db levels for rock crushers

extraction of resources | geology

Mining is the extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from the earth from an orebody, lode, vein, seam, or reef, which forms the mineralized package of economic interest to the miner.

Ores recovered by mining include metals, coal, oil shale, gemstones, limestone, dimension stone, rock salt, potash, gravel, and clay. Mining is required to obtain any material that cannot be grown through agricultural processes, or created artificially in a laboratory or factory. Mining in a wider sense includes extraction of any non-renewable resource such as petroleum, natural gas, or even water.

Mining of stone and metal has been done since pre-historic times. Modern mining processes involve prospecting for ore bodies, analysis of the profit potential of a proposed mine, extraction of the desired materials, and final reclamation of the land after the mine is closed.

The nature of mining processes creates a potential negative impact on the environment both during the mining operations and for years after the mine is closed. This impact has led most of the worlds nations to adopt regulations designed to moderate the negative effects of mining operations. Safety has long been a concern as well, and modern practices have improved safety in mines significantly.

The process of mining from discovery of an ore body through extraction of minerals and finally to returning the land to its natural state consists of several distinct steps. The first is discovery of the ore body, which is carried out through prospecting or exploration to find and then define the extent, location and value of the ore body. This leads to a mathematical resource estimation to estimate the size and grade of the deposit.

This estimation is used to conduct a pre-feasibility study to determine the theoretical economics of the ore deposit. This identifies, early on, whether further investment in estimation and engineering studies is warranted and identifies key risks and areas for further work. The next step is to conduct a feasibility study to evaluate the financial viability, the technical and financial risks, and the robustness of the project.

This is when the mining company makes the decision whether to develop the mine or to walk away from the project. This includes mine planning to evaluate the economically recoverable portion of the deposit, the metallurgy and ore recoverability, marketability and payability of the ore concentrates, engineering concerns, milling and infrastructure costs, finance and equity requirements, and an analysis of the proposed mine from the initial excavation all the way through to reclamation. The proportion of a deposit that is economically recoverable is dependent on the enrichment factor of the ore in the area.

To gain access to the mineral deposit within an area it is often necessary to mine through or remove waste material which is not of immediate interest to the miner. The total movement of ore and waste constitutes the mining process. Often more waste than ore is mined during the life of a mine, depending on the nature and location of the ore body. Waste removal and placement is a major cost to the mining operator, so a detailed characterization of the waste material forms an essential part of the geological exploration program for a mining operation.

Once the analysis determines a given ore body is worth recovering, development begins to create access to the ore body. The mine buildings and processing plants are built, and any necessary equipment is obtained. The operation of the mine to recover the ore begins and continues as long as the company operating the mine finds it economical to do so. Once all the ore that the mine can produce profitably is recovered, reclamation begins to make the land used by the mine suitable for future use.

Mining techniques can be divided into two common excavation types: surface mining and sub-surface (underground) mining. Today, surface mining is much more common, and produces, for example, 85% of minerals (excluding petroleum and natural gas) in the United States, including 98% of metallic ores.

Targets are divided into two general categories of materials: placer deposits, consisting of valuable minerals contained within river gravels, beach sands, and other unconsolidated materials; and lode deposits, where valuable minerals are found in veins, in layers, or in mineral grains generally distributed throughout a mass of actual rock. Both types of ore deposit, placer or lode, are mined by both surface and underground methods.

Some mining, including much of the rare earth elements and uranium mining, is done by less-common methods, such as in-situ leaching: this technique involves digging neither at the surface nor underground. The extraction of target minerals by this technique requires that they be soluble, e.g., potash, potassium chloride, sodium chloride, sodium sulfate, which dissolve in water. Some minerals, such as copper minerals and uranium oxide, require acid or carbonate solutions to dissolve.

Surface mining is done by removing (stripping) surface vegetation, dirt, and, if necessary, layers of bedrock in order to reach buried ore deposits. Techniques of surface mining include: open-pit mining, which is the recovery of materials from an open pit in the ground, quarrying or gathering building materials from an open-pit mine; strip mining, which consists of stripping surface layers off to reveal ore/seams underneath; and mountaintop removal, commonly associated with coal mining, which involves taking the top of a mountain off to reach ore deposits at depth. Most (but not all) placer deposits, because of their shallowly buried nature, are mined by surface methods. Finally, landfill mining involves sites where landfills are excavated and processed.

This form of mining differs from extractive methods that require tunneling into the earth, such as long wall mining. Open-pit mines are used when deposits of commercially useful minerals or rocks are found near the surface; that is, where the overburden (surface material covering the valuable deposit) is relatively thin or the material of interest is structurally unsuitable for tunneling (as would be the case for sand, cinder, and gravel). For minerals that occur deep below the surfacewhere the overburden is thick or the mineral occurs as veins in hard rockunderground mining methods extract the valued material.

