Thetop 10 steel companies in Indiaconstitute one of the largest industrial revenue earnings in the country, as the steel industry in India is undergoing new stages of development, aided by the economic resurgence and growing demand in the downstream sectors in India. The steel production in India is currently ranked as the second largest in the world. The top 10 largest steel manufacturers in India produced approximately 100 metric tons of finished steel including both alloy and non-alloy steel. These leadingsteel producers in Indiamostly produce iron and steel from iron ore, and supplies various of countrys major industries including automotive, machinery, and construction etc.
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The Indian steel industry is one of the largest in the world in terms of production and exports. The demand for steel in the past few years has helped the Indian steel market to grow and steel companies in India to expand across the globe. With the increasing demand for high-quality steel in the electronics, construction, and logistics industry, the prospects of the steel industry in India is bright. India is among the top steel producing countries in the world. The steel companies in India like TATA steel, SAIL, and Jindal are among the list of top 10 steel companies in the world. TATA steel and SAIL has the largest steel plant in Asia. In 2019, India exported more than $15 million worth of steel ingots, which makes it one of the key players in the international steel market. Steel manufacturing companies in India are now the worlds second-largest crude steel producers after China. The demand for steel from the construction and automobile industry is increasing at great speed with the increase in the production of steel in India to meet the global consumption.
Tata Steel is one of the top 10 steel companies in India and also one of the oldest top 100 steel companies in India. The list of private steel plants in India is incomplete without the mention ofTata Steelas it is also a global name for the steel industry in India.Tata Steel is one of the leading steel manufacturers in India that was founded in 1907 by Dorabji Tata and is headquartered in Mumbai. Tata Steel, one of the largest steel companies in India has an annual revenue of around $22 billion with a massive steel production in India capacity of more than 30 million metric tons in a year.
JSW Steel is one of the top 10 steel companies in India and is a subsidiary of theJSW Group. JSW Steel is also one of the top 100 steel companies in India. JSWSteel was founded in 1982 and is headquartered at Mumbai. This best steel brand in India has six lists of private steel plants in India and has steel production in India with a capacity of around 15 million metric tons annually. The list of stainless steel manufacturers in India is never completed with having JSW Steel on it. This leading steel companies in India has an annual turnover of over $12 billion with a prominent visibility in the steel industry in India.
Steel Authority of India Limited (SAIL) is another top 10 steel companies in India and features high on the list of stainless steel manufacturers in India. SAIL is among the top 100 steel companies in India and was formed in 1954 in New Delhi, India. SAIL is one of the top steel manufacturers in India of the steel industry in India has an annual production capacity of around 5 million metric tons and has an annual turnover of approximately $7.5 billion to rank as the best steel brands in India with more than 5 integrated steel plants across India.
VISA Steel is another top 100 steel companies in India from the steel industry in India. This top steel supplier in India was established in 2003 and is headquartered out of Kolkata. Currently, VISA Steel is in the leading list of top 10 steel companies in India has 3 steel manufacturing plants with a steel production in India capacity of over a million metric tons. This leading list of private steel plants in India company has an annual turnover of more than $3 billion and is ranked as one of the best steel manufacturers in India and is owned by theVISA groupof companies.2019 Revenue: $3 Billion
Rashtriya Ispat Nigam Limited, also known asVizag Steelis a Government of India undertaking company. This is also one of the top 10 steel companies in India with its headquarters at Visakhapatnam. This best steel brand in India was founded in 1982 and is one of the top 100 steel companies in India. Vizag Steel is one of the top steel manufacturers in India and has an annual turnover of around $2.9 billion. Vizag Steel was founded by the Governments Steel Authority of India Limited (SAIL). It is ranked as one of the most profitable ventures of the Indian government and is one of the most highly rated steel suppliers in India today.
