economic kaolin sand maker sell in leon

pm&m [germany / thuringia / scheibe-alsbach (01)]

In 1835 the former accountant Ludwig Oels moved from Blankenhain (Thuringia) to the town of Scheibe and founded a small business for decorating pipe bowls and stems that he purchased as 'blanks' from the town of Breitenbach. On May 30th of the same year he applied to the local sovereign Friedrich Gnther von Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt for a licence for his business. As he did not get any response at all he simply started production and soon had a workforce of 18 people, but the prince's chamber which also run the forestry commission was not amused and simply refused to supply the business with urgently needed firewood so that Oels was forced to sell the business to Daniel Kmpfe and Friedmann Greiner in July 1839.

Kmpfe and Greiner had the same problems of not receiving firewood even after the license applied for by Oels was finally granted in 1840. The company had in the meantime employed another 30 workers but as the firewood problem could not be solved, the factory was sold to a Mr. Dressel (Eisfeld) and Johann Friedrich Andreas Kister (Grobreitenbach).

Dressel and Kister had more luck and finally got a concession for firewood supplies and started producing small items like pipe bowls, walking stick handles and dolls' heads. In 1847 the workforce had already increased to 148 people. Supplies were no problem as the kaolin and sand used came from the nearby Steinheid area. By 1857 the company was very well known as the first Thuringian factory which made figures on a larger scale, beginning with devotional items like madonnas and gravestone decorations and then figures in Rococo and Biedermeier styles. From 1860 onwards the product range was slowly enlarged with busts of famous poets and composers as well as animals and animal groups.

In 1863 the son of Johann Kister with the name of August Wilhelm Fridolin Kister became proprietor of the factory. To further improve the product range he employed a teacher of the arts school in Sonneberg, Professor Reinhard Mller as leader of the modelling department in 1877. From 1890 onwards, the factory started to make new groups like female dancers, dancing couples and centrepieces and during 1894 the factory also introduced figures in old Meissen styles, like lace figures as well as historical figures and groups.

In the year 1905 August Kister sold the factory to his son-in-law Mr. Offeney who turned the business into a private liability company and introduced the crossed-through 'S' mark. During an exhibition in Turin (Italy) in 1911, the company was awarded its 12th gold medal in addition to the two silver medals and six Grand Prix awards received earlier at national and international displays. This of course increased business and in 1913 the company already employed just over 300 workers, a number that remained constant until 1937. The year 1920 saw Kister sell the factory to Baron von Schilling who kept the name of A.W.F. Kister G.m.b.H., which existed in that form until 1962.

Since the German Democratic Republic had been founded in 1949 the overall economic interests slowly shifted in the direction of integrating the well known porcelain manufacturers into the process of gaining urgently needed foreign currency. Control of the cashflow was the main problem but the state solved it by simply forcing larger factories into a mixed company form that allowed state participication. The factory in Scheibe-Alsbach was put under this form of state supervision in the year 1962 and the status remained until the factory was totally nationalized in 1972.

Completely under state control, the factory was reorganized and grouped under the V.E.B. Zierporzellanwerke Lichte. Like many state-owned facilities in the German Democratic Republic, the factory had to go through years of mismanagement. Perhaps it would have been even worse if the company had not been so well-known but still the factory was in a desolate state when it was finally reprivatized in 1990.

After German reunification in 1990 the factory was taken over by the Kniglich privilegierte Porzellanfabrik Tettau G.m.b.H., a subsidiary of the Porzellanfabrik Christian Seltmann G.m.b.H. group. Seltmann however was not interested in keeping Scheibe-Alsbach operational as the investments required to modernize the factory would have been too great. The number of employees had already been drastically reduced during the privatization phase and the remaining crew had already been taken over by a transfer company, hence the factory was simply gutted.

Its item and mold archive as well as all still operational equipment was removed by the Tettau and Weiden factories; the brands and trademarks were included into the Seltmann group portfolio and kept active. Instead of having to pay up for the demolishing of the factory and the decontamination of the underlying soil, Seltmann sold the property to the Thuringian state which then had the largest part of the factory demolished, keeping a few buildings for later use.

the road to greener concrete ispaved with clay

(Bloomberg) -- The Argos plant in Rioclaro, Colombia, can churn out as much as 2.3 million tons of cement a year, used to build everything from dams and bridges to skyscrapers and stadiums. That has helped make Argos the biggest cement maker in Colombiabut also a major producer of carbon-dioxide emissions.

The cement and CO2 had been pouring out of Rioclaro nonstop for more than 20 years when the chief executive of Argos met an academic named Karen Scrivener, who had a simple pitch: change the recipe for cement to incorporate clay, and slash the carbon footprint. She called it LC3, or limestone calcined clay cement.

