economic environmental pyrrhotite fine crusher sell at a loss in lagos

mineralogical characterization for selection of possible beneficiation route for low-grade leadzinc ore oframpura agucha, india | springerlink

Mineralogical and morphological characterization of a low-grade leadzinc ore is carried out prior to the selection of beneficiation strategy using the combination of XRD, XRF, SEM, EPMA, microscopic, and liberation studies. Mineralogical studies indicate that the ore primarily consists of base metal sulfides (galena and sphalerite), ferruginous mineral (pyrrhotite), silicate minerals (quartz, mica, and feldspar), and graphite. Leadzinc grains are mostly present in an interlocked state with silicate and other sulfide minerals. The sample shows an assay value of 12.14% Zn, 1.77% Pb, 57.6% ISM, 6.47% Fe, 4.19% C, and 40ppm Ag. Based on the liberation studies, it can be predicted that beneficiation may be opted at 75m as 85% liberation of value minerals is envisaged at this size range. As the ore exhibits high interlocking pattern with low-grade valuable minerals, pre-concentration is necessitated prior to flotation for further downstream operation.

The authors would like to thank and express their gratitude to Central Research Facility, IIT(ISM) Dhanbad, Mineral Processing Division, IBM, Nagpur and MRC, MNIT, Jaipur, to extend their facilities for carrying out the characterization studies.

Nayak, A., Ashrit, S., Jena, M.S. et al. Mineralogical Characterization for Selection of Possible Beneficiation Route for Low-Grade LeadZinc Ore ofRampura Agucha, India. Trans Indian Inst Met 73, 775784 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12666-020-01887-y

urbanization causes and impacts | national geographic

The promise of jobs and prosperity, among other factors, pulls people to cities. Half of the global population already lives in cities, and by 2050 two-thirds of the world's people are expected to live in urban areas. But in cities two of the most pressing problems facing the world today also come together: poverty and environmental degradation.

Poor air and water quality, insufficient water availability, waste-disposal problems, and high energy consumption are exacerbated by the increasing population density and demands of urban environments. Strong city planning will be essential in managing these and other difficulties as the world's urban areas swell.

New York's Grand Central Station overflows with a sea of commuters and travelers at rush hour. Every day, 1.3 million commuters travel into Manhattan to work for the day and then return to their homes at night.

lagos state transport sector reform law laws

(2) The Ministry shall supervise all the relevant Agencies, Authorities, Boards, Departments, Offices and Units established under this Law for effective and efficient administration of the transport sector in furtherance of its ministerial responsibilities.

(e) collaborate, consult and cooperate to the maximum extent practicable with any Federal Agency, other States, Local Governments, statutory bodies and research agencies on matters and facilities relating to the transport sector;

(f) promote cooperation and partnership in the area of transport technologies and infrastructure development with appropriate Federal Agencies, relevant State Ministries and International bodies including donor agencies;

10. Where the Committee desires to obtain the advice of a person(s) on a particular matter, the Committee may co-opt that person(s) to be a member for as many meetings as may be necessary but the person(s) so co-opted shall not be entitle to vote on any question or count towards a quorum..

(2) Where the driver of a commercial vehicle who has committed an offence is not the owner, the owner shall also be liable and charged accordingly, unless it can be proved that no act or omission on the part of the owner contributed to the commission of the offence.

(2) A person who drives a commercial vehicle whose condition does not conform with the provisions of the Law commits an offence and is liable on conviction to the penalty stated in the Schedule to this Part.

19. The owner or driver of a vehicle shall not by reason of the vehicle being registered or licenced, be relieved of any responsibility for its roadworthiness and fitness for the purpose for which it is being used.

20. Where a commercial vehicle or trailer is in the custody or under the control of a person other than the owner or some person employed by the owner, that person in addition to the owner shall be liable under Section 19 of this Part unless such person can prove to the satisfaction of the court that that person was not aware and could not by reasonable inquiry have been aware that the vehicle did not comply with the requirements of this Law relating to the condition of the vehicle.

(a) provide and maintain at the principal office of the VIS a record containing particulars of each impounded vehicle, its contents and specifying the date it was impounded, and the vehicle park in which it is situated;

22. (1) An impounded vehicle shall be released to a person entitled to its custody after payment of fees and complying with all administrative processes and tenders to the officer in charge of the designated vehicle park within twenty-four (24) hours, evidence of entitlement to the vehicle and the vehicle particulars issued prior to the impounding of the vehicle.

