Working in the mining industry can be a dangerous place if you dont know what youre doing. Regular training is essential and understanding the machines youre working near or operating plays an important role in all aspects of the industry.
Each type of mining equipment comes with its own set of mining activities. The most common types of mining equipment vary depending whether the work is being carried out above or below ground or mining for gold, metals, coal or crude oil. From drilling machines to excavators, crushing and grinding equipment the mining industry comes complete with all the right tools. New to the job and want to find out what it all means? Heres a few of the industrys most common types of equipment and why theyre important for the job.
Probably one of the most common pieces of mining equipment, drills are an important part of the underground mining operation. Underground mining is carried out when rocks or minerals are located at a fair distance beneath the ground. But then they need to be brought to the surface. Underground specialized mining equipment such as trucks, loaders, diggers etc. are used to excavate the material and are normally hauled to the surface with skips or lifts for further processing. Drilling is normally required to place explosive charges to liberate the minerals from the overburden material. Underground mining techniques have progressed significantly over the past years, including using remote controlled machinery.
Drills assist in creating holes descending underground. If miners are required to work underground, drills can also be used in ensuring the holes are large enough to serve as a portal for miners to enter. Directional drilling is also a type of mining technology where miners will use the tools and certain methods to drill wells.
Blasting tools are an essential part of the mining industry and are used to break down and fracture materials (usually rocks) by use of a calculated amount of explosive to liberate the sought-after product from the waste material. Blasting is also used to remove pockets of unwanted material that are preventing mining machines and personnel to get to the seam containing the materials of interest. Unmanned drill rigs will drill holes at pre-determined depths and positions on a blast face to ensure that a particular size fraction is achieved and that little of the overburden is liberated with the blasting to reduce material handling costs. Once this process has been completed, an excavator is used to recover the blasted rocks and other debris that has been dislodged during the blasting. The material is then conveyed to a central conveying system which will take it directly to the surface or via a skip and hoist system.
For above ground mining, earth movers are utilised regularly to carry loose soil and earth from one location to another. Earth movers play an important role in the mining industry because the equipment is specifically designed to work on large earth-moving and mining projects for a faster and more practical process. Used for digging, pushing and transporting the earth, they require the specialised skills of an operator.
Earth movers are heavy mining equipment that the industry would struggle to survive without and work hand in hand with bulldozers. Earth movers are normally used for removing overburden or waste material, which enables the excavators to remove the material or mineral of interest. Bulldozers are used to move this overburden material around to create a working surface for other equipment such as haul trucks and excavators.
As its name suggests, crushing equipment is used to crush rock and stone. Designed to achieve maximum productivity and high reduction rate, mining crushing equipment can come in a variety of different types for a range of jobs.
Crushing equipment is specially configured to break down the hard rock matter or gravel to a manageable size for transportation or conveying. They are valuable pieces of equipment in the industry because they reduce the costs associated with handling of larger sized material and also ensure efficient liberation of elements of interest in downstream processing of the material. In an opencast or strip mining operation, the run of mine (ROM) material is normally transported to the primary crusher by haul trucks, and in underground mining operations it is conveyed to the primary crusher. Crushing equipment is important to the mining process because it reduces the use of precious excavated resources and eliminates the amount of material on site.
Once the excavator transporter brings the raw material to the crusher for processing, the feeding device feeds the material into the crusher and in return the material is screened and all oversized material is recirculated back to the crusher to ensure correct size fraction is obtained. This weighbelt feeding equipment, usually referred to as Weighfeeders, conveys and controls the feedrate into the crusher to improve crusher efficiency.
Feeding and conveying equipment are necessary to the mining industry to move and control material flow within a mining and processing operation to facilitate efficient operation of equipment and determine operating rates and yields. In some instances secondary crushing is required prior to processing of the material. Once the material is at the correct size, fraction processing can occur which could include, milling, flotation, leaching etc.
Belt scale systems let you monitor production output and inventory, or regulate product loadout, while providing vital information for the effective management and efficient operation of your business. There are elemental crossbelt analyzers that provide real-time quality analysis of critical process streams to facilitate sorting, blending and out-of-seam dilution control. While materials are on the troughed belt conveyor, an automatic sampling system (which could be single or multi-stage) can take a representative sample directly from the moving material stream. (Take a look at this video to see how a sampling system works.) Weighbelt Feeders that convey and control feedrate accurately and reliably can reduce material consumption, help maintain blend consistency, and increase profits.
Flow measurement systems provide continuous, real-time flow measurement of free-falling materials or dense phase, pneumatically conveyed bulk solids, which is important to ensure and maintain product quality and process efficiency.
This article was co-written by Jayde Ferguson, who writes for Direct Mining a leading supplier of premier mining equipment, products and services throughout Australia and the Asia Pacific region. Stephan Nel, Global Product/Applications Manager for Coal & Sinter at Thermo Fisher Scientific, co-wrote and edited the piece as well.
Need a Belt scale system for your bulk material handling? To help you decide which belt scale system is best for your mining operation, weve outlined the options in an easy-to-read belt scale system selection guide so you can decide which belt scale system is right for you. Click on the image, take a look at the chart, and see if it helps you decide.
You make a great point about how drills are a very common piece of mining equipment. Choosing the right kind of drill tip can make a big difference in efficiency. Many drill bits will be tipped with synthetic diamonds to ensure that they are as durable as possible regardless of the rock and substrate involved. Thanks for your post.
It is true that working in the mining industry can be a dangerous place if we dont know about the machinery that are useful in mining industry. I hope your post will help people to know about the most common types of mining equipment and how to use them properly. Thanks
Thanks for the information. This really help to understand the different types of equipment you can expect to see in a mine. Drilling is such an important part to the mining process. Drilling and blasting go hand in hand to help break up the hard ground. After all you can gather the material your mining if you cant get to it.
Understating what type of mining equipment like core boxes, seems like a good place to start for beginners. Theres really now way to do a job properly unless youre familiar with the tools and equipment youll be using. It might also help with improving safety.
I AM ABOUT GOING IN TO MINING BUSINESS , ON MY RESEARCH ON HOW IT IS DONE BROUGHT ME TO THIS ARTICLE KUDOS TO Author Bios FOR THIS WONDERFUL HELP I GOT THROUGH UR POST AM GRATEFUL AND I NEED MORE GUIDE LINE TOWARD STONE MINING I AM CHIDI YOUNG
Good luck to you Chidi. Feel free to visit our Cement/Coal/Minerals Learning Center on our website for educational information, white papers, application notes, ebooks, infographics, etc. https://www.thermofisher.com/us/en/home/industrial/cement-coal-minerals/cement-coal-minerals-learning-center.html
I like how you mentioned that drills are needed in the mining industry because these are going to be used in creating holes descending underground. Its also intriguing to learn that the blasting tools are mainly used to break down and fracture the materials. Well, if I had a mining company, I would make sure to place industrial fans in there because these will provide air stream.