After four years of development, the revamped facility in Rioclaro went online this year, using clay thats mined about 10 miles away and processed in a newly built kiln. Argos says the technology cuts energy consumption by 30% and reduces carbon output by almost half. It made perfect sense, says Tomas Restrepo, the head of the companys business in Colombia. Less CO2 means less coal or fuel, so its more profitable. Environmental change happens best when theres also an economic incentive.

Its hard to overstate the importance of cleaning up the cement industry. Humans consume as much cement as food4 billion tons per yearand producing it accounts for about 7% of global carbon emissions. Cutting that will take myriad small steps, from reducing the carbon output of cement plants to revising regulations so they more realistically account for the structural needs of buildings. By some estimates, global cement consumption could be cut in half simply by employing the right cement for each job and not pouring more concrete than necessary.

Concrete is very cheap, and people systematically overuse it, says Scrivener, 62, a professor at the Ecole Polytechnique Fdrale in Lausanne, Switzerland. We can make reductions in producing cement, then in how much cement we put in concrete, and in how much concrete is put in the building.

Sure, there are alternatives: Norway has built a 280-foot tower of wood, and researchers are experimenting with bamboo, recycled construction waste, and even fungi to develop greener building materials. But its unrealistic to envision entirely displacing concrete anytime soon, especially where the bulk of growth will happen in the coming decadesplaces such as China, India, and Nigeriawhich have few choices other than concrete for their homes, hospitals, and highways. Saying were not going to use cement is a bit like saying you can keep using transport but without tires, says John Provis, a materials science professor at University of Sheffield in England. We have to make more effective cement.

Cement is made by mixing pulverized limestone with a handful of other ingredients and burning it at 1,450 degrees Celsius (more than 2,600 degrees Fahrenheit). What results is a rocky substance called clinker, which resembles charcoal briquettes used in backyard barbecues. The clinker is ground into powder and combined with a few other minerals to produce cement.

That process, little changed since English bricklayer Joseph Aspdin patented what he called Portland cement in 1824, is a double-whammy for CO2 output. Both the fuel used to fire the kilns and the limestone itselfformed millions of years ago from marine corals and shellfishrelease carbon dioxide when theyre burned. For each ton of cement made, the atmosphere gets 600-800 kilos of CO2.

Concrete, in turn, is made by combining cement with sand and rock, then adding water to kick-start the chemical reaction that allows it to harden into a substance thats ubiquitous and infinitely versatile. Aspdin, the British bricklayer, chose the name Portland cement because he felt his finished product resembled Portland stone, a sought-after building material in England at the time. His concoction allowed builders to dispense with hauling massive chunks of rock. Instead, concrete is easily transported as a gooey liquid that can be poured and shaped into sidewalks, highways, bridges, building foundations, walls, ceilings, and just about everything else; at least some concrete finds its way into virtually every structure in the industrialized world.

LC3 can reduce the industrys carbon footprint in two ways: Clay contains very little carbon, so theres almost nothing released when its heated, and it can be burned at a more manageable 800 C, consuming less fuel. At the end of the day you have to break down less limestone with LC3, and its the limestone that gives you most of the CO2 emissions, Scrivener says in her Lausanne office, a jumble of books, files, papers, and empty tea mugs and water bottles. Sure, you need heat to make it, but not as much as you do for Portland cement.

The introduction of carbon taxes and trading schemes will drive adoption, Scrivener says. In Europe, industrial sites such as steel mills and cement plants are allowed to belch out a certain amount of carbon. If they emit less, they can sell their extra capacity, but if they exceed their ration they must buy permits from another producer. In the past three years, carbon prices in Europe have more than tripled, and theyre likely to continue rising as the EU ratchets down the limits.

Things will be much tighter, particularly in Europe, and that will have a bigger impact on decision-making, says Ian Riley, CEO of the World Cement Association, a trade group. LC3 will give us a bit of time, though we will need other stuff.

To hear Scrivener tell it, there are virtually unlimited supplies of clay around the world, much of it already mined and available as material rejected by the ceramics industry or paper producers, who use it for coatings. Many concrete makers have tons of clay sitting alongside the sand and gravel in their quarries.

At Scriveners three-story lab at EPFL, an austere expanse of (yes) concrete with views across Lake Geneva to the French Alps, students mix up batches of cement and evaluate them with precision instruments such as scanning electron microscopes and spectrometers. One of the labs early tasks was to test materials for Switzerlands hydropower dams, so in one corner theres a pool where concrete samples have been sitting for decades to see how they hold up. (Theyre doing fine, says Franco Zunino, a Chilean grad student who has been working with Scrivener for four years.). A hot room accelerates the aging process to study long-term durability. In the basement, massive machines smash or compact samples to test their strength.