(3) An impounded vehicle shall be released to a person entitled to its custody within a period of twenty-four (24) hours and two (2) weeks from the date on which the vehicle was impounded where the person tenders to the officer in charge of the designated vehicle park such proof

23. (1) A fine prescribed under the provisions of this Part shall be paid either on the spot where it is imposed by a mobile court or within forty eight (48) hours upon issuance of a notification ticket by an authorised officer on highway patrol and the offender in both instances shall obtain an official ticket showing the offence committed and the amount of fine to be paid.

(4) A person suspected of having committed an offence in the violation column of the Schedule to this Part is liable on conviction to the penalty prescribed in the penalty column or such additional penalty as may be stipulated under this Part.

24. (1) A suit shall not be commenced against an employee of the VIS in respect of an act purported to be done in the execution of this Law unless it is commenced within twelve (12) months after the act, neglect or default complained of or in case of continuance of damage of or injury.

(2) A suit shall not commence against an employee of the VIS in respect of an act purported to be done or a neglect of duty under this Part, before the expiration of a period of one (1) month during which written notice of intention to commence the suit must have been served on the VIS by the intending claimant or the agent and the notice must clearly and explicitly state the

(3) In an action or suit against the VIS, no execution or attachment or process of that nature shall be issued against a property of the VIS, but a sum of money which may be the judgment of the court awarded against the VIS shall subject to a direction given by the court in respect of that judgment be paid from the general funds of the VIS.

(g) direct an offender to a driving Institution to undertake a course of study for a period of not less than two (2) days but not exceeding fourteen (14) days in respect of an offence committed under this Law.

(o) provide facilities for training, education and research for advancing the skill of persons employed by the Authority or the efficiency of the equipment of the Authority or the manner in which the equipment is operated.

33. (1) Subject to the provisions of this Part, the Board may make standing orders with respect to the holding of meetings of the Board, the notices to be given of such meetings, the proceeding at the meetings, the keeping of minutes of such meetings and custody of the production for inspection of such minutes.

34. The validity of a proceeding of the Board shall not be invalidated by a vacancy in the membership of the Board, a defect in the appointment of a member to the Board, or by reason that a person not entitled to do so took part in the proceedings.

36. Where the Board desire to obtain the advice of a person on a matter, the Board may co-opt the person as a member for such period as it thinks fit; provided that a person coopted shall not be entitled to vote at a meeting of the Board and shall not count towards a quorum.

44. (1) When it appears to the Authority that a highway should be closed temporarily to vehicular traffic, the Authority shall cause to be fixed at each end of such highway a notice to the effect that such highway is closed until the reason for the closure has been dispensed with and the notices are removed by the order of the Authority.

(2) The Commissioner may by notice published in the State Official Gazette and a national newspaper, close a highway, either permanently or for such length of time as may be specified in the notice, to any or every kind of vehicular traffic subject to such exceptions as the Commissioner may think fit.

45. (1) Except as may be prescribed by Regulation, no trailer Trailers and except petrol tankers and long vehicles used in conveying passengers, shall enter into or travel within the metropolis of Lagos between the hours of 6.00am9.00pm.

(2) A driver who is found contravening the provisions of this Section shall have such vehicle impounded by a duly authorised officer of the Authority and shall be liable on conviction to a Fine of fifty thousand naira (N50,000.00) or a term of imprisonment for six (6) months or both.

(2) A person who fails to comply with the provisions of this Section commits an offence and is liable on conviction to imprisonment for a term of three (3) years and shall have such motorcycle or tricycle forfeited to the State.

47. (1) Where a motor vehicle is stationary or abandoned on a highway or street or near private premises, an officer of the Authority may cause the vehicle to be removed to a designated vehicle park if

(2) The owner or occupier of the premises adjoining the highway or private premises where the vehicle is stationary or abandoned shall lodge a report of such vehicle to the nearest office of the Authority or to the nearest police station.

(3) Where the owner or occupier of premises adjoining the highway or private premises fails to make a report of a stationary or abandoned vehicle to the officer of the Authority or the nearest police station within seventy-two (72) hours after the expiration of the allowed days, the owner or occupier of such premises commits an offence and is liable on conviction to a fine of Twenty-Five Thousand Naira (N25,000.00).

(4) Where the owner of an abandoned or removed vehicle fails upon notification by the Authority to claim the vehicle for a period of three (3) months, the Ministry shall publish a notice of its intention to dispose of the abandoned or removed vehicle in the State Official Gazette and one national newspaper, at the end of one (1) calendar month from the date of such publication, the Ministry may dispose of the vehicle.

