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luoyang gangxin glass technology co.,ltd

Luoyang GangXin Glass Technology Co.,ltd was established in 2007 and located in Luoyang, Which is a comprehensive hi-tech enterprise in the research, design, production, sales and services of glass pro

lets make a bottle: understanding the glass bottle formation processe

CATALOG Offering The Largest Selection Of Stock Containers

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Creating glass containers can be accomplished by one of two different processes the Blow and Blow, or the Press and Blow process. Each process is chosen based on the kind of glass bottle being made. All glass bottles start out as raw materials. Silica (sand), soda ash, limestone, and cullet (furnace-ready, recycled glass) are combined into a specific mixture based on the desired properties of the bottle. The mixture is then melted at high temperatures in the furnace until it becomes a molten material, ready for formation. The type of glass this mixture will produce is known as soda-lime glass, the most popular glass for food and beverages.

Molten glass gobs are cut by a perfectly-timed blade to ensure each gob is of equal weight before it goes into the forming machine. The weight of a gob is important to the formation process for each glass container being made. The molded glass is created by gravity feeding gobs of molten glass into a forming machine, where pressure forms the neck and basic shape of the bottle. Once the neck finish and the general glass bottle shape has been achieved, the form is known as a parison. To achieve the final container shape, one of two processes are used.

The Press and Blow process is the most commonly used method in glass bottle manufacturing. It uses an individual section (IS) machine, which is separated into varying sections to produce several containers of the same size simultaneously. The molten glass is cut with a shearing blade into a specific gob size. The gob falls into the machine by force of gravity. A metal plunger is used to push the gob down into the mold, where it starts to take shape and become a parison. The parison is then transferred into the blow mold and reheated so that the parison is soft enough to finish off the dimensions of the glass. Once the parison is reheated to blowing temperature, air is injected to blow the container into shape. Press and blow methods are typically used for manufacturing wide-mouth bottles and jars as their size allows the plunger into the parison.

The Blow and Blow process is used to create narrow containers. It also requires an IS machine, where gobs of molten glass are gravity fed into the mold. The parison is created by using compressed air to form the neck finish and basic bottle shape. The parison is then flipped 180 degrees and reheated before air is again injected to blow the container into its final shape. Compressed air is once again used to blow the bottle into its desired shape. Blow and Blow methods are best used for glass bottle manufacturing requiring different neck thicknesses.

Regardless of the process used, once the bottle has been completely formed, it is removed from the mold and transferred to the annealing lehr. The lehr reheats the bottes to a temperature of about 1,050 degrees Fahrenheit then gradually cools them to about 390F. This process allows the glass to cool at an even rate - eliminating internal stresses in the glass that could lead to cracking or shattering. Bottles are then subjected to careful inspections to ensure they meet quality control guidelines. Any bottles showing imperfections, including bubbles, cracks, or misshapen areas, are removed from the line and used as cullet. All remaining bottles are sorted according to size and type. The bottles are then packaged on pallets and prepared for shipping.

O.BERK | KOLS CONTAINERS 3101 WILMARCO DRIVE BALTIMORE, MD 21223 (+1) 410 646 2300

expleco glsand - glass bottle crushers

Expleco (Explore Eco) Limited is a company specializing in the design and manufacturing of compact glass bottle crushers offering volume reduction solutions to a wide variety of glass waste generators. We operate in a variety regions with highly efficient recycling systems to some of the most isolated locations in the world. We providesolutions that are both economically and environmentally sustainable andreduce pressure on global landfill and waterway catchments. Our aim is to assist and support environmentally conscious brands and establishments in their ongoing battle to minimize their operationalfootprint.

the solar sinter by markus kayser | dezeen

In a world increasingly concerned with questions of energy production and raw material shortages, this project explores the potential of desert manufacturing, where energy and material occur in abundance.In this experiment sunlight and sand are used as raw energy and material to produce glass objects using a 3D printing process, that combines natural energy and material with high-tech production technology.Solar-sintering aims to raise questions about the future of manufacturing and triggers dreams of the full utilisation of the production potential of the worlds most efficient energy resource - the sun. Whilst not providing definitive answers, this experiment aims to provide a point of departure for fresh thinking.

