definition for cement mill in electric drives

cement plant motors up to 13,8kv and 20000 kw

Cement plant motor manufacturing is one of our main product focuses. Cement mills, fans, shredders - in the production of cement, particularly large and efficient motors are required for the most diverse processes. MENZEL offers individual motor solutions for all applications in the cement industry up to 13.8 kV and 25 MW.

Thanks to our many years of experience in the manufacturing of cement plant motors, we are the partner of choice for many cement mills operators all over the world. We offer large low-, medium- and high-voltage motors for various industrial sectors. Cement plants represent a particularly exciting challenge here: continuous use, highest performance requirements, high levels of dust, extreme ambient temperatures or installation altitudes. Where heavy masses of raw material are being transported, crushed, grinded and burned, the highest demands are placed on our cement plant motors.

MENZEL cement plant motors guarantee a trouble-free and high-performance operation of your plant. We offer very robust slip ring and squirrel cage motors that are also suited to difficult start-up conditions. Menzel Elektromotoren not only provides electric motors to end users directly, but is also a supplier and partner of drive manufacturers, distributors, and maintenance companies. As a motor manufacturer, we carry a large stock including many unusual motor versions and is highly experienced in customized motor adaptations.Many repeated orders are proof of highest quality and reliability.

Our electric motors delivery program for the cement industry includes three-phase motors with slip ring rotor or squirrel cage rotor up to 13.8kV. Various designs as well as all types of protection and cooling are possible.

Our electric motors for cement mills and other all are manufactured in compliance with the currently valid EN60034 and IEC60034, VDE, DIN and ISO standards and meet all international standards. Menzel Elektromotoren Berlin is TV certified according to DIN EN ISO 9001.

A costly industrial plant such as a cement mill must produce flawlessly at all times. In the event of a plant shutdown, with MENZEL you can count on a manufacturer who can provide you with electric motors at short notice from stock - worldwide. MENZEL keeps one of the largest stocks of major motors for the cement industry across Europe.

We can provide you with large brand new medium and high voltage motors with squirrel cage or slip ring rotor up to 15000 kW directly from stock. We keep motors of our own MENZEL series, but also of other brands in stock and can provide them within a very few days. Special constructions and individual adjustments of our electric motors are possible at any time.

You have an emergency and plant shut down? The best way to make your inquiryis to use our contact form, specifying how fast you need the electric motor you're looking for.One of our engineers will get in touch with you quickly.

Menzel was to supply a spare slip ring motor for a cement plant in Canada and had to meet very exacting requirements. This was the third order of motors that this Canadian system integrator has recently placed at MENZEL. The new slip ring motor must be able to replace three existing crusher motors in case of a failure. To ensure smooth commissioning at the installation site, which is characterized by very tight space restrictions, Menzel's project manager took the measurements in Canada himself.

Menzel chose a 4.5 MW slip ring motor from stock and built an extended shaft. Furthermore we fitted special adapter plates with mounting holes for all three locations as well as brackets for plug and play mounting of vibration sensors for condition monitoring. The custom-made adapter plates were made in our in-house welding shop, which allows flexible production of special components and custom-made welded designs at all times. In addition, the terminal box of this spare slip ring motor was fitted with long feeder cables to facilitate the third-party connecting-up.

Through our many years of experience in the manufacturing of cement mill motors, we are familiar with a wide variety of requirements and can advise customers from the industrial cement sector around the world. MENZEL electric motors are being operated in numerous industrial plants, not only cement plants. Further reference projects from the industrial cement sector and others can be found here.

Menzel offers a comprehensive range of larger electric motors for the industrial cement sector. As a manufacturer of electric motors, we place our customers and their individual requirements at the heart of the focus of our engineering work. Our service packages covers far more than just delivering the correct drive. We also offer a wide range of services including support, maintenance, commissioning, consultancy, and logistics. We follow a clear objective, which is to be available to our clients at all times:

12 basic motor types used for industrial electric drives | eep

However, the above two disadvantages can be overcome by installing diesel-driven DC generators and turbine-driven 3-phase alternators which can be used either in the absence of or on the failure of normal electric supply.

Cumulative compound motoris a varying speed motor with high starting torque and is used for driving compressors, variable head centifugal pumps, rotary presses, circular saws, shearing machines, elevators and continuous conveyors etc.

Because its speed remains constant under varying loads, 3-phase synchronous motoris used for driving continuously operating equipment at constant speed such as ammonia and air compressors, motor generator sets, continuous rolling mills, paper and cement industries.

Squirrel cage induction motorisused for low and medium power drives where speed control isnot required as for water pumps, tube wells, lathes, drills, grinders, polishers, wood planers, fans, blowers, laundary washing machines and compressors etc.

Double squirrel cage motoris used for driving loads which require high starting torque such as compressor pumps, reciprocating pumps, large refrigerators, crushers, boring mills, textile machinery, cranes, punches and lathes etc.

Slip ring induction motor is used for those industrial drives which require high starting torque and speed control such as lifts, pumps, winding machines, printing presses, line shafts, elevators and compressors etc.

It possesses high starting torque and its speed can be controlled over a wide range.Single phase series motoris generally used for driving small domestic appliances like refrigerators and vacuumcleaners etc.

It has fairly constant speed and moderately high starting torque. Speed control is not possible. Capacitor-start induction-run motoris generally used for compressors, refrigerators and small portable hoists.

Its operating characteristics are similar to the above motor except that it has better power factor and higher efficiency. Hence, capacitor-start-and-run motorsarecommonly used for drives requiring quiet operations.

This is really informative, and handy when you need to choose a type of electric drive. It would also be really handy to give a rough price comparison of different power options, as the most cost-effective motor that delivers the drive solution is generally sought. eg; generally an SCI motor is used for small appliances, like say, a bench saw. These motors are cheap to produce, but are heavy and not all that efficient. A slightly more efficient motor would be a CS (Cap Start) motor, and an even better option would be a CSCR (Cap Start, Cap Run) motor, which also has a higher start torque. This option may come at a price premium though, so may not be the most appropriate. So for portable equipment, a series shunt motor would be used, because its power to weight ratio is much better.

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selecting ac induction motors for cement plant applications | eep

Although motors may appear to be the leastcomplicated component in the specification of cement millequipment, this article shall try to demonstrate thatcement plant applications present an immense matrix ofapplication criteria to properly specify anddesignmotors.

The cement plant operator, process equipmentsupplier or engineering consulting firm must determine the most effective power source, taking load hp and ampvalues of the entire system into consideration.

The Hz rating is determined by the power system available at the site. Because the cement market is globalwith many Hz and voltage combinations, the Hz value cannot be assumed. It is important to the motormanufacturer in the proper design of a motor, which would be different for Chile (50 Hz) than Argentina (60 Hz).

Ambient temperatures below 30 C can requirespecial bearing lubricant and material requirements. Conversely, ambient temperatures above 40 C may result inthe allowable motor temperature rise to be lowered, which effectively de-rates the motor output.

The lower density of air at higher altitudes results in a decreased cooling media for the motor. The derate factoris 1% of the specified temperature rise for each 100 meters of altitude in excess of 1000 meters.

To properly select AC induction motors for any application, the speed vs. torque requirements of the drivenequipment must be understood. It is an easy mistake to believe that a 400 hp 1200 rpm motor, which wouldfunction well in a low inertia fan application, would also work aptly in a kiln application.

However, the load torquerequirements of a fan pump during initial starting are typically less than 30% of full load torque, while a full kilncould have load torque requirements of over 100% of full load torque.

The distinction must be understood between the running condition of the driven equipment, which dictate the hpand rpm of the motor, and the starting load condition of the driven equipment, which dictates the motor startingcharacteristics.

A stallcondition requires the mine operator to lower the starting load before attempting to restart the equipment. In thecase of crushers or mills, this means the removal of aggregate from the machine. Excessive stall conditions alsodamage the motor due to excessive current flow in the stator and rotor.

The two major types of TEFC motors are totally enclosed fin cooled and totally enclosed air to air cooled(TEAAC Figure 1 above). The fin cooled (Figure 2) variant is defined by the cooling fins that cover the main structureof the enclosure.

Typically this frame is constructed of cast iron, although welded steel fin and aluminum castconstruction is occasionally offered. TEAAC motors are equipped with an air to air heat exchanger on the top ofthe motor stator. In a TEAAC enclosure, the hot air from the stator is forced around the tubes that channel thecooling air.

Open Enclosures: Open type enclosures present a lower cost option to the mining industry, although as theNEMA definition implies, the degree of protection for the motor windings is diminished.An open machine is onehaving ventilating openings which permit passage of external cooling air over and around the windings of themachine.

The WPII enclosure includes a minimum of three 90 turns of the inlet and exhaust air to limit the ingression ofairborne contaminants. The WPII type motor can also be supplied with filters on the air intake (galvanized steel orstainless steel are most common).

