flotation machine nuts

small flotation machines

These ALL STAINLESS STEEL flotation machines are used to form banks of 2 cells. The can be arranged in series to accommodate small plants of up to 1 TPH (24 Ton/day). View the description below for a flotation cell capacity table you can use to estimate how many machines you need.

Look at the capacity you need in KPH (kilo/hour) or TPD (ton/day) and look for a number of machines, ideally, between 2 and 8. From this, select what cell size (volume) gives you that quantity of machines to form your flotation bank and circuit.

FX Model Continuous Mechanical Flotation Machine is applicable to separation of minerals with float-free method in labs. It is a unit of several combinations of two cells with number of the cell being even, varying from two to ten cells. Left or right type flotation machine can be supplied as required by customer.

To adjust the level of slurry in the cell and the thickness of the scraped froth layer, use wall plates of the two cells to make intermediary cell;install slurry level regulator; and mount orifice plate onto the cover in the cell to avoid negative effects on the froth zone exerted by the chaotic motion of slurry, as well as to avoid the gangue from being taken into the concentrate by the machine.

Lining plates are installed at the cell so that the bottom of the cell will not be abraded. The lining plate can be replaced. On the outside of the cell bottom is a discharge mouth, which is used to discharge water during its cleaning. The slurry flows through the overflow mouth of wall panel into the intermediary cell and tail cell. It flows to the lower part of the intermediary cell and the duct covered by the lower part of the cell wall and then to the next cell. In this way, it can continue to flow through all the cells of flotation machine. It flows from the feed cell and is discharged from the discharge mouth of the tail cell. The front and back of the lower part of the cell is installed feeding mouth, to make it easy to change the process flow.

The impeller system is a disk impeller which is installed in the center of the cell in the flotation machine and whose blades are radially arranged. It is fixed onto the lower end of the impeller shaft and revolves around the vertical shaft pipe.

The upper end of the pipe lies above the pulp stone and the froth layer while its lower end is supported on the cover. When the impeller rotates, a large amount of air can be sucked along the vertical pipe. Below the cover is fixed protective disk. The gap between the safety disk and the impeller depends on the amount of sucked air. It can not be larger than 3mm at most. When the gap is too large, replace the abraded protective disc and make appropriate adjustment.The holes in the vertical pipe are used to circulate slurry as well as mix the slurry and air. The rolling shaft installed inside the bearing shell above the impeller shaft rotates. The bearing shell is installed on the crossbeam and belt pulley is fixed on the top of the shaft which rotates through the V-belt when the motor is turned on. The tension of the V-belt is adjusted through the nuts.

The froth is scraped along the flotation machine through rotary scraper. The scraper is installed outside the discharge mouth of cell. At one end of the scraping shaft is installed belt pulley which rotates through the drive of worm reducer and V-belt.

laboratory flotation equipment & testing

The apparatus listed in the following pages comprises the equipment necessary for complete and thorough testing of flotation processes. Some ofit can be omitted where the problems to be studied are of a special character. It isurged, however, that such omission be of the actual flotation machines themselvesrather than in the apparatus listed for preliminary tests. This is something thatneed not be demonstrated to the man who is experienced in flotation testing. Sucha man knows that time spent in determining fully the mineralogical character of theore to be dealt with will be time saved when the difficulties of actual flotation testing arise.