Essar Steel is one of the top 10 steel companies in India with massive steel production in India plants. This leading steel suppliers in India ranks prominently on the list of private steel plants in India with an annual turnover of around $2.5 billion with a steel production in India capacity of more than 10 million metric tons annually. This top 100 steel companies in India;Essar Groupwas founded in 1998 and is located at Mumbai. This best steel companies in India has 6 steel production in India plants and various operational units across the globe.
Bhushan Steel is one of the renowned top 10 steel companies in India and one of the best steel manufacturers in India. This leading steel suppliers in India features predominantly on the list of stainless steel manufacturers in India with its headquarters at New Delhi and established in 2003. This leading steel brands in India of the steel industry in India has an annual steel production in India with a capacity of more than 5 million metric tons and a yearly turnover of under $2 billion approximately.Bhushan Steelin India has three manufacturing plants for steel production in India.
Jindal Steel & Power is one of the leading top 100 steel companies in India with an annual production capacity of more than three million metric tons and a yearly turnover of around $3 billion. Jindal Steel and Power is on the list of top 10 steel companies in India and is regularly mentioned in the list of private steel plants in India. Jindal Steel has various steel production in India plants across the country.This is one of the top steel suppliers in India was founded by O P Jindal in 1952 and has its headquarters located at New Delhi. Currently,Jindal Steelin India is headed by Naveen Jindal.
Facor Steel is one of the top 10 steel companies in India and a renowned steel brand in India. This is one of the top leading steel companies in India was founded in 1956 by Durgaprasadji Saraf and is headquartered in Nagpur, India. This top steel brands in India has an annual turnover of more than $1.5 billion and a steel production in India capacity of around 2 million metric tons. This leading steel suppliers in India and top 100 steel companies in India is also an established steel company in India exporting to many countries around the world.Facor steelis one of the fastest growing steel producing companies in Asia.
MESCO Steel is also one of the top 10 steel companies in India with a global presence from the steel industry in India. This is list as one of the top few leading steel suppliers in India was founded in 1992 with collaborated on technology from Sino Steel, the Chinese steel conglomerate. MESCO Steel is in the list of top 100 steel companies in India that produces over 1000 tons of hot metal every day and operates from two steel production in India plants. This major steel manufacturers in India is renowned as having the lowest debt-equity ratio among several steel companies in India.MESCO steelis growing to become one of the leading steel producers in India and the Asia-Pacific region.
Other top steel companies in India are Mahindra Ugine Steel, Welspun Corp, Ahmedabad Steelcraft Ltd, Akashna Global Steel Ltd, Anil Special Steel Ltd, Ashirwad Steels & Industries, Bajaj Steel industries, Bellary Steels & Alloys Ltd, and Bengal Steel Industries Ltd.
The steel industry in India is forecast to have a robust growth in the next few years with an aim to remain as the 2nd largest steel producing country in the world. The future direction of the top 10 steel companies in India looks promising with favourable Government initiatives and growing demand from various steel dependent industries like automotive, electronics, and construction sectors. Furthermore, steel industry in India is geared to add immense value to the countrys GDP and as well as bring more foreign currency with the help of the best steel manufacturers in India and the top steel exporters in India. The steel industry in India is forecasted to thrive on account of growing demand from all over for the steel production in India, attributed to well-developed infrastructure and top-quality technological advancements conducted by the top 10 steel companies in India.
To help your business stay at the top of the industry, BizVibe provides the best solutions to source the products and make the best business deals with the top steel manufacturers in India. Dont miss your chance to connect with the best industry suppliers, manufacturers, and exporters on BizVibe. Whether youre conducting competitive research or looking for new and reliable suppliers, quality producers or top wholesalers, BizVibe makes it easy to grow your business.
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In all rare metals, the importance and scarcity of chrome ore and scarce are most obvious, which is at the top of "strategic metals". The chrome ore is mainly used in the production of stainless steel and various kinds of alloy steel in the form of ferroalloy (such as ferrochrome), which has the advantages of strong hardness, wear-resisting, heat-resisting and corrosion resistance.
At present, the common chrome extraction processes mainly include gravity separation, magnetic separation, electric separation, flotation, gravity-magnetic separation process. Below, let's take you to learn about each chromite ore processing process.