The primary limitation/disadvantage of the open enclosures is that airborne dusts that are in the cementenvironment can build up inside of enclosures and cause the units to overheat. In addition, the airbornecontaminants can also tend to sand blast the stator winding insulation if filters are not in place.

A totally enclosed water-air-cooled machine is a totally enclosed machine which is cooled bycirculating air which, in turn, is cooled by circulating water. It is provided with a water-cooled heatexchanger, for cooling the internal air and a fan or fans, integral with the rotor shaft or separate forcirculating the internal air.

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cycloconverters - power electronics a to z

Cycloconverters are basically AC to AC power converters. They convert constant voltage AC power to adjustable voltage, adjustable frequency AC power without any intermediate DC link.

The cycloconverter is defined as a frequency changer that converts ac power at one input frequency to output power at a different frequency with a one-stage conversion process. In large power industrial applications (such as cement and ball mill drives, Rolling mill drives) thyristor phase-controlled cycloconverters are widely used. The cycloconverters are used forVariable-speed, constant frequency (VFCS) power generation for aircraft 400Hz power supplies.

1. Single phase cycloconverters Single phase output may be obtained either from a single phase source or from a three-phase source. If the supply source is single phaseit is called single phase to single phase cycloconverters. If the supply source is three-phase it is called as three-phase to singlephase cycloconverters.

1. Envelope cycloconverters In this type, the firing angle of the component converters is not varied. It is kept constant normally at =0for thepositive converter and =180for the negative converter during the positive half cycle of the voltage. Similarly =180for positiveconverter and =0for the negative converter during the negative half cycle of the voltage.

You may also like to read: Chopper Operation, Types (Classification) and Applications Buck Converter Tutorial Buck Topology Working, Advantages, Applications Power Electronics Interview Questions: Set-1

cement | abb

CO2 emissions of the fuels used in cement production are a hot topic in the industry discussions, but more and more also energy efficiency is increasing its importance. The reason for this is that in addition to the improved profitability, authorities are beginning to steer industries towards more efficient processes. By using variable speed drives (VSD) to control high efficiency motors in your cement manufacturing process, you can reduce energy consumption significantly compared to traditional fixed speed motors. VSDs also provide you an accurate control for your processes, and our PLCs help all your processes to work in co-ordination with each other.

electric drive : types, block diagram, classification and its applications

The first electric drive was invented in 1838 by B.S.Iakobi in Russia. He tested a DC motor which is supplied from a battery to push a boat. Although, the application of electric drive in industrial can happen after so many years like in 1870. At present, this can be observed almost everywhere. We know that the speed of an electrical machine(motor or generator) can be controlled by the source currents frequency as well as the applied voltage. Although, the revolution speed of a machine can also be controlled accurately by applying the electric drive concept. The main benefit of this concept is too controlling the motion can be optimized simply using the drive.

An Electric Drive can be defined as, a system which is used to control the movement of an electrical machine. This drive employs a prime mover such as a petrol engine, otherwise diesel, steam turbines otherwise gas, electrical & hydraulic motors like a main source of energy. These prime movers will supply the mechanical energy toward the drive for controlling motion An electric drive can be built with an electric drive motor as well as a complicated control system to control the motors rotation shaft. At present, the controlling of this can be done simply using the software. Thus, the controlling turns into more accurate & this drive concept also offers the ease of utilizing.

The types of electrical drives are two such as a standard inverter as well as a servo drive. A standard inverter drive is used to control the torque & speed. A servo drive is used to control the torque as well as speed, and also components of the positioning machine utilized within applications that need difficult motion.

The block diagram of an electric drive is shown below, and the load in the diagram signifies different kinds of equipment which can be built with an electric motor such as washing machine, pumps, fans, etc. The electric drive can be built with source, power modulator, motor, load, sensing unit, control unit, an input command.

The power source in the above block diagram offers the necessary energy for the system. And both the converter and the motor interfaces by the power source to provide changeable voltage, frequency and current to the motor.

This modulator can be used to control the o/p power of the supply. The power controlling of the motor can be done in such a way that the electrical motor sends out the speed-torque feature which is necessary with the load. During the temporary operations, the extreme current will be drawn from the power source.

The power modulator can change the energy based on the motor requirement. For instance, if the basis is direct current & an induction motor can be used after that power modulator changes the direct current into alternating current. And it also chooses the motors mode of operation like braking otherwise motoring.

The mechanical load can be decided by the environment of the industrial process & the power source can be decided by an available source at the place. However, we can choose the other electric components namely electric motor, controller, & converter.

The control unit is mainly used to control the power modulator, and this modulator can operate at power levels as well as small voltage. And it also works the power modulator as preferred. This unit produces the rules for the safety of the motor as well as power modulator. The i/p control signal regulates the drives working point from i/p toward the control unit.

The electric motor intended for the specific application can be chosen by believing various features such as price, reaching the level of power & performance necessary by the load throughout the stable state as well as active operations.

Usually, these are classified into three types such as group drive, individual drive, and multi-motor drive. Additionally, these drives are further categorized based on the different parameters which are discussed below.

Thus, this is all about the fundamentals of electrical drives. From the above information, finally, we can conclude that a drive is one kind of electrical device used to control the energy which is sent to the electrical motor. The drive supplies energy to the motor in unstable amounts & at unstable frequencies, thus ultimately controls the speed and torque of the motor. Here is a question for you, what are the main parts of the electric drive.

what is electrical drive? - definition, parts, advantages, disadvantages & applications - circuit globe

Definition: The system which is used for controlling the motion of an electrical machine, such type of system is called an electrical drive. In other words, the drive which uses the electric motor is called electrical drive. The electrical drive uses any of the prime movers like diesel or a petrol engine, gas or steam turbines, steam engines, hydraulic motors and electrical motors as a primary source of energy. This prime mover supplies the mechanical energy to the drive for motion control.

The block diagram of the electrical drive is shown in the figure below. The electrical load like fans, pumps, trains, etc., consists the electrical motor. The requirement of an electrical load is determined regarding speed and torque. The motor which suited the capabilities of the load is chosen for the load drive.

Power Modulator The power modulator regulates the output power of the source. It controls the power from the source to the motor in such a manner that motor transmits the speed-torque characteristic required by the load. During the transient operations like starting, braking and speed reversing the excessive current drawn from the source. This excessive current drawn from the source may overload it or may cause a voltage drop. Hence the power modulator restricts the source and motor current.

The power modulator converts the energy according to the requirement of the motor e.g. if the source is DC and an induction motor is used then power modulator convert DC into AC. It also selects the mode of operation of the motor, i.e., motoring or braking.

Control Unit The control unit controls the power modulator which operates at small voltage and power levels. The control unit also operates the power modulator as desired. It also generates the commands for the protection of power modulator and motor. An input command signal which adjusts the operating point of the drive, from an input to the control unit.

The electric drives have many advantages shown above. The only disadvantage of the drive is that sometimes the mechanical energy produced by the prime mover is first converted into electrical energy and then into a mechanical work by the help of the motor. This can be done by the help of the electrical link which is associated with the prime mover and the load.

Because of the following advantages, the mechanical energy already available from a non-electrical prime mover is sometimes first converted into electrical energy by a generator and back to a mechanical energy of an electrical motor. Electrical link thus provides between the non-electrical prime mover and the load impact to the drive flexible control characteristic.

For example The diesel locomotive produces the diesel energy by the help of the diesel engine. The mechanical energy is converted into an electrical energy by the help of the generator. This electrical energy is used for driving the other locomotive.

reclaimer - an overview | sciencedirect topics

A reclaimer is usually required for MEA and DGA amine-based systems. The reclaimer helps remove degradation products from the solution and also aids in the removal of heat-stable salts, suspended solids, acids, and iron compounds. The reclaimers in MEA and DGA systems differ. For MEA, a basic solution helps reverse the reactions. Soda ash or caustic soda is added to the MEA reclaimer to provide a pH of approximately 89; no addition is required for the DGA reclaimer system. Reclaimers generally operate on a side stream of 13% of the total amine circulation rate. Reclaimer sizing depends on the total inventory of the plant and the rate of degradation expected.

Reclaimer operation is a semi-continuous batch operation. The reclaimer is filled with hot amine solution and, if necessary, soda ash is added. As the temperature in the reclaimer increases, the liquid will begin to distill. Overhead vapors can be condensed and pumped back into the amine system, but generally the reclaimer is operated at slightly above stripper column pressure and the vapors are returned to the stripper.

The initial vapor composition is essentially water. Continued distillation will cause the solution to become more and more concentrated with amine. This raises the boiling point of the solution, and amine will begin to distill overhead. Fresh feed is continually added until the boiling point of the material in the reclaimer reboiler reaches 140150C. At this point, distillation is continued for a short time, adding only water to help recover residual amine in the reclaimer reboiler. The reclaimer is then cleaned and recharged, and the cycle is repeated. Reclaimer sludge removed during cleaning must be handled with care. Disposal of the sludge must be in accordance with the governing regulations.