The Argos plant is the first large-scale calcined clay production facility, but more are being built around the world. Portuguese producer Cimpor is doing test runs at an LC3 plant in Ivory Coast. Lafarge-Holcim, Europes biggest cement maker, expects to add clay kilns at plants in France and Switzerland next year.Cuba is building more than 20 smaller plants that will make a clay mixture that can be combined with standard cement on building sitesat a cost thats about one-fifth lower than traditional formulas, according to Fernando Martirena, a Cuban engineering professor who has worked on the idea for more than a decade.

Scrivener can be startlingly blunt when defending what has become her lifes work: At conferences, shes known for outbursts such as,Thats the stupidest idea Ive ever heard.She says the work of a colleague who backs a rival technology borders on the criminal. Of another researchers theories, she says, Its obvious this is going nowhere, yet these people have built their academic reputations on these materials. She sees calcined clay as the only real hope for an industry thats slow to change.

Not everyone is as enthusiastic. Concrete made with LC3 often exhibits less strength than traditional formulas in the first seven days, says Vanderley John, a professor of building materials at the University of So Paulo in Brazil. The strength can catch up laterit takes a month or more for concrete to fully setand can be boosted with additives or higher quality clay.But delays are costly. The shorter the construction period, the better the return for investors, John says.

And Brazils Votorantim Cimentos says its program using a technology similar to LC3 has been slowed by a lack of appropriate clay. Its not as easy as Karen says, says Wolfram Schmidt, an engineer with Germanys Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing in Berlin. Every clay is different.

Even Scrivener acknowledges that LC3 is only a partial solution, which is why researchers around the world are looking for other ways to cut the industrys carbon emissions. One option is volcanic ashso-called pozzolana, named after the Italian city of Pozzuoli, near Mount Vesuviusthe key ingredient in the cements the Romans used to build their empire. And companies have long replaced some clinker with slag waste from iron smelting or with ash from coal plants. Both work wellbut supplies are dwindling, says Wolfgang Dienemann, research director of HeidelbergCement. Slag is getting more expensive and fly ash is disappearing, he says. We are getting to the point where calcined clay is increasingly relevant.

At Lafarge-Holcims sprawling research lab just outside the French city of Lyon, some 200 scientistsScrivener was once among themare working to reduce the companysCO2 emissions by 15% by 2030. More than two-fifths of Lafarges 1,300 patents on cement and concrete production serve to curb carbon output, says research chief Edelio Bermejo. We have to promote greener solutions, Bermejo says. But we have to do it without compromising quality.

The labs dozens of projects range from 3D printing of concrete elements to alternative ways of heating cement kilns, such as burning garbage or old tires. One group is making concrete that requires less water. Another adds wood chips to the mix. A third is exploring better ways to grind the sand and gravel so less cement is needed to make concrete.

In a warehouse-like room, Vincent Meyer and his team are turning an old problem with concrete into a solution. Over time, concrete reabsorbs part of the CO2 released in producing cement, making it more acidic, which can corrode steel reinforcement bars inside. Meyer uses rubble from demolished buildings to soak up carbon from the smokestacks at cement plants. One ton of recycled concrete can absorb 50 kilos of CO2, he says.

Something along the lines of Meyers workwhat the industry calls carbon capture and storagewill be neededto get cement production to net-zero emissions. The idea is to separate out carbon dioxide, compress it, and put it deep underground, probably in depleted oil and gas wells. The International Energy Agency says carbon capturewill account for 60% of emissions reductions from the cement industry between now and 2070, though the technology remains far from mature.

For Scrivener, the idea of using clay to make cement seemed promising, but it suffered a fundamental problem: the resulting concrete wasnt as strong as traditional varieties. Then in 2009, Scrivener had what she calls her aha moment. By adding a little unheated limestone to a blend of clay and clinker, she found she could supercharge the reaction and boost the strength of concrete. We got this sensational improvement, Scrivener recalls. Then we asked ourselves, What do we do now?

She started talking with producers and proselytizing at conferences and trade shows. The initial reaction was skeptical. Intense competition in the cement industry has driven down margins, and many producers have shuttered research labs, so few were keen on anything that might raise costs. Scrivener eventually found groups in India and Cuba that were interested and managed to convince a few producers to try it.

Karen is the driving force, our mentor and guide, says Soumen Maity, a researcher with an Indian non-profit called Technology and Action for Rural Advancement and the leading LC3 evangelist in that country. You can say shes the engine of the train, and were all rallying behind her, providing additional steam.

As she worked to develop a competitive product, Scrivener encountered a host of setbacks. An early concern was that clay can give concrete a reddish tint. While some buyers might like that, it diverges from the traditional grey. So Scriveners team looked to centuries-old brick-making methods to eliminate the problem by tweaking the way the clay is cooled after heating.