Open-pit mines are typically enlarged until either the mineral resource is exhausted, or an increasing ratio of overburden to ore makes further mining uneconomic. When this occurs, the exhausted mines are sometimes converted to landfills for disposal of solid wastes. However, some form of water control is usually required to keep the mine pit from becoming a lake, if the mine is situated in a climate of considerable precipitation or if any layers of the pit forming the mine border productive aquifers.

Open-cast mines are dug on benches, which describe vertical levels of the hole. These benches are usually on four to sixty meter intervals, depending on the size of the machinery that is being used. Many quarries do not use benches, as they are usually shallow.

Most walls of the pit are generally dug on an angle less than vertical, to prevent and minimize damage and danger from rock falls. This depends on how weathered the rocks are, and the type of rock, and also how many structural weaknesses occur within the rocks, such as a faults, shears, joints orfoliations.

The walls are stepped. The inclined section of the wall is known as the batter, and the flat part of the step is known as the bench or berm. The steps in the walls help prevent rock falls continuing down the entire face of the wall. In some instances additional ground support is required and rock bolts, cable bolts and shotcrete are used. De-watering bores may be used to relieve water pressure by drilling horizontally into the wall, which is often enough to cause failures in the wall by itself.

Ore which has been processed is known as tailings, and is generally a slurry. This is pumped to a tailings dam or settling pond, where the water evaporates. Tailings dams can often be toxic due to the presence of unextracted sulfide minerals, some forms of toxic minerals in the gangue, and oftencyanide which is used to treat gold ore via the cyanide leach process. This toxicity can harm the surrounding environment.

Gold is generally extracted in open-pit mines at 1 to 2ppm (parts per million) but in certain cases, 0.75ppm gold is economical. This was achieved by bulk heap leaching at the Peak Hill mine in western New South Wales, near Dubbo, Australia.

Nickel, generally as laterite, is extracted via open-pit down to 0.2%. Copper is extracted at grades as low as 0.15% to 0.2%, generally in massive open-pit mines in Chile, where the size of the resources and favorable metallurgy allows economies of scale.

Sub-surface mining consists of digging tunnels or shafts into the earth to reach buried ore deposits. Ore, for processing, and waste rock, for disposal, are brought to the surface through the tunnels and shafts. Sub-surface mining can be classified by the type of access shafts used, the extraction method or the technique used to reach the mineral deposit. Drift mining utilizes horizontal access tunnels, slope mining uses diagonally sloping access shafts, and shaft mining utilizes vertical access shafts. Mining in hard and soft rock formations require different techniques.

Other methods include shrinkage stope mining, which is mining upward, creating a sloping underground room, long wall mining, which is grinding a long ore surface underground, and room and pillar mining, which is removing ore from rooms while leaving pillars in place to support the roof of the room. Room and pillar mining often leads to retreat mining, in which supporting pillars are removed as miners retreat, allowing the room to cave in, thereby loosening more ore. Additional sub-surface mining methods include hard rock mining, which is mining of hard rock (igneous, metamorphic or sedimentary) materials, bore hole mining, drift and fill mining, long hole slope mining, sub level caving, and block caving.

Heavy machinery is used in mining to explore and develop sites, to remove and stockpile overburden, to break and remove rocks of various hardness and toughness, to process the ore, and to carry out reclamation projects after the mine is closed. Bulldozers, drills, explosives and trucks are all necessary for excavating the land. In the case of placer mining, unconsolidated gravel, or alluvium, is fed into machinery consisting of a hopper and a shaking screen or trommel which frees the desired minerals from the waste gravel. The minerals are then concentrated using sluices or jigs.

Large drills are used to sink shafts, excavate stopes, and obtain samples for analysis. Trams are used to transport miners, minerals and waste. Lifts carry miners into and out of mines, and move rock and ore out, and machinery in and out, of underground mines. Huge trucks, shovels and cranes are employed in surface mining to move large quantities of overburden and ore. Processing plants utilize large crushers, mills, reactors, roasters and other equipment to consolidate the mineral-rich material and extract the desired compounds and metals from the ore.

Once the mineral is extracted, it is often then processed. The science of extractive metallurgy is a specialized area in the science of metallurgy that studies the extraction of valuable metals from their ores, especially through chemical or mechanical means.