If needed, a reclaiming company can be contracted to remove degradation products or heat-stable salts from the amine. One type of reclaimer performs vacuum distillation on batches of spent amine mixed with sufficient caustic to neutralize the excess acidity. Another type of reclaimer uses ion exchange resin beds to remove heat-stable salts.

The reclaimer waste has potential to be used as an alternative fuel in a cement kiln. This disposal option is applicable whether the amine waste classified is hazardous or nonhazardous. Conditioning of the reclaimer waste is required prior to the firing in a cement kiln.

The reclaimer waste composition will change over time. Hence, the reclaimer waste needs to be analyzed, classified, and then stored for stabilization purposes; a blend of the reclaimer waste would be prepared to ensure continuity in the composition of the reclaimer waste delivered to the cement kiln. The suitability of reclaimer waste as an alternative fuel in cement manufacture can be evaluated based on the criteria given in Table21.3.

With regard to other organic components, cement kilns are advantageous for firing hazardous and nonhazardous liquid waste fuel due to their long gas residence times in the combustion chamber and high firing temperatures. Cement kilns typically satisfy the thermal destruction benchmark for the complete destruction of organic compounds of a residence time of greater than 2s at a temperature of greater than 1200C (Weitzman, 1983). Organic emissions are monitored to comply with applicable regulations by continuous measurement of carbon monoxide or total hydrocarbons. Moreover, addition of the amine reclaimer waste to a cement kiln would require additional testing to show that the kiln emissions would still comply with the applicable emission limits while using the reclaimer waste as an alternative fuel.

The sulfate concentration in various reclaimer waste streams ranges from<1% to 18.5% (IEAGHG, 2014). To not impact clinker quality, an additional bypass system toremove extra sulfate at the source plant shall be implemented. The same applies to sodium hydroxide.

On primary amines, a reclaimer is used to permit cleanup of amine contaminated with heat-stable salts. The reclaimer works by converting the amine salts to sodium salts and boiling the amine away from the resulting salt solution. Neutralization with caustic has long been practiced as an economical means of displacing bound amine from heat-stable salts.

Reclaimer is usually a kettle-type reboiler with 316 SS tubes and provision for easy addition of caustic. It frequently contains spargers to pass steam directly through the residue sludge to assist in reacting caustic. Steam supply must be hot enough to vaporize the amine and is usually in the 150250 psig range.

The stacker/reclaimer machine is supplied by a reeling-drum trailing-cable system. These cables carry the power, control and communication supplies necessary for its operation. The machine may be operated by electric motors or electrohydraulic devices.

The 3.3 kV three-phase 50 Hz power supply is stepped down to 415 V by a transformer located on the machine. Supplies for bucket wheel, boom conveyor, travel and boom control drive motors are taken from a motor control panel specially designed with IP54 protection to prevent coal dust ingress. Drive motors are 415 V three-phase 50 Hz totally-enclosed, fan cooled squirrel-cage induction motors with protection to IP55.

An operator's cabin is located to give a clear view for operational purposes. All control equipment is of dust-tight construction having IP54 protection. A complete set of controls for both manual and semiautomatic operation is provided. Driver supervision is required at all times to supervise stacking and reclaiming operations and to safeguard the machine.

Controls are provided for travel, luff and slew motions, and for other service requirements, such as audible alarms, machine access lighting and floodlighting. Deadman-type controls are provided for travel, luff and slew motions, these controls automatically returning to the off position when released by the operator.

To safeguard personnel, boom and elevator conveyors are equipped with trip-wire systems. Emergency-stop pushbuttons are located on access platforms, in the operator's cabin and in the electrical equipment enclosure. An emergency trip causes all machine drives to be de-energised.

This is another catastrophic collapse of a giant reclaimer, more serious than the above because the operator was killed. The original design of the reclaimer envisaged coal reclaiming, but the machine was later used in an iron ore environment, after some reported strengthening. The case will be described in the broadest terms. Briefly, the reclaimer lost its excavating bucket wheel when the wheel drive-shaft of diameter 320mm fractured, because of a fatigue crack originating at a small cavity 40mm below the shaft surface (Figure 9). The loss of a mass of 22t in a total rotating superstructure mass of over 500t caused the entire superstructure to flip upward and backward, killing the operator in the cabin located near the wheel. This catastrophic sequence following loss of the wheel would have been prevented with appropriately designed and connected retaining hooks, further discussed below. There is also strong evidence of overloading of the reclaimer over many years of operation, including replacement of several critical components. In the same context, this author would regard the fracture of the shaft as caused by fatigue under overload conditions, rather than by fatigue under normal operating conditions, initiated at a defect 40mm below the surface which could not be detected in normal test procedures during manufacture and forging.

Figure 10 shows a close-up of the group of seven retaining hooks, located near the slewing circle on the bucket-wheel side. These hooks are welded to the slewing cone structure at one end of each hook, and to sole plates at the other. The sole plates fit under the race flange, leaving a gap of 12mm to allow smooth slewing. They have the function of retaining the cone against the heavy flange that forms part of the stiffened cylindrical base of the reclaimer. The welds attaching the hooks had been cut and reapplied in the field when the slewing race needed replacement 11 years after commissioning. Had these retaining hooks been strongly connected, they may have prevented the upward and backward trajectory of the superstructure upon imbalance caused by the loss of the bucket wheel. The relatively minor event of this loss should not have caused the catastrophe to the machine, nor the ensuing loss of life.

As in the case of the coal reclaimer described above, the design of this reclaimer would have required consideration of intermittently applied special loads that should not occur during and outside the operation, but the occurrence of which is not to be excluded. The imbalance caused by the loss of the bucket wheel would most likely be included within this load category.

This system allows for fully automatic no-operator operation of a stacker/ reclaimer in all common modes. A real-time terrain model (Fig. 20.33) makes sure that the system can be effectively used without requiring unproductive scan runs, and ensures a constantly high conveying performance. The high conveying performance is available almost independently of external influences 24/7. In particular, for storage areas working non-stop, it provides a significant potential of rationalization. Furthermore, by precise compliance with limits defined, it reduces wear and tear of the equipment as well as significantly decreasing the probability of damage, through an in-built collision management system.

The described automated system for stockyard machines has proven performance; tests have shown that throughput can be achieved equal to or better than for manual operation. The operation can take place remotely, from a central control room, and up to eight machines can be operated by a single operator.

Similar developments can help in shiploading and unloading activities, and features such as 3D laser scanning, automated positioning, and hatch management (Fig. 20.34) will safely help to lower costs, and improve operational performance, quality and accuracy.

Crushed coal is sent to the stockyard when coal bunkers are full. Stacking/reclaiming of coal is done by a bucket wheel stacker-cum-reclaimer moving on rails. The stacker-reclaimer stacks coal on either side of the yard conveyor. During stacking operations, the coal is fed from yard conveyors on a boom conveyor.

Coal is reclaimed by the stacker-reclaimer and fed to the coal bunkers when direct unloading from rakes is not done. During the reclaim operation, a boom conveyor discharges coal on the reversible yard conveyor for feeding coal to bunkers through a combination of conveyors and transfer points. There may be an emergency reclaim hopper (ERH) to reclaim coal by dozers when a stacker reclaimer is not in operation. The ERH may also be used for coal blending if provision permits. The coal stockpile storage capacity depends on the location of the plant and the coal source.

Magnetic separators/detectors at appropriate locations are provided again for removal of metals (ferrous/nonferrous) and then coal sampling unit for checking for required size of crushed coal before transferring to bunkers being now reclaimed.

Thermal reclaiming of Diglycolamine from degraded solutions, as described by Dingman (1977) and Kenney et al. (1994), is quite similar to reclaiming of MEA by semi-continuous steam distillation. A diagram of a DGA reclaimer is shown in Figure 3-30. The reclaimer should be sized for a sidestream of about 1 to 2% of the circulating solution, and distillation is conducted at a kettle temperature of 360 to 380F. High reclaiming temperatures maximize reclaimer throughput, while lower operating temperatures minimize solution degradation. When steam is available, it is usually sparged in below the tube bundle. As seen in Figure 3-31, at a temperature of 360F and at a pressure of 20 psia, the vapor from the reclaimer contains about 50 wt% Diglycolamine. This is returned directly to the stripping column.