(5) Where the vehicle was found not to have been abandoned but left on the highway for an unreasonably long time, the owner shall bear the cost of towing the vehicle to a designated vehicle park and shall be liable on conviction to a fine of Fifty Thousand Naira (N50, 000.00) or to a noncustodial sentence.

50. (1) A person who drives a vehicle on a highway without due care and attention, or without reasonable consideration for other persons using the highway, commits an offence and is liable on conviction to a fine of Fifty Thousand Naira (N50,000.00) or in the case of a subsequent conviction to a fine of One Hundred Thousand Naira (N100,000.00) or to imprisonment for a term of three (3) months or both.

(2) Where a person is charged with an offence under subsection (1) of this Section and the court is of the opinion that the offence is not proved, the court may, at any time during the hearing or immediately after, without prejudice to any other power exercisable by the court, direct or allow a charge for an offence under this Part to be proffered against that person.

51. (1) A person who drives a vehicle on a highway recklessly or negligently, or at a speed above the stipulated limit, having regard to all the circumstances of the case including the nature, condition, and use of the highway, and to the volume of traffic at the time, which might reasonably be expected to be on the highway, commits an offence and is liable on conviction to a fine of One Hundred Thousand Naira (N100,000.00) or a term of imprisonment for two (2) years or both.

(2) If upon the trial of a person for an offence under the provisions of this Section, the court is not satisfied that the persons driving was the cause of death but is satisfied that the person committed an offence of driving as mentioned in subsection (1) of this Section, the court may convict that person of an offence under this Section.

52. A person who causes the death of another person by driving a vehicle recklessly, or at a speed above the stipulated limit, having regard to all the circumstances of the case, including the nature, condition and use of the highway, street or other place, and the volume of traffic in the vicinity at the time, or which might reasonably be expected to be in the vicinity, commits an offence and is liable on conviction to imprisonment for a term of seven (7) years.

53. (1) A person driving or attempting to drive, or when in charge of a vehicle on a highway is under the influence of alcohol or drug to such an extent as to be incapable of having proper control of such vehicle, commits an offence and is liable on conviction to a fine of One Hundred Thousand Naira (N100,000.00) or to a term of imprisonment for one (1) year or both.

(2) A person convicted of an offence under Sections 51, 52 and 53 shall be disqualified from holding or obtaining a drivers licence for a period of twelve (12) months from the date of the conviction, unless the court for special reasons deems it fit to order otherwise, and without prejudice to the power of the court to order a longer period of disqualification.

55. (1) Notwithstanding any other provision of this Part, if an officer of the Authority believes on reasonable grounds that there may be difficulty in effecting service of a summons, the officer may demand, retain, or seize the drivers licence of a person who commits or is suspected of having committed an offence.

(2) Where a drivers licence is retained under this Part the officer of the Authority retaining the licence shall give a written receipt for it and inform the person surrendering the licence of the name of the appropriate office where it may be reclaimed.

(3) If a summons in respect of an offence under this Part is served on the person whose drivers licence is withheld, or the person appears in person not later than three (3) days after its retention, the licence may be returned to the person on presentation of a duly signed and dated receipt.

(a) provide and maintain at the principal office of the Authority a record containing particulars of each impounded vehicle and its contents and specifying the date it was impounded, and the vehicle park in which it is situated;

(3) The Authority shall not be under any duty to protect impounded vehicles otherwise than as mentioned in paragraph (b) of subsection (2) above and in particular shall not be under a duty to protect removed vehicles from damage attributable to sun, rain, wind or other physical conditions.

57. (1) The driver or owner of an impounded vehicle shall after twenty four (24) hours be liable to pay custody fees for every day during which the vehicle is detained: Provided that custody fees may not be payable where the continued detention of the vehicle is not due to the negligent act or failure on the part of the owner or driver.

(3) the request for the release of an impounded vehicle by a person entitled to its custody shall be made within the hours of 8.00am and 6.00pm on any week day other than a public holiday, and at any other time with the written consent of the Authority.

58. (1) Any fine prescribed under the provisions of this Part shall be paid either on the spot where it is imposed by a Mobile Court or within fortyeight (48) hours upon issuance of a notification ticket by an authorised officer on highway patrol. The offender in both instances shall obtain an official ticket showing the offence committed and the amount of fine to be paid.

