The data recorded by Statistics in 2020 shows that although in 2019 manganese ore price fell to the bottom, the price in 2020 still gets increased to 4.5 U.S. dollars per metric ton unit CIF even under the impact of COVID-19. Manganese ore prices are forecast to remain at global prices by 2020 over the next two years, which is good news to manganese ore suppliers.
Besides, Justin Brown, managing director of Element 25said Manganese has the traditional end uses in steel, and that market is fairly stable". As people's demand for laptops and electric cars increases, the output of lithium batteries has also soared, and the most important element in lithium batteries is manganese.
Manganese ore after the beneficiation process is applied in many respects in our daily lives. Of annual manganese ore production, 90 percent is used in steelmaking, and the other 10 percent is used respectively in non-ferrous metallurgy, chemical industry, electronics, battery, agriculture, etc.
In the metallurgical industry, manganese ore is mostly used for manganese-forming ferroalloys and manganese metal. The former is used as deoxidizers or alloying element additives for steelmaking, and the latter is used to smelt certain special alloy steels and non-ferrous metal alloys. Manganese ore can also be used directly as an ingredient in steelmaking and ironmaking.
When smelting manganese-based iron alloys, the useful elements in manganese ore are manganese and iron. The level of manganese is the main indicator for measuring the quality of manganese ore. The iron content is required to have a certain ratio with the amount of manganese.
Phosphorus is the most harmful element in manganese ore. The phosphorus in steel reduces the impact of toughness. Although sulfur is also a harmful element, it has a better desulfurization effect during smelting, and sulfur is volatilized into sulfur dioxide or enters the slag in the form of calcium sulfide or manganese sulfide.
Applications in Metallurgy Manganese content (%) Ferromanganese (%) Phosphorus manganese (%) Low carbon ferromanganese 36%40% 68.5 0.0020.0036 Carbon Ferro Manganese 33%40% 3.87.8 0.0020.005 Manganese Silicon Alloy 29%35% 3.37.5 0.00160.0048 Blast Furnace Ferromanganese 30% 27 0.005
In the chemical industry, manganese ore is mainly used to prepare manganese dioxide, manganese sulfate, and potassium permanganate. It is also used to make manganese carbonate, manganese nitrate and manganese chloride.
Since most manganese ore is a fine-grained or fine-grained inlay, and there are a considerable number of high-phosphorus ore, high-iron ore, and symbiotic beneficial metals, it is very difficult to beneficiate.
At present, commonly used manganese ore beneficiation methods include physical beneficiation (washing and screening, gravity separation, strong magnetic separation, flotation separation, joint beneficiation), chemical beneficiation (leaching method) and fire enrichment, etc.
Washing is the use of hydraulic washing or additional mechanical scrubbing to separate the ore from the mud. Commonly used equipment includes washing sieves, cylinder washing machines and trough ore-washing machine.
The washing operation is often accompanied by screening, such as direct flushing on the vibrating screen or sifting the ore (clean ore) obtained by the washing machine to the vibrating screen. Screening is used as an independent operation to separate products of different sizes and grades for various purposes.
At present, the gravity separation is only used to beneficiate manganese ore with simple structure and coarse grain size and is especially suitable for manganese oxide ore with high density. Common methods include heavy media separation, jigging and tabling dressing.
It is essential to recover as much manganese as possible in the gravity concentration zone because its grinding cost is much lower than the manganese in the flotation process, and simple operations are more active.
Because of the simple operation, easy control and strong adaptability of magnetic separation can be used for dressing various manganese ore, and it has dominated the manganese ore dressing in recent years.
Gravity-magnetic separation plant of manganese ore mainly deals with leaching manganese oxide ore, using the jig to treat 30~3 mm of cleaned ore can obtain high-quality manganese-containing more than 40% of manganese. And then can be used as manganese powder of battery raw material.
The jigging tailings and less than 3 mm washed ore are ground to less than 1mm, and then being processed by strong magnetic separator. The manganese concentrate grade would be increased by 24% to 25%, and reaches to 36% to 40%.
Adopting strong magnetic-flotation desulfurization can directly obtain the integrated manganese concentrate product; the use of petroleum sodium sulfonate instead of oxidized paraffin soap as a collector can make the pulp be sorted at neutral and normal temperature, thus saving reagent consumption and energy consumption.
The enrichment of manganese ore by fire is another dressing method for high-phosphorus and high-iron manganese ore which is difficult to select. It is generally called the manganese-rich slag method.
The manganese-rich slag generally contains 35% to 45% Mn, Mn/Fe 12-38, P/Mn<0.002, and is a high-quality raw material to manganese-based alloy. Therefore, fire enrichment is also a promising method for mineral processing for low-manganese with high-phosphorus and high-iron.