DGA reacts with CO2 to form bis(hydroxyethoxyethyl)urea (BHEEU) and with CS2 to form bis(hydroxyethoxyethyl)thiourea. While DGA reacts preferentially with COS to form BHEEU, some bis-hydroxyethoxyethyl thiourea is also formed (Kenney et al., 1994). In most circumstances, BHEEU is the predominant Diglycolamine solution degradation product. Initially, as reported by Dingman and Moore (1968), DGA was reclaimed under vacuum with caustic addition. However, Mason and Griffith (1969) discovered that the degradation reactions to form BHEEU could be reversed without caustic addition by operation at higher temperature. Later it was demonstrated that the reclaimer could be operated at the amine still pressure and that the COS, CS2, and CO2 degradation reactions could be reversed at reclaiming temperatures without caustic addition.

DGA reclaimer control is based on reversing these reactions by maintaining reclaimer operation at a fixed temperature. As shown in Figure 3-30, steam, typically 300 psig, is added on flow control, lean DGA solution is added on level control, and condensate (or DGA stripper reflux) is added to maintain temperature control. Since the predominant degradation product is BHEEU, sodium carbonate or caustic soda is added to DGA reclaimers only when solution analysis indicates that heat-stable salts are present. Normally, caustic addition is not required for DGA reclaiming. The reclaimer should be run to keep the BHEEU concentration at a satisfactory level, typically less than 5 wt% of the total solution. Kenney et al. (1994) provide a detailed description of DGA reclaimer operation.

All of these systems are controlled by PLCs with remote I/Os. These PLC(s) normally have provisions for data exchange with the main DCS for status reporting and emergency operations from the unit control room. The major equipment in a coal-handling plant includes the following:

A number of independent controls or PLCs are deployed for subsystems such as for the stacker cum reclaimer, traveling tripper, wagon tippler, etc., so there may be a number of smaller PLCs and one main PLC. Also there may be a number of remote I/Os, e.g.,at the MCC and for the main PLC of a CHP. These small PLCs and main PLC may be integrated together forming a LAN. This LAN is connected to a DCS through a soft link (may be through some RS link and protocol or via Fieldbus discussed earlier). In larger plants SCADA is also introduced so that the coal preparation system can form a part of the entire system. In CHP a few local panels are also deployed and may be connected with the PLCs. The majority of these are

Out of the above the belt-weighing system, coal-sampling system, and magnetic separator interface with the associated PLC control system. All the systems require dust extraction and a suppression system, which may have their own control with the interface to the subsystem PLC or may form a part of the subsystem PLC. Dust extraction/suppression for conveyors runs when the conveyor systems are running while for the bunkers it has to run around the clock.

Local operation: The coal-handling plant is controlled from the operators station for the following systems under the main PLC. In some cases where there are independent PLCs, there will be a soft link for data exchange and control from the main PLC. Where there are systems with local panels, a suitable arrangement for control change over from each place is provided. The probable local operation centers are as follows:Conveyors/feeders, crushers, vibrating roller screen, etc.Paddle feeder (status)Dust extraction and suppression systemVentilation system (group/individual)Vibration monitoring and temperature monitoring of HT drives, etc.Magnetic separatorsCoal-sampling systemStacker/reclaimer (status)Belt-weighing systemTraveling tripper, etc.

There may be a number of flow paths from which an operator can select for feeding coal. Therefore separate flow path selection is made possible through mode selection at the PLC with the help of a few subroutines. Whenever such a path is selected, the PLC selects the complete path so that the flow goes unhindered. Some of these paths are listed below:Wagon tippler/track hopper to bunkerWagon tippler/track hopper to crushed coal storageWagon tippler/track hopper to crushed coal storage and also to the coal bunkerCoal stock pile to bunker in normal and emergency

introduction to power electronic converters | electrical4u

The field of power electronics mainly deals with the conversion of power from one form to another and the change from one voltage level to another by using different power electronic converters. There are many control strategies used in the converters to aid this conversion. Another important aspect of using power converters is conditioning.The conditioning of signals helps us to ensure clean and pure, i.e. free from harmonics, input and output signals. It is not possible to obtain absolutely clean signals, but there are ways and means to reduce the harmonic content, the simplest of which is the use of a simple low-pass LC filter.Power electronics converters mainly comprise of solid-state switches, such as Power MOSFET, Power BJT, IGBT, Thyristors etc., and lossless components, namely inductors and capacitors. Inductors and capacitors are ideally suited for use in power converters as the power loss in these components are zero as compared to resistances.Resistances lead to a loss of power, and thus a loss in efficiency and power converters are required to be highly efficient as power loss during conversion leads to lowering of the efficiency of the whole system. If youre looking to study some technical questions on power electronics, check out our basic electronics questions.In power electronics, the solid state devices are used as switches. They can be either on or off. They are never used for amplification. The frequency with which the solid state devices are switched on and off is called the switching frequency. The inductor and capacitors used can lead to an increase in weight and also an increase in the volume of the power converters which leads to a decrease in the power density of the converters. This can be remedied by using a higher switching frequency which reduces the size of the components used in the converter. But higher switching frequency leads to higher switching losses.However, switching losses are small compared to conduction losses. Higher switching losses will lead to higher temperatures across the junctions, and a temperature difference of more than a 100oC between the body and junction can lead to damage to the solid-state device. We can take care of this with a suitably sized heat sink.The main types of conversion are DC to DC, AC to DC, DC to AC and AC to AC. The use of DC to DC converters to step-up or step-down a DC voltage is a great boon because AC voltages can be stepped up or stepped down easily using a transformer but using a transformer with DC leads to saturation of the core and will ultimately damage the transformer. The conversion of AC to DC is known as rectification which is used to supply DC loads, such as DC motors, using AC power supply.DC to AC conversion is known as inversion and is a very useful important part of our daily lives nowadays where we are trying to remove our dependency on fossil fuels. Inverters can take power from DC sources, such as batteries, and convert them to AC power for use in AC motors as can be seen in Totos, etc. AC to AC conversion is done using either Cycloconverters or Matrix Cycloconverters. These converters are very powerful in a sense they can be used for a wide range of industrial uses, such as cement and ball mill drives, Rolling mill drives etc. Cycloconverters can even convert a single-phase AC supply to a three-phase supply and vice-versa.Control of converters deals with the logic implemented, either with analog electronics or digital based microcontrollers, DSP processors or FPGAs, to switch on and off the solid-state devices. The simplest is the Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) scheme. Control of the converters becomes complicated when the converters use feedback loops.

The conditioning of signals helps us to ensure clean and pure, i.e. free from harmonics, input and output signals. It is not possible to obtain absolutely clean signals, but there are ways and means to reduce the harmonic content, the simplest of which is the use of a simple low-pass LC filter.Power electronics converters mainly comprise of solid-state switches, such as Power MOSFET, Power BJT, IGBT, Thyristors etc., and lossless components, namely inductors and capacitors. Inductors and capacitors are ideally suited for use in power converters as the power loss in these components are zero as compared to resistances.Resistances lead to a loss of power, and thus a loss in efficiency and power converters are required to be highly efficient as power loss during conversion leads to lowering of the efficiency of the whole system. If youre looking to study some technical questions on power electronics, check out our basic electronics questions.In power electronics, the solid state devices are used as switches. They can be either on or off. They are never used for amplification. The frequency with which the solid state devices are switched on and off is called the switching frequency. The inductor and capacitors used can lead to an increase in weight and also an increase in the volume of the power converters which leads to a decrease in the power density of the converters. This can be remedied by using a higher switching frequency which reduces the size of the components used in the converter. But higher switching frequency leads to higher switching losses.However, switching losses are small compared to conduction losses. Higher switching losses will lead to higher temperatures across the junctions, and a temperature difference of more than a 100oC between the body and junction can lead to damage to the solid-state device. We can take care of this with a suitably sized heat sink.The main types of conversion are DC to DC, AC to DC, DC to AC and AC to AC. The use of DC to DC converters to step-up or step-down a DC voltage is a great boon because AC voltages can be stepped up or stepped down easily using a transformer but using a transformer with DC leads to saturation of the core and will ultimately damage the transformer. The conversion of AC to DC is known as rectification which is used to supply DC loads, such as DC motors, using AC power supply.DC to AC conversion is known as inversion and is a very useful important part of our daily lives nowadays where we are trying to remove our dependency on fossil fuels. Inverters can take power from DC sources, such as batteries, and convert them to AC power for use in AC motors as can be seen in Totos, etc. AC to AC conversion is done using either Cycloconverters or Matrix Cycloconverters. These converters are very powerful in a sense they can be used for a wide range of industrial uses, such as cement and ball mill drives, Rolling mill drives etc. Cycloconverters can even convert a single-phase AC supply to a three-phase supply and vice-versa.Control of converters deals with the logic implemented, either with analog electronics or digital based microcontrollers, DSP processors or FPGAs, to switch on and off the solid-state devices. The simplest is the Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) scheme. Control of the converters becomes complicated when the converters use feedback loops.