Mineral processing (or mineral dressing) is a specialized area in the science of metallurgy that studies the mechanical means of crushing, grinding, and washing that enable the separation (extractive metallurgy) of valuable metals or minerals from their gangue (waste material). Processing of placer ore material consists of gravity-dependent methods of separation, such as sluice boxes. Only minor shaking or washing may be necessary to disaggregate (unclump) the sands or gravels before processing. Processing of ore from a lode mine, whether it is a surface or subsurface mine, requires that the rock ore be crushed and pulverized before extraction of the valuable minerals begins. After lode ore is crushed, recovery of the valuable minerals is done by one, or a combination of several, mechanical and chemical techniques.

Since most metals are present in ores as oxides or sulfides, the metal needs to be reduced to its metallic form. This can be accomplished through chemical means such as smelting or through electrolytic reduction, as in the case of aluminium. Geometallurgy combines the geologic sciences with extractive metallurgy and mining.

Mining exists in many countries. London is known as the capital of global mining houses such as Rio Tinto Group, BHP Billiton, and Anglo American PLC.The US mining industry is also large, but it is dominated by the coal and other nonmetal minerals (e.g., rock and sand), and various regulations have worked to reduce the significance of mining in the United States.In 2007 the totalmarket capitalization of mining companies was reported at US$962 billion, which compares to a total global market cap of publicly traded companies of about US$50 trillion in 2007.In 2002, Chile and Peru were reportedly the major mining countries of South America.The mineral industry of Africa includes the mining of various minerals; it produces relatively little of the industrial metals copper, lead, and zinc, but according to one estimate has as a percent of world reserves 40% of gold, 60% of cobalt, and 90% of the worlds platinum group metals.Mining in India is a significant part of that countrys economy. In the developed world, mining in Australia, with BHP Billiton founded and headquartered in the country, and mining in Canada are particularly significant. For rare earth minerals mining, China reportedly controlled 95% of production in 2013.

Mining operations can be grouped into five major categories in terms of their respective resources. These are oil and gas extraction, coal mining, metal ore mining, nonmetallic mineral mining and quarrying, and mining support activities.Of all of these categories, oil and gas extraction remains one of the largest in terms of its global economic importance. Prospecting potential mining sites, a vital area of concern for the mining industry, is now done using sophisticated new technologies such as seismic prospecting and remote-sensing satellites. Mining is heavily affected by the prices of the commodity minerals, which are often volatile. The 2000s commodities boom (commodities supercycle) increased the prices of commodities, driving aggressive mining. In addition, the price of gold increased dramatically in the 2000s, which increasedgold mining; for example, one study found that conversion of forest in the Amazon increased six-fold from the period 20032006 (292 ha/yr) to the period 20062009 (1,915 ha/yr), largely due to artisanal mining.

Safety has long been a concern in the mining business especially in sub-surface mining. The Courrires mine disaster, Europes worst mining accident, involved the death of 1,099 miners in Northern France on March 10, 1906. This disaster was surpassed only by the Benxihu Colliery accident in China on April 26, 1942, which killed 1,549 miners.While mining today is substantially safer than it was in previous decades, mining accidents still occur. Government figures indicate that 5,000 Chinese miners die in accidents each year, while other reports have suggested a figure as high as 20,000.Mining accidents continue worldwide, including accidents causing dozens of fatalities at a time such as the 2007 Ulyanovskaya Mine disaster in Russia, the2009 Heilongjiang mine explosion in China, and the 2010 Upper Big Branch Mine disaster in the United States.

Mining ventilation is a significant safety concern for many miners. Poor ventilation inside sub-surface mines causes exposure to harmful gases, heat, and dust, which can cause illness, injury, and death. The concentration of methane and other airborne contaminants underground can generally be controlled by dilution (ventilation), capture before entering the host air stream (methane drainage), or isolation (seals and stoppings).Rock dusts, including coal dust and silicon dust, can cause long-term lung problems including silicosis, asbestosis, and pneumoconiosis (also known as miners lung or black lungdisease). A ventilation system is set up to force a stream of air through the working areas of the mine. The air circulation necessary for effective ventilation of a mine is generated by one or more large mine fans, usually located above ground. Air flows in one direction only, making circuits through the mine such that each main work area constantly receives a supply of fresh air. Watering down in coal mines also helps to keep dust levels down: by spraying the machine with water and filtering the dust-laden water with a scrubber fan, miners can successfully trap the dust.

Gases in mines can poison the workers or displace the oxygen in the mine, causing asphyxiation.For this reason, the U.S. Mine Safety and Health Administration requires that groups of miners in the United States carry gas detection equipment that can detect common gases, such as CO, O2, H2S, CH4, as well as calculate% Lower Explosive Limit. Regulation requires that all production stop if there is a concentration of 1.4% of flammable gas present. Additionally, further regulation is being requested for more gas detection as newer technology such as nanotechnology is introduced.