Determination of mineralogical composition will require a part or all of the following equipment: Books: Introduction to the Study of Minerals, Austin Flint Rogers, McGraw-HillBook Co., Inc., New York; Hill Publishing Co., Ltd., London. Minerals in Rock Sections, Lea Mcllvaine Luquer, D. Van Nostrand Co., New York. Elementary Chemical Microscopy, Emile Monnon Chamot, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York;Chapman and Hall, Ltd., London. Microscopical Determination of the OpaqueMinerals, Jos. Murdock, John Wiley and Sons, Inc. Microscopic Examination ofthe Ore Minerals, W. Myron Davy and C. Mason Farnham, McGraw-Hill Book Co.,Inc. Apparatus and reagents for blowpipe analysis. A list is given by Rogers. Apparatus and reagents for qualitative microchemical analysis, including a simple polarizing microscope fitted with vertical illuminator for use in examinations by reflected light and with an eyepiece micrometer. Chamot describes such a microscope and lists such other supplies as are necessary. Apparatus and reagents forpreparing rock sections and polished specimens for optical examination. Luquer,Murdock, and Davy and Farnham give complete lists. In connection with this latterapparatus, if but few rock sections are to be prepared and examined, the mechanical polishing apparatus can be dispensed with. Preliminary examination will bemuch facilitated by the use of a binocular microscope equipped with 25-mm. and40-mm. objectives and 6X and 10X oculars. This microscope should have theusual stand with stage for work with transmitted light and also a small stand without stage which allows the microscope to be brought to and placed upon large objects, making possible a study of the same, without the necessity of preparingsmall specimens. Such a microscope as this is essential for investigation of thebehavior of flotation froths and pulps in later stages of the testing work. Anordinary enameled gold pan and vanning plaque will be of aid also in the preliminary work and are necessary in later work.

This will necessitate the use of the following equipment: Set of sizing screens. The Tyler standard screen scale sieves, ranging in sizeof aperture from 2.362 mm. to 0.074 mm., are suggested. Pair of platform scaleswith 500 lbs. capacity for weighing in lots of ore. Small sample jaw crusher. Braundisk pulverizer. Laboratory ball mill about 18 ins. by 18 ins. Set of balances of thedruggist trip scale variety, 10-lb. or 5-kilogram capacity, with beam graduated to500 grams by 10-gram intervals and to 16-oz. by 1/4-oz. intervals. Six-inch by six-inch Jones riffle complete with four pans and scoop. One-pound paper sacks forsacking samples preliminary to testing. Supply of 1-qt. and 2-qt. Mason jars for wetpulp samples.

The machines described below are more than will be needed in anordinary flotation testing laboratory, but the descriptions are included here for thesake of completeness. The particular field of each machine is stated in connectionwith the detailed description.

This piece of apparatus is illustrated in U. S. patent 835,120 ashaving been used in the treatment of ores by agitation to produce a froth concentrate, and is the best laboratory apparatus in which to make a froth concentrate ofthe nature described in that patent. If a study is to be made of the development offroth flotation processes, this machine should be in the laboratory. The laboratorymachine is shown in Fig. 1. It consists of a glass cylinder (a) open at both ends,mounted vertically in a hemispherical bronze casting (b). This casting is fitted withoutlets (c) and (d) and is mounted on legs (e). These are fastened to a plank whichforms the base of the stand carrying the agitating mechanism. The agitating mechanism consists of a stirrer (g) which has the shape of the frustum of a cone and isusually placed as shown with the large end down. This conical shell is fastened tothe vertical spindle (h) by means of arms (i) and (j). The vertical spindle is supported by the post bearing (k) with two boxes (l) and (m) respectively and thethrust bearing (n) at such a height that the lower edge of the conical agitator clearsthe bottom of the chamber by but 1/4 to 1/2 in. The shaft is driven by means of agrooved pulley (o), 2-in. diameter, and a 3/8-in. round leather belt from the motor.Removable baffles (s) are provided for use when a high degree of agitation is desired. The post bearing (k) is carried on the vertical member (p) fastened by anangle to the base and braced. An annular overflow launder (r) is fitted to the cylinder (a). A 1/4-h.p. variable speed horizontal motor should be used to drive themachine and should be set up with its pulley not over 1 ft. from the center of thedriven pulley, if belt trouble is to be avoided. The motor speed and pulley sizeshould be such that the speed range of the mixer spindle will be from 200 to 2000r.p.m. A machine of the size shown takes a charge of 300 to 350 gms. of ore according to the percentage of solids desired in the pulp.