TriTank TT20: our personal favourite, an entirely unique to APT advanced cyanidation system. These tanks have a wide range of applications and can be setup for Carbon-In-Pulp (CIP), Carbon-In-Leach (CIL), or Carousel operation.
The Elu-X is especially made for the smaller elution applications. Engineered in a minimalistic way, with safety and ease of use in mind, ensuring consistent high performance while keeping unnecessary costs at bay. An affordable, effective solution.
The RDGK: crusher and concentrator. Available as a stand-alone plant, itis simplyassembled on-site and can still easily be relocated. A trailer version is also available allowing you to simply take the crusher to site and you're ready to go. All compactand portable.
The GoldJigga: a manual hydraulic jig concentrator used to concentrate coarse nuggets of gold from coarse (+3mm) oversize material. This jig is highly durable and can be used in the most remote of locations as it does not run with any kind of electricity.
The RG30-T: this scrubber is part of our standard wash plant range and incorporates the GoldKacha concentrator. It comes fully assembled and is available in trailer version, allowing for optimal mobility and ease of operation when following your mineral resource.
Especially for small-scale mining applications, encouraging growth anddevelopment with high recoveries. A more sophisticated solution to traditional sluices, whilst remaining easy to operate. No mercury required, minimal operational requirements.
Dewo machinery can provides complete set of crushing and screening line, including Hydraulic Cone Crusher, Jaw Crusher, Impact Crusher, Vertical Shaft Impact Crusher (Sand Making Machine), fixed and movable rock crushing line, but also provides turnkey project for cement production line, ore beneficiation production line and drying production line. Dewo Machinery can provide high quality products, as well as customized optimized technical proposal and one station after- sales service.
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Mining equipment stone crusher machine, US $ 10000 - 80000 / Set, Energy & Mining, Indonesia, Malaysia, Indonesia.Source from Tangshan Tianhe Environmental Protection Technology Co., Ltd. on Alibaba.com.
Stone crusher is crushing machinery that used to reduce the size of minerals to obtain the required ore particles. According to the characteristics of the rock crushers can be divided into the primary, secondary, tertiary, and fine crusher.
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VI Series vertical impact crusher (sand making machine) is an efficient River gravel, rocks (limestone, granite, basalt, diabase, andesite, etc.), the ore tailings broken equipment. sand making machine is widely used in the mine stone crushing and construction, road sand production field.
Are you about starting a sand mining business? If YES, here is a complete sample sand mining business plan template & feasibility report you can use for FREE. Okay, so we have considered all the requirements for starting a sand mining business. We also took it further byanalyzing and drafting a sample sand mining business marketing plan template backed up by actionable guerrilla marketing ideas for sand mining businesses. So lets proceed to the business planning section.
As an aspiring entrepreneur with interest in the construction cum building industry who is looking towards starting a business, one of your best options of entering the industry is to start a sand mining business. This business does pretty well in the united states of America despite the hurdles that you would have to scale through when carrying out your duties.
Part of what you would need to launch this type of business in the United States of America is your mining license, your excavating, stone crushing and selection machines, trucks cum tippers and employees.
In as much as people can start this business on a local level and on a small scale, it will be a wise decision to write a good business plan especially if you choose to start the business on a large scale and as a standard business that can employ more than a handful of people. Below is a sample sand mining company business plan that will help you successfully launch your own business.
Players in the sand and gravel mining industry are basically involved in mining and quarrying sand and gravel, along with clay, and ceramic and refractory minerals. Industry activity may include the beneficiation of these minerals by washing, screening and otherwise preparing the mined sand, gravel and clay.
The Sand and Gravel Mining industry predominantly mines and undertakes basic processing of sand and gravel used for construction aggregates and industrial applications such as road building, landscaping, snow and ice control and petroleum extraction. The industry also undertakes the extraction and primary processing of clay and refractory products for use in downstream manufacturing applications.
Domestic sand and gravel production is expected to rise over the five years to 2017, mirroring industry revenue growth. A sharp rise in hydraulic fracturing activity, to drill for oil and gas also significantly increased demand for industrial sand since it is used to prop open slits in the rock, contributing to the industrys expansion.
The Sand and Gravel Mining industry is a thriving sector of the economy of the United States and the industry generates over $16 billion annually from more than 2,211 sand and gravel mining companies scattered all around the United States of America. The industry is responsible for the employment of over 31,042 people. Experts project the industry to grow at a 6.7 percent annual rate. CRH PLC, and Heidelberg Cement are the market leaders in this industry.
A recent report published by IBISWorld shows that the sand and gravel mining industry has a high capital intensity as substantial amount of industry capital is tied up in earthmoving and dredging equipment, along with cartage transport fleets. High capital intensity arises from the nature of the mining process, which requires considerable investment in large-scale equipment such as electric shovels and conveyors.
The industry also has a high working capital requirement because operators require sufficient capital to survive during periods of low prices, when revenue may temporarily be insufficient to cover costs. The ratio of labor costs (employee compensation) to depreciation charges is indicative of an industrys relative labor-capital intensity, as this shows the amount of revenue absorbed by labor inputs and capital inputs into production.
Any aspiring entrepreneur that is considering starting a sand and gravel mining business whether on a small scale or in a large scale should ensure that he or she, obtains all the necessary permits from the local government, state government and federal government. He or she should conduct thorough market survey and feasibility studies so as to get it right.
Over and above, sand and gravel mining business is a profitable business venture and it is open for any aspiring entrepreneur to come in and establish his or her business; you can choose to start on a small scale on a large scale with robust distribution networks all across major construction sites and cement factories in the United States of America.
Jeff Nelson Sand & Gravel Mining Company is a licensed sand and gravel mining company that will be based in Northern Virginia Virginia. Although we intend starting out on a small scale as a cottage company, but that will not in any way stop us from maximizing our potential in the sand and gravel mining industry.
Our business goal as a sand and gravel mining company is to become the number one choice of construction companies in Virginia and other cities in the United States where we intend supplying construction sand and gravel, industrial sand and gravel, common clay and other products.
As a business, we are willing to go the extra mile to invest in owning our own world class and environmental friendly stone quarry and also to hire efficient and dedicated employees. We have been able to secure permits and licenses from all relevant departments both at local government level and state level in Northern Virginia Virginia.
Jeff Nelson Sand & Gravel Mining Company is set to redefine how standard sand and gravel mining business should be run, not just in Northern Virginia, but also in the whole of the United States of America. This is why we have put plans in place for continuous training of all our staff at regular intervals.
No doubt the demand for construction sand and gravel, industrial sand and gravel, common clay and other products is not going to plummet anytime soon which is why we have put plans in place to continue to explore all available market around construction sites where we intend supplying our products. In the nearest future, we will ensure that we create a wide range of distribution channels all across the United States of America.
