gold exploration machines

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Gold prices have TRIPLED in the last 10 years and the long-term price trends still point up, so there's never been a better time to find your own! And the best part is that you can find and recover placer gold in numerous ways with a variety of affordable equipment and supplies found on this website that will meet your needs and your budget.

We strive to bring all these new products to you on this website. Whether you're gold panning or want to use a sluice or a highbanker in a stream, or a drywasher in arid regions, or a trommel that moves lots of material, or a gold panning machine to save your muscles, or a gold detector, you will find lots of choices and information.

What is a placer mining claim? The offical definition is "all forms or deposit, except veins of quartz, or other rock in-place." In other words, any deposit not located in a lode deposit. It is a piece of publicly accessible federal land that is open for mineral entry and claiming. Filing a mining claim with the Bureau of Land Management gives you the right to extract the minerals on the claim, but does not give you exclusive rights to the property itself. In the Lower 48, the maximum size of a mining claim is 20 acres per person.

Remember that federal, state or local guidelines and regulations may differ from location to location, so be aware of the rules before you prospect anywhere. There's still plenty of gold to be found (U.S. Geological Surveys estimate that 33,000 metric tons-- nearly 1.2 billion ounces-- await discovery, mostly in the western USA), so get out there and get your share!

DID YOU KNOW? The market price of gold is based on 1 troy ounce of pure gold. In every ounce, there is 480 grains, 20 pennyweight or 31.104 grams. Since gold has gotten so valuable, it has become necessary to weigh it down to a fraction of a grain. Every grain counts and every grain is valuable, so before you go to sell your gold, weigh it carefully on a sensitive digital scale that can register to at least one-tenth of a gram.

The spot price of gold is the official price of gold at any given moment and can vary between different sources of data. The most common quoted spot price comes from the London P.M. or afternoon fix gold spot price, actually set during the morning hours in the United States, around 9:00 am Eastern Standard Time. The London PM fix, of all the gold spot prices, is the price at which the world's largest size gold purchases and sales are accomplished on any given day. This is the one price of gold in US dollars which is quoted daily, and familiarly, around the world. During the U.S. trading day, the spot price is usually based on the latest Comex spot gold price. This is a constantly changing price from the New York markets, and trading goes on until about 2:00 p.n. Eastern time.

Chunky nuggets, gleaming flakes, fine flour gold... all forms of the shiny stuff have been valued since the dawn of time as a store of wealth, and gold continues to be the most solid medium of exchange in the world. No matter the size or type, or whether you find it in a stream or out in the desert, gold is the noblest of metals and having the right gold mining equipment makes recovery easier, more profitable, and lots more fun!

Luckily for all of us, modern-day prospectors and manufacturers are constantly inventing new and innovative equipment and supplies to make gold recovery much easier than it was during the Gold Rush days of the '49ers!

extrac-tec | gold recovery and mining concentration equipment

Based on our revolutionary patented transverse spiral concentrator belt and benefiting from almost 20 years of development experience, the system boasts fine gold recovery rates of 95%-98% down to 50microns.

Find out more about the use of our systems for Alluvial or Placer Mining, Hard Rock gold recovery, concentration of a broad range of minerals, gemstone recovery and lead remediation of shooting ranges.

basic gold prospecting & exploration methods

Prospecting and exploration that is a search for precious metals deposits is not a simple process because big deposits were discovered a long time ago. There are several places with important content of precious metals waiting for skill prospectors. The large mining companies of the world are focused in big deposits and the small deposits are attractive for small miners and perhaps their interest for gold is the most valuable tool for exploring new deposits.

Gold is a very widely disseminated throughout nature and may be found in any geological formation from the oldest rocks to the deposits that are still being formed, but in common with other metals, it is more likely to be found in the oldest rocks and in those places where the earth crust has undergone the most extensive changes such as elevations, folding, tilting, faults, fissuring and also volcanic action, with resulting changes in the composition and texture of the rocks.

The current technology is very important in development new project and exploration of new deposits begins with the selection of a target area. This is followed by reconnaissance exploration in which satellite remote sensing; geological mapping and seismic techniques are used. In turn, this is followed by detailed geophysical studies and later, a detailed drilling, sampling, assaying and mineralogical study. Gold deposits are sought with many techniques, but they are based on geochemical studies. Commonly more than one method is employed. With these methods, the geologist is looking for anomalies. Perhaps, the most important techniques are photogeology and seismic techniques.