The Slide was invented to overcome the difficulty encountered inremoving froth from the Gabbett machine. It is shown in Fig. 2 and consists of asquare box (a) supported on four legs as shown. The top of the box carries atrough (b) with the bottom flush with the upper edge of the box and with sidesabout 1/4 in. high. Above the box (a) is placed the sliding square pipe (d) of thesame cross-section as the box and flanged to fit loosely, in the trough (b) and toslide therein. A rubber gasket is provided which fits the surface of the trough andpermits of a tight joint between the upper and lower sections of the machine whenthe two are clamped together by means of screw clamps. Both box (a) and slide (d)are provided with plate glass windows (g) and (h). Agitation is effected by meansof a four-armed stirrer carried on the vertical spindle (j) which passes through astuffing box in the bottom of the box (a) and is carried on the step bearing (k).This shaft is actuated by a grooved pulley (l) and round leather belt from a 1/4-h.p.horizontal motor. This motor should give a speed range of from 800 to 2400r.p.m. and should be set up with not more than a foot between pulley centers. Thecharge for this machine is 300 gms. of ore.

A laboratory model of this machine ismanufactured and sold by the Denver Fire Clay Co., under the name of the Caselaboratory flotation machine. It can, however, be made up in the laboratory formuch less money than it can be purchased, and the home-made machine will givejust as satisfactory results. Such a machine is shown in Fig. 3. It consists of asquare box (a) made of 7/8-in. plank, or, better, metal, mounted on a plank (b). Atone side of the agitating compartment (a) is joined a froth-separating compartment (c). Pulp passes from the agitating compartment into the froth-separatingcompartment through the slot (d) over which is placed the baffle (e), the purposeof which is to lessen the disturbance of the surface of the pulp in the froth-separating compartment. Circulation of pulp is accomplished through the pipe (f)which consists of a rubber hose slipping over nipples (g) in the back of the froth-separating compartment at the bottom and in the center of the bottom of theagitating compartment. Agitation is effected by means of a four-armed stirrer (h)attached to the bottom of a vertical spindle (i) which latter is supported by thebearings (j) and the thrust bearing (k) and is actuated through the grooved pulley(l) and a quarter-turn round belt from a 1/4-h.p. motor, placed best not more than 1ft. distant. The froth-separating compartment (c) is fitted with an overflow lip (m).Tailing is withdrawn from the machine by removing the plug (n). The motor shouldbe variable speed so connected as to allow a speed range for the vertical spindle offrom 800 to 2000 r.p.m. The machine shown takes a charge of 750 gms. of ore.

This type of machine is not the most satisfactory for laboratory testing for thereasons that the froth-separating compartment is too large, the pulp circulation ispoor, and it is difficult to clean up. It can be improved by narrowing the froth-separating compartment. For routine tests of the agitation-froth process the Janneylaboratory machine is far superior.

The Janney flotation test machine shown in Fig. 4 consists of a cylindrical agitation compartment (a), fitted on the periphery with radial baffles (b). Attached toone side of the agitating compartment is a froth-separating compartment (c). Thefront of this froth-separating compartment is cut down to a beveled edge to allowoverflow of froth. Around the agitating compartment at the top is placed the annular launder (d). The machine is covered with a removable hemispherical cover (e)with a hole at the top. The base of the casting forming the agitating compartment isflanged and sits upon a frame (f). Agitation is effected by means of two four-armedimpellers placed one near the bottom and one near the top of the agitating compartment. These impellers are carried on the vertical spindle (g) which passesthrough a stuffing box in the bottom of the agitating compartment. The lower endof this spindle is carried in a step bearing (h). The vertical shaft is actuated bymeans of a quarter-turn round leather belt and a grooved pulley (i) from a 1/4-h.p.variable speed motor set preferably with pulley not more than 1 ft. away. The agitating compartment is fitted with a spout (j) and brass plug with handle (k) fordraining residues from the machine. The motor should be such as to give a speedrange of from 500 to 2400 r.p.m. A useful addition to the above machine consistsin an upper removable bearing for the agitator shaft. This is shown in the figureand consists of a bearing (l) carried on the horizontal pieces (m) which are fittedto slide freely on the uprights (n) and are stopped by the collars (o). The verticalspindle is now extended to pass through the bearing (l), thus doing away withwhipping of the shaft during agitation and lessening materially the wear on thestuffing box and step bearing. This shaft extension also makes possible the determination of the speed of the impeller shaft, which is impossible in the machineas sold. The ore charge to produce a pulp of 20 to 25 per cent, solids is 500 to 600gms. The Janney machine is the best apparatus for routine testing by the agitation-froth process. It may be purchased from the Stimpson Equipment Co., Salt LakeCity, Utah.