Jeff Nelson Sand & Gravel Mining Company will at all-time demonstrate her commitment to sustainability, both individually and as a firm, by actively participating in our communities and integrating sustainable business practices wherever possible. We will ensure that we hold ourselves accountable to the highest standards by meeting our customers needs precisely and completely.
Jeff Nelson Sand & Gravel Mining Company is a family business that will be owned by Jeff Nelson and his immediate family members. This Arlington, Virginia native originally attended college to become a Civil Engineer. He has a degree in Civil Engineering from the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee. He has over 10 years hands on experience in the construction cum building industry prior to starting Jeff Nelson Sand & Gravel Mining Company.
Jeff Nelson Sand & Gravel Mining Company is established with the aim of maximizing profits in the sand and gravel mining industry. We want to compete favorably with the leaders in the industry which is why we have put in place a competent team that will ensure that our products are of highest standard.
We will work hard to ensure that Jeff Nelson Sand & Gravel Mining Company is not just accepted in Northern Virginia, but also in other states all across the United States of America where we intend supplying our products. Our products are listed below;
Ordinarily, we would have succeeded in running a sand and gravel mining business with few employees, but as part of our plan to build a top mining company in Northern Virginia, we have perfected plans to get it right from the onset which is why we are going the extra mile to ensure that we have competent employees to occupy all the available positions in our company.
Because of our drive for excellence, we were able to engage some of the finest business consultants in Northern Virginia to look through our business concept and together we were able to critically examine the prospect of the business and to assess ourselves to be sure we have what it takes to run a standard sand and gravel mining business that can compete favorably in the industry in the United States of America.
Our strength lies in the fact that we have state of the art mining equipment and trucks that have positioned us to meet the demand of our clients even if the demand tripled over night or if we have a massive order to meet and emergency need.
Another factor that counts to our advantage is the background of our Chief Executive Office; he has a robust experience in the industry and also a pretty good academic qualification to match the experience which has placed him amongst the top flight players in the sand and gravel mining industry. We are not ignoring the fact that our team of highly qualified and dedicated workers will also serve as strength for our organization.
We do not take for granted the facts that we have weaknesses. In fact, the reality is that we are setting up a sand and gravel mining company in a town with other sand and gravel mining businesses and it might pose a challenge for us in breaking into the already saturated market in Northern Virginia. In essence our chosen location might be our weakness. But never the less, we have plans to launch out with a big bang.
The opportunities available to us are unlimited. There are loads of construction sites in and around Northern Virginia and all what we are going to do to push our products to them is already perfected.
The threat that is likely going to confront us is the fact that we are competing with already established sand and gravel mining companies in Northern Virginia and also there are other entrepreneurs who are likely going to launch similar businesses within the location of our business, and they will compete with us for the available market. Another threat that we are likely going to face is unfavorable government policies and economic downturn.
It is a common trend in the sand and gravel mining line of business to find sand and gravel companies positioning their business in locations and communities where they can easily have access to gravel and sand mines and of course cheap labor.
If you make the mistake of positioning this type of business in a location where you would have to travel a distance before you can access sand and gravel mines in commercial quantities, then you would have to struggle to make profits and maintain your overhead and logistics.
Another trend in this line of business is that most registered and well organized sand and gravel mining companies look beyond the market within their locations or state; they ensure that they strike business deals with leading construction companies in the United States of America. The truth is that if you are able to become a vendor to one or more construction giants in the United States of America, you will always continue to smile to the bank.
When it comes to supplying products from sand and gravel mines, there is indeed a wide range of available customers. In view of that, we have conducted our market research and we have ideas of what our target market would be expecting from us.
The fact that anybody with interest in the sand and gravel mining business can decide to obtain the required licenses and permits to start the business means that the business is open to all and sundry hence it is expected that there will be high level competition in the industry. This is so because the technology involved in sand and gravel mining line of business is not complicated.
As a standard mining company, we know that gaining a competitive edge requires a detailed analysis of the demographics of the surrounding area and the nature of existing competitors. And even if you are successful at first, new competitors could enter your market at any time to steal your regular customers. Hence we will not hesitate to adopt successful and workable strategies from our competitors.
Another competitive advantage that we have is the vast experience of our management team, we have people on board who are highly experienced and understand how to grow a business from the scratch to becoming a national phenomenon. Our large and robust distribution network and of course our excellent customer service culture will definitely count as a strong strength for the business.
Lastly, our employees will be well taken care of, and their welfare package will be among the best within our category in the industry, meaning that they will be more than willing to build the business with us and help deliver our set goals and achieve all our aims and objectives. We will also give good working conditions and commissions to freelance sales agents that we will recruit from time to time.
Jeff Nelson Sand & Gravel Mining Company is established with the aim of maximizing profits in the construction cum building industry both in Northern Virginia and throughout key cities in the United States of America. We are going to go all the way to ensure that we do all it takes to sell our products to a wide range of customers.
One thing is certain when it comes to sand and gravel mining business, if your business is strategically positioned and you have good relationship with players in the construction industry, you will always attract customers cum sales and that will sure translate to increase in revenue generation for the business.
We are well positioned to take on the available market in Northern Virginia and we are quite optimistic that we will meet our set target of generating enough profits from our first six months of operation and grow the business and our clientele base.
We have been able to critically examine the sand and gravel mining line of business, we have analyzed our chances in the industry and we have been able to come up with the following sales forecast. The sales projections are based on information gathered on the field and some assumptions that are peculiar to startups in Northern Virginia Virginia.
N.B: This projection was done based on what is obtainable in the industry and with the assumption that there wont be any major economic meltdown and there wont be any major competitor offering same product and customer care services as we do within same location. Please note that the above projection might be lower and at the same time it might be higher.
Before choosing a location to start Jeff Nelson Sand & Gravel Mining Company, we conducted a thorough market survey and feasibility studies in order for us to be able to penetrate the available market in Northern Virginia. We have detailed information and data that we were able to utilize to structure our business to attract the number of customers we want to attract per time and also to compete with other stone quarry companies.
We hired experts who have good understanding of the sand and gravel mining line of business to help us develop marketing strategies that will help us achieve our business goal of winning a larger percentage of the available market for our products.
In other to continue to be in business and grow, we must continue to sell our products to the available market which is why we will go all out to empower or sales and marketing team to deliver our corporate sales goals. In summary, Jeff Nelson Sand & Gravel Mining Company will adopt the following sales and marketing approach to sell our chalks;
Regardless of the fact that our sand and gravel mining company is a standard one that can favorably compete with other leading sand and gravel mining companies in Northern Virginia, we will still go ahead to intensify publicity for all our products and brand. We are going to explore all available means to promote Jeff Nelson Sand & Gravel Mining Company.
Jeff Nelson Sand & Gravel Mining Company has a long term plan of exporting our product all across the United States of America. This is why we will deliberately build our brand to be well accepted in Northern Virginia Virginia before venturing out to other cities all across the United States of America.