From the point of production practice, the gravity separation is still the main chrome extraction method in the world method now, which uses the loose stratification in the water medium. At present, the gravity separator used in the chromite ore processing includes the shaker table, jig, spiral chute and centrifugal separator.
It is worth noting that stage grinding and gravity separator, or the combination of various gravity separators can be used according to the chrome ore properties, thus further improving the grade and recovery of chrome concentrate.
Because the chromite has a weak magnetism, we can use the strong magnetic separator for chrome extraction. There are mainly the following two cases: one is in the weak magnetic field, remove the ore in the strong magnetic separation of minerals (main magnetite), improve the ratio of ferrochrome. Another is to separate the gangue minerals and recover chrome ore (weakly magnetic mineral) under the strong magnetic field. If necessary, the weak magnetic - strong magnetic separation process can also be used to effectively separate the ore and achieve the chrome extraction.
The electric concentration process is mainly used to separate chromium ore from silicate gangue by using the difference of electrical properties of minerals, such as conductivity, dielectric constant, etc. For the chrome ore, a few chrome can be used directly by the electrical concentration, most of them only use the electrical concentration process in the concentration process. The concentration process has a special effect on removing silicate minerals (such as quartz, etc.) from chrome. Therefore, after the separation of chrome, another stage of the electric concentration process can be added for cleaning, which not only further improves the grade of chrome concentrate, but also greatly reduces the content of silicon dioxide.
At present, we can use the flotation process to recover the chromite with fine grain size (-100um) after the gravity separation. The results show that Mg2+ and Ca2+ can inhibit the chromium ore, and the inhibition of Mg2+ is influenced by the type of anions in the slurry. Therefore, after knowing the cationic behavior in the pulp, we can choose the appropriate pulp PH value, reagents concentration, add the order of inhibitors and activators, achieve the separation of chromite and pyrite.
Sometimes, the single gravity separation method cannot recover the chrome concentrate effectively. At this time, the concentrate obtained by the gravity separation can be separated by weak magnetic separation or strong magnetic separation, further improving the grade of chrome concentrate and chromic oxide-ferrous oxide ratio.
For example, the 100-10mm grade of raw ore adopts two-stage dense media separation. The medium ore of the dense media separator is crushed to 10-0mm and then merged with the 10-0mm grade of raw ore for separation. The grades of 10-3mm and 3-0mm are sent to the jigging process. After the middling of the jigging process is ground to 0.5-0mm, the spiral concentrator is used for separation, and the shaker table is used for the separation of mineral mud (0.5-0mm). Then, the high-field magnetic separator is used to recover 0.25mm slime separated from the tailings of the shaker table and spiral separator, ensuring the content of chromium oxide in the concentrate and reduce the loss of valuable components in the tailings.
Here are the common five chrome extraction processes. For the rich ore with high chromium oxide content, single gravity separation or magnetic separation process can be adopted. For the chrome with low chromium oxide content, the combined process of gravity separation and magnetic separation usually gets a better index than the single process. Of course, the specific chrome extraction process should be determined comprehensively according to the nature of the chrome ore, the actual situation of the chromite ore processing plant, the investment budget, so as to ensure the ideal beneficiation benefits and economic benefits.
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Q. My company uses iron ore (magnetite) in its process. However, a large amount of mill scale has become available and we are looking at it as a substitute or supplement. What is the basic composition of mill scale and the difference between it and magnetite and black iron oxide? Can mill scale be used in place of magnetite or black iron oxide?
Mill scale is the hardened, oxidized, surface that develops on steel as it is hot processed. It contains iron and oxidized iron but probably poorly defined contaminants like oils and carbonates. Putting this stuff into an unknown "process" might work excellently, or poorly, or fail completely -- but powder explosions of all sorts are a commonplace, and the large surface area could cause the reaction to proceed instantaneously and explode and kill people! Please try your best to explain what your intended "process" is. Thanks.