A convenient form of laboratory apparatus for operating the Elmore vacuum process is shown in Fig. 5. In the assemblysketch, (B) is the feed funnel discharging through the valve or stop cock (A) andthe tube (H) through the bottom of the plate (I) into the vacuum chamber. Suctionis applied to the pulp in the vacuum chamber through the dome (J), pipe (E), andconcentrate receiver (F), by means of a pipe connecting the latter with the vacuumpump. Operation of the apparatus is intermittent. After a full charge is fed in, thevalve (A) is closed, suction is applied and the rake slowly revolved. The froth whichrises to the surface passes up through the inverted funnel into the dome (J) andout through the pipe (E) into the bottom of the concentrate collecting chamber (F).After all froth has been taken off, the vacuum is relieved and tailing withdrawnthrough the pipe shown at the left hand side of section (AA) passing through thebottom of the plate (I). It will be noted that the detail drawings show provision forbelt drive for the rake rather than for the bevel gear drive illustrated in the assembly. The belt drive is simpler and cheaper. The funnel shaped cover for the vacuumchamber and the dome (J) are made of glass about 8/32 inch to 1/8 inch thick. Theconcentrate receiver (F) can well be made a wide-mouthed bottle. It is planned tooperate the rake at 10 to 12 r.p.m. The machine takes a charge of 300 to 500 gms.of ore.

The float machines shown in Fig. 6 is manufactured by theBraun Corporation, Los Angeles, Cal. It consists of a horizontal split cylinder (a),the lower half being carried on legs while the upper half is hinged at the back andcarries the bearings for the rotor shaft. Cast in one piece with the lower half of thecylinder just described is a froth-separating box (b) the length being the same asthat of the cylinder. This box connects with the aerating chamber by ports (c)through which aerated pulp enters and port (d) by means of which pulp passesback for more aeration. It is also fitted with a drain cock (e) for drawing off theresidual pulp after treatment. The aerating mechanism consists of a slatted cylindermade up by fastening slats (J) to the large slats (g) which are in turn bolted to spiders (h) carried on the shaft. The shaft is driven by pulley as shown. The machinewill require a 1/4-h.p. variable speed motor fitted with a crown pulley to take a 2-in.belt. Motor pulley and speed should be such that with a 6-in. pulley on themachine, a speed range of from 200 to 800 r.p.m. can be attained. This machinerequires a charge of about 750 gms. of ore for a test with a pulp containing 20 to 25per cent, solids. The machine is useful for studying the behavior of an ore subjected to bubble-column concentration with an amount of air considerably lessthan that introduced in pneumatic machines.