As a matter of fact, our publicity and advertising strategy is not solely for selling our products but to also effectively communicate our brand. Here are the platforms we intend leveraging on to promote and advertise Jeff Nelson Sand & Gravel Mining Company;
At Jeff Nelson Sand & Gravel Mining Company we will keep the prices of our products below the average market rate for all of our customers by keeping our overhead low and by collecting payment in advance from construction companies. In addition, we will also offer special discounted rates to all our customers at regular intervals.
We are aware that there are some one off supply contracts especially from government contractors or construction giants which are always lucrative, we will ensure that we abide by the pricing model that is expected from contractors or organizations that bid for such contracts.
The payment policy adopted by Joseph Ileaboya & Sons Stone Quarry Company is all inclusive because we are quite aware that different customers prefer different payment options as it suits them but at the same time, we will ensure that we abide by the financial rules and regulation of the United States of America.
In view of the above, we have chosen banking platforms that will enable our client make payment for our product without any stress on their part. Our bank account numbers will be made available on our website and promotional materials to clients who may want to pay for our products and services.
From our market survey and feasibility studies, we have been able to come up with a detailed budget on how to achieve our aim of establishing a standard and highly competitive sand and gravel mining company in Northern Virginia Virginia and here are the key areas where we will spend our startup capital;
No matter how fantastic your business idea might be, if you dont have the required money to finance the business, the business might not become a reality. No doubt raising startup capital for a business might not come cheap, but it is a task that an entrepreneur must go through.
Jeff Nelson Sand & Gravel Mining Company is a family business that is owned and financed by Mr. Jeff Nelson and his immediate family members. They do not intend to welcome any external business partner which is why he has decided to restrict the sourcing of the startup capital to 3 major sources.
N.B: We have been able to generate about $150, 000 (Personal savings $100, 000 and soft loan from family members $50, 000) and we are at the final stages of obtaining a loan facility of $300,000 from our bank. All the papers and documents have been signed and submitted, the loan has been approved and any moment from now our account will be credited with the amount.
The future of a business lies in the number of loyal customers that they have, the capacity and competence of their employees, their investment strategy and the business structure. If all of these factors are missing from a business, then it wont be too long before the business closes shop.
One of our major goals of starting Jeff Nelson Sand & Gravel Mining Company is to build a business that will survive off its own cash flow without the need for injecting finance from external sources once the business is officially running.
We know that one of the ways of gaining approval and winning customers over is to supply our products a little bit cheaper than what is obtainable in the market and we are well prepared to survive on lower profit margin for a while.
Jeff Nelson Sand & Gravel Mining Company will make sure that the right foundation, structures and processes are put in place to ensure that our staff welfare are well taken of. Our companys corporate culture is designed to drive our business to greater heights and training and retraining of our workforce is at the top burner.
As a matter of fact, profit-sharing arrangement will be made available to all our management staff and it will be based on their performance for a period of three years or more. We know that if that is put in place, we will be able to successfully hire and retain the best hands we can get in the industry; they will be more committed to help us build the business of our dreams.
Bucket crusher hydraulic attachments increase the versatility of carriers and can help make efficient work of handling and processing concrete debris, rubble, masonry, asphalt, natural stone and rock. They allow operators to process upwards of 100 tons of material per hour while requiring less on-site equipment, less transportation and reduced dumpsite costs.
A bucket crusher is composed of a small jaw crusher mounted on a carrier. The most common setup features a bucket with a fixed bottom and one moving jaw that crushes the material against it. An eccentric element mounted on an axle and rotated by a hydraulic motor moves the jaw.
Contractors use bucket crusher attachments to crush material into right-sized piecesfrom three-quarters of an inch up to 6 inchesand reuse it as backfill at the site or transport it for use elsewhere.
On building sites, operators frequently crush excavated stone so the subsequent aggregate can be used for construction. In quarries and gravel pits, contractors often use these attachments to crush boulders after prescreening and small amounts of soft stones. Demolition contractors rely on these tools to make quick work of processing materials generated on-site without the need for standalone crushers.
Whatever the application, the bucket crusher attachment provides a cost-effective alternative to transporting large pieces of material to a dumpsite or recycling yard. While a bucket crusher is generally not a replacement for a portable rock crusher, it can serve as an alternative to a traditional crusher in confined areas, such as worksites in urban areas.
Bucket crusher attachments are available in a variety of sizes. To select the right size of bucket crusher for the application, contractors should first determine the size of the carrier that will be used with the attachment to assure it does not exceed the carriers capacity.
To select an appropriately sized crusher, a few things need to be determined: the size of the material that will be crushed, how much material needs to be crushed and the existing pieces of equipment in an operators fleet.
Professionals should select a crusher with a drive system robust enough to generate the proper torque for the application. They should also look for crushers that have a reverse function to keep material from jamming the equipment; buckets with sliding plates that help guide material to the crushing jaw to help increase throughput; and a system that allows for quick material grain size adjustment to increase uptime.
In general, contractors should seek a bucket crusher attachment with high-output performance, excellent usability and low maintenance needs. As with all heavy equipment, contractors should rely on established manufacturers with a dedicated support staff so that any issues can be quickly remedied.
When operating the bucket crusher, safety is paramount. Operators should only use the attachment when the carrier is in place and stable. Before starting the bucket crusher, operators should always ensure that the attachment is complete, the bucket crusher and adapter plate do not have any cracks and the hydraulic line connections arent leaking.
Once a perimeter is secured and the carrier is in place, a functional test should be performed before putting the attachment to use. During this test, its important to assure all hydraulic lines and connections are tight and that the bucket crusher works as intended. To do this, the operator should load the crusher with material and gradually size it until the maximum number of revolutions has been reached. Should there be a blockage of material during testing, the bucket crusher should be stopped and reversed. Operators should never try to remove jammed obstacles manually, as this can lead to serious injury. If the jaws are still blocked, the operator can rotate the bucket crusher to help clear the blockage.
Prior to each shift, operators should examine the crusher and adapter plate for cracks and deformations. Operators should also check the transmission housing and hydraulic lines and motors for leaks and damage. All connections should be tightened to spec. If the plugs on the shaft-pulleys show any signs of wear or damage, or if the conditioner of the tensioner system or wedges and jaws is suspect, immediate service is required.
The fixing screws of the wedges and the bolts and fixing screws of the tensioner system should be examined and tightened as needed during the first 50 hours of operation. While there is no replacement for daily monitoring, observing the manufacturers recommended service intervals can help preserve the life of the equipment and maintain its performance.
Common preventative maintenance on these systems includes checking the oil filter cartridge and replacing it when necessary. Maintenance technicians should also be mindful to replace jaw wedge fixing screws, damaged hoses, and bent and damaged pipes as needed. Finally, operators should check and/or replace lubricant and control block seals based on intervals recommended by the manufacturer; however, extreme changes in temperature can expedite the need for service.
