes a ringing in the ear without proper protection, it also sprays a shower of sparks which can bounce back off nearby objects, beware the hot spark bouncing back off a wall over the top of your safety goggles, its not a fun experience.

Second step is assembly of all cutting metal parts. I assembled all the metal parts without any kind of welding. I only used bolts and nuts for proper assembly of metal parts to make a frame of the hydraulic press.

I used 5 ton bottle jack to make this hydraulic press. Also I used 2 mechanical springs to allow the hydraulic jack in its first position. Both the hydraulic jack and springs are attached with the frame by using of bolts. Springs are attached by using of J bolts.

Now, this machine is ready to use. A hydraulic press is a machine that has a plate in which the metallic material is placed so that it can be crushed, straightened or moulded. In this machine you can easily straightened and crushed metal parts.

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