Power electronics converters mainly comprise of solid-state switches, such as Power MOSFET, Power BJT, IGBT, Thyristors etc., and lossless components, namely inductors and capacitors. Inductors and capacitors are ideally suited for use in power converters as the power loss in these components are zero as compared to resistances.Resistances lead to a loss of power, and thus a loss in efficiency and power converters are required to be highly efficient as power loss during conversion leads to lowering of the efficiency of the whole system. If youre looking to study some technical questions on power electronics, check out our basic electronics questions.In power electronics, the solid state devices are used as switches. They can be either on or off. They are never used for amplification. The frequency with which the solid state devices are switched on and off is called the switching frequency. The inductor and capacitors used can lead to an increase in weight and also an increase in the volume of the power converters which leads to a decrease in the power density of the converters. This can be remedied by using a higher switching frequency which reduces the size of the components used in the converter. But higher switching frequency leads to higher switching losses.However, switching losses are small compared to conduction losses. Higher switching losses will lead to higher temperatures across the junctions, and a temperature difference of more than a 100oC between the body and junction can lead to damage to the solid-state device. We can take care of this with a suitably sized heat sink.The main types of conversion are DC to DC, AC to DC, DC to AC and AC to AC. The use of DC to DC converters to step-up or step-down a DC voltage is a great boon because AC voltages can be stepped up or stepped down easily using a transformer but using a transformer with DC leads to saturation of the core and will ultimately damage the transformer. The conversion of AC to DC is known as rectification which is used to supply DC loads, such as DC motors, using AC power supply.DC to AC conversion is known as inversion and is a very useful important part of our daily lives nowadays where we are trying to remove our dependency on fossil fuels. Inverters can take power from DC sources, such as batteries, and convert them to AC power for use in AC motors as can be seen in Totos, etc. AC to AC conversion is done using either Cycloconverters or Matrix Cycloconverters. These converters are very powerful in a sense they can be used for a wide range of industrial uses, such as cement and ball mill drives, Rolling mill drives etc. Cycloconverters can even convert a single-phase AC supply to a three-phase supply and vice-versa.Control of converters deals with the logic implemented, either with analog electronics or digital based microcontrollers, DSP processors or FPGAs, to switch on and off the solid-state devices. The simplest is the Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) scheme. Control of the converters becomes complicated when the converters use feedback loops.

Resistances lead to a loss of power, and thus a loss in efficiency and power converters are required to be highly efficient as power loss during conversion leads to lowering of the efficiency of the whole system. If youre looking to study some technical questions on power electronics, check out our basic electronics questions.In power electronics, the solid state devices are used as switches. They can be either on or off. They are never used for amplification. The frequency with which the solid state devices are switched on and off is called the switching frequency. The inductor and capacitors used can lead to an increase in weight and also an increase in the volume of the power converters which leads to a decrease in the power density of the converters. This can be remedied by using a higher switching frequency which reduces the size of the components used in the converter. But higher switching frequency leads to higher switching losses.However, switching losses are small compared to conduction losses. Higher switching losses will lead to higher temperatures across the junctions, and a temperature difference of more than a 100oC between the body and junction can lead to damage to the solid-state device. We can take care of this with a suitably sized heat sink.The main types of conversion are DC to DC, AC to DC, DC to AC and AC to AC. The use of DC to DC converters to step-up or step-down a DC voltage is a great boon because AC voltages can be stepped up or stepped down easily using a transformer but using a transformer with DC leads to saturation of the core and will ultimately damage the transformer. The conversion of AC to DC is known as rectification which is used to supply DC loads, such as DC motors, using AC power supply.DC to AC conversion is known as inversion and is a very useful important part of our daily lives nowadays where we are trying to remove our dependency on fossil fuels. Inverters can take power from DC sources, such as batteries, and convert them to AC power for use in AC motors as can be seen in Totos, etc. AC to AC conversion is done using either Cycloconverters or Matrix Cycloconverters. These converters are very powerful in a sense they can be used for a wide range of industrial uses, such as cement and ball mill drives, Rolling mill drives etc. Cycloconverters can even convert a single-phase AC supply to a three-phase supply and vice-versa.Control of converters deals with the logic implemented, either with analog electronics or digital based microcontrollers, DSP processors or FPGAs, to switch on and off the solid-state devices. The simplest is the Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) scheme. Control of the converters becomes complicated when the converters use feedback loops.

In power electronics, the solid state devices are used as switches. They can be either on or off. They are never used for amplification. The frequency with which the solid state devices are switched on and off is called the switching frequency. The inductor and capacitors used can lead to an increase in weight and also an increase in the volume of the power converters which leads to a decrease in the power density of the converters. This can be remedied by using a higher switching frequency which reduces the size of the components used in the converter. But higher switching frequency leads to higher switching losses.However, switching losses are small compared to conduction losses. Higher switching losses will lead to higher temperatures across the junctions, and a temperature difference of more than a 100oC between the body and junction can lead to damage to the solid-state device. We can take care of this with a suitably sized heat sink.The main types of conversion are DC to DC, AC to DC, DC to AC and AC to AC. The use of DC to DC converters to step-up or step-down a DC voltage is a great boon because AC voltages can be stepped up or stepped down easily using a transformer but using a transformer with DC leads to saturation of the core and will ultimately damage the transformer. The conversion of AC to DC is known as rectification which is used to supply DC loads, such as DC motors, using AC power supply.DC to AC conversion is known as inversion and is a very useful important part of our daily lives nowadays where we are trying to remove our dependency on fossil fuels. Inverters can take power from DC sources, such as batteries, and convert them to AC power for use in AC motors as can be seen in Totos, etc. AC to AC conversion is done using either Cycloconverters or Matrix Cycloconverters. These converters are very powerful in a sense they can be used for a wide range of industrial uses, such as cement and ball mill drives, Rolling mill drives etc. Cycloconverters can even convert a single-phase AC supply to a three-phase supply and vice-versa.Control of converters deals with the logic implemented, either with analog electronics or digital based microcontrollers, DSP processors or FPGAs, to switch on and off the solid-state devices. The simplest is the Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) scheme. Control of the converters becomes complicated when the converters use feedback loops.

However, switching losses are small compared to conduction losses. Higher switching losses will lead to higher temperatures across the junctions, and a temperature difference of more than a 100oC between the body and junction can lead to damage to the solid-state device. We can take care of this with a suitably sized heat sink.The main types of conversion are DC to DC, AC to DC, DC to AC and AC to AC. The use of DC to DC converters to step-up or step-down a DC voltage is a great boon because AC voltages can be stepped up or stepped down easily using a transformer but using a transformer with DC leads to saturation of the core and will ultimately damage the transformer. The conversion of AC to DC is known as rectification which is used to supply DC loads, such as DC motors, using AC power supply.DC to AC conversion is known as inversion and is a very useful important part of our daily lives nowadays where we are trying to remove our dependency on fossil fuels. Inverters can take power from DC sources, such as batteries, and convert them to AC power for use in AC motors as can be seen in Totos, etc. AC to AC conversion is done using either Cycloconverters or Matrix Cycloconverters. These converters are very powerful in a sense they can be used for a wide range of industrial uses, such as cement and ball mill drives, Rolling mill drives etc. Cycloconverters can even convert a single-phase AC supply to a three-phase supply and vice-versa.Control of converters deals with the logic implemented, either with analog electronics or digital based microcontrollers, DSP processors or FPGAs, to switch on and off the solid-state devices. The simplest is the Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) scheme. Control of the converters becomes complicated when the converters use feedback loops.

The main types of conversion are DC to DC, AC to DC, DC to AC and AC to AC. The use of DC to DC converters to step-up or step-down a DC voltage is a great boon because AC voltages can be stepped up or stepped down easily using a transformer but using a transformer with DC leads to saturation of the core and will ultimately damage the transformer. The conversion of AC to DC is known as rectification which is used to supply DC loads, such as DC motors, using AC power supply.DC to AC conversion is known as inversion and is a very useful important part of our daily lives nowadays where we are trying to remove our dependency on fossil fuels. Inverters can take power from DC sources, such as batteries, and convert them to AC power for use in AC motors as can be seen in Totos, etc. AC to AC conversion is done using either Cycloconverters or Matrix Cycloconverters. These converters are very powerful in a sense they can be used for a wide range of industrial uses, such as cement and ball mill drives, Rolling mill drives etc. Cycloconverters can even convert a single-phase AC supply to a three-phase supply and vice-versa.Control of converters deals with the logic implemented, either with analog electronics or digital based microcontrollers, DSP processors or FPGAs, to switch on and off the solid-state devices. The simplest is the Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) scheme. Control of the converters becomes complicated when the converters use feedback loops.