In the deserts of the world two elements dominate - sun and sand. The former offers a vast energy source of huge potential, the latter an almost unlimited supply of silica in the form of quartz. Silicia sand when heated to melting point and allowed to cool solidifies as glass. This process of converting a powdery substance via a heating process into a solid form is known as sintering and has in recent years become a central process in design prototyping known as 3D printing or SLS (selective laser sintering). These 3D printers use laser technology to create very precise 3D objects from a variety of powdered plastics, resins and metals - the objects being the exact physical counterparts of the computer-drawn 3D designs inputted by the designer. By using the suns rays instead of a laser and sand instead of resins, I had the basis of an entirely new solar-powered machine and production process for making glass objects that taps into the abundant supplies of sun and sand to be found in the deserts of the world.

My first manually operated solar-sintering machine was tested in February 2011 in the Moroccan desert with encouraging results that led to the development of the current larger and fully automated computer-driven version - the Solar-Sinter. The Solar-Sinter was completed in mid-May and later that month I took this experimental machine to the Sahara desert near Siwa, Egypt, for a two week testing period. The machine and the results of these first experiments presented here represent the initial significant steps towards what I envisage as a new solar-powered production tool of great potential.

A large Fresnel lens (1.4 x 1.0 metre) is positioned so that it faces the sun at all times via an electronic sun-tracking device, which moves the lens in vertical and horizontal direction and rotates the entire machine about its base throughout the day. The lens is positioned with its focal point directed at the centre of the machine and at the height of the top of the sand box where the objects will be built up layer by layer. Stepper motors drive two aluminium frames that move the sand box in the X and Y axes. Within the box is a platform that can move the vat of sand along the vertical Z axis, lowering the box a set amount at the end of each layer cycle to allow fresh sand to be loaded and levelled at the focal point.

Two photovoltaic panels provide electricity to charge a battery, which in turn drives the motors and electronics of the machine. The photovoltaic panels also act as a counterweight for the lens aided by additional weights made from bottles filled with sand.

The machine is run off an electronic board and can be controlled using a keypad and an LCD screen. Computer drawn models of the objects to be produced are inputted into the machine via an SD card. These files carry the code that directs the machine to move the sand box along the X, Y coordinates at a carefully calibrated speed, whilst the lens focuses a beam of light that produces temperatures between 1400C and 1600C, more than enough to melt the sand. Over a number of hours, layer by layer, an object is built within the confines of the sand box, only its uppermost layer visible at any one time. When the print is completed the object is allowed to cool before being dug out of the sand box. The objects have rough sandy reverse side whilst the top surface is hard glass. The exact colour of the resulting glass will depend on the composition of the sand, different deserts producing different results. By mixing sands, combinatory colours and material qualities may be achieved.

In this first instance the creation of artefacts made by sunlight and sand is an act of pure experimentation and expression of possibility, but what of the future?I hope that the machine and the objects it created, stimulate debate about the vast potential of solar energy and naturally abundant materials like silica sand. These first experiments are simply an early manifestation of that potential.

In the context of a desert-based community, the Solar-Sinter machine could be used to create unique artefacts and functional objects, but also act as a catalyst for solar innovation for more prosaic and immediate needs. Further development could lead to additional solar machine processes such as solar welding, cutting, bending and smelting to build up a fully functioning solar workshop.

The vibrant and global open-source community is already active in developing software and hardware for 3D printers and could play a key role in the rapid development of these technologies. The Solar-Sinter could simply be the starting point for a variety of further applications.