Ignited methane gas is a common source of explosions in coal mines, which in turn can initiate more extensive coal dust explosions. For this reason, rock dusts such as limestone dust are spread throughout coal mines to diminish the chances of coal dust explosions as well as to limit the extent of potential explosions, in a process known as rock dusting. Coal dust explosions can also begin independently of methane gas explosions. Frictional heat and sparks generated by mining equipment can ignite both methane gas and coal dust. For this reason, water is often used to cool rock-cutting sites.

Miners utilize equipment strong enough to break through extremely hard layers of the Earths crust. This equipment, combined with the closed work space in which underground miners work, can cause hearing loss.For example, a roof bolter (commonly used by mine roof bolter operators) can reach sound power levels of up to 115dB.Combined with the reverberant effects of underground mines, a miner without proper hearing protection is at a high risk forhearing loss.By age 50, nearly 90% of U.S. coal miners have some hearing loss, compared to only 10% among workers not exposed to loud noises.Roof bolters are among the loudest machines, but auger miners, bulldozers, continuous mining machines, front end loaders, and shuttle cars and trucks are also among those machines most responsible for excessive noise in mine work.

Since mining entails removing dirt and rock from its natural location, thereby creating large empty pits, rooms, and tunnels, cave-ins as well as ground and rock falls are a major concern within mines. Modern techniques for timbering and bracing walls and ceilings within sub-surface mines have reduced the number of fatalities due to cave-ins, but ground falls continue to represent up to 50% of mining fatalities.Even in cases where mine collapses are not instantly fatal, they can trap mine workers deep underground. Cases such as these often lead to high-profile rescue efforts, such as when 33 Chilean miners were trapped deep underground for 69 days in 2010.

High temperatures and humidity may result in heat-related illnesses, including heat stroke, which can be fatal. The presence of heavy equipment in confined spaces also poses a risk to miners. To improve the safety of mine workers, modern mines use automation and remote operation including, for example, such equipment as automated loaders and remotely operated rockbreakers. However, despite modern improvements to safety practices, mining remains a dangerous occupation throughout the world.

Environmental issues can include erosion, formation of sinkholes, loss of biodiversity, and contamination of soil, groundwater and surface water by chemicals from mining processes. In some cases, additional forest logging is done in the vicinity of mines to create space for the storage of the created debris and soil.Contamination resulting from leakage of chemicals can also affect the health of the local population if not properly controlled.Extreme examples of pollution from mining activities include coal fires, which can last for years or even decades, producing massive amounts of environmental damage.

Mining companies in most countries are required to follow stringent environmental and rehabilitation codes in order to minimize environmental impact and avoid impacting human health. These codes and regulations all require the common steps of environmental impact assessment, development of environmental management plans, mine closure planning (which must be done before the start of mining operations), and environmental monitoring during operation and after closure. However, in some areas, particularly in the developing world, government regulations may not be well enforced.

Ore mills generate large amounts of waste, called tailings. For example, 99 tons of waste are generated per ton of copper, with even higher ratios in gold mining. These tailings can be toxic. Tailings, which are usually produced as a slurry, are most commonly dumped into ponds made from naturally existing valleys.These ponds are secured by impoundments (dams orembankment dams).In 2000 it was estimated that 3,500 tailings impoundments existed, and that every year, 2 to 5 major failures and 35 minor failures occurred;for example, in the Marcopper mining disaster at least 2 million tons of tailings were released into a local river.Subaqueous tailings disposal is another option.The mining industry has argued that submarine tailings disposal (STD), which disposes of tailings in the sea, is ideal because it avoids the risks of tailings ponds; although the practice is illegal in the United States and Canada, it is used in the developing world.

The waste is classified as either sterile or mineralised, with acid generating potential, and the movement and storage of this material forms a major part of the mine planning process. When the mineralised package is determined by an economic cut-off, the near-grade mineralised waste is usually dumped separately with view to later treatment should market conditions change and it becomes economically viable. Civil engineering design parameters are used in the design of the waste dumps, and special conditions apply to high-rainfall areas and to seismically active areas. Waste dump designs must meet all regulatory requirements of the country in whose jurisdiction the mine is located. It is also common practice to rehabilitate dumps to an internationally acceptable standard, which in some cases means that higher standards than the local regulatory standard are applied.