(2) A Traffic Mayor shall either alone or in conjunction with personnel of the Authority have all powers to perform all functions conferred on an officer of the Authority as contained in this Part.

(2) An officer of the Authority who acquires a financial interest in a business involved in subsection (1) of this Section shall within one (1) month of such acquisition give notice of the acquisition in writing to the Authority specifying the interests acquired and the Authority may, after taking into consideration all the circumstances of the case, decide whether to

62. The Authority shall provide for officers, such equipment as Equipment and the Authority may consider necessary for the effective and efficient discharge of the functions conferred under this Law; including the provision of uniforms, identification cards, retro-reflective jackets, rain coats, high-powered motorcycles, patrol vehicles, ambulances, recovery vehicles, two way mobile radios, telephone sets, computers, rescue tools and powerful torches.

(2) The Chief Executive Officer may require a person employed as an officer of the Authority to undergo such course of training related to the functions of the Authority and at such Institutions or Organisations, as the Chief Executive Officer may deem fit.

(2) The service number shall be the identification number of the officer and shall be affixed in the case of a uniformed officer, above the breast pocket of the shirt or such other conspicuous part of the uniform as the Authority may decide.

66. Where an officer of the Authority is engaged in the regulation of traffic on a highway, or where a traffic sign being a sign for regulating the movement of traffic or indicating the route to be followed by vehicle has been lawfully placed on or near a highway in accordance with the provisions of this Part, any person driving or propelling any vehicle, who

68. A person reasonably suspected of having committed an offence listed in the second column of the Schedule to this Part is liable on conviction to the penalty prescribed in the penalty column or such additional penalty as may be stipulated under this Part.

69. (1) A suit against an employee of the Authority for an act done under or in execution of a Law, or of any public duty against the or authority shall not lie or be instituted in any court unless it is commenced within twelve (12) months after the act, neglect or default complained of or in case of continuance of damage or injury within twelve (12) months after.

(2) A suit may not commence against an employee of the Authority in respect of an act purported to be done or neglect of duty under this Part, before the expiration of a period of one (1) month during which written notice of intention to commence the suit must be served on the Authority by the intending claimant or the agent and the notice must clearly and explicitly state the

(3) In an action or suit against the Authority, no execution or attachment or process of that nature shall be issued against any property of the Authority, but any sum of money which may be the judgment of the court awarded against the Authority shall subject to a direction given by the court in respect of that judgment, be paid from the general funds of the Authority.

71. The Authority shall operate accounts with a reputable bank(s) in the State and the form of accounts shall be such as to secure the provision of separate information in respect of each of the main activities and departments of the Authority.

(c) a detailed report of the state of affairs of the Authority for the financial year, including a statement of the change in the general reserve fund arising from the activities of the Authority during the year reported upon.

(b) enter into agreement for the provision, maintenance and management of parking spaces /facilities provided by or vested in the Authority under this Part or any Law subject to the approval of the Governor;

81. The Chairman and other members of the Board except the General Manager shall hold office on part-time basis for a term of four (4) years and may be eligible for re-appointment for a further term of four (4) years only.

87. Where the Board desires to obtain the advice of a person in respect of its deliberation at any meeting, the Board may coopt such person to be a member and the person so co-opted, shall not be entitled to vote on any question or count towards a quorum.

88. A member of the Board who has a personal interest in a contract or transaction entered into or proposed to be considered by the Board must immediately declare such interest to the Board and shall not vote on any deliberation relating to the contract or transaction.

(3) A member of the Board may also cease to hold office if in the opinion of the Governor, the member is no longer fit to hold the position or perform the duties of the office under this Law or it is in the interest of the public to do so

(2) Where the Authority deems it expedient that any vacancy in the Authority be filled by a person holding office in the Public Service of the State, it shall inform the appropriate Service Commission to that effect and cause such vacancy to be filled by way of secondment or transfer.

(b) all revenue and moneys as may be received by the Authority in the course of its operations or in relation to the exercise of any of its powers, net of agreed commission to park operators shall be paid into a dedicated account which shall be disbursed on the approval of the Governor through the Commissioner as follows

(c) operates a private park without obtaining a permit from the Authority, commits an offence and is liable on summary conviction to a fine of not less than Two Hundred and Fifty Thousand Naira (N250,000.00) or to a term of imprisonment for two (2) years or both.

98. (1) The Authority shall in relation to proceeds payable to it, operate an account with a bank in the State and the signatories to the account shall be in accordance with the financial guidelines which operates in the State.