Q. Can anybody tell the difference between Iron Mill Scale, Black Iron Oxide, Magnetite (Iron ore)? If the basic composition is the same, can Mill scale be used in place of Black Iron oxide or Magnetite.
A. Well, there have been many attempts to use mill scale but all have failed because of structural faults in mill scale. It cannot be used in most applications but if you tell which application would you like to use it, I think all in the room can guide you better.
A. Well mill scale needs to be purified as it contains contaminants like sulphur and phos. magnetically it needs to be separated and texture modified by heat treating it to 670 C. then it can be used as magnetite.
A. Well I used to use about about 1,000 tons per year. It was used in a ferro-cement mix and poured into a polyethylene shell. These were sold as wheel weights for lawn and garden tractor wheels for extra weight for traction. Weights were 20-75 lbs.
Q. We are exploring the use of mill scale (small percentage) in our Pellet Plant coming up in India. We are beneficiating Iron Ore fines bearing Fe 56% to 300-325 mesh and then using a series of hydro-cyclones to bring the Fe up to 64%. I would like to explore the use of mill scale in crushed form (325 mesh/44 microns) for: 1. upgrading by green ball Fe content & 2. increase the quality of finished pellets in terms of reduction. Any suggestions / opinions / advice is solicited.
Q. I have a proposal to compact Mill scale (Fe 60% to 70%) from Steel Mills by briquetting it. The briquettes to be used along with heavy melting scrap in electric arc furnaces. There are briquetting machines available in the world market having a capacity to make 30 to 100 mts per hr of briquettes. The bonding used is Sodium Silicate and hydrated lime. I shall be grateful if you could advise if this method of recycling of Mill scale would be beneficial to steel making in the electric arc furnaces. The costs benefits are considerable given the demand and high prices for heavy melting scrap. Thanks for your time Regards,
Q. Dear sir I'm working in one of the alloy production company, since we started the production of LOW CARBON FERRO CHROME. For this we have taken CHROME ORE, AL POWDER, SODIUM NITRATE & MILL SCALE. I want to know the main usage of MILL SCALE in this chemical combination, that why we have to use MILL SCALE. Please clear my doubt
Q. I own a rolling plant producing structure angles and channels. It generates about 100 tonnes of mill scale per month. Is there some kind of technology that can convert mill scale back to pure Fe which can be melted in blast furnaces to produce ingots and billets. Also, can mill scale be directly melted to produce pure iron. I Would be more than happy to give more information if required. warm regards, Abhinav
---- Ed. note-- Gentle Readers: If you know enough about mill scale to be able to pose a question, you may know enough about it to be able to help one of the dozen people waiting in line in front of you. A dozen unanswered questions in a row can be the death of any public forum thread, so there really is no point in making the list of unanswered questions still longer. So we won't waste your time and ours adding additional questions until some answers are posted. Thanks for your understanding, and please try to help!
A. Mill scale is the result of an oxidizing layer of steel products as it is processed in a rolling mill. It is collected with coolant and lubricating oils and normally held in a collection tank/pond. During its mixture with the liquids the steel scale will oxidize further until it reverts to iron oxide (Fe2O3). If the scale is collected and dried right away some will be in the form of Fe, FeO, Fe3O4, Fe2O3 and the total Fe content could be as high as 99% or whatever level the steel products are at the mill. The size of the mill scale will be from dust size in microns up to normally 6 mm, perhaps longer as it is scale it will flake off the steel. Processes exist to recover and use the mill scale as well as all other iron/Fe bearing materials wastes in steel mills and use it directly in a furnace to make new steel.
A. Mill scale is oxides of iron and alloying elements present in steel. Obviously, it is a rich source of iron. Most of the steel plants recycle mill scale through sintering or pelletization. However, a value-added utilization of mill scale is in steel making after converting it into briquettes. Briquettes can be tailor made by combining with other Plant wastes, such as coke breeze, lime fines, and iron bearing wastes, to suit a particular utilization. It offers excellent techno-economic benefits. Yes, mill scale can be converted into pure iron by subjecting it to reduction process. Though it is time consuming, powder iron is manufactured through this route as well.