DC to AC conversion is known as inversion and is a very useful important part of our daily lives nowadays where we are trying to remove our dependency on fossil fuels. Inverters can take power from DC sources, such as batteries, and convert them to AC power for use in AC motors as can be seen in Totos, etc. AC to AC conversion is done using either Cycloconverters or Matrix Cycloconverters. These converters are very powerful in a sense they can be used for a wide range of industrial uses, such as cement and ball mill drives, Rolling mill drives etc. Cycloconverters can even convert a single-phase AC supply to a three-phase supply and vice-versa.Control of converters deals with the logic implemented, either with analog electronics or digital based microcontrollers, DSP processors or FPGAs, to switch on and off the solid-state devices. The simplest is the Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) scheme. Control of the converters becomes complicated when the converters use feedback loops.

Control of converters deals with the logic implemented, either with analog electronics or digital based microcontrollers, DSP processors or FPGAs, to switch on and off the solid-state devices. The simplest is the Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) scheme. Control of the converters becomes complicated when the converters use feedback loops.

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cycloconverters - introduction with schematic, types and application

In industrial applications, two forms of electrical energy Direct Current (DC) and Alternate current (AC) are used. Constant voltage and constant current AC is directly available. However, for different applications, different forms, different voltages, and/or different currents are needed. Converters are needed to achieve different forms. These converters are classified as rectifiers, choppers, inverters, and cyclo converters.

A cycloconverter is a device that converts AC, power at one frequency into AC power of an adjustable but lower frequency without any direct current, or DC, stage in between. It can likewise be acknowledged as a static recurrence charger and holds silicon-regulated rectifiers. Cyclo-converters are used in very large variable frequency drives with ratings from few megawatts up to many tens of megawatts.

Rectifier converts from Single-phase or three-phase AC to variable dc Voltage. Choppers convert from DC to variable dc voltage. Inverters convert from DC to variable magnitude variable frequency single-phase or three-phase AC. Cyclic converters convert from single-phase or three-phase AC to variable magnitude variable frequency single-phase or three-phase AC. A cycloconverter is having four thyristors divided into a positive and negative bank of two thyristors each.

There are mainly two types of cyclo converters blocking mode type and circulating mode type. When the load current is positive, the positive converter supplies the required voltage, and the negative converter is blocked. Suppose if the load current is negative, then the negative converter supplies the voltage and the positive converter is blocked. This operation is called blocking mode operation. The cyclo converters which are using this method are called blocking mode cyclo converters.

By chance, if both converters are enabled, then the supply will be short-circuited. To avoid this, an intergroup reactor (IGR) must be connected between the converters. If both the converters are enabled, then a circulating current is produced. This is unidirectional because the thyristors allow the current to flow in only one direction. The cyclo converters using this approach are called circulating current converters.

Blocking mode cyclo converters dont need any intergroup reactor (IGR). Depends on the polarity, one of the converters is enabled. The blocking mode operation has some advantages and disadvantages over circulating mode operation. They dont need any reactors hence size and cost is less. Only one converter is in conduction at all times rather than two. During delay time current stays at zero distorting the voltage and current waveforms. This distortion means complex harmonic patterns.

Understanding of operation principles of cyclo converters should begin with single-phase to single-phase cycloconverter. This converter is having back to back connection of two full-wave rectifiers. Suppose for getting one-fourth of input voltage at the output, for the first two cycles of Vs the positive converter operates supplying current to the load and it rectifies the input voltage. In the next two cycles, the negative converter operates supplying current in the reverse direction. When one of the converters operates the other one is disabled so that there is no current circulating between rectifiers. In the below figure Vs represents input supply voltage and Vo is the required output voltage which is one-fourth of the supply voltage.

Like as above converters, three-phase to single-phase cycloconverter applies rectified voltage to the load. Positive Cycloconverters will supply positive current only while negative converters will supply negative current only. The cyclo converters can operate in four quadrants as (+v, +i), (+v, -i) rectification modes and (-v, +i), (-v, -i) inverting modes. The polarity of the current determines if the positive or negative converter should be supplying power to the load. When there is a change in current polarity, the converter previously supplying current is disabled and the other one is enabled. During the current polarity reversal, the average voltage supplied by both the converters should be equal.

Two basic configurations are available for three-phase cyclo converters such as delta and wye. If the outputs of the above converter are connected in wye or delta and if the output voltages are 120 phase-shifted the resulting converter is three-phase to the three-phase converter. The three-phase converters are mainly used in machine drive systems running three-phase synchronous and induction machines.

Cycloconverters can produce harmonic rich output voltages. When cyclo converters are using for a running AC machine, the leakage inductance of the machine filters most of the high-frequency harmonics and reducing the voltage of the lower order harmonics.

Single-phase induction motors are widely used in many applications. Improvements in its performance mean a great saving in electrical energy consumption. A speed controller based oncycloconverteris proposed.

The above circuit diagram can be used to control the speed of a single-phase induction motor in three steps by using cyclo converters and thyristors. The circuit uses a thyristor controlled cycloconverter which enabling the control of speed in steps of an induction motor. For the 8051 series of microcontrollers, a pair of slide switches are provided to select the required speed range of operation of induction motor. These switches are interfacing with the microcontroller to deliver the pulses to trigger the SCRs in a dual bridge. Thus the speed of the motor can be achieved in three steps.

Some other applications where Cycloconverters can be used are cement mill drives, ship propulsion drives, Rolling mills, and mine winders, washing machines, water pumps, and used in industries as well. If any further more queries on this topic or on the electrical and electronic projects leave the comments section below.

application of power electronics | electrical4u

It is literally impossible to list all the applications of power electronics today; it has penetrated almost all the fields where electrical energy is in the picture. This trend is an ever increasing one especially with present trends of new devices and integrated design of power semiconductor devices and controllers. The ease of manufacturing has also led to availability of these devices in a vast range of ratings and gradually has appeared in high voltage and extra high voltage systems also. The day is not far when all of the electrical energy in the world will pass through power electronic systems.Application of Power ElectronicsBelow is an attempt to briefly present the diaspora of power electronics.Our Daily Life: If we look around ourselves, we can find a whole lot of power electronics applications such as a fan regulator, light dimmer, air-conditioning, induction cooking, emergency lights, personal computers, vacuum cleaners, UPS (uninterrupted power system), battery charges, etc.Automotives and Traction: Subways, hybrid electric vehicles, trolley, fork-lifts, and many more. A modern car itself has so many components where power electronic is used such as ignition switch, windshield wiper control, adaptive front lighting, interior lighting, electric power steering and so on. Besides power electronics are extensively used in modern traction systems and ships.Industries: Almost all the motors employed in the industries are controlled by power electronic drives, for eg. Rolling mills, textile mills, cement mills, compressors, pumps, fans, blowers, elevators, rotary kilns etc. Other applications include welding, arc furnace, cranes, heating applications, emergency power systems, construction machinery, excavators etc.Defense and Aerospace: Power supplies in aircraft, satellites, space shuttles, advance control in missiles, unmanned vehicles and other defense equipments.Renewable Energy: Generation systems such as solar, wind etc. needs power conditioning systems, storage systems and conversion systems in order to become usable. For example solar cells generate DC power and for general application we need AC power and hence power electronic converter is used.Utility System: HVDC transmission, VAR compensation (SVC), static circuit breakers, generator excitation systems, FACTS, smart grids, etc.If you want to learn more about power electronics, you can study more basic electronics questions.

Below is an attempt to briefly present the diaspora of power electronics.Our Daily Life: If we look around ourselves, we can find a whole lot of power electronics applications such as a fan regulator, light dimmer, air-conditioning, induction cooking, emergency lights, personal computers, vacuum cleaners, UPS (uninterrupted power system), battery charges, etc.Automotives and Traction: Subways, hybrid electric vehicles, trolley, fork-lifts, and many more. A modern car itself has so many components where power electronic is used such as ignition switch, windshield wiper control, adaptive front lighting, interior lighting, electric power steering and so on. Besides power electronics are extensively used in modern traction systems and ships.Industries: Almost all the motors employed in the industries are controlled by power electronic drives, for eg. Rolling mills, textile mills, cement mills, compressors, pumps, fans, blowers, elevators, rotary kilns etc. Other applications include welding, arc furnace, cranes, heating applications, emergency power systems, construction machinery, excavators etc.Defense and Aerospace: Power supplies in aircraft, satellites, space shuttles, advance control in missiles, unmanned vehicles and other defense equipments.Renewable Energy: Generation systems such as solar, wind etc. needs power conditioning systems, storage systems and conversion systems in order to become usable. For example solar cells generate DC power and for general application we need AC power and hence power electronic converter is used.Utility System: HVDC transmission, VAR compensation (SVC), static circuit breakers, generator excitation systems, FACTS, smart grids, etc.If you want to learn more about power electronics, you can study more basic electronics questions.

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high voltage motors | up to 13.8 kv and 25 mw

High voltagemotors from MENZEL are mainly used for heavy-duty industrial applications where particularly heavy loads are moved: e.g. cement and steel industry, mining, plant construction and many more. A high reliability of operation of the electric motors is essential here.