It consists of a box (a) partially divided, asshown in Fig. 7, into an aerating compartment (b) and a froth-separating compartment (c). The froth-separating compartment is connected at the bottom with the aerating compartment by means of a passage (k) which connects the bottom ofthis compartment with the bottom of the aerating compartment, entering directlyunder the vertical spindle. Aeration is accomplished by means of the hollow disk(d) which is carried on the lower end of the hollow vertical shaft (e). This latter issupported by post bearings (f) and thrust bearings on the frame (h). The shaft isactuated by means of a 3/8-in. round leather belt passing over the grooved pulley(i). Another form has two vertical grooved guide pulleys on the frame allowing themotor to be mounted on the same base as the machine. The hollow disk on thelower end of the vertical spindle is shown in plan and section in the figure. Ports(g) circulate pulp by centrifugal force. Air enters through the hollow shaft and ports(l) to fill the vacua formed behind the shields (m) as the disk rotates. A grid (n)prevents disturbance of the surface of the pulp and aeration of the pulp from thesurface. A 1/4-h.p. variable speed motor giving a speed range of from 500 to 2000r.p.m. should be provided. The solid charge required for a machine of this sizewith a pulp of 20 to 25 per cent, solids is 500 gms. This machine is sold by theMine and Smelter Supply Co. of Denver, Col. The Denver Engineering Works Company is the manufacturer and sales agent for the mill-sized machine. The Ruth machine is of the bubble-column type but introduces less air per unit volume of pulpthan the pneumatic type machines. The testing machine is efficient for this kind ofoperation.

This sub-aeration laboratory machine (Fig. 8) consists of a square box(a) with slightly sloping bottom and with the front side cut down to allow discharge of froth over the lip (b). To the bottom of the box is attached a pipe (c)which is carried up outside the machine to a point about 3 ins. above the top and isthere terminated by a gas cock (d). A grid (e) is placed with its lower edge about 1in. above the bottom to prevent the formation of a vortex at the surface. Aeration isaccomplished by means of the four-armed cross-shaped beater (f) fitted with armsat 45 from the horizontal and mounted on the lower end of the vertical spindle (g).This spindle is carried on the bearings (h) and the thrust bearing (i) from theframework (j) and is driven by means of a 3/8-in. round quarter-turn belt and thegrooved pulley (k) from a 1/4-h.p. variable speed motor, set up at a distance preferably not more than 1 ft. The speed range should be such as to allow variation offrom 500 to 2000 r.p.m. of the vertical spindle. This machine requires a charge of750 gms. of ore for a pulp containing 20 to 25 per cent, solids. The machine introduces much more air than is introduced by the agitation-froth type machine andthe concentration obtained is of the bubble-column type. It is a satisfactory pieceof laboratory apparatus.

This apparatus furnished by the General Engineering Company, Salt Lake City, is illustrated in Fig. 9. It consists essentially of a rougher cell 2 ins. wide by 15 ins. long and a cleaner cell 2 ins. wide and 7 ins.long, with an air lift for returning products to the head of the rougher cell. Therougher flotation cell itself consists essentially of a rectangular box (a), with a porous bottom made of several plies of light weight canvas or palma twill stitched together and clamped between the top of a four-compartmented chamber or air box(b) and the flanged bottom of the box (a) by means of screw clamps (c). Eachcompartment of the air basket is connected through the valves (B) with a header,in order, by adjustment, to permit equal distribution of air against the varying headat different points in the length of the cell. The depth of the cell at the head end isabout 6 ins. and at the tail end about 11 ins. The cell is provided with an overflowlaunder (d) on both sides. These launders join at the tail end in a spout whichdelivers rougher froth to the cleaner cell. The rougher cell is drained by a pipe witha two-way cock (F) which discharges through pipes (G) and (H). Outlet (G) discharges into the air lift. It permits regulation of the pulp level in the rougher celland allows circulation of rougher tailing during a test, if desired. Outlet (H) is fordraining and washing out the rougher cell at the end of a test. The cleaner cell hasa two-compartmented air basket and is fitted with an overflow launder similar tothat on the rougher cell. Pulp level in the cleaner cell is regulated by the inclinationof the pipe (E). The overflow from this pipe goes to the air lift and back into thesystem. This apparatus requires a charge of 1500 gms. of ore for a test. Elevencubic feet of air per minute at 5 lbs. pressure should be furnished.