Q. I have a proposal to compact Mill scale (Fe 60% to 70%) from Steel Mills by briquetting it. The briquettes to be used along with heavy melting scrap in electric arc furnaces. There are briquetting machines available in the world market having a capacity to make 30 to 100 mts per hour of briquettes. The bonding used is Sodium Silicate and hydrated lime. I shall be grateful if you could advise if this method of recycling of Mill scale would be beneficial to steel making in the electric arc furnaces. The costs benefits are considerable given the demand and high prices for heavy melting scrap.Thanks for your time Regards Seshadri
Hi cousin Bivek. I don't know the answer to your question, but as the website operator for 20 years I advise that a good and helpful response is more likely if you explain the situation which motivates your question. I'm not here to lecture folks, only to advise what seems to work here. Best of luck, and I encourage someone to prove me wrong by answering anyway :-) Regards, Ted Mooney, P.E. Striving to live Aloha finishing.com - Pine Beach, New Jersey ^
Q. We are one of the leading steel plants in our area We are making MS ingots in our induction furnace. Mostly we are using both sponge iron and HMS (heavy melting scrap) as raw materials in our plant. Now a large quantity of mill scale (Fe 40%-50%) is available in our area. Can we use mill scale as raw material in our induction furnace. If yes, how to use?
A. Dear, you can use mill scale while processing of Magnetite in magnetic separator in low intensity after grinding and can be used in pellet making, but it will drop your final Fe in the pellet due to oxidation.
Q. Dear all, in my company we generate 3000 Ton/month of mill scale, 1000 Ton/month of DRI Muds and 3500 Ton/month of Iron Ore fine. We make briquettes of DRI dust and DRI fines with Sodium Silicate, but can't add the mill scale into the mix due to the briquette loses its resistance. Have some of you tried to make briquettes with these components? How much pressure is required? I would appreciate if someone can show me what type of machine is used for briquetting. And anyone know if there are other uses of DRI muds besides the cement industry? Thanks
Q. What standard test method( ASTM, ISO, etc.) is used to analyze "DOUBLE ROASTED MILL SCALE"? We follow iron ore method: We analyze Fe, Fe2O3, FeO, S, P. with compatibility. But problem is that our authority needs a STANDARD TEST METHOD INCLUDING IT'S SPECIFICATION. Please help me with relevant answer.
A. Sanjay, Even Google doesn't know what "double roasted" mill scale is. plain old "roasted" mill scale doesn't turn up much either. What kind of analysis are we talking about here? Thickness? Composition? Perhaps if we better understand what you are looking for, we will be more able to search up an existing standard.
Q. Good day, Please advise what is the best way to use Mill Scale in Induction Furnace for steel melting to assist in reduction of carbon content. If we do use mill scale in induction furnace what lining is recommended? As mill scale oxidizes and erodes silica lining, can neutral lining work?
Q. Is it possible to use a mixture of mill scale, coal (carbon source) and sand(silicon dioxide) for reduction into iron in silica lined induction furnace. As using directly affects the silica lining adversely so would be it be possible to introduce extra Carbon and silicon dioxide with the mill scale so that the lining is unaffected?
Three-month copper on the London Metal Exchange was up 0.5% at $9,427.50 a tonne, as of 0528 GMT, and the most-traded August copper contract on the Shanghai Futures Exchange advanced 0.8% to 68,880 yuan ($10,659.24) a tonne.
Physico-chemical characterization of LD slag shows presence of cementious phases in non-reactive crystalline form.Chappelle test and slag activity index test confirms its low reactivity.Mechano-chemical activation of slag significantly enhances the slag activity index.Sodium silicate and sodium sulphates increases compressive strength by 12.6% and 2.6% respectively as compared to control specimens.30% of OPC can be gainfully replaced with sodium silicate or sodium sulphate activated LD slag for fabrication of cementitious binder.