After mining finishes, the mine area must undergo rehabilitation. Waste dumps are contoured to flatten them out, to further stabilise them. If the ore contains sulfides it is usually covered with a layer of clay to prevent access of rain and oxygen from the air, which can oxidise the sulfides to producesulfuric acid, a phenomenon known as acid mine drainage. This is then generally covered with soil, and vegetation is planted to help consolidate the material. Eventually this layer will erode, but it is generally hoped that the rate of leaching or acid will be slowed by the cover such that the environment can handle the load of acid and associated heavy metals. There are no long term studies on the success of these covers due to the relatively short time in which large scale open pit mining has existed. It may take hundreds to thousands of years for some waste dumps to become acid neutral and stop leaching to the environment. The dumps are usually fenced off to prevent livestock denuding them of vegetation. The open pit is then surrounded with afence, to prevent access, and it generally eventually fills up with ground water. In arid areas it may not fill due to deep groundwater levels.

During the twentieth century, the variety of metals used in society grew rapidly. Today, the development of major nations such as China and India and advances in technologies are fueling an ever greater demand. The result is that metal mining activities are expanding and more and more of the worlds metal stocks are above ground in use rather than below ground as unused reserves. An example is the in-use stock of copper. Between 1932 and 1999, copper in use in the USA rose from 73 kilograms (161lb) to 238 kilograms (525lb) per person.

95% of the energy used to make aluminum from bauxite ore is saved by using recycled material.However, levels of metals recycling are generally low. In 2010, the International Resource Panel, hosted by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), published reports on metal stocks that exist within societyand their recycling rates.

The reports authors observed that the metal stocks in society can serve as huge mines above ground. However, they warned that the recycling rates of some rare metals used in applications such as mobile phones, battery packs for hybrid cars, and fuel cells are so low that unless future end-of-life recycling rates are dramatically stepped up these critical metals will become unavailable for use in modern technology.

Answer the question(s) below to see how well you understand the topics covered in the previous section. This short quiz doesnotcount toward your grade in the class, and you can retake it an unlimited number of times.

the best 3-day split workout to build muscle

There are so many options when trying to create a workout routine for building muscle. But going to the gym 6, 5, sometimes even 4 days per week cannot only be tough on the body, but can become a major inconvenience.

With 4-day and 5-day workout splits becoming more and more popular amongst the bodybuilding and fitness community, it seems that 3-day splits are slowly dying away. What many people don't realize is that 3-day splits can be just as effective, if not more so than 4- or 5-day splits, which generally don't allow sufficient time for recovery.

As I always do, I will not include one workout that I feel is THE best for the category, but rather, give you 3 different routines, which are my favorite 3-day splits, that have been proven to yield solid results in both strength and hypertrophy gains. If you like you can complete all 3 routines in 36 weeks (12 weeks/routine).

Note: Before all your workouts I encourage you perform a proper warm-up to prevent the chances of an injury occurring and also to 'loosen you up' and get you both mentally and physically prepared to perform at your best.

Here is a suggested warm-up; you do not have to follow this but at least make sure you warm-up by first by raising your body temperature slightly (till you break a light sweat) and then performing some dynamic stretching and mobility drills:

This workout has been designed for beginners. Your experience level does not matter when using this template, and even more advanced trainers who have been training high volume for an extended period of time, may find this switch to low volume training beneficial.

Work on training heavy for the first exercise for each workout, go to failure and attempt to increase weight from the previous session, or at least repetitions. Make sure you warm-up properly for the exercise (progress to heavier weights). Get at least 3-4 minutes rest between work sets (less needed for warm-up sets).

For the other exercises do not work till complete failure, stop at least 1-2 reps short. Work on gradually increasing repetitions each session and eventually load, once you have reached the end of the allotted range. Get at least 2 minutes rest between these work sets.

Work on training heavy for the first exercise for each workout, go to failure and attempt to increase weight from the previous session, or at least repetitions. Make sure you warm-up properly for the exercise (progress to heavier weights). Get at least 3-4 minutes rest between work sets (less needed for warm-up sets).

For the other exercises do not work till complete failure, stop at least 1-2 reps short. Work on gradually increasing repetitions each session and eventually load, once you have reached the end of the allotted range. Get at least 2 minutes rest between these work sets.

Work on training heavy for the first exercise for each workout, go to failure and attempt to increase weight from the previous session or at least repetitions. Make sure you warm-up properly for the exercise (progress to heavier weights). Get at least 3-4 minutes rest between work sets (less needed for warm-up sets).

For the other exercises do not work till complete failure, stop at least 1-2 reps short. Work on gradually increasing repetitions each session and eventually load, once you have reached the end of the allotted range. Get at least 2 minutes rest between these work sets.

This depends on how long you've been training and your recovery abilities, which tie in with that. If you are beginning or with little experience (less than 2 years worth of training), then training each muscle group once a week is sufficient for a 3-day split, and anymore will be pushing the boundaries of overtraining.

As you become more experienced and your recovery abilities improve you can start looking at increasing frequency and possibly putting extra time into working on weaker areas of your physique, so they can be brought up.