Our high voltage motors focus on industrial areas and applications with particularly complex and individual requirements. Depending on the required power, Menzel HV motors are designed for voltages up to 13800 kV. They all comply with the current standards EN60034 and IEC60034, VDE, DIN and ISO, whereby individual electric design is also always available on request.

We are a HV motor manufacturer from Germany. Since 1927, the name MENZEL has been linked to the manufacture of flexible and powerful high-voltage motors. They are our main business area. What sets us apart from other electric motor manufacturers are our tailor-made drive solutions and our flexibility as a medium-sized manufacturing company! We are experts for custom-made motors, special drive solutions, and 100% replaceable replicas in a power range of up to 25 MW.

We offer HV motors up to 13800 V (13.8 kV) in both squirrel-cage and slip-ring designs. Various shaft heights as well as all types of protection and cooling classes are possible. Menzel high voltage motors are designed for grid or inverter operation. Up to 18000 kW they are directly available from stock, in case of emergency.

The various high-voltage motor series of MENZEL are subdivided into compact and modular design. They all offer a particularly high efficiency with low operating and maintenance costs. The compact series are manufactured with a torsion-resistant cast iron housing, while the modular series have a flexible welded steel housing.

The basic design of our modular high-voltage motors is largely identical, allowing a variety of options for protection, cooling and mounting types. This allows the modular motors to be quickly adapted to any industrial application. High-quality bearings as well as terminal boxes that are rotatable by 4 x 90 degrees and various coolers available from MENZEL at any time ensure maximum compatibility and flexibility.

By definition, MENZEL manufactures low, medium and high voltage asynchronous motors up to 13.8 kV. But what is the exact definition of a low, medium or high voltage motor? There are different ideas about this in practice. Although the IEC 60038 standard clearly defines the limits, electric motors with more than 1000 V nominal voltage are often referred to as high-voltage motors.

From a purely mechanical point of view, medium and high-voltage asynchronous motors do not differ significantly from low-voltage asynchronous motors. Since the motor power is a product of voltage and current, the current can be reduced by increasing the rated voltage. This means that by using high-voltage asynchronous motors smaller conductor cross-sections can be used. High-voltage drives are therefore particularly recommended if large cable lengths must be used at the installation site.

Our high voltage windings are used as a stretched two-layer winding for voltages up to max. 13,800 V. Depending on the type of machine and the individual requirements of the respective request they conform with temperature class F (-155 C) or optional H (-180 C).

The high voltage winding is manufactured using the VPI method. The thermal stress of the high-voltage motors is subject to the temperature class "B". The winding copes with the highest mechanical stresses.

At MENZEL only high-quality bearings and lubricants from well-known manufacturers are used. Our high-voltage motors are equipped with grease-lubricated SKF and FAG rolling bearings. They include a re-lubricating device and old grease removal.

Depending on the application, special bearings such as spherical roller bearings are available for shredder applications (reinforced roller bearings) to accommodate the larger radial forces. Motors with self-lubricated bearings or externally lubricated bearings are also available on request.

All tests and measurements of our high-voltage motors are carried out in our Berlin load test field. They are all documented according to the current standards of EN 60034. The MENZEL test bench offers state-of-the-art testing technology for manufacturer-independent motor tests up to 13.8 kV.

MENZEL high-voltage motorsare operated worldwide in a wide variety of industries and markets. They are preferably used for heavy-duty applications like compressors, mills, pumps, conveyor belts, shredders, fans, refiners and many more.

medium voltage drives | sinamics electric drives - simply my drive! | siemens usa

As the demand for power and raw materials continues to grow, U.S. manufacturers are faced with an increasing number of operational challenges. For some, its the remote location of their plants; others have harsh environments to consider. But although operating conditions are never perfect, your process has to be because in todays competitive market, downtime is not an option. Thats why theres SINAMICS PERFECT HARMONY.

When it comes to maximizing industrial energy efficiency in VFD applications, the SINAMICS PERFECT HARMONY is the most versatile and effective solution available today. Check out the links below to learn how Siemens experience with a wide range of industry applications - from chillers, compressors and vertical ball mills to submersible pumps and extruders - allows us to identify unique opportunities for process improvement.

SINAMICS PERFECT HARMONY Improves Utilitys Fuel Efficiency and ROI When a global electric utility was having difficulty finding a cost-effective way to better control its process across 20 different plants, Siemens stepped in with a solution that would optimize both power plant energy efficiency and process control. Replacing the utilitys fuel-inefficient, high-emission mechanical flow control devices with SINAMICS PERFECT HARMONY variable frequency drives (VFDs) not only improved control; it also decreased auxiliary power consumption. The resulting energy savings yielded a reduced total cost of ownership that compared well with the utilitys 20-year lifecycle cost projections. By optimizing its process through VFD efficiency and reliability, the utility was able to meet output and emissions objectives across all of its plants with increased profits as a welcome side effect.

When research proved that the slowed production on its fleet of Gulf oil wells was related to underperforming pumps, an international oil company turned to Siemens. To operate the electric submersible pumps that would replace the old above-surface pumps, the oil company would need to also upgrade to variable frequency drives (VFDs). The company initially designed its upgrades around a VFD solution it intended to source from a competitor, but upon discovering the proven reliability of Siemens SINAMICS PERFECT HARMONY VFDs, its plans changed. Siemens Industry customized a drive to match the original competitors specs and partnered with Siemens Energy to deliver a complete solution that has been used to upgrade half of the 122 wells so far.

When an international gas and oil producer wanted to replace its under-performing natural gas compressor stations with an explosion-proof integrated drive system, Siemens was the only manufacturer to say it was possible. With more than 10,000 manufactured drives under our belt, were familiar with oil and gas safety standards, so we were able to help develop the integrated system required for the job. SINAMICS PERFECT HARMONY GH180 drives provide the clean output necessary for an explosion-proof application, and their higher operating speed ranges are able to accommodate fluctuating gas flows. Together with Siemens explosion-proof motors and MAN Diesel & Turbo compressors, the resulting drive system surpassed all operating and efficiency expectations.

When a major copper and molybdenum mine needed to improve the process and throughput for various applications within its multimillion-dollar expansion, it called in Siemens to help with its optimization efforts. Only SINAMICS PERFECT HARMONY variable frequency drives (VFDs) were able to meet the three critical criteria for the mines ball mill applications: sufficient starting torque, clean operation over a wide range of speeds, and improved uptime and availability. Together, the drives variable speed capability and Advanced Cell Bypass technology allowed the mine to maximize throughput while maintaining motor efficiency. After installing the SINAMICS PERFECT HARMONY VFD on their ball mill applications, the mine owners saw such improvement in their process and profits! that they went on to install the drive on three additional applications as well. They expect these updates to yield similarly high levels of uptime and throughput.

When MGM Resorts International needed a way to improve Chiller energy efficiency at its flagship Las Vegas hotel, the Mirage, it faced a three-fold challenge that only Siemens could surmount. Siemens goal was to create a more energy-efficient Chiller system. But in doing so, we also had to ensure the resulting solution would not put the motor at risk or affect its lifespan in any way plus, it would require an HMI to connect the hotels chillers with our VFDs. The SINAMICS PERFECT HARMONY offered the ideal solution, as its zero-harmonic VFD would both protect the Chiller systems motors from damage and allow the chillers to reduce power consumption by providing variable capacity. We placed 11 sensors on each chiller and connected them to the VFDs so they could be controlled remotely through HMI software developed by Airmaster AU and Conserve It. As a result, the Mirage is able to save $20,000 each month and prevent 4.8 million pounds of CO2 emissions every year.

The maintenance of a medium voltage drive train system can be challenging. The equipment in the drive train is often exposed to extreme stresses subject to varying levels of wear and tear. These strains can remain invisible to the naked eye until it is too late, leading to outages and unplanned downtime. With Siemens Drive Train Analytics, customers can breathe easy knowing that Siemens experts are continuously monitoring and analyzing the health and operating conditions of their drive train equipment remotely from our Service & Support Center. Siemens provides valuable insight into equipment health as a service to maintenance personnel, which enables them to be notified and to act, often before the equipment breaks down. Its like having your own drive train expert on staff working together with maintenance personnel 24/7 and taking care of your drive train equipment with real-time intelligence.