99. The Authority shall cause proper accounts and records of accounts of the Authority to be kept in respect of each year and cause the accounts to be audited by auditors appointed from the list of Auditors approved by the Auditor-General of the State not later than six (6) months after the end of each financial year.

100. The Authority shall not later than the 30th day of June in each financial year, submit to the Governor through the Commissioner a report of its activities during the preceding financial year which shall include a copy of the audited accounts of the Authority for that year and the Auditors report.

101. The Authority may, subject to the approval of the Regulations. Commissioner, make regulations generally in accordance with the provisions of the Regulations Approval Law, for carrying into effect the purposes of this Part and in particular for

Articulated Vehicle means a vehicle so constructed that it can be divided into parts both of which are vehicles and one of which is a motor vehicle and shall (when not so divided) be treated for the purposes of this Part as that motor vehicle with the other part attached as trailer;

Hackney means any motor vehicle designed by official paintings or sticker approved by the Authority or constructed to carry not more than seven (7) persons, used or intended to be used for carrying passengers for hire or reward under a contract expressed or implied for use of the vehicle as a whole or for a fixed or agreed rate or sum;

Stage Carriage means any motor vehicle, with official paintings or sticker approved by the Agency, used or intended to be used for carrying passengers for hire or reward other than such a vehicle constructed or adapted to carry less than eight (8) persons, the passengers paying separate or distinct fares for their respective destinations, and shall be deemed to include the expression omnibus;

(c) construct, re-construct, maintain and manage public transport infrastructure including gateway terminals and facilities necessary for the discharge of its functions under this Part in collaboration with the Ministries of Works and Infrastructure and Transportation;

(i) levy user charges in connection with the provision of its services and in collaboration with Motor Vehicle Administration Agency collect same or any other tariffs, fees, as may be authorised by the Governor;

(k) enter into agreement with any person for the supply, construction, manufacture, maintenance or repair of any property whether movable or immovable, which is necessary or appropriate for the purpose of the Authority;

(m) provide facilities for training, education and research for advancing the skills of persons employed by the Authority or the efficiency of the equipment of the Authority or the manner in which the equipment is operated;

(s) on the recommendation of the Accountant-General subject to the approval of the House, invest sums standing to its credit and not for the time being required, in stocks, shares, debentures or other securities and sell such stocks, debentures or other securities;

(t) enter into any relationship, agreement or partnership with any other body whether Governmental or otherwise for the purpose of providing transportation service, equipment and infrastructure by rail and to make regulations for carrying out such obligations as it may be necessary and subject to such agreement with such other body subject to the Public Private Partnership Law; and

(e) two (2) members of the public who have proven ability and experience in the field related to the functions of the Authority and capable of making valuable contributions to the operations of the Authority; and

(3) The Chairman and other members of the Board except the ex-officio members who shall be persons of proven integrity and ability and shall be appointed by the Governor on the recommendation of the Commissioner subject to the confirmation of the House.

107. The members of the Board except the Managing Director and the ex-officio members shall hold office on part-time basis for a period of four (4) years and may be re-appointed for one (1) further term of four (4) years only.

112. The validity of any proceeding of the Board shall not be affected by any vacancy in the membership of the Board or any defect in the appointment of a member to the Board, or by reason that a person not entitled to do so took part in the proceedings.

114. (1) A member of the Board who is directly or indirectly interested in a transaction or project of the Authority shall disclose the nature of the interest at a meeting of the Board and such disclosure shall be recorded in the minutes book of the Authority.

(2) Notice of disclosure of interest in relation to a transaction or project given by a member at a meeting of the Board shall be sufficient disclosure of that interest however, such member shall not take part in any deliberation or decision of the Board with respect to that transaction or project.

(3) A member of the Board may not attend a meeting of the Board in person in order to make a disclosure which is required to be made under this Section if the member takes reasonable steps to ensure that the disclosure is made by a notice which is brought up and read at the meeting.

116. On the death or vacation of office of the Chairman or any member of the Board, the Governor shall nominate a candidate to fill that vacancy and shall submit that nomination to the House of Assembly for confirmation.

117. Where the Board desires to obtain the advice of any person upon any matter, the Board may co-opt such person to be a member for the meeting(s) and the person shall not be entitled to vote on any question or count towards a quorum.

118. (1) The Common Seal of the Authority shall be determined by the Board, and the affixing of the common seal shall be authenticated by the signatures of the Managing Director and the Secretary or any other officer authorised by the Board to act for that purpose.