The aim of present paper is to develop a composite cementitious binder by improving reactivity of Linz Donawitz (LD) slag through mechano-chemical activation. The pozzolanic reactivity of LD slag has been significantly improved as corroborated through modified Chapelle test and slag activity index. The mechanical grinding is carried out with ball milling of LD slag for 20min followed by chemical activation with four different types of chemical activators namely sodium silicate, sodium sulphate, sodium hydroxide and sodium carbonate. The physico-chemical and strength properties were studied to quantify the efficacy of different alkali activators with 70% of ordinary Portland cement and 30% of ball milled LD slag blend. The sodium silicate and sodium sulphate alkali activators were found effective to enhance the reactivity, which led to increased compressive strength of developed cementitious binder paste cubes as compared to control paste cubes. XRD and Rietveld method results also exhibited the development of more calcium silicate hydrates (CSH) in activated binders, which corroborates increased compressive strength. The normalized heat flow and normalized heat were also found better for both these hydrated blend pastes in comparison to the other blends. The SEM analysis observed more hydration products morphology in blend pastes activated with sodium silicate and sodium sulphate. Based on outcome of different analytical techniques, it was observed that ball milling for 20min and chemical activation with sodium silicate or sodium sulphate can be applied to enhance the reactivity of LD slag to develop a sustainable composite cement.
The trust in our quality and capabilities has come from years of ensuring stringent quality control in our materials & processes, and by ensuring that we stick to the TATA values of customer satisfaction above all
Our commitment to quality is exceptional, and to ensure the same, we were earlier manufacturing wire products based on international standards, and our machines were calibrated to the same. Beginning of last year, we started sensing a different kind of demand in our market.
The international standards generally prescribe thicker sizes of barbed wire and chain-link (size range of 2-2.5mm and 3-4mm respectively). Also the barbed wire manufactured by us had barbs which were closely spaced. There seemed to be an anecdotal disconnect between what we produced and what the customers wanted in terms of their preference of wire thickness and spacing of barbs. So we conducted FGDs to confirm the same.
Upon corroboration of our findings, we ordered new machines and calibrated the existing ones to manufacture thinner sizes of Chain-link. We also changed the distance between barbs to 4 inches which was the requirement of customers.
Wiron Ayush is a perfect example of purposeful innovation & resilience by our team who toiled for three years to bring it to the market. Its a technologically superior product and is a sub-brand of Tata Wiron. This groundbreaking product is also industry first globally, and is now a patented technology available with us. Aayush, which means long life in Sanskrit, has twice the life of regular galvanized wires.
Wiron Aayush is sealed in a transparent coating of Tashiel-1000 which prevents corrosive chemicals from reaching the metal surface and its blue tinge helps customers in identifying it easily. We sell Aayush coated wire and wire products in Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh, Telangana and Kerala. The Aayush coating helps prevent corrosion caused by the pervasive humid climate in these states.
Tata Wiron has supplied LRPC strands to about 70% of the metro projects in India. Metros in cities such as Delhi, Mumbai, Ahmedabad, Chennai, Calcutta, Jaipur, Nagpur, etc, which are major contributors to daily commute today, stand strong on our LRPC.
The Delhi Metro Rail Corporation (DMRC) - for instance, is the largest network of metro as of now in India. They constructed a massive network of 348 KMs with 285 stations in record time. This network thrives beyond the boundaries of Delhi to reach NOIDA and Ghaziabad in Uttar Pradesh, also Gurgaon and Faridabad in Haryana.
It today stands out as a prime example of how a project can be completed in scheduled time and within cost allocated by the Government. We are glad to have been partners to DMRC during the course of this unparalleled feat, and were chosen to be so, because of our reliability in quality, timely supplies and the right price.
The turn of the century was a time for rapid infrastructure growth in Mumbai. Many projects of strategic importance to the city and the country were being planned here and we were keen to contribute to this growth story. The enquiries for LRPC material were more than what we could supply. Yet we managed to supply 70% of the total LRPC strands. Timely approvals, deliveries and self-certified products were some points that differentiated us from the rest and made the authorities choose us time and again.