Figure 10 shows a much less elaborate apparatus, which the writer has found tobe entirely satisfactory for laboratory testing of pulps by the pneumatic process. Itconsists of the usual rectangular box (a) with sloping porous bottom (b) fitted,however, with overflow launder (c) on one side only, the other side being of glassto permit observation of the interior. The construction is sufficiently shown in thesketch. The machine can be operated continuously by arranging feed rate and thetailing-discharge slide (d) to permit sufficient treatment time, or the tailing discharge pulp can be circulated by means of an air lift. If intermittent non-circulatingtreatment is desired the tailing gate can be stopped up by suitable means. Thecharge of ore for a pulp containing 20 to 25 per cent, solids is 1500 gms.

The General Engineering Co. recommends a positive rotary blower of the Root orConnersville type and says that the oil in the air from a compressor chokes theblanket. The writer has found, however, that a small compressor such as the Ingersoll-Rand Imperial Type 14, air-cooled, 2 1/2 ins. by 3 ins., using an ordinary househot-water tank as a receiver, makes a more satisfactory installation than a blower.Pressure in the receiver should be maintained at about 10 lbs. Pressure on theblanket side of the regulating valves will vary from 1 to 3 lbs.

For preliminary qualitative tests of the agitation-froth process and for all kinds ofstirring and mixing operations, a small bar mixer or the rather more elaborate device known as a square-glass-jar machine shown in Fig. 11 is extremely useful. Thelatter device consists essentially of a stirring mechanism and a removable square-glass-jar, mounted on a frame with a motor and rheostat and stop switch. The stir-ring mechanism consists of a vertical shaft (c) carrying at the lower end a four-armed paddle (e). A grooved cone pulley (a) with hub extended to run in the brass-bushed bearing (b) carries on its upper face a slot which is engaged by the lug (f)on the lower face of the compression collar (d). This arrangement permits the distance to which the stirrer projects into the jar to be easily varied at will and allowsthe stirrer to be lifted above the top of the jar when the latter is to be removed orset in place. A variable speed 1/4-h.p. motor, giving a speed range on the agitatorshaft up to 2500 r.p.m. should be supplied. An ore charge of 300 to 350 gms. canbe treated in this machine.

For preliminary qualitative tests by the pneumatic process, the apparatus shownin Fig. 12 is useful. It consists of a three-legged brass casting (a) and a brass flange(b) which takes a 4-in. gage glass. The flange is fastened to the gage glass bymeans of plaster-of-Paris. A piece of canvas or twill to serve as a porous bottom isclamped between the parts (a) and (b) by means of screw clamps. An overflowmay be simply provided by cutting a hole of the proper dimensions in the bottomof a shallow pudding tin 6 ins. internal diameter and fitting the same with a discharge spout. Air is provided as for the laboratory Callow cells. The ore charge forthis machine is 200 to 300 gms.

This apparatus is not standardized. A satisfactory apparatus consists of a cylindrical bottle of about two liters capacity with a gradualslope from full cross-section to neck, with the bottom cut off and the cut edgeground to a plane. This is set up in an inverted position, with a one-hole rubberstopper and glass tubes of various bores for regulating the discharge, about 12 to18 ins. below a pulp reservoir or pressure box from which pulp discharges througha tube just large enough to allow free discharge. Settling of sand in the reservoirshould be prevented by slow stirring. The stream of pulp from the reservoir spigotplunging into the body of pulp in the inverted bottle carries in air which causesconcentration by bubble-column action. If the inverted bottle is fitted with an overflow launder such as is described in the preceding paragraph, and if the tailing iscaught in a bucket and returned manually to the reservoir at such a rate as to makethe discharge continuous, a fair quantitative result can be obtained.

Motors. The five motors specified below are recommended by the StimpsonEquipment Co. for use with Janney laboratory machines, and are, of course, suitable also for use with the other types of machine where 1/4-h.p. motors are specified. The writer has used two of these types of motors and has been assured byusers of the other types of their entire satisfaction with them.

General Electric Co. Type SCS521-4; 1/4-h.p.; 1800 r.p.m. Variable speed, reversible running. Single phase. 60 cycles. Form GBR. Amperes 4.2 to 2.1. Volts110: 220. Speed, full load, 1800 to 900 r.p.m. A dial controller brake to vary thespeed is supplied at an extra charge.