(2) The Managing Director shall be an Engineer or a Transport Planner and shall have the responsibility for the implementation of the decisions of the Board and the general administration of the Authority.

123. (1) There is established a Transport Trust Fund (referred to in this Part as the Fund) to be managed by the Authority for the purposes of ensuring the Authoritys sustainable performance of its functions.

126. In the exercise of its functions under this Part, the Authority shall on the recommendation of the Accountant-General subject to the approval of the House have power to borrow sums by issuing debentures, stocks, or other securities or in any other manner for and in connection with the exercise of its functions under this Part.

127. (1) Members or officers of the Authority shall not be liable to be prosecuted or sued in any Court for any act done or ordered to be done by them in good faith in the discharge of their functions under this Part.

128. Any existing right, liability and property becomes a right or liability of the Authority, and any legal proceedings by or against the Government and any of its agencies pending at the commencement of this Law in respect of such property, right or liability shall be continued by or against the Authority.

129. In an action for the recovery of any rate or other moneys (other than fines and penalties) payable or recoverable under the provisions of this Part, a certificate signed by the Authority in that behalf, that where any sum of money is due and that the defendant is the person liable to pay the same, shall be evidence of such debt and of non-payment and the fact that the defendant is the person liable to pay the same.

(2) Every Deed, Bond, Agreement, Instrument and work for the construction of the declared roads to which the Government was a party shall, subject to the provisions of this Section and unless the circumstances otherwise require, have effect as from the commencement of this Law as if

131. The Authority shall have its principal office within the State as may be designated for the efficient discharge of its functions, and may open branch offices in other Divisions of the State in accordance with the decision of the Board.

132. (1)A suit against the Authority, a member of the Authority or any employee of the Authority for any act done in pursuance or execution of any Law, or of any public duty or authority will not lie or be instituted in any court unless it is commenced within twelve (12) months after the act, neglect or default complained of or in case of continuance of damage or injury within twelve (12) months after.

(2) In an action or suit against the Authority, an execution or any like process shall not be issued against any transport works or property vested in the Authority but subject to any directions given by the Authority any sum of money which is awarded against the Authority by judgment of the Court shall be paid from the general funds of the Authority.

133. The Authority shall operate an account(s) with bank(s) in the State and the signatories to the account(s) shall be the Managing Director or when absent a designated representative as the case may be, and the Head of Accounts department or when absent a designated representative or any person duly authorised by the Board in that behalf.

135. (1) The accounts of the Authority shall be audited annually by external auditors appointed by the Board from a list of approved auditors provided by the Auditor-General of the State in accordance with the Audit Law.

(2) The accounts of the Transport Fund shall be audited annually by external auditors appointed by the Board from a list of approved auditors provided by the Auditor-General of the State in accordance with the Audit Law within six (6) months of the end of each financial year.

(c) a detailed report of the state of affairs of the Authority for the financial year, including a statement of the change in the general reserve fund arising from the activities of the Authority during the year reported on.

(2) The Annual Report shall amongst other information, contain audited financial report and a detailed presentation of the performance of the Authority during the reporting year stated against set targets in the approved corporate and investment plan and it shall also contain an analysis of the opportunities and constraints impacting on the Authoritys performance and the actions proposed for addressing them.

137. The Authority shall with the approval of the Commissioner make regulations generally in accordance with the Regulations Approval Law for carrying into effect the provisions of this Part and specifically for

Gangway in relation to a bus, means a passage or walkway between rows of seats, other than an emergency exit but does not include a staircase or any space in front of a seat which is required only for the use of passengers occupying that seat or that row of seats;

Pass means a pass issued by a grantee or by some other person and accepted by a grantee which, subject to the provisions of this Part and to any terms or conditions approved by the Commissioner, entitles a person to travel (or travel for a reduced fare) on a bus operated by the grantee under a franchise;

Ticket means a single journey ticket, monthly ticket, student ticket or any other document (other than a pass) issued by a grantee or by some other person and accepted by a grantee which, subject to the provisions of this Part and to any terms or conditions approved by the Commissioner, entitles a person to travel on a bus operated by the grantee under a franchise; and

(iii) engage in the business of Mass Transit Services which includes utilizing coaches, cars, lorries, buses and all manner of vehicles and as proprietors of garages, terminal operators, motor and bus engineers, haulage contractors, carriers by road and agents for road, motor and other passengers carrying and towing services;

(iv) acquire and own vehicles, buses, automobiles, coaches and cars for Mass Transit which shall include the issuance of licences and permits to operators on such special and dedicated routes to be earmarked and supervised by the operators;

(v) acquire, equip and maintain public transport vehicles; motor coaches or other vehicles appropriate for the carriage of passengers or goods and to carry on the business of proprietors and carriers of passengers both in public conveyance and in private vehicle and in such other places as may be deemed appropriate;

(j) present to the Commissioner for approval such arrangement, designations or modifications of bus transport services as shall be deemed expedient for an efficient and sustainable transport system in the State;

(b) payable to the Bus Services by way of donations, gifts, loans or grant by the State or Federal Government or other agencies, individuals, corporate bodies or other government or international organisations.