The Bandra Worli sea link is a first of its kind bridge to be constructed in open sea conditions in India. We supplied ~ 4500 MT of LRPC strands to this project. It was particularly incredible as the timeline of the construction coincided with the time of shifting our plant from Borivali to Tarapur.
Rajgir Zoo Safari in Bihar was an exciting prospect for us to take on. It was both prestigious and highly critical. Prestigious because it was one of a kind Wildlife Safari Project, and critical since it involved unusual and novel chain-link sizes of height 14.5 feet, considering it was an enclosure of highly mobile animals like Leopards, Tigers, Lions etc.
The team collaborated to arrive at a consensus that the ideal production strategy would be of two different mesh sizes of 9ft 5 inch and 5 ft chain-links - which can be produced in our machines at ISWP and Tarapur.
We successfully passed the inspection and QA test by DFO department and the CM , who gave the green signal for expedited installation and with a coherent and coordinated effort by all teams, we were able to supply complete material by March 2020.
All our units of operation adhere to strict quality parameters and are ISO and IATF certified. Our dedicated team of technicians, engineers and other personnel across ensure stringent quality parameters in products and processes through a committed system of evaluation and control.
Luossavaara-Kiirunavaara AB (LKAB) operates an iron ore mine, three concentration plants and three pelletising plants in Kiruna, Sweden. The current methods of separation at the beneficiation plants are low intensity magnetic separation (LIMS) and reverse flotation (i.e., apatite is floated and magnetite depressed), where the wet LIMS stage is regarded as the crucial part of the separation of silica from the ore. It is increasingly important to understand the Kiirunavaara high-grade iron ore deposit from amineral processing perspective as well as from amineralogical and geochemical perspective as the production in the mine is advancing towards deeper levels with higher concentrations of SiO2 in the ore. The mineral processing parameters such as the natural breaking characteristics, specific energy consumption and degree of liberation of magnetite and silicate minerals are equally important. The intergrowth of magnetite with actinolite is of particular importance for understanding the processes in the processing plants in Kiruna and the flotation behaviour of silicate minerals. The iron ore deposit at Kiirunavaara consists mainly of magnetite and apatite, with an average grade of 63.8% Fe and 0.4%P (estimated from the 3D resource model, LKAB) and with varying, but mostly small, amounts of gangue minerals, mostly silicates and carbonates. Based on mineralogical investigations, actinolite and phlogopite and in many cases also chlorite, titanite, quartz and albite are the most significant SiO2-bearing minerals in the ore. Currently, the high-grade iron ore deposit of Kiirunavaara has in situ alow grade of silica of approximately 3% SiO2. However, the SiO2 grade is expected to increase in the deeper parts of the deposit. It can be assumed that the silicate mineralogy and the SiO2 grade in the crude ore undoubtedly impact the SiO2 content of the final products, i.e. the iron ore pellets and/or iron ore fines.
This results in new challenges and requirements for the production at LKAB. Within the framework of the completed Silica in the Mine project, which was an important research and development area for LKAB for several years, the entire production chain from the mine to the mill and from the mill to the final product was evaluated in several subprojects. Important information was gained from the results of these subprojects in order to better understand the problem of the increasing and fluctuating SiO2 grades in the crude ore and magnetite concentrate. To study the reduction of the SiO2 content additionally in the magnetite concentrate obtained by WLIMS, areverse cationic flotation laboratory test programme was initiated in the early spring of 2016. This flotation test work was based on the investigation carried out at the mineral processing laboratory at the Geological Survey of Finland (GTK). To obtain additional information about the problem of SiO2 and the behaviour of individual silicates during mineral processing, an extensive large-scale sampling programme will be carried out at the different stages of the process at the beneficiation plants (KA1, KA2, KA3) at the Kiirunavaara site.