Manganese ore also can be recovered by acid leaching for production of battery grade manganese dioxide for low-manganese ores. Leaching of manganese ore was carried out with diluted sulphuric acid in the presence of pyrite in the temperature range from 323 to 363 K.
After processed by hydraulic cone crusher, the smaller-sized manganese ore would be fed to grinding machine- ball mill. It can grind the ore to a relatively fine and uniform particle size, which lays a foundation for further magnetic separation of manganese ore.
It is indispensable grading equipment in the manganese ore beneficiation plant. Because by taking advantage of the natural settling characteristics of ore, a spiral classifier can effectively classify and separate the manganese ore size to help control the amount of grinding required.
The flexibility of flotation is relatively high. You can choose different reagents according to the type and grade of the ore. Although the entire process of froth flotation is expensive, it can extract higher-grade manganese ore.
The magnetic separator is a highly targeted magnetic separation device specially developed for the properties of manganese ore. The device not only has the advantages of small size, lightweight, high automation, simple and reasonable structure, but also has high magnetic separation efficiency and high output.
If you want to beneficiate high-grade manganese ore and maximize the value of manganese concentration, Fote Company is an ore beneficiation equipment manufacturer with more that 35-years designing and manufacturing experience and can give you the most professional advice and offer you all machines needed in the ore beneficiation plant (form crushing stage to ore dressing stage). All machines are tailored to your project requirements.
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As brick-and-mortar retailers struggle to compete against the pandemic and the fact that people are increasingly shopping online, many are forced to close some or all of their stores. And its not just small mom and pop shops that are being affected but large national chains.
Here we take a look at the brands that have already shuttered or are planning to close stores in 2021. The shift in consumer habits and the pandemic have impacted nearly every category from electronics toclothing and home goods and restaurants.
Macys is the latest department store chain to announce a slew of upcoming closures over the next several years. In January, the company confirmed its plans to permanently close 45 storesthroughout 2021. According to CNBC, the closures are part of Macys larger plan to shut 125 locations by 2023, narrowing its presence to top-tier malls.
After announcing the closing of 200 stores last year, Bed Bath & Beyond is set to shutter more brick-and-mortar locations in 2021. Per USA Today, another 43 stores will be permanently shut down by the end of February. The closures will take place across 19 states, including nine locations in California.
Last year, Express confirmed plans to close 100 of its stores by 2022, starting with 31 stores across 20 states in January 2020. Another 35 locations are expected to close by the end of January 2021, with 25 more locations following over the course of the next year.
Office Depot is continuing its restructuring plan, first announced last spring, into 2021. The office supply chain will be closing an unspecified amount of stores and eliminating over 13,000 jobs through 2023. The plans are reportedly part of the companys ongoing efforts to curb costs while transitioning from a traditional retailer to an IT services provider.
Walgreens is still in the process of shutting down about 200 of its U.S. stores after first announcing the closures in 2019. The closures will account for less than 3% of the pharmacy chains total store count, which includes nearly 9,600 locations across the country.
The Childrens Place is also closing down dozens of stores around the country this year. Last summer, the kids clothing retailer announced plans to shutter 200 stores in 2020 and another 100 by the end of 2021. The company has not revealed what locations will close but is mostly targeting mall-based locations, according to Today.
J.C. Penney will close more stores this spring after filing for bankruptcy and closing more than 150 stores last year. In December, the department store chain announced it plans to shutter another 15 stores by the end of March 2021.
As part of our store optimization strategy that began in June with our financial restructuring, we havemade the decision to close an additional 15 stores, J.C. Penney said in a statement to USA Today. These stores will begin liquidation sales later this month and will close to the public in mid to late March.
In November 2020, Francescas revealed it will close about 140 stores by the end of January 2021. The womens boutique chain also filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy in December, with plans to sell the business, including its brick-and-mortar stores. According to USA Today, the company still has approximately 558 stores open, but plans to attempt to renegotiate a number of leases during this process, which may include closing additional boutiques, according to a statement to USA Today.
Signet Jewelers, which operates globally under the name brands of Kay Jewelers, Zales, Jared The Galleria Of Jewelry and Piercing Pagoda, is also closing more stores this year. In 2020, the retailer of diamond jewelry announced it wouldnt reopen at least 150 North Americalocations that had been temporarily shuttered in March due to the COVID-19 pandemic. An additional 150 stores are expected to close by the end of February 2021.
Pet Valu has joined the list of retailers to permanently shutter during the coronavirus pandemic. In November 2020, the pet supplies chain confirmed it will close all 358 stores and warehouses across the U.S. Closing sales have already begun in locations across the country, but customers can no longer place orders on the companys website.
After permanently closing more than 600 stores last summer, Justice is set to shutter its remaining locations this year. In November, parent company Ascena Retail Group Inc. confirmed plans to shut down the tween girl retailer, with the 108 enduring stores set to close its doors by early 2021.