(5) Subject to subsection (1) of this Section, a bus belonging to a specified grantee or a specified route shall stop at a bus stop to set down a passenger if requested to do so and if not at full capacity, stop and pick up an intending passenger when signalled to do so.

(6) A person shall not, without the permission of the Commissioner, erect or cause to be erected any sign on or near any road in such a manner that such sign might reasonably be believed to have been erected in accordance with subsection (3).

(7) Every sign which, at the commencement of this Law, has been lawfully erected on or near a road as a bus stop shall be deemed to have been erected in accordance with the provisions of this Part.

(2) A grantee shall ensure that a copy of the conditions upon which a ticket or pass is issued, is prominently displayed at all times at every fixed place where such ticket or pass is sold and that, on demand, a person who buys such ticket or pass at such fixed place may receive without charge, a copy of such conditions.

151. Any dispute arising from an agreement made pursuant to the provisions of this Part shall be referred to the Lagos State Multi-Door Courthouse for arbitration and in the event of a gridlock to an independent arbitrator agreed by the parties.

152. A duly authorised officer of the Bus Services may at any time between the hours of 6:00am 6:00pm of any day enter, search or seize any bus used by a grantee to ensure that the bus(es) comply with the provisions of this Part or any guideline or Regulation made pursuant to this Part.

(d) a signboard with the words BUS FULL is displayed on a size and design approved by the Commissioner and is exhibited on the bus in such a manner as to be easily visible by intending passengers, both by day and night, whenever the maximum number of passengers which the bus is permitted to carry are travelling on it but on no other occasion and at no other time;

(f) there are available on the bus written details of the fares and charges authorised to be taken on that route, such details to be available for inspection by passengers on reasonable request being made.

(2) The Commissioner may permit the use of a temporary sign under subsection (1)(a) and a temporary destination indicator under subsection (1)(b) for such period and subject to such conditions as the Commissioner may determine.

154. Every driver of a bus and every authorised person employed by the Bus Services/grantee shall at all times when on duty wear such uniform and carry such badge as shall be approved by the Commissioner.

(a) not cause the bus to remain stationary on a road longer than is reasonably necessary to pick up or set down passengers except at a stand or place where the bus is permitted to stop for a longer time than necessary for that purpose;

(b) drive the bus by the appointed route to the appointed destination, except when prevented from doing so by accident or other emergency or when ordered not to do so by an authorised person or a police officer;

(g) not neglect, refuse to admit or carry at the lawful fare a passenger or intending passenger who can be accommodated without exceeding the authorised capacity of the bus and to whose admission no reasonable objection is made;

(n) if requested by a police officer in uniform or a person authorised by the Commissioner, give particulars of the licence, the drivers name and the name and address of the grantee by whom the driver is employed;

(o) not obstruct or neglect to give all reasonable information and assistance to a police officer in uniform, or a person authorised by the Commissioner who produces such authority, to examine the bus.

(q) refuse to permit a person, whom the driver has reasonable cause to believe to be intoxicated, mentally unbalanced or suffering from an infectious or contagious disease, to enter in or travel on the bus; and

(d) shut off the engine and ensure that all the passengers are removed from the bus before filling the petrol or oil tank and keep the engine shut off and ensure that all passengers remain out of the bus until such filling is completed; and

(2) A person who is an employee of the Bus Services/grantee and who is in uniform and on duty may arrest without a warrant a person whom the employee has reasonable cause to believe has contravened the provisions of this Part and may detain such person until the person is handed over to a police officer.

162. A person who finds any property accidentally left in a bus shall immediately hand it over in the state in which that person finds it to the driver, who shall deal with it in accordance with the provisions of this Part.

163. The Bus Services/grantee shall keep a record of the particulars of any property handed in by a driver in accordance with this Part, the circumstances in which it was found and the name of the driver into whose possession it first came and the ultimate disposal of the property under this Part and such record shall, at all reasonable times, be available for inspection by a police officer.