In 1933, through the pages of Modern Mechanix magazine, W.W. Beach was already imagining canals and "auto roads melted into the desert using sunlight focused through immense lenses. This fantastical large-scale approach is much closer to reality today, with desert factories using sunlight as their power a tangible prospect. This image of a multiplicity of machines working in a natural cycle from dusk till Dawn presents a new idea of what manufacturing could be.

The objects could be anything from glass vessels to eventually the glass surfaces for photovoltaic panels that provide the factories power source and, as Mr. Beach imagined 78 years ago, the water channels and glass roads that service them.

Experiments in 3D printing technologies are already reaching towards an architectural scale and it is not hard to imagine that, if partnered with the solar-sintering process demonstrated by the Solar-Sinter machine, this could indeed lead to a new desert-based architecture.

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We will only use your email address to send you the newsletters you have requested. We will never give your details to anyone else without your consent. You can unsubscribe at any time by clicking on the unsubscribe link at the bottom of every email, or by emailing us at [email protected]

sandcarving | sandblasting equipment | sandcarving supplies | glass etching blanks | photoresist | rayzist photomask

The world's leading manufacturer of Photoresist Films and Sandcarving Equipment. Our position within the industry affords us the advantage of scale, but it is our approach to serving you, our customer, that sets us apart.

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Shop anytime of day. It's quick and easy! Our online store carries all of Rayzist products from Equipment to Film and Supplies. Don't forget to take advantage of our Monthly Specials available throughout the year. Ready to place an order? Shop online now.

Sandcarving can be referred to as sandblasting, engraving, glass etching, sand etching, All of these terms are synonymous and general in use. Sandblasting has been around for many decades in the decorative and architectural industries.Picture a glass trophy that has a design etched or engraved in its surface. Sandcarving, also known as sandblasting, is the process used to produce that effect. It is one of the simplest and most accessible methods for personalizing or decorating glass, crystal, marble, stone and other surfaces.

Rayzist Photomask is a direct manufacturer of sandcarving systems also known as sandblast equipment, sand blast equipment, sandblasting cabinet, sandblasting machines, glass etching equipment, sandblasting cabinets and sand carving equipment is designed specifically for personalization on a multitude of surfaces. Sandcarving film which is referred to as, photoresist, sandblasting film, sandblasting material, photo resist, photoresist film, foto resist, photomask, sandcarving film, mask, stencil, templates, sandblasting material, etching templates, etching material, and engraving film. SR2000 and SR3000 photoresist film is manufactured by Rayzist Photomask these two sandblasting photoresist films, allow you to achieve not only the most intricate detail but, has a durability that is second to none and allows you to achieve a generous depth to most any surface while engraving. This versatile sandblasting film is also great for multi level stage carving, gold leaf and paint fills. Stencil making for this industry began with designing, tracing, and then hand cutting or machine plotting; this was the process of creating a template for the engraved image. Photoresist was first introduced into the market in the early 1980s. The ability to produce photographically rather than manually revolutionized the sandcarving industry.