Luossavaara-Kiirunavaara AB (LKAB) betreibt einen untertgigen Eisenerzbergbau mit drei Aufbereitungs- und drei Pelletieranlagen in Kiruna, Schweden. Die derzeit zur Erzeugung hochwertiger Eisenerzkonzentrate zum Einsatz gebrachten Sortierprozesse sind eine nassbetriebene Schwachfeld-Magnetscheidung (WLIMS) und eine Umkehrflotation, wobei die Magnetscheidung als der entscheidende Teil zur Abtrennung der Silikatminerale aus dem Erz angesehen wird. Das Verstndnis der Eisenerzlagersttte von Kiirunavaara sowohl aus der aufbereitungstechnischen wie auch aus der mineralogischen und geochemischen Sicht wird zunehmend wichtiger, wenn der Abbau in tiefere Teile der Lagersttte mit hheren SiO2-Gehalten fortschreitet. Genaue Kenntnis ber die aufbereitungstechnischen Kenngren wie die natrliche Bruchcharakteristik, den spezifischen Energieverbrauch, den Aufschlussgrad von Magnetit und Silikatmineralen, vor allem aber die Verwachsungsverhltnisse von Magnetit mit Aktinolith sind fr das Verstndnis der Prozesse in den Aufbereitungsanlagen in Kiruna und das Flotationsverhalten der Silkatminerale von entscheidender Bedeutung. Die Eisenerzlagersttte am Kiirunavaara besteht hauptschlich aus Magnetit und Apatit mit durchschnittlichen Gehalten von 63,5% Fe und 0,4%P (berechnet aus dem 3D-Ressourcenmodell, LKAB) und mit unterschiedlichen, aber geringen Mengen an anderen Mineralphasen, meist Silikat- und Karbonatmineralen. Basierend auf den mineralogischen Untersuchungen sind Aktinolith und Phlogopit, aber auch Chlorit, Titanit, Quarz und Albit die vorherrschenden Silikatminerale im Erz. Die Lagersttte zeigt derzeit einen niedrigen SiO2-Gehalt von durchschnittlich 3% SiO2. Allerdings zeigen Untersuchungen, dass der SiO2-Gehalt in den tieferen Teilen der Lagersttte ansteigen wird. Es ist davon auszugehen, dass die Mineralogie der Silikate und die SiO2-Gehalte im Roherz mageblichen Einfluss auf die SiO2-Gehalte der Endprodukte, d.h. die Eisenerzpellets und/oder das Feinerz haben werden. Daraus ergeben sich neue Herausforderungen und Anforderungen an die Produktion bei LKAB. Im Rahmen des abgeschlossenen Projekts Silica in the Mine, das seit mehreren Jahren bei LKAB ein wichtiges Forschungs- und Entwicklungsgebiet ist, wurde die gesamte Produktionskette vom Bergbau ber die Aufbereitung bis hin zum Endprodukt in mehreren Teilprojekten evaluiert. Aus den Ergebnissen dieser Teilprojekte wurden wichtige Erkenntnisse gewonnen, um das Problem mit den steigenden und schwankenden SiO2-Gehalten im Roherz und im Magnetitkonzentrat besser zu verstehen. Zur Verringerung des SiO2-Gehaltes im Konzentrat der Schwachfeld-Magnetscheidung wurde im Frhjahr 2016 eine Versuchsreihe bezglich der flotativen Abtrennung von Silikaten eingeleitet. Die Flotation mit kationenaktiven Sammlern zielte darauf ab, den SiO2-Gehalt im Magnetitkonzentrat zustzlich zu senken. Das bei LKAB durchgefhrte Flotationsprogramm baute dabei auf Voruntersuchungen das Geologischen Dienstes von Finnland (GTK) auf. Um das Verhalten der verschiedenen Silikatminerale im Aufbereitungsprozess zu verstehen, luft zur Zeit (2017) eine umfangreiche Probenahmekampagne in den verschiedenen Stufen des Prozesses in den drei Aufbereitungsanlagen (KA1, KA2, KA3) in Kiruna.
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