Beginners can start of with low volume splits to learn the ropes and build up a solid base. Intermediate trainers can start to step up the volume a little (or keep it low volume), as well as the intensity, as their recovery abilities start to improve. Advanced trainers can use high volume 3-day splits, or increase frequency, by incorporating full-body workouts.

Bodybuilders, powerlifters and athletes can all use 3-days splits. Although these trainers all have slightly different goals with their weight training splits, they can all follow a structure based on weight training 3-days per week, because of its versatility, adaptability and recovery time.

Also a 3-day split is ideal for busy people, who find themselves always on the go, with little time to make it to the gym. 3-day splits make it easier for such people to find time in their busy lives to workout and keep strong and fit.

You'll find that most IFBB professionals will not use 3-day splits, because of their massive supplement arsenal, that allows them to enhance their recovery abilities by copious amounts compared to the average trainer. So these guys will tend to use much higher frequency templates (>5 days per week), due to the fact the more you stimulate a muscle to grow, the greater opportunity it has to grow (providing the CNS is fully recovered each workout and you are training hard and smart).

However, a lot of WNBF professionals, and amateur bodybuilders and powerlifters, as well as a lot of professional athletes in other sports such as football, wrestling, track and field, boxing, Aussie Rules Football and rugby, use 3-day per week weight training routines.

These goals are almost entirely dependent on your diet, not on your lifting routine. For bulking a calorie surplus is required, for cutting a calorie deficit is needed and for maintaining your current weight, calorie equilibrium should be aimed for.

However some lifters find that muscle group splits allow them to lift greater loads, because specific and general fatigue will be less inclined to occur, as say, in upper/lower of full body workouts. So people who follow this train of thought will tend to choose those types of splits, whether they be 3, 4 or 5 days, for their bulking cycles.

Some lifters also believe that full body splits should be used for cutting because of the fact full-body splits (which can be performed 2-or-3 days per week) burn much calories per workout, as more muscle groups are being drawn upon each session.

In my opinion, it really doesn't matter what type of format you use for bulking/cutting/maintaining, as long as the format you are using advocates progressive overload, mainly by encouraging progressively heavier weights to be used, and does not promote overtraining, then I am all for it. As I said before, three day splits are versatile and because of this can be used whatever you goals are.

Firstly, 3-day splits also allow for a lot of variety. You can use a wide range of different combinations of muscle groups, movements and the like, to construct your own 3-day split. You can do muscle group splits like the famous push/pull/legs, or if you feel inclined to increase the frequency more then a three day upper/lower template or full body split can be arranged.

It doesn't matter whether you're training goals are, whether they are primarily based around strength or hypertrophy gains or combination of the two, three days splits can be used by anyone, whether you're experienced or not.

Secondly, 3-day splits are convenient. Not everyone has time to go to the gym, four or five days per week, but only having to go three days per week, makes the equation much easier for busy people to still get the fitness results they desire.

Thirdly and finally, you are less likely to be overtraining with a 3-day split, while still getting intense workouts when you do train. With at least 1 day of recovery or rest between each workout, your CNS gets a break from high intensity training, and you can come back the next day, fresh and ready for another intense workout.

The best 3-day split workout is one that will work all the muscle groups in your body and give them enough time to rest and grow. This workout is best if you have limited time like most people, and have a desire to gain mass and strength in a few short weeks.

The most important thing to remember is to not give up and to keep working out, do not miss a day because this will mess up your whole schedule. It is vital that you do your 3 days a week or you will not have enough rest and you will not grow.

The workout will be split into 3 different body groups, each designed to allow for adequate amount of rest and also made to be completed in a short amount of time. Workout should take no longer than 1 hour, but should be a minimum of 45 minutes. If you have a partner, rest when your partner is doing their set and vice versa.

You deserve this day off, make sure to eat right and rest. If you're sore from the day before, massage and stretch those sore muscles. If you're not sore, then think about using heavier weight next time.

This should be your favorite day because this is when you pack on mass from those squats that work those large leg muscles and release growth hormone throughout your body. Your base also gets stronger and you will be able to lift more next week! Have a cheat meal the next day as a reward for going through this punishing and painful week.

Because the legs are a big muscle group, you should only work them out once a week. Compared to other the muscle groups, they take the longest to recover because they contain the most muscle fibers and can result in higher levels of soreness.

Some muscles that can be trained more than once a week would include the forearms, traps and delts. This is because these muscles are small and are used to being used frequently, therefore they have high endurance.

The only way to get them to grow when they have high endurance is to work them constantly and with heavy reps. Working them more than 3 times per week is pushing it though, so do not over train and keep working them out about 1-2 times a week.