GameStop, which has shuttered hundreds of stores over the last two years, is ramping up for even more closures in 2021. In December, the video game retailer revealed plans to close more than 1,000 stores by the end of its fiscal year in March. The closures come after nearly a decade of financial struggles for the gaming giant, which is working to recuperate its debts after reporting a $458 million net loss in 2018.
After filing for bankruptcy in 2018 and closing the majority of its stores over the past two years, Sears, owned by the parent company Transformco, is continuing to see a sharp decline in business. According to CNN, the struggling chain is in the process of a slow motion liquidation and will resume shuttering stores where possible over the next year, as well as listing other locations with commercial real estate brokers.
On March 3, Disney announced plans to close 60 or more of its North American brick-and-mortar Disney Stores by the end of 2021. The company said it will be putting a greater emphasis on e-commerce, social media and theme park retail opportunities. As of 2016, the company had 330 stores worldwide with 200 in North America.
Kmart owned by the same parent company as Sears, Transformco is also in the process of closing up shop. The retailer has drastically dwindled down its total store count to only 48 stores, and more closures are expected to take place over the next year as the commercial real estate market picks back up.
After closing 180 stores in 2020, H&M is set shutter another 250 of its locations in 2021. The retailer cited the coronavirus pandemic and a growing shift to online sales as the primary motivation behind their decision.
More and more customers started shopping online during the pandemic, and they are making it clear that they value a convenient and inspiring experience in which stores and online interact and strengthen each other, said H&M CEO Helena Helmersson in a statement, per Good Morning America.
After shuttering 250 stores across the U.S. and Canada last year, Victorias Secret will likely see more closures over the next two years. Victorias Secret CEO Stuart Burgdoerfer reportedly discussed the anticipated closings on an earnings call with analysts in May 2020.
We would expect to have a meaningful number of additional store closures beyond the 250 that were pursuing this year, meaning there will be more in 2021 and probably a bit more in 2022, he said, per USA Today.
Gap is drastically cutting down its brick-and-mortar footprint over the next two years. As the company announced in October 2020, Gap Inc. will close 220 Gap stores across North America by the end of 2023. The closures are part of the retailers efforts to move away from the mall and focus its locations in city centers and outlets.
Banana Republic, which is also under the Gap Inc. umbrella, will see its fair share of closures as well. The company is expected to shutter 130 Banana Republic locations by 2023. Between Banana Republic and Gap, the retailer will shut down a total of 350 locations, accounting for nearly a third of its North American sites.
Carters is also permanently shutting down hundreds of stores as the leases of certain outposts expire in the coming months. In October 2020, the childrens apparel and accessories retailer announced plans to close approximately 200 locations, with roughly 60% of those units likely to be shuttered by the end of 2021. The remaining stores will be shut down by the end of 2022.
After announcing plans to shut down 40 to 50 stores in 2020, more American Eagle stores may be on the chopping block this year. Last fall, executives revealed the company is scrutinizing up to another 500 stores for possible closure in the next two years as leases expire. Chief Financial Officer Mike Mathias told Retail Divethe retailer is considering lease tenure, mall profile, proximity to other stores, and customer engagement level when choosing which stores to permanently close.
Following declining sales amid the coronavirus pandemic, Zara is moving its attention from brick-and-mortar locations to online sales. Last summer, Inditex, the clothing brands parent company, announced it will close as many as 1,200 stores around the world over the course of three years, starting in 2020. The company also plans to invest a whopping $3 billion to enhance its digital operations, including increasing online customer service teams.
Last summer, Tailored Brands, the parent company to Mens Wearhouse and Jos. A. Bank, announced it has identified up to 500 stories for potential closure over time. The mens apparel retailer was hit hard by the COVID-19 pandemic, as customers shifted to remote work and saw less need for formalwear. After filing for bankruptcy in August, the company is slowly rebounding and exited the final stages of the Chapter 11 process in November.
Chicos is continuing its previously announced plan to shut down 250 stores in three years, which it started in 2019. Like many other retailers, the womens clothing chain is working to shift its focus to online sales and operations.
Abercrombie & Fitch is shutting down its four biggest flagship stores by the end of Jan. 2021. The closures, reportedly planned before the COVID-19 pandemic hit, will take place primarily overseas, in London, Paris, Munich and Dusseldorf, Germany. Three other key stores in Brussels, Madrid and Fukuoka, Japan will also close when their leases expire this year.
In November, Starbucks announced it will close approximately 100 stores in the U.S. within the next year. The coffee chain also plans to shutter 300 locations across Canada by the end of March 2021. The closures are part of the companys ongoing restructuring efforts, which include adding more drive-thru locations and experimenting with curbside pick-up only coffee shops.