(2) A grantee/Bus Services shall return all official documents, including licences, passports and identity cards, to the appropriate Government Department or other body or person by whom they were issued.

(3) Where the name and address of the owner of any property, other than a document referred to in subsection (2) are readily ascertainable, the grantee/Bus Services shall immediately notify the owner that the property is in its possession and be claimed in accordance with the provisions of this Part.

(4) If a property appears to the grantee to be of a perishable or offensive nature and is not claimed and proved to Bus services/grantees satisfaction to belong to a claimant within eight (8) hours of the time of finding or if it becomes objectionable, the grantee/Bus Services may destroy or otherwise dispose of the property as it thinks fit.

165. (1) If a property retained by a grantee is not proved to belong to a claimant within three (3) months of the date when the property was handed over to the grantee by a driver, the property shall be kept with the Bus Services:

Provided that any document not returned to the owner or other appropriate person and which has not been claimed by the person entitled to its return before the expiration of three (3) months shall be dealt with in such manner as the Bus Services may deem appropriate.

169. (1) Where a property is contained in a package, bag or other receptacle, the grantee may cause such package, bag or receptacle to be opened and the contents examined if the grantee considers it necessary for the purposes of identifying and tracing the owner or of ascertaining the nature of its contents.

(2) Where a property is claimed by a person, the grantee may require the claimant to open any receptacle in which it may be contained and to submit the contents for examination for the purpose of establishing the claim to ownership or of ascertaining the value of the property.

(2) The Bus Services in conjunction with the Ministry may by regulation prescribe a penalty in respect of a grantee or any other person who fails to observe any provision of this Part, any regulation, its franchise, or any order, notice or instruction properly given under this Part.

(3) Nothing in this Section shall absolve the owner or driver of a bus operating under a franchise granted in accordance with this Part from complying with the requirements of an existing Law in relation to licensing and registration including the requirement to hold a hackney permit.

(3) A person who without reasonable excuse contravenes any of the provisions of this Part, commits an offence and is liable on conviction to a fine of Ten Thousand Naira (N10,000) or a term of imprisonment for three (3) months.

Articulated Vehicle means a vehicle so constructed that it can be divided into parts both of which are vehicles and one of which is a motor vehicle which will when not so divided be treated for the purpose of this Part as a motor vehicle with the other part attached as trailer;

Commercial Vehicle or vehicle means a hackney, a stage carriage, a tractor, a motorcycle and any motor vehicle primarily designed for the carriage of goods and passengers and include any other privately-owned vehicle;

Hackney means any motor vehicle designed with official paintings or sticker approved by the Agency and constructed to carry not more than seven (7) persons, used or intended to be used for carrying passengers for hire or reward under a contract;

Stage Carriage means a motor vehicle, with official paintings or sticker approved by the Agency, used or intended to be used for carrying passengers for hire or reward other than such a vehicle constructed or adapted to carry less than eight (8) persons, the passengers paying separate or distinct fares for their respective destinations, and will be deemed to include the expression omnibus;

(b) issue certificate of title of a vehicle in the prescribed form to an applicant whose name appears on the vehicle registration form and who provides evidence of ownership in respect of the vehicle;

177. The Chairman and other members except the ex-officio members shall serve on part-time basis and shall hold office for a term of four (4) years and may be eligible for another term of four (4) years only.

183. A member of the Board who has a personal interest in a contract or transaction entered into or proposed to be considered by the Board must immediately declare such interest to the Board and shall not vote on any deliberation relating to the contract or transaction.

186. (1) The common seal of the Agency shall be determined by the Board, and the affixing of the common seal shall be authenticated by the signatures of the General Manager and the Secretary, or of some other members authorised by the Board to act for that purpose.

(3) All gross revenue payable into such designated account, net of agreed commission to private sector organisations engaged for collection of the revenue, shall be distributed on a weekly basis in the following manner

193. Subject to the provisions of Section 192 above, a temporary vehicle identification tag shall be issued to the owner of an unregistered vehicle for a period of one (1) month while registration is on-going.

(2) The accounts must be produced and audited by external auditors appointed by the Agency from a list of auditors approved by the Auditor-General of the State within six (6) months after the end of each financial year.

200. The Agency may, subject to the approval of the Commissioner, make regulations generally in accordance with the Regulations Approval Law, for carrying into effect the provisions of this Law and specifically for

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