And producers frequently made only cursory efforts to find the necessary clay before deciding they didnt have any. Scriveners response was a program to evaluate clay sent in by anyone around the world. She got roughly 50 submissions from about 20 companies and found that almost all had sufficient levels of kaolin, the mineral that makes clay sticky.

Still, her first real industrial test was a brush with disaster. Scrivener had been working with Martirenas group in Cuba, which had mined 300 tons of clay and shipped it to a Soviet-built cement plant at Siguaney, a dusty interior town halfway between Havana and Santiago. When the clay arrived, the region was in a drought and there wasnt enough water for processing. Then a hurricane struck, flooding the area. When Martirena finally began burning the clay months later, protective bricks inside the kiln started to fall off. Scrivener recalls seeing big chunks of brick in the burned clay, and assumed the experiment would fail. But the Cubans ground the mixture, bricks and all, and made a workable cement.

4 toxic stocks to discard or sell short for solid gains

Accurate identification of correctly-priced stocks is the key to successful investing. However, in reality, overpriced toxic stocks and the rightly-priced stocks are intermixed in such a way that it is tough to distinguish between the two.Usually overhyped toxic stocks are vulnerable to outside shocks. Moreover, these stocks are loaded with a high level of debt. The price of these stocks is artificially inflated. Nonetheless, the higher price of toxic stocks is only short-lived as it is higher than its true intrinsic value.Investors are likely to gain from precise identification of toxic stocks with the help of an investing strategy called short selling. This strategy allows investors to sell a stock first and then buy it when price falls.While short selling excels in bear markets, it typically loses money in bull markets.So accurately identifying toxic stocks and discarding or short selling those at the right time is the key to protect your portfolio from big losses.Screening CriteriaHere is a winning strategy that will help you to identify overpriced toxic stocks:Most recent Debt/Equity Ratio greater than the median industry average: High debt/equity ratio implies high leverage. High leverage indicates a huge level of repayment that the company has to make in connection with the debt amount.P/E using 12-month forward EPS estimate greater than 50: A very high forward P/E implies that a stock is highly overvalued.% Change in F (1) and F (2) Estimate (12 Weeks) less than 0: Negative EPS estimate revision for this and the next fiscal year during the past 12 weeks points to analysts pessimism.Zacks Rank more than or equal to #3 (Hold): We have not considered Buy-rated stocks that generally outperform the market.Here are four of the 30 toxic stocks that showed up on the screen:Vancouver, Canada-based First Majestic Silver Corp. AG is engaged in the production, development, exploration, and acquisition of silver mines in Mexico. Over the past 30 days, the Zacks Consensus Estimate for current-year earnings per share has increased from 1 cent to 2 cents. The stock currently has a Zacks Rank #3. You can see the complete list of todays Zacks #1 Rank (Strong Buy) stocks here.Frederick, MD-based U.S. Silica Holdings, Inc. SLCA is a producer of industrial minerals, including sand proppants, whole grain silica, ground silica, fine ground silica, calcined kaolin clay and aplite clay. Over the past 30 days, the Zacks Consensus Estimate for current-quarter loss per share has remained unchanged at 4 cents. The stock currently has a Zacks Rank #3.San Jose, CA-based Calix, Inc CALX is a global leader in access innovation. Over the past 30 days, the Zacks Consensus Estimate for current-quarter loss per share has remained unchanged at 3 cents. The stock currently has a Zacks Rank #3.Live Nation Entertainment, Inc. LYV is a Beverly Hills, CA-based live entertainment company. Over the past 30 days, the Zacks Consensus Estimate for current-quarter earnings has remained unchanged at 39 cents per share. The stock currently has a Zacks Rank #3.Get the rest of the stocks on the list and start putting this and other ideas to the test. It can all be done with the Research Wizard stock picking and backtesting software.The Research Wizard is a great place to begin. It's easy to use. Everything is in plain language. And it's very intuitive. Start your Research Wizard trial today. And the next time you read an economic report, open up the Research Wizard, plug your finds in, and see what gems come out.Click here to sign up for a free trial to the Research Wizard today.Disclosure: Officers, directors and/or employees of Zacks Investment Research may own or have sold short securities and/or hold long and/or short positions in options that are mentioned in this material. An affiliated investment advisory firm may own or have sold short securities and/or hold long and/or short positions in options that are mentioned in this material.Disclosure: Performance information for Zacks portfolios and strategies are available at:

Want the latest recommendations from Zacks Investment Research? Today, you can download 7 Best Stocks for the Next 30 Days. Click to get this free reportCalix, Inc (CALX) : Free Stock Analysis ReportLive Nation Entertainment, Inc. (LYV) : Free Stock Analysis ReportU.S. Silica Holdings, Inc. (SLCA) : Free Stock Analysis ReportFirst Majestic Silver Corp. (AG) : Free Stock Analysis ReportTo read this article on click here.Zacks Investment Research

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