A 3-day split body workout can be beneficial to anyone, from the beginner to the more advanced bodybuilder. If you are a beginner it can help by getting the body ready to take the overload of future lifting by working the whole body with heavy weights.

Also, remember that the beginner does not know much about the anatomy of the body and what muscles to specifically workout each day because it is known that certain muscles are used in conjunction with others in some exercises, such as bench press which utilizes the pectoral and triceps muscles, consequently making the chest and triceps one big muscle group.

The beginner may not know this, so this workout will make sure that they work muscles by group and not by location or preference. A person new to weight lifting may also not have the time to have a workout every day, so this 3-day-per-week workout is great for those short on time.

For the advanced bodybuilder, it is important to change workouts every couple of weeks. This is because after a while, the human body adapts to change, such as a 5-day workout. This workout is the perfect way to keep the body from getting used to a certain workout and plateauing.

Sometimes bodybuilders tend to workout for size or strength; this workout will help both and not just one. This can prove to be advantageous to the advanced bodybuilder as it can help gain mass or strength by taking more time off to rest.

Not many pros out there use the 3-day split for one reason. That's because they do longer split workouts (5-6 days long), instead of 3. They are able to do this because this is their job and they have all the supplements to help them recover faster, letting them workout longer than the average Joe.

There are a couple of amateur bodybuilders out there that use the 3-day split workout routine such as Russ Hosmer. Russ Hosmer uses a combination of 3-and-4-day splits, and depending on his needs he changes it around a bit.

3-day splits are better for bulking because it can quickly add mass with a strict workout and a proper diet. One reason why it would not be good for cutting is because in cutting you are shedding fat, normally by doing cardiovascular exercises.

3-days splits are too heavy to be used to maintain muscle or tone, because they overload the muscle and instead of toning or increasing endurance, they will add size and strength. Higher reps and sets are what increases endurance, so this workout will not significantly increase endurance, making maintenance hard with this workout.

As mentioned earlier, professional bodybuilders use more days in their split workouts because it allows them to do more in less time. They have supplements that help them recover their bodies much faster, therefore they can come back and work a muscle group more than once a week without overtraining.

But, we are not all pro bodybuilders, so we have to use shorter days to achieve our goals. One way to do that is to use the 3-day split workout which will workout the whole body in the least amount of time. 4-or-5-day splits will only increase the risk of overtraining and injury.

If you want to grow quickly but safely, use the 3-day split as it will give you enough rest. The key is consistency because you do not want to miss a day that will impair your ability to recover and grow.

In a 3-day split, the calves should be trained directly only once per week. If one does running or plays a sport, the calves are worked heavily in those activities. Calves are also synergists in squats and deadlifts. The shoulders and traps are trained directly 1x per week but again, they are synergists in Bench Press (Shoulders) and Deadlifts (Traps). All of the other muscle groups are trained directly 2x per week.

I think that anyone interested in bodybuilding or athletics should consider a 3-day split. This is because too many people do 5 or 6 days-per-week splits and are under the impression that more time in the gym leads to more muscle growth but this is completely false.

The often forgotten variable in muscle growth is REST and with a 3-day split, one is able to get plenty of it which is why in my opinion it is one of the best splits for hypertrophy. Also your body functions as a whole and not as separate body parts so training it as a whole is important. 3-day splits also are user friendly in that you train 3x per week which can help people out if they have busy or hectic schedules.

3-day splits are probably better for bulking and maintaining. But the most important aspect of bulking, cutting or maintaining is one's diet. You can have the best training program in the world but if your diet is not up to par then you will not make gains.

One's diet will ultimately decide whether they will bulk, cut or maintain. In order to bulk on a 3-day split, you need to have a caloric excess of at least 500 calories per day which would translate to 1 pound gained per week.

If you want to maintain, there should be no caloric excess or deficit. If you want to cut, there should be a caloric deficit of about 500 calories per day, but usually not more. When you cut, you don't want to lose muscle, you want to lose fat and typically losing more than 1 lb per week ends up in some lost muscle.

Personally, I use a 3-day split for every purpose - strength, hypertrophy, etc. 4-day and 5-day splits can be effective but again, the effect of rest is much greater in a 3-day split and outweighs some of the benefits of other splits. So in my opinion a 3-day split > 4-day split > 5-day split.

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fabreeka preformed fabric pad - fabreeka - vibration isolation, impact shock control, and thermal break

Fabreeka pad is the original preformed fabric reinforced, elastomeric pad developed in 1936. The properties of the Fabreeka cotton duck pad are exceptionally suited for impact shock control, vibration isolation and structure-borne noise insulation. Fabreeka pad can be used as a bearing pad as well as for isolation washers, bushings and OEM parts.