While the right bucket crusher hydraulic attachment can efficiently handle a variety of materials, it is vital for contractors to find the right fit for their individual needs and emphasize regular maintenance to get the most out of their investment. By doing their research, speaking with manufacturers and testing out equipment, contractors can take the right steps toward maximizing their processing capacity while cutting down on transportation costs in the process.
Large-scale commercial demolition projects and building teardowns often lend themselves to straightforward recycling opportunities for contractors. High-volume materials, like concrete and wood, and high-value materials, like metal, are systematically cherrypicked from sites and subsequently recycled. But what happens when a demolition contractor generates materials that arent easily processed through traditional recycling methods? That was the challenge facing the team at South Gate, California-based Interior Removal Specialist (IRS) Demo as its business picked up steam over a decade ago. Looking for a better way to divert interior debris from landfill and meet local recycling ordinances, the IRS team decided to start its own recycling business, Construction & Demolition Recycling Inc. (CDR Inc.), which received its first solid waste facility permit in 2007.
We didnt have a choice if we wanted to meet the requirements of cities like Santa Monica and Pasadena that had a 50-percent diversion mandate for these demolition jobs at the time, says Richard Ludt, the director of environmental affairs for CDR Inc. The only thing we could do was start a facility that targeted the materials we were hauling.
CDR Inc.s seven-acre processing facility is headed up by Ludt and Vicky Herrera, the companys corporate officer and field operations manager. It is the only construction and demolition (C&D) facility in California that solely recycles tenant improvement demolition debris.
While the facility is permitted to take in 3,000 tons per day (TPD) at full capacity, Ludt says the company is only processing between 250-300 TPD currently. However, he expects that to change soon. CDR Inc. recently obtained hauler permits in many of its surrounding cities that will allow it to better serve the C&D management needs of area contractors. With these permits in place, Ludt says the facility is poised to increase its incoming tonnage.
We have broken away from being a recycling facility that just serves one customer, Ludt says. We have become a fully independent facility with our own dumpster rental, hauling and collection operations.
Though the composition of its incoming material stream fluctuates, CDR Inc. presently enjoys a 79 percent diversion rate. The facility diversion breakdown averages are as follows: 27 percent drywall, 14 percent metals, 13 percent wood, 10 percent carpet, 9 percent concrete, 4 percent ceiling tiles and 1 percent each of cardboard and salvaged/donated items. Only 21 percent of outgoing material is trash or contaminated material.
To process its recyclables, CDR Inc. relies on a portable sort line from the Qubec-based Sherbrooke OEM and a trommel from Crystal Lake, Illinois-based Tuffman Equipment. Ludt says CDR Inc. favors a more low-tech approach via manual sorting to avoid crushing incoming drywall, which accounts for the largest percentage of its incoming material. However, Ludt says CDR Inc. is presently weighing the benefits of adding new equipment to better sort its incoming cardboard, plastics and glass.
Were very lucky in California that the soil needs gypsum. Were shipping 1,200 tons of gypsum every month to farmers to use in [agriculture], so that takes care of 30 percent of our inbound material right there, Ludt says. Most of the wood were getting is going to waste-to-energy use because almost all of it is manufactured lumber, although we do donate the small percentage of dimensional lumber we do get from public loads to various beneficial reuse projects. Were also very fortunate in that a lot of the carpet we get is carpet tile. Because we have the ability to keep it clean in our warehouse, we donate tens of thousands of square feet of carpet every year to nonprofits that reuse it in places like homeless shelters, childrens centers and battered womens shelters. As for our fines, we had been using them for cover for a while, and then we cleaned them up enough that they were going for [agricultural] uses for non-human consumption crops because theyre predominantly gypsum-based coming out of our facility, but now, theyre getting mostly used for road stabilization. Even then, fines make up less than 10 percent of our weight.
Beyond recycling and reusing material, Ludt says CDR Inc. has established a robust donation program. Because of the companys focus on commercial interior work, CDR Inc. receives a lot of gently used furniture from companies that are moving offices or undergoing renovations.
When we get furniture thats still in good shape, we have a program to repurpose it. We have a 100,000-square-foot warehouse, so were putting that furniture in the warehouse and were making it available to any nonprofit that wants it, Ludt says. Were currently donating anywhere from 30 to 60 tons of furniture and fixtures every month. Everyone from dog rescue centers to the Church of Scientology to fire departments has access to our goods. As long as it can go to somebody that needs it, it would be criminal to let this really expensive furniture go to the landfill.
Specializing in interior demolition recycling isnt an easy vocation. Beyond familiar challenges in finding end markets, the nature of the projects that generate CDR Inc.s incoming materials often make it difficult for source separation.
The biggest issue with commercial interior demolition as far as diversionand I dont care who is doing the demo workis the fact that most high-rise buildings in the California market only have room for one dumpster in the loading dock, so you cant do a lot of source separation, Ludt says. That creates a challenge, because we all know the easiest way to keep materials clean is to have a separate box per material. But that doesnt work in a commercial high-rise. On a larger scale job, it gets a little bit easier. But on a smaller scale job, if youre only doing 5,000 or 8,000 square feet of demo, then you have no choice but to put all the material in one box, and its difficult to keep those materials clean enough to divert.
At the end of the day, weve kind of made it tough on ourselves just to prove [diverting this material] can be done, Ludt says. If disposal is $35-$40 per ton, processing is $50-$70 a ton and youre bringing in $90-$100 a ton at the gate depending on what facility youre at, you can make it make financial sense, but its hard when were going up against people who own landfills or have more traditional C&D commodities.
We do have the advantage that were in California and there is legislation that mandates a certain level of recycling, Ludt adds. Moving forward, the state, Los Angeles County and the city of Los Angeles all have some pretty aggressive zero-waste plans theyre aiming for, which puts us in a good position. If the state, county and the cities are serious about zero waste, then eventually everybody is going to have to start looking at recycling commercial interior debris the same way we do.
Ludt says CDR Inc. doesnt just strive to divert material from landfill to comply with local regulations. The company does it because its the right thing to do for both the community and the environment.
We could make more money doing it an easier way. We could drop the price of concrete inbound to our facility and we could bring in tons and tons of concrete and wood and not have to process so much of that interior debris and increase our profit, he says. But one of the things we say around the yard is once you know the damage this stuff can cause, you cant unknow. Once you know what drywall or manufactured lumber does when it gets into the landfill and all of those chemicals turn into harmful gases or get down to the leachate that is only being kept out of the groundwater by a plastic liner that has, at best, a 50-year warrantyhow can you knowingly put this material in a landfill?