the beach glass machine | evil mad scientist laboratories

Walking the beach with the kids, one of our favorite pastimes is collecting shells, bits of sea glass and other rocks. We typically put them in buckets, sort them when we get home, and then put them in the garden except for the few special ones that the kids keep on their dresser. In the process of making a garden path which stretches 50 feet long and is 2.5 feet wide, I thought, how cool would that look if it were some sort of mosaic of sea glass! Snapping back to reality I realized how much time would be required to collect that much sea glass and got discouraged. But (eureka!) you can make your own. All you need is some glass, some sand, sea water and some way of mimicking the ocean and (bam!) you get sea glass. I wanted to do large volumes, so I borrowed my uncles cement mixer to mimic the ocean. The steel fins inside mimic large rocks. I started breaking wine bottles into small pieces and stole some sand from the kids play box, adding it all to the mixer. Since I didnt have any sea water handy I just filled it with tap water and turned it on. After an hour I checked and the sharp edges were all broken off, after two hours there was some frosting and smoothing and after 4 hours et voil I had sea glass! With the capacity of the mixer I will have my garden path in no time. I plan on experimenting with other media and time duration and will report on my progress in the future. An ordinary hardware store cement mixer, tap water, and play sand. Simpler and more environmentally friendly than using many other common abrasives that are used with rock tumblers. Add glass and allow to run for several hours. After running, drain the excess the sand-water slurry through a coarse screen. After dumping out the excess and some of the glass. This batch was made with a mixture of broken green and brown glass, mostly from wine jugs, and allowed to run for four hours. Below are some pictures of glass allowed to run for different lengths of time. Heres what the raw glass looks like, zero hours in the mixer. These pieces were pulled out after one hour in the mixer. Their sharp edges are broken, and theres light etching of the surfaces. These pieces were pulled out after two hours in the mixer. The shapes are slightly more rounded, and the surfaces are beginning to frost heavily. And after four hours, the pieces begin to look a lot like what you might find washed up on a sandy beach. While it will be interesting to see how the pieces change over longer pieces of time, you probably dont want to go too much longer (and wear them too much thinner) if youre making mosaic pieces for people to walk on.

In the process of making a garden path which stretches 50 feet long and is 2.5 feet wide, I thought, how cool would that look if it were some sort of mosaic of sea glass! Snapping back to reality I realized how much time would be required to collect that much sea glass and got discouraged. But (eureka!) you can make your own. All you need is some glass, some sand, sea water and some way of mimicking the ocean and (bam!) you get sea glass.

I wanted to do large volumes, so I borrowed my uncles cement mixer to mimic the ocean. The steel fins inside mimic large rocks. I started breaking wine bottles into small pieces and stole some sand from the kids play box, adding it all to the mixer. Since I didnt have any sea water handy I just filled it with tap water and turned it on. After an hour I checked and the sharp edges were all broken off, after two hours there was some frosting and smoothing and after 4 hours et voil I had sea glass! With the capacity of the mixer I will have my garden path in no time. I plan on experimenting with other media and time duration and will report on my progress in the future.

This batch was made with a mixture of broken green and brown glass, mostly from wine jugs, and allowed to run for four hours. Below are some pictures of glass allowed to run for different lengths of time.

Heres what the raw glass looks like, zero hours in the mixer. These pieces were pulled out after one hour in the mixer. Their sharp edges are broken, and theres light etching of the surfaces. These pieces were pulled out after two hours in the mixer. The shapes are slightly more rounded, and the surfaces are beginning to frost heavily. And after four hours, the pieces begin to look a lot like what you might find washed up on a sandy beach. While it will be interesting to see how the pieces change over longer pieces of time, you probably dont want to go too much longer (and wear them too much thinner) if youre making mosaic pieces for people to walk on.

And after four hours, the pieces begin to look a lot like what you might find washed up on a sandy beach. While it will be interesting to see how the pieces change over longer pieces of time, you probably dont want to go too much longer (and wear them too much thinner) if youre making mosaic pieces for people to walk on.

I have not collected a lot of beach glass in my life, but what I have collected (mostly at Ft. Bragg on the CA coast) has been rounder and thicker than these pieces. I know that Ft. Braggs glass is the result of early residents dumping their trash into the ocean. Maybe antique jars and bottles were made of thicker glass than wine and beer bottles are today? Are there any commonly available sources of thicker, colored glass?

If the curvature isnt important to you, you could also consider contacting a local stained glass shop to see what they do with their scrap. Personally, Im lucky in that Im within a couple hours drive of an art glass manufacturer, from whom I can buy scrap (odd shapes, 4-6" diameter) for a dollar a pound. They remelt their cullet, but I know some other companies sell cullet in bulk to glass artists and others.

Seriously though, as long as the pieces are anchored to something supportive (e.g. embedded in concrete) itll probably be okay. Glass can shatter from impacts but is surprisingly durable against simple compressive force, and a persons weight will be spread out among a large number of pieces.