Kimble Electric Co., 634646 N. Western Ave., Chicago. Single, two or threephase circuit. Variable speed, reversible running, 110 or 220 volts. Speed 500 to2000 r.p.m. A contained lever starts or stops motor; reverses or changes thespeed.

The Robbins and Myers Co., Springfield, Ohio. List D142. Volts 110. Speed 1750r.p.m. A field rheostat must be used in connection with motor.In all cases specify 3-in. grooved pulley for 3/8-in. round belt.

A convenient method of mounting flotation test machines isshown in Fig. 13. It consists of a solidly built table, with 2-in. cypress top exceptwhere grids and sink are shown. The grids are made of 1/2in. by 3/4-in. cypress,spaced 1/4 in. in the clear. Grids and solid top are so disposed as to allow spacefor a machine on both sides of each grid. About 2-ft. length of solid top should beallowed for each machine. The table is best placed against a wall along which arecarried power, gas and water lines with numerous convenient outlets. Where several machines are not in use at one time the number of motors may be reduced byplacing a stand at each machine of proper height for the motor and placing a rheostat and stop switch on a board which bolts with wing nuts to the wall and whichcarries an electric plug to connect with the nearest convenient power outlet. With adevice such as this a motor with its rheostat can be readily moved within 5 or 10minutes. The water reservoirs are small galvanized tanks 3 ins. square of about3000 cc. capacity and are fitted with gage glasses and a calibrated card reading to100 cc. A piece of rubber tubing is attached to the faucet and provided with a pinchcock at the lower end. This makes it easy to regulate and measure the amount ofwater used during the test.

The following is a list of the principal oilsused in ordinary practice. Steam-distilled pine oil, turpentine, pine-tar oil, coal tar,coal-tar oil, coal-tar creosote, wood tar, wood-tar oil, wood creosote, petroleumresiduum, crude kerosene, sludge-acid kerosene, alpha naph-thylamine, xylidin,crude cresol, crude carbolic acid. Dealers are glad to supply samples of oils andthe laboratory stock soon becomes large. In general it is unwise to do any extendedtesting work with a sample of which an insufficient amount is on hand for physicaltests, because without such tests it is impossible to specify the oil accurately, if itshould be desired, as a result of the tests, to buy. Proper physical tests require aminimnm of 1/2 gallon of oil. The following is a partial list of firms which manufacture and distribute flotation oils: American Creosoting Co., Chalmette, La., (1);American Tar Products Co., 208 So. LaSalle St., Chicago, Ill., (1); Associated OilCo., Los Angeles, Cal., (4); Barrett Co., 17 Battery Pl., New York, and in principalcities, (1); Cleveland Cliffs Iron Co., Cleveland, Ohio, (2); Denver Gas and ElectricCo., Denver, Col., and gas companies in other principal cities, (1); Georgia PineTurpentine Co., 156 Perry St., New York, (2); General Naval Stores Co., 175 FrontSt., New York, (1), (2), (3); Geo. P. Jones and Co., 205 No. Lever St., St. Louis, Mo.,(4); F. J. Lewis Mfg. Co., 2500 So. Robey St., Chicago, Ill., (1); National Aniline andChemical Co., New York, branches in principal cities, (1); Pensacola Tar andTurpentine Co., Gull Point, Fla., (2); Semet-Solvay Co., Chalmette, La., (1); Standard Oil Co., branches in principal cities, (4); Texas Oil Co., Port Arthur, Tex., (4);Union Oil Co., Mills Bldg., San Francisco, Cal., (4); Utah Oil Refining Co., Newhouse Bldg., Salt Lake City, Utah, (4); Yaryan Naval Stores Co., Brunswick, Ga., (3).(The figures (1), (2), (3), and (4) indicate coal-tar products, destructively-distilledwood products, steam-distilled pine oil, and petroleum products respectively.)