CDR Inc.s efforts to change the way C&D material is recycled hasnt gone unnoticed. According to Ludt, the company is currently the only C&D facility in southern California to garner Recycling Certification Institute (RCI) certification, making it the only facility in the region eligible to provide the U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC) LEED pilot point for facilities with third-party verification. Additionally, the facility has been singled out on the awards circuit as of late. In just the last six months, CDR Inc. has won the Sustainable Materials Management Award from the Solid Waste Association of North America (SWANA), the Recycler of the Year Award from the Construction & Demolition Recycling Association (CDRA), and the Governors Environmental and Economic Leadership Award (GEELA) from the state of California, which is the highest environmental honor in the state.
In the space of six months, we have been recognized by the state, internationally through SWANA and called out specifically within the C&D recycling industry with the CDRA award, so thats kind of like the holy trinity in this industrythe words getting out, Ludt says. Its nice to know that somebody gets it because it does get frustrating to be doing it right and sometimes feeling like were the only ones who are, and I know thats not the casethere are other good people out there. But to get that recognition that somebody understands that what were doing has some meaning. That means a lot to us.
Volvo Construction Equipment, Gothenburg, Sweden, announced that it is adding to its E-Series compact excavators in North America with the launch of the ECR18E and the EC20E. Features of the ECR18E include:
Single Phase Power Solutions, Cincinnati, has introduced a 100-horsepower single-phase electric motor designed to minimize voltage sags and flicker on long single-phase distribution lines. Features of the motor include:
EvoQuip, a Dungannon, Northern Ireland-based company that offers a portfolio of products to address the needs of the compact crushing and screening markets, showcased its Cobra 230 impact crusher at World of Concrete 2019 in Las Vegas. Features of the crusher include:
Brunswick, Ohio-based Best Process Solutions Inc. (BPS) says its feeders with vibrating troughs can be made to custom lengths and special trough designs are available. Features of the vibratory feeders include:
The Sweden-based manufacturer of remote-controlled demolition machines, Brokk, has introduced the Brokk 200. The Brokk 200 is one of four new next-generation remote-controlled demolition machines the company showcased at World of Concrete 2019. Features of the new machine include:
BossTek of Peoria, Illinois, has announced the release of the new DustBoss DB-60 Fusion. The DustBoss DB-60 Fusion is a suppression system driven by a 25-horsepower electric motor paired with a gen set featuring a heavy-duty four-cycle indirect injection diesel engine. Other features of the DustBoss DB-60 Fusion include:
Construction employment grew in 273 out of 358 U.S. metro areas between December 2017 and December 2018, according to an analysis of federal employment data recently released by the Associated General Contractors of America (AGC). Industry employment declined in 37 metro areas and remained stagnant in 48.
Construction employment continued to expand in most parts of the country in 2018 as demand for many types of construction projects grew, says Ken Simonson, the associations chief economist. As welcome as the job gains were, many firms would likely have added even more workers if labor market conditions were not so tight.
The Houston-The Woodlands-Sugar Land, Texas, metro area added the most construction jobs during the past year (19,400 jobs, 9 percent). Other metro areas adding a large amount of construction jobs over the past 12 months include Dallas-Plano-Irving, Texas; Phoenix-Mesa-Scottsdale, Arizona; and Orlando-Kissimmee-Sanford, Florida. The largest percentage gain of 28 percent occurred in the Weirton-Steubenville, West Virginia/Ohio area.
The largest job losses in that time period occurred in Anaheim-Santa Ana-Irvine, California (-2,800 jobs, -3 percent), followed by San Diego-Carlsbad in California and Honolulu. The largest percentage decrease occurred in Lawrence-Methuen Town-Salem, Massachusetts/New Hampshire (-9 percent, -300 jobs), followed by Abilene, Texas; Wichita Falls, Texas; and Elmira, New York.
Association officials say workforce shortages are limiting the full economic benefits of robust demand for construction. They urged federal officials to increase technical education funding and enact immigration reform to allow more people to legally work in construction.
Understanding the auto repair business extremely well has allowed us to become the one-stop automotive equipment resource for large and small shops and car buffs since 1996. Many customersboth commercial shop owners and hobbyistschoose us over the competition. Because we carry an extensive product line thats hand-picked with the finest manufacturers, who have a reputation for quality and value. Also, because our customers dont have to sacrifice quality garage equipment for a good price.
Due to our established relationships with leading manufacturers and robust sales volume, we can offer you, and others, very attractive and discounted prices for top-of-the-line automotive equipment. Youll also be pleased to know that were not like others, who just take orders and are interested in trying to upsell you at every turn. Instead, we use our experience and knowledge to steer customers toward the best product for their needs.
Increase Auto Shops Productivity - If youre a shop owner or service manager looking to improve your bottom line and get a good return on your investment, choose us for your automotive service equipment needs. Besides offering the best assortment of auto lifts, air compressors, jump starters and other auto shop tools, we offer great customer service too. Were not satisfied until you are!
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We offer 2 post lifts from 7,000 to 18,000 lbs. in clear floor and floor plate models, as well as symmetric and asymmetric versions. Our most popular car lift is a 4 post lift, which can handle up to 40,000 lbs. and can be conveniently used for service AND storage.
We carry one of the nation's largest manufacturers BelAire, along with CAS and Bend Pak. Our reciprocating two stage electric air compressors are the most popular. But those looking for a quieter option choose our Rotary screw air compressors. We also carry gas engine compressors that are great for service vehicles without access to electricity.
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The crushing equipment is made up of metal surfaces that are capable of compressing materials, such as stones, quartzite, rocks, iron, etc. The stone crushing machines are used in various fields such as building materials, mining, metallurgy, highways, chemistry, railways, as well as continuous requirement from construction activities, such as highways, roads, canals, buildings, and bridges, etc. Growing construction activities, steady growth of economies as well as continuous development of roads and highways globally is expected to fuel the demand for stone crushing equipment during the forecast period. According to World Mining Data, the total mining production across the globe was accounted to be more than 16.5 billion metric tons in 2016, and the number is anticipated to increase significantly over the forecast period increasing the demand for the stone crushing equipment market.
Key Market Driver - Continuous development of the construction industry, globally Increased attention on the artificial stone and sand manufacturing industry owing to depleting natural reserves Key Market Restraint - High cost of stone crushing equipment as well as lack of skilled operators
There are many trends in the stone crusher equipment market which include, rising popularity for mobile cone crushers owing to its additional features allowing it to move anywhere and start working instantly. They also help to increase productivity at construction sites, owing to its flexibility. Additionally, the increasing demand for rental models of stone crushing equipment market, owing to high initial costs of stone crushing equipment is projected to boost the demand for the equipment, throughout the forecast period.
The key manufacturers are regularly involved in innovations and new product introduction strategies to gain a competitive advantage. Major players are also incorporating advanced technical features into the new products to deliver high performance & productivity across the application industries.
The key players in stone crushing equipment market include Terex Corporation, Komatsu Ltd., Caterpillar Inc., Joy Global Inc., Sandvik AB, Thyssenkrupp, Eagle Crusher Company Inc., BUCY International, IROCK Crusher, Astec Industries, etc.