If it freezes where you live, be aware that glass and concrete expand and contract at different rates with temperature change, and the glass will crack. As long as it doesnt come loose from the concrete (un-imbedded?) it should be OK.

Glass is a common aggregate in concrete, though generally not in structural uses. It generally creates a lighter concrete. I dont think there is any difference in the CTE between glass and concrete. From what I have read, the main problems are with the alkali-silica reaction and contamination. Wash the glass well, use low-silica cement, and make sure you use air entrainment additives and you should have long lasting non-structural concrete.

Ive used recycled glass aggregate (actually created from recycled glass in a hardened foam) for a lighter than water concrete canoe, and it worked excellent. This looks like a cool project, and I hope it turns out well.

I have some stepping stones with stained glass scraps on concrete. The pieces are various shapes and sizes, some 6 inches long. They are in grout on pre-made concrete stones. They have been outside for over 10 years and nothing has cracked or come off.

On a small island in the gulf of Thailand, Koh Tao, there is a hotel/bungalows for rent/restaurant called OK view, and they have their steps (it is on a side of a mountain, so, lots of steps) lined with bottles, bottom up. Kerry who runs the place says they have been there over ten years, and almost none of them have broken down. And these are whole bottles with only one side embedded in concrete. So, Id say (judging from Kerrys steps) that it will work wonderfully! Agreeing, I am.

The slurry isnt jagged or anything, but I was concerned on just dumping it in the yard as I have chickens and Ducks free ranging all day. My solution is to use the slurry as an additive in my concrete projects. Works quite well.

For some weirdness, treat your broken glass to some muriatic acid, though Im not sure what kind of bucket to put it into. Check with the hardware store. The acid will eat the flat pieces of glass and create a pitted texture.

For even more weirdness, draw or write on the bottle with a fine sharpie, then break up the bottle, and treat it to an acid bath. The sharpie should resist the acid, and the acid should not etch the glass where the sharpie ink is. Then finish with the rock tumbler.

I did concrete work for a few years on someone elses crew; forming, steelwork, pouring and finishing. Acid washing exposed aggregate is the most interesting process, seeing the coloured rock appear from grey cream in green smoke!

Muriatic acid (hydrochloric acid) shouldnt eat glass at all, unless its very unusual glass (sugar glass maybe). Concentrated sulfuric, nitric and hydrochloric acids are all stored in glass containers without degradation for years. Alkali can eat glass over time and can corrode ground glass stoppers permanently into bottles. I have no experience with concrete and acids, however. Sounds spectacular.

I know that DIY is pretty much the point of this project, but for those who would like large quantities of beach glass and dont have access to a cement mixer (or the patience), you can actually buy tumbled glass in bunk from various suppliers (such as from http://www.vitrohue.com/tumbled.html).

Or, you can buy the real deal from me, http://www.tropicalseaglass.com. I find my sea glass on beaches in Hawaii. Ive been collectinf for a long time and I can ALWAYS spot the fake stuff. But, if you have a large project you cant expect to use all jewelry quality glass although I have some customers who have done just that!

Not everyone lives near a beach, and many beaches with good sea glass are protected by law so that you cant collect there. I dont see any use in referring to this as "fake" its real glass, tumbled in sand. Manmade, yes, but so is the glass.

Ive been photographing broken shards of antique Tiffany glass for the past three years in a project called Empire of Glass. The glass was rescued from being dumped into the East River during the Great Depression by my grandfather, and I can confirm that much like in this project, its "weathered" look formed over the years makes it just a magical material to work with. Louis Comfort Tiffany, arguably the greatest glassmaker of all time, understood that it was actually the impurities and not the perfection of the glass that made it great, and a lot of his glass was based on aquatic themes and imagery, so it seems that water and glass are indeed a proper match.

wow amazing mate..! you had such a cool idea. I loved the variuos photo at different time they stayed in the cement mixer.. We were using the same metod to clean the mixer when i was working in building..just that insted glass we were using rock in order to take off all the cement. Cool keep showing us you mad experiment !!