No other VFD can match the proven reliability and 20-year lifespan of SINAMICS PERFECT HARMONY medium voltage drives. And because greater reliability leads to less downtime and lower maintenance costs, the SINAMICS PERFECT HARMONY VFD also outstrips the competition when it comes to total cost of ownership (TCO). In the white paper below, we analyze the intricacies involved in calculating TCO and the elements that affect it. Download the white paper to learn more about:

When it comes to large rotating equipment, medium-voltage variable frequency drives (VFDs) offer a significant opportunity to save on operating and maintenance costs. SINAMICS PERFECT HARMONY VFDs are a particularly cost-effective solution because they can be applied to both new and retrofit installations. By matching the motor speed to the load, VFDs conserve electrical energy, thereby reducing the total cost of operation. Download the white paper to learn more about:

Advancements made in the development of drive technologies means users have a myriad of options when selecting a drive system. Low voltage (LV) variable frequency drives (VFDs) have been applied to applications up to 2500 horsepower (HP). Medium voltage (MV) VFDs have been applied to applications as low as 150 HP. Traditional power system design practice suggests that motor crossover from low voltage to medium voltage is in the 200-600HP range. A recent industrial customers' survey in 2016 shows that some customers consider switching from a LV to MV solution as low as 100HP. So how do you know which drive system to choose? The white paper, "Cost considerations when selecting a Variable Frequency Drive Solution", explores this topic in-depth. It illustrates a system cost comparison, and considers such factors as system efficiency, cost of installation (cables and out put filters), cost of power quality and cost of input harmonics. A case study - low and medium voltage solutions in an Electrical Submersible Pump (ESP) application - is featured.

We have been working with medium voltage drives since they were first introduced into industrial applications over a half century ago. Over the past 50+ years we have manufactured virtually every topology of medium voltage drive that currently exists today. This expertise led us to create and continuously innovate our SINAMICS PERFECT HARMONY product line to meet your high availability requirements and overall application needs. Both the air-cooled and liquid-cooled configurations integrate 50+ patented technologies that have been proven to increase the dependability and efficiency of critical processes. We manufacture all Siemens SINAMICS PERFECT HARMONY drives in the U.S. at our New Kensington, PA facility.

The SINAMICS PERFECT HARMONY GH180 drive sets the standard for reliability. It draws on decades of experience with a wide range of industry applications including more than 80 types of pumps, 34 types of fans, and a dozen different compressors to deliver the most reliable variable frequency drive (VFD) available today.

Every element of a SINAMICS PERFECT HARMONY GH180 drive is engineered to maximize productivity and protect your process in a way that other drives cant. Designed in both liquid-cooled and compact air-cooled configurations, SINAMICS PERFECT HARMONY medium voltage variable frequency drives (VFDs) deliver superior versatility, efficiency and process availability for the most demanding applications.

And because reliability is a paramount concern for todays manufacturers, Siemens equipped the SINAMICS PERFECT HARMONY drive with 50+ patented technologies proven to increase the dependability of critical processes. The drives modularity provides a scalable solution that achieves near-100 percent reliability and 99.99 percent availability, resulting in a significantly reduced total cost of ownership over the drives lifecycle. A series cell configuration even allows the drive to withstand failures that would overwhelm conventional drives and shut down the plant process.

In less than a quarter of a second, the SINAMICS PERFECT HARMONY GH180 drive can bypass multiple failed cells to maintain a balanced output voltage. With one cell in bypass, the drive still produces sufficient voltage to allow the process to continue uninterrupted, and the quality of the voltage and the waveform remain virtually unchanged.

Synchronous transfer is used to soft-start multiple motors in a series and efficiently transfer them across the line without stressing the power grid. This closed-transfer approach not only increases energy efficiency, but also helps protect motors and equipment from excessive torque transients.

With a proven record of 99.99 percent process uptime, ProToPS protects your process from faulty sensors or data. Unlike typical systems that simply trip the drive and automatically shut down the system due to a malfunction, ProToPS offers a proactive control strategy for applications where failure avoidance is critical.

SINAMICS PERFECT HARMONY drives meet the most stringent IEEE-519-2014 requirements for voltage and current harmonic distortion. An integrated sinusoidal converter not only eliminates the need for harmonic filters, power factor correction capacitors or extra bus capacity, but also protects other online equipment from harmonic disturbances.

No drive offers a higher-quality waveform output than SINAMICS PERFECT HARMONY. With 21 levels of nonharmonic output voltage, it accommodates any standard motor without requiring additional output or dv / dt filters which can reduce efficiency and reliability and it provides the lowest peak voltage to the motor windings to help extend motor life.

Only SINAMICS PERFECT HARMONY drives are engineered to operate reliably in environments with ambient temperatures ranging from -40 C to +50 C. No other drive can tolerate such a broad range of extreme conditions. An optional PDC allows the drive to withstand even the harshest outdoor conditions, from tropical environments to ocean platforms.

SINAMIC PERFECT HARMONY drives are designed to deliver maximum reliability, and the SINAMICS PERFECT HARMONY GH150 is no exception. What sets it apart is its unparalleled versatility. Its separate transformer and control cabinet promote a more flexible plant layout while also allowing for free transformer selection.

SINAMICS PERFECT HARMONY GH150 drives are specially designed to offer greater versatility and easy integration. Their modular design enables the use of a separate transformer as well as a separate control cabinet. The modular design creates an adjustable footprint that allows for a more flexible plant layout. The control cabinet can even be installed in a low-voltage operators room for facilitated operation of the drive.

The SINAMICS PERFECT HARMONY GH150 raises the standards for transformer flexibility in cell-based medium voltage drives: By allowing for different transformer specifications such as cooling, size, pulse number and primary voltage it can accommodate site conditions that require remote placement of the transformer, either inside or outside the plant. The SINAMICS PERFECT HARMONY GH150 can also help minimize initial investment cost for electrical room air conditioning as well as continuous operating costs. The ability to choose a locally sourced standard transformer may even help reduce the total cost of ownership.

SINAMICS PERFECT HARMONY GH150 drives are capable of working with almost any induction or synchronous motor available, which makes them perfect for retrofit projects and high-speed applications. They also provide great flexibility in operating a motor with cables that are several miles long.

The SINAMICS PERFECT HARMONY GH150 drive is often used with high-speed compressors or integrated compressors that need high output frequencies. The higher the motor speed, the higher the required VFD output frequency. With its inherent and highly effective switching frequency, the SINAMICS PERFECT HARMONY GH150 drive requires little-to-no derating, which means less oversizing and higher efficiency. Additional losses in the motor are often.

Siemens has always upheld the highest quality and safety standards in the manufacturing of medium voltage drives, but we are now taking safety a step further. Siemens Arc Defense Technology is the first in the industry to apply passive arc-resistant features to medium voltage drives with integral transformers. Smart upgrades such as pressure-relief panels and custom arc filters help to contain dangerous arc energy in the event of an arc occurrence.

A reinforced structure and the addition of integrated pressure-relief panels to the cabinet roof made it possible for the drive to effectively redirect arc energy up and out. This top-venting approach has the added benefit of being more cost-efficient than ducted solutions.

Though not yet mandatory, arc resistance requirements are right around the corner. Siemens first began arc-fault-testing its medium voltage drives in 1998. Ever since, all Siemens medium voltage drives have been and continue to be rigorously tested and certified to the most current safety standards, including IEC, UL and CSA.

Siemens Arc Defense Technology helps direct the hazards of arc events away from personnel and plant equipment to mitigate damage and allow a faster return to normal operations. The result is a highly efficient, fault-tolerant drive that can help limit operational losses and prepare you for future regulations.

Siemens has developed a range of modular solutions that not only offers complete protection in challenging environments but also offers greater flexibility, protection, simplicity and saving than traditional solutions. This help you extend the life and increase the efficiency of your drive.

Depending on your drives Hp, you can choose from three harsh-environment solutions that can be placed anywhereup to 2.3 km from the motor. NEMA-rated enclosures ensure maximum protection in the harshest environments, and when paired with Siemens SINAMICS PERFECT HARMONY GH180 variable frequency drives (VFDs), they also help ensure ptimal

Siemens medium voltage drives provide the highest level of reliability, precision, longevity and quality. Employed in applications ranging from power generation to oil and gas, water, marine, paper and more, Siemens medium voltage drives are versatile performers that significantly contribute to increased productivity and reduced operating costs. The right drive system can even lower operating costs by allowing you to build a more energy-efficient process.

The SINAMICS GL 150 is a load commutated inverter (LCI) for large synchronous motors and generators. Compared to voltage source drives, the LCI drive is a cost competitive solution for large power ratings.

The SINAMICS GL150 offers high reliability and ruggedness through the use of extremely robust thyristor technology and fuseless design. The SINAMICS GL150 is combined with an intelligent response to external disturbances.

Mainly used in large high-power and high-speed applications such as pumps, fans, compressors, main marine drives, extruders and rolling mills, shaft generators, boiler feed pumps, wire rod mills, starting generators, pump storage and starting applications (e.g., blast furnaces).

The compact and rugged design of the SINAMICS SL150 drive allows it to operate in high altitudes, extreme temperatures and locations with poor air quality. The SINAMICS SL150 is also service friendly for remote areas.

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