For testing oils the following apparatus is necessary. Specific gravity bottles 5cc., 10 cc., 25 cc. and 50 cc. Engler viscosi-meter for viscous oils and Ostwald viscosimeter (Figs. 20, 21) for mobile oils. Refractometer. Hydrometers with rangefrom 0.7 to 1.3. Oil distillation apparatus (Fig. 23) consisting of 1000-cc. and 250-cc. distillation flasks with side tube at the middle of the neck, 360-degree thermometer accurately calibrated; copper trough condenser. One 120-cc. separatoryfunnel with stem graduated to 20 cc. by 1/10-cc. Hand centrifuge with fourBabcock cream-testing bottles, with neck graduated for 2 cc. by 1/25-cc. Special tar-acid separatory funnel 100-cc. capacity, as shown in Fig. 22. Ostwald gas regulatorfor constant-temperature baths.

The following items need no further description. Pulp balances, 200 gms. capacity. Pipettes (Mohrs), Fig. 14, two each, 1-cc. by 1/100-cc., 2-cc. by 1/50-cc., 5-cc.by 1/10-cc., and 10-cc. by 1/10-cc. Graduated cylinders capacity 5-cc., 10-cc., 25-cc,100-cc., 500-cc., 1000-cc. and 2000-cc. Sugar thermometer with enclosed paperscale reading from o, to 50 C. Speed indicator. Two doz. granite pans 8 in. by 15in. by 2 in. Assorted beakers. Means for heating pulps and drying samples. An assay laboratory in connection with the testing laboratory is essential for anyextensive work.

improving the quality and safety of macadamia nuts - sciencedirect

Macadamia nuts (Macadamia integrifolia and M. tetraphylla) are grown in subtropical and tropical regions and are valued for their delicate flavor, crunchy texture, and healthful oil profile. The highest quality kernels are cream colored, with 72 to 78% oil and 1.5% moisture. Two major quality defects of macadamias are kernel browning after roasting and off-flavor development caused by oxidation and rancidity during storage. Incremental drying to 1.5% kernel moisture content is critical to prevent kernel browning. Protection of the shelled nuts from moisture and oxygen during storage, delays rancidity and extends shelf-life.

xfdi single cell lab flotation - jxsc machine

Introduce: XFDI Single Cell Lab Flotation machine XFD Single cell laboratory flotation machine is always used in geology, metallurgy, building materials, chemical, and another industrial laboratory to float a small number of ore samples. XFD Series cell Flotation machine consists of the following main components: ( 1 ) base ( 2 ) the carrier ( 3 ) the tank ( 4 ) stir part (5) blade part ( 6 ) spindle part ( 7 ) the cover ( 8 ) the motor ( 9 ) flow meter ( 10 ) switch controls ( 11 ) blade switch All parts are fastened to the body, the spindle ( 1 ) rotates in the clockwise direction, the movement through a belt to the spindle pulley belt and the spindle pulley has three different speeds. Rotation of the blade ( 3 ) driven by the blade driven pulley the motor can have two different speed. The blade height can be adjusted by the position of the butterfly nut Flotation machine is driven by V-belt drive motor rotating impeller to form a centrifugal vacuum, on the one hand, inhalation pulp mixed with sufficient air , on the other hand stirring the pulp to mixed with drugs, while refined foam, mineral adhesive foam on top, float to the surface and then form a slurry bubble mineralization. Adjust shutters height and control surface to scrape the useful foam.

Working Principle of Laboratory FlotationThe laboratory flotation machine has been widely used in mine and laboratory in China for flotation experiments. The production practice shows that the flotation machine has the advantages of reasonable structure, stable operation, reliable operation and high performance, and is suitable for color, Selection of ferrous and non-metallic minerals. The device has the following characteristics: the self-suction air, the pulp circulation characteristic is good, the air suction amount is relatively stable, the stirring intensity is moderate, the solid particles are well suspended, the liquid level is stable, and the power consumption is low.