Fabreeka pad has been used for over 80 years for mounting heavy machinery where absorption of impact shock is required. Meeting or exceeding MIL-C-882 and MIL-E-5272 specifications, Fabreeka pad prevents cracking and flaking of concrete, eliminates the need for grout and prolongs the life of both machines and structures. Each preformed fabric pad made by Fabreeka is scientifically constructed to give years of service under the most severe operating conditions.

When considering vibration isolation, usually more than one disturbing frequency is present in a machine. As a general rule, an attempt should be made to isolate the frequency producing the largest vibration amplitude, while avoiding resonance with the other disturbing frequencies. Fabreekas fabric reinforced elastomeric material, with its resilience, minimal deflection and high strength, often serves as a more practical vibration isolator than softer materials.

Fabreekas part in isolating noise is one of reducing structure-borne noise. Fabreeka reduces mechanical vibrations which can be converted to air-borne noise. When isolating structure-borne noise, it is essential that all conductive paths of vibration be blocked. Therefore, Fabreeka pads, washers and bushings are required to completely break the metal-to-metal contact between the isolated unit and its support.

Fabreeka bearing pads were first used as a bridge bearing and are commonly used as a structural bearing element accommodating surface irregularity and rotations between load bearing faces. The preformed fabric pads can also be provided with a Teflon surface for use in expansion bearings and pipe slides.

Depending upon the size and thickness, Fabreeka pad can ultimately withstand loads up to 10,000 psi. Normally, compressive stresses are designed not to exceed 2,000 psi to extend service life and reduce permanent set

How can I be sure the material I am buying meets the MIL-C-882 specification? The supplier should supply a material certification stating that the material meets MIL-C-882. In addition, the deflection, creep and environmental test data should be provided or certified to.

What is creep? Creep is the deformation of rubber is influenced by the length of time under stress. If the rubber is statically loaded to a given amount, as occurs for example by the support of a machine, then an elastic deformation takes place superseded after a longer period of time by creep. Creep behavior follows an exponential law and is concluded sometime afterward. If the isolator is released, then its shape returns elastically. High elastic grades show a small residual strain and minimal creep. With good elastic qualities, the creep lies between 5% and 10% of the total elastic strain.

How is damping different than isolation/absorption? The essential properties of an isolator are natural frequency (developed by the spring rate or stiffness) and an energy dissipating mechanism known as damping. In some types of isolators, the stiffness or natural frequency and damping properties are contained in a single element such as elastomers, cork, rubber mats, etc. Other types of isolators may have separate means of providing stiffness and damping as is the case with air springs (pneumatic isolators) and coil steel springs, which are relatively undamped until used in conjunction with auxiliary damping elements such as orifice flow restrictors and viscous dampers. The purpose of damping in an isolator is to reduce or dissipate energy as rapidly as possible. Damping is also beneficial in reducing vibration amplitudes at resonance. Resonance occurs when the natural frequency of the isolator coincides with the frequency of the source vibration.

The ideal isolator would have as little damping as possible in its isolation region as much as possible at the isolators natural frequency to reduce amplification at resonance. Damping, however, can also lead to a loss of isolation efficiency.

Can Fabreeka pad material act as an electrical insulator? Fabreeka pad has a dielectric strength of 12,500 volts (210 volts/mil) and a resistivity of 8.5 x 10e9 ohm-cm. (Insulating material classification requires a resistivity greater than 10e5 ohm-cm.) As a comparison, natural rubber has a resistivity value of 10e15 ohm-cm. Fabreeka pad has a dielectric constant of 9.34, with a power factor of 0.201 and a loss index of 1.881. All of these values are for Fabreeka pad at a standard room conditions of 73F (213C) and 50% relative humidity.

How does static spring rate differ from dynamic spring rate? The static deflection principle can only be used to determine the natural frequency of an isolator if the isolator under consideration is both linear and elastic. For example: rubber, felt, fiberglass and composite materials tend to be non-linear and exhibit a dynamic spring rate that differs from the static spring rate.

Any isolator with a calculated natural frequency based on static deflection may not behave in the predicted way because the dynamic spring rate differs from the static spring rate. It is the dynamic natural frequency that has to be used in isolation calculations rather than the static natural frequency.

What are the thermal properties of Fabreeka material? Thermal conductivity of Fabreeka material is expressed in power per unit of area divided by temperature gradient in degrees per unit of length. The Imperial units are 1.90 BTU INCH/HR/FT-SQ/Degrees F.

What are the manufacturing tolerances of the Fabreeka Pad? Manufacturing tolerances vary by thickness and part geometry. Please contact Fabreekas Engineering department at 1-800-322-7352 or [email protected] to discuss the tolerances for your application.