The increasing number of high-rise structures in countries, such as the U.S. and Canada is projected to increase the demand for stone crushing machines in North America. The Middle East and Africa are also anticipated to register a substantial industry growth with upcoming projects related to the construction of skyscrapers in the Middle East countries such as UAE, Qatar, and Oman, etc.
In Asia Pacific, an increasing government expenditure in developing economies including China and India for the development of roads and highways is expected to boost the stone crushing equipment market growth in the region. For instance, the Government of India has initiated a road development program for North East India, which includes upgradation of 4,000 km of roads with a budget of around USD 3.3 billion. Furthermore, various long-term & short-term projects undertaken by the public & private sectors of developing countries in Asia Pacific are expected to further contribute to the market growth. The rising mining activities in Asian economies has also resulted in the increased application of stone crushing equipment in the region.
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General equipment lease options may help the new amusement center developer improve your business or expand your business. However some lease options may be expensive and so you need to go for general equipment financing to fulfill your needs. There are various types of loans available for general equipment financing. However, coin operated amusement equipment such as arcade games, redemption games, and even some other indoor play activities like inflatable playgrounds and soft contained indoor play structures or climbing gyms.
The equipment not only provides fun to people but also provides revenue to the companies through activity diversification. Some reliable financing companies offer financial assistance at low interest rates to acquire this type of amusement equipment.
Vending machine financing comes under a general equipment financing category. Vending machines provide a source of revenue for some indoor fun businesses as well as full featured family entertainment centers. A bottle vending machine, can vending machine or juice vending machine help generate revenues for the respective amusement center business. Some business owners may want a number of such vending machines for their impulse-buy revenue opportunities. These amusement owners can generally find financial help from any of the genuine amusement equipment financing companies.
Fitness and exercise equipment also comes under the general equipment category for the purpose of financing. These equipments are essential for a gym, fitness center or a fun centers whose business goals include family-fit. Nowadays people are willing to spend more for exercises and fitness routines, if they can be positioned as a one-stop easy fit program that caters to the entire family. Today, that includes making fitness fun, especially for the younger set. Hence a gym or fitness center must contain modern equipment in order to inspire their customers. However some of the equipments like exercise bike, treadmill, rowing machine are expensive. Hence general equipment financing helps them flourish their business by way of providing loans at low interest rates to acquire fitness and exercise equipment.
Building maintenance equipment like carpet cleaning machine, floor scrubbing machine, polishing equipment are essential for amusement centers to clean and maintain their buildings. Some companies may require garbage disposal equipment like cardboard crushers or can crushers. In larger fun centers, this equipment can dramatically improve customer perception and ahelp minimize the work of facility maintenance staff. They may not be cheap and so general equipment financing is often needed to acquire this equipment.
General equipment financing can be an resource of initial funding if the new family fun business meets some base requirements. Although harder for amusement startups, there are companies out there willing to write lease options for your amusement business.
First online with a single website "fecnetwork.com" in 1999, the FEC Network was incorporated 3 years later in 2002. As we continue to grow, we have added other domains and websites to meet the changing amusement landscape, the diversity of our visitors and the services we provide. Thanks for visiting our site(s)... I hope we can add some value to your business venture.
Whirlston provides 3 types windrow turners here: fully hydraulic compost turner, hydraulic auxiliary crawlerwindrow turner, hydraulic auxiliary wheel compost windrow turner. They differ in production capacity and driven assembly.
Groove type compost turner machine can ferment all kinds of biodegradable organic wastes, most widely-used in poultry manure treatment system to fully compost cow manure, chicken manure, pig manure etc.
The poultry manure pellets production line can satisfy most investorsproduction demands with an annual output of 30000 tons. Flat die organic fertilizer pellet mill is installed to complete the whole pelletizing process.
This production line can be used for both powder organic fertilizer and granular fertilizers manufacturing. Powder organic fertilizer production process: composting-crushing-sieving-packaging. Granular organic fertilizer: mixing-granulation-drying-cooling-screening-packaging.
It is a turnkey organic fertilizer production line, from start to finish. If you are interested in developing your business by using organic wastes to produce organic fertilizer, this plant will be a better choice. It is a medium scale production line with economical cost.
Advantages of disc granulating machine are: simple structure, easy-to-adjust and excellent in performance. It can be installed in both organic fertilizer production line and compound fertilizer plant with long service life.
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Local market analysis; Site selection; Write your business plan; Organic materials collection; Organic fertilizer equipment purchasing; Production line installation; Finished products distribution. More details
In 800kg/h mini organic fertilizer production line, the power requirement is 110kw/h; 7-9 staffs are required to operate: 2 workers for compost turner operating, 1 for crusher, 2 for blender, 2 for finished fertilizer granules packaging.
All rock crushers can be classified as falling into two main groups. Compressive crushers that press the material until it breaks, and impact crushers using the principle of quick impacts to crush the material. Jaw crushers, gyratory crushers, and cone operate according to the compression principle. Impact crushers, in turn, utilize the impact principle.
As the name suggest, jaw crushers reduce rock and other materials between a fixed and a moving jaw. The moving jaw is mounted on a pitman that has a reciprocating motion, and the fixed jaw stays put. When the material runs between the two jaws, the jaws compress larger boulders into smaller pieces.
There are two basic types of jaw crushers: single toggle and double toggle. In the single toggle jaw crusher, an eccentric shaft is on the top of the crusher. Shaft rotation causes, along with the toggle plate, a compressive action.
The chewing movement, which causes compression at both material intake and discharge, gives the single toggle jaw better capacity, compared to a double toggle jaw of similar size. Metsos jaw crushers are all single toggle.
Gyratory crushers have an oscillating shaft. The material is reduced in a crushing cavity, between an external fixed element (bowl liner) and an internal moving element (mantle) mounted on the oscillating shaft assembly.
The fragmentation of the material results from the continuous compression that takes place between the liners around the chamber. An additional crushing effect occurs between the compressed particles, resulting in less wear of the liners.
Cone crushers resemble gyratory crushers from technological standpoint, but unlike gyratory crushers, cone crushers are popular in secondary, tertiary, and quaternary crushing stages. Sometimes, however, the grain size of the processed material is small enough by nature and the traditional primary crushing stage is not needed. In these cases, also cone crushers can carry out the first stage of the crushing process.
Cone crushers have an oscillating shaft, and the material is crushed in a crushing cavity, between an external fixed element (bowl liner) and an internal moving element (mantle) mounted on the oscillating shaft assembly.
An eccentric shaft rotated by a gear and pinion produces the oscillating movement of the main shaft. The eccentricity causes the cone head to oscillate between open side setting and closed side setting discharge opening.
The fragmentation of the material results from the continuous compression that takes place between the liners around the chamber. An additional crushing effect occurs between the compressed particles, resulting in less wear of the liners. This is called interparticular crushing also.