That was good thinking on your part to mass produce glass that mimicks sea glass to finish your project. Ive got one for you Mr. Evil Mad Scientist. Have you heard of " Hydration"? This is the process that occurs whilst glass is tumbling to and fro in the sea in order to achieve its frosted appearance. The process occurs over decades. If you would like to know more because after all your are a scientist check out my site http://www.mermaidspurseseaglass.com ..a lesson in sea glass. Happy Experimenting!

I have not really ever found any seaglass, but have thought about making some myself with a rock tumbler. However, my tumbler barrel is rubber. I like the idea of the cement mixer better. And I know I could buy some glass, either manmade or found, but I think it would be more fun to make it myself.

Of course, if I made it myself (or even if I purchased ocean-tumbled sea glass), I would disclose any of these facts for jewelry making purposes. I know there are a lot of purists when it comes to sea glass and I would call myself one. There is nothing wrong with making it ones self as long as it is disclosed if those items are to be sold.

Hi I noticed the date is quite old on this topic so appologies for dragging it up again, however I am trying to make a large quantity of beach glass for my garden and have followed your instructions and the results are no-where as good as yours. I have done it for 9 hours in 3 hour sessions yet mine are not even as good as your 1 hour photo. Could you be kind enough to tell me the ratio of glass/sand/water as closely as you can please?

What a great idea! My daughter and I have been kicking around the idea of making a mosaic topped table for years and we both loved your method of making your own glass pieces. I have a collection of wine bottles and old jars that I found in my Father-in-laws garage and we now have a use for them. Does the glass have to be close to the same thickness? Thanks.

We live in a small town and have a small town dump no longer in use. I have found many old broken glass containers in sapphire blues and even light purple. It is just all over the ground already broken in the right sizes. You might check into this if you have one near by. Now, I just need a cement mixer, what a fantastic idea! Thanks so much for your information.

what is sandblasting? - monroe engineering

Also known as abrasive blasting, sandblasting is a surface finishing process that involves the use of a powered machine typically an air compressor as well as a sandblasting machine to spray abrasive particles under high pressure against a surface. Its called sandblasting because it blasts the surface with particles of sand. As the sand particles strike the surface, they create a smoother and more even texture. In this post, youll learn more about this surface finishing process and how its performed.

Sandblasting leverages the abrasive properties of sand to create smoother surfaces with fewer physical imperfections and flaws. Its no secret that sand is rough and gritty. Because of these properties, its able to wear away at excess or unwanted material on a surface. Sandpaper, for example, contains many individual particles of sand. When rubbed against a surface, the sand removes some of the top-layer material, thereby creating a smoother texture. Sandblasting works the same way except it involves the use of highly pressurized sand.

The first step to performing sandblasting is pouring the sand into the sandblasting machine. Sandblasting machines have a chamber on top in which the sand is poured. The sandblasting machine is then connected a conventional air compressor that, when activated, propels the sand out through a handheld nozzle. Depending on the settings, the pressure of the sand may be anywhere from 50 to 130 pounds per square inch (PSI).

The sand is then blasted across the surface, and because of its abrasive properties, the sand is able to create a smoother surface. Concrete, for example, is often sandblasted. After the concrete has been poured and allowed to dry, its treated with sandblasting. The process removes some of the excess material on the concrete, which in turn makes it smoother.

Sandblasting is just one of several blasting-type surface finishing processes. Theres also shot blasting, which is even more effective at smoothing otherwise rough and rigid surfaces. Whats the difference between sandblasting and shot blasting exactly?

With sandblasting, sand is propelled against a surface. With shot blasting, on the other hand, small metal balls or beads are propelled against a surface. The balls or beads are often made of stainless steel, copper, aluminum or zinc. Regardless, all of these metals are harder than sand, making shot blasting even more effective than its sandblasting counterpart.

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