Depending on cone crusher, setting can be adjusted in two ways. The first way is for setting adjustment to be done by rotating the bowl against the threads so that the vertical position of the outer wear part (concave) is changed. One advantage of this adjustment type is that liners wear more evenly.
To optimize operating costs and improve the product shape it is recommended that cone crushers are always be choke fed, meaning that the cavity should be as full of rock material as possible. This can be easily achieved by using a stockpile or a silo to regulate the inevitable fluctuation of feed material flow. Level monitoring devices detect the maximum and minimum levels of the material, starting and stopping the feed of material to the crusher, as needed.
Impact crushers are traditionally classified to two main types: horizontal shaft impact (HSI) crushers and vertical shaft impact (VSI) crushers. These different types of impact crushers share the crushing principle, impact, to reduce the material to smaller sizes, but features, capacities and optimal applications are far from each other.
Horizontal shaft impact (HSI) crushers are used in primary, secondary or tertiary crushing stage. HSI crushers reduce the feed material by highly intensive impacts originating in the quick rotational movement of hammers or bars fixed to the rotor. The particles produced are then further fragmentated inside the crusher as they collide against crusher chamber and each other, producing a finer, better-shaped product.
VSI crusher can be considered a stone pump that operates like a centrifugal pump. The material is fed through the center of the rotor, where it is accelerated to high speed before being discharged through openings in the rotor periphery. The material is crushed as it hits of the outer body at high speed and due to rocks colliding against each other.
Selecting optimal crushing equipment can be difficult. Luckily there are tools and software available that simplify weighting different options and help in making decisions. The backbone of all these analyzes are careful calculations that take into account the capabilities and constraints of different crushers and operational requirements.
Every crushing site and operation is different, and theoptimal results are normally obtained by combining theoretical conclusions with practical experience of different materials, operational conditions, maintenance needs, and economic aspects of various alternatives.
Below are some key issues listed according to crushing stages in brief. While defining the best technical solution for your requirements, its good to remember that many crushers are available not only as stationary but also asmobileorportableversions in case you prefer to move or transport your crusher at the production site or between sites regularly.
If you are interested in more detailed analyzes tailored just for your crushing operations, please contact Metso experts. We have practical experience of thousands of different crushing applications around the world, and we are happy to help in finding the equipment that best fits your needs.
The main purpose of a primary crusher is to reduce the material to a size that allows its transportation on a conveyor belt. In most crushing installations a jaw crusher takes care of primary crushing. Plants with very high capacities that are common in mining and less popular in aggregates production, normally use a primary gyratory crusher. When the processed material is easy to crush and not very abrasive, an impact crusher may be the best choice for primary crushing.
One of the most important characteristics of a primary crusher is its capacity for accepting feed material without bridging. A large primary crusher is, naturally, more expensive than a smaller one. Therefore, the investment cost calculations for primary crushers are compared together against the total costs of primary stages, including quarry face clearing, blasting, and drilling costs. In many cases, dump trucks transport the rock to a stationary primary crusher. This may be an expensive solution. Amortization, fuel, tires, and maintenance costs can be included when the vehicles are in high demand. In modern aggregates operations, the use of mobile primary crushers that can move alongside the rock face is, in many cases, the most economical solution.
In terms of the size of the feed opening, the client gets a better return on investment when the primary crusher is a jaw crusher. That means less drilling and blasting because the crusher accepts larger boulders. The disadvantage of this type of crusher, when high capacity is required, is the relatively small discharge width, limiting the capacity as compared with the discharge circuit of a gyratory crusher. Jaw crushers are mainly used in plants producing up to approximately 1600 t/h.
The primary gyratory crusher offers high capacity thanks to its generously dimensioned circular discharge opening (which provides a much larger area than that of the jaw crusher) and the continuous operation principle (while the reciprocating motion of the jaw crusher produces a batch crushing action). The gyratory crusher has no rival in large plants with capacities starting from 1200 t/h and above. To have a feed opening corresponding to that of a jaw crusher, the primary gyratory crusher must be much taller and heavier. Also, primary gyratories require quite a massive foundation.
The primary impact crusher offers high capacity and is designed to accept large feed sizes. The primary impact crushers are used to process from 200 t/h up to 1900 t/h and feed sizes of up to 1830 mm (71") in the largest model. Primary impact crushers are generally used in nonabrasive applications and where the production of fines is not a problem. Of all primary crushers, the impactor is the crusher that gives the best cubical product.
If the intermediate crushing is done with the purpose of producing railway ballast, the quality of the product is important. In other cases, there normally are no quality requirements, except that the product be suitable for fine crushing.
Due to their design, cone crushers are generally a more expensive investment than impactors are. However, when correctly used, a cone crusher offers lower operating costs than a conventional impact crusher. Therefore, clients crushing hard or abrasive materials are advised to install cone crushers for the final crushing and cubicising stage.
Cone crushers can in most cases also give a good cubic shape to fine grades. They can be adapted to different applications. This is an important factor, as client-specific needs often change during a crushers lifetime.
The conventional type has horizontal shaft configuration, known as HSI. The other type consists of a centrifugal crusher with vertical shaft, generally known as VSI. Impactor operation is based on the principle of rapid transfer of impact energy to the rock material. Impactors produce cubic products, and they can offer high reduction ratios as long as the feed material is not too fine. This means that in certain cases it is possible to use a single impact crusher to carry out a task normally done in several crushing stages using compressing crushers (i.e., jaw, gyratory, and/or cone crushers). Impactors are mostly used for nonabrasive materials.
Conventional horizontal-shaft impact crushers are available in various sizes and models, from high-capacity primary crushers for large limestone quarries to specially designed machines for the crushing of materials such as slag.
There are two main categories of VSI crushers machines with impact wear parts around the body and machines that use a layer of accumulated material. The first type is in many respects similar to the conventional impactor with horizontal shaft and rotor. The second type became quite popular in the past decade and is known as the Barmac crusher. The difference between a conventional impactor and a VSI of the Barmac type is that the latter offers lower operating costs, but its reduction ratio is lower also. In a Barmac VSI, the material undergoes an intense rock-on-rock crushing process. In the other crushers, most of the reduction is done by the impact of stone against metal.
Customers operating old, rebuilt, or expanded plants often have problems with the shape of the product. In these cases, the addition of a Barmac VSI in the final crushing stage offers a solution to product shape problems.
The same applies to many mobile crushing units. As the number of crushing stages is normally small with this type of plant, it is almost impossible to obtain a good product shape unless the rock is relatively soft and thus more suited for the production of cubic product. A centrifugal crusher in the final stage can help to solve the problem.
Get the maximum potential out of your size reduction process to achieve improved crushing performance and lower cost per ton. By using our unique simulation software, our Chamber Optimization experts can design an optimized crushing chamber that matches the exact conditions under which you operate.