Photogeology is a very important of gold deposit exploration. It gives complete information of high altitude photography and satellite photography. Images are recorded either on films or by recording the image digitally. Films used include black & white, true color, and Infra-red. In color photos, the red areas indicate live vegetation. This makes them useful for locating outcrops in highly vegetated areas.Also least affected by fog, and is effective in cloudy environment. It is also good for determining moisture content of soils. The typical aerial photos are those which are taken with the camera lens vertical due to oblique photos could exaggerate the relief.

In general, photogeology involves the interpretation of an areas geology from analysis of landforms, drainage and vegetation. Basically, there are four types of information, fracture and trace analysis, fracture identification, seep detection and channel change study. When a fracture is observed in cross section, it seems to be vertical or near vertical breaks in the bedrock. Gold particles can be deposited into fractures. Other important information is the called lithological mapping, which involves the interpretation of surface features so that can be obtained a more exact map.

The map scale towards the center of the photo is different from the map scale toward the edges of the photo. Orthophotos are images which have the distortion rectified, and can be used directly for mapping purposes.There are many applications of photogeological methods in mineral exploration work as well as in the studies of environmental geology and geologic hazards. Most importantly, they are used to make accurate topographic base maps. In mineral exploration work, accurate topographic base maps are essential for recording geological observations. Rock and soil color changes, or color anomalies, can be delineated and possibly investigated with ground traverses.

Photogeologic analysis provides data on local geology conditions which help to detect possible gold zones. Even, it is possible to get information on ground water movement, and this is influenced by fracture traces, karst features and aquifer recharge and discharge points such as springs. It is possible to get information on lithology, alteration and structures. When the work was performed properly, there will be possible to know the structural features in a specific area, such as the direction and dip of the beds, fold direction, and fault plane dip. Color contrasts in exposed bedrock due to changes in rock type, or lithology, and can be traced on the photograph, to map out the contact. The information can be gathered more efficiently and safely than a ground traverse, although there is no substitute for direct observations.

Photographic surveys follow specified flight routes and take the photographs at regular spacing along the path. The overlap between adjoining photos in a sequence along the line is about 55-60 %. The overlapped area is detected by the camera from two different views in two different photos. The two adjoining photos used together make what are called a stereo pair. The two photos can be placed side by side and observed with a stereoscope.

Once the need for Photogeologic support is identified, the place is screened for suitability. A preliminary determination is made to insure that the site is located within the appropriate geologic terrene for the requested Photogeologic work. Government and private sources of overhead imagery are searched for available coverage and information on geology, hydrology and soils is compiled. Close contact with prospectors and gold companies assures that the results of the study will provide the information required. The results of the Photogeologic study are compiled into a bound report that includes figures, maps, and interpretation.

Surface seismic techniques used in gold exploration are restricted to seismic refraction and seismic reflection methods. Probably, the first one is the most employed. The equipment employed for both techniques is very similar and assure the travel time of acoustic waves propagating through the subsurface. In the seismic refraction method, the travel time of waves refracted along an acoustic interface is measured. In the other technique, the travel time of a wave which reflects off an interface is measured.

The information to be obtained is dependent on the acoustic properties of the subsurface material. Specifically, their properties can identify various geological materials. In this way, the interpretation of seismic indicates changes in lithology or stratigraphy, geologic structures and water saturation zones. These techniques are commonly employed to know the depth and structure of geologic and hydrological areas.

The seismic refraction technique is a geophysical method widely used to explore the ground. Basically, seismic waves travel outward from a source and reach a detector. The detector first senses the waves that went directly to it along the ground surface, and then it senses waves that went downward, were refracted at a deep layer, then left the deep layer and came back to the surface. Due to the waves move faster in the deep layer, they take the surface waves. At a certain distance exists a crossover point, the refracted waves reach the detector first. With this initial information, a few assumptions can be considered about the place and we can know the thickness of the surface layers and its possible composition.

The information obtained can be used to make a map on bedrock topography, determine the depth of gravel or sand, delineate perched water tables, detect subsurface caverns, identify shallow faults and fracture zones, and detect large boulders.

Seismic refraction explorations are based on the time required for a seismic wave to travel from a source to a receiving point. Basically, a sound can be used for the seismic source and twelve or more vertical geophones are used for the receiving points. The selection of the seismic source depends on the seismic line, the resolution required, and the environmental properties. A signal enhancement seismograph records signals from the geophones. By analyzing the arrival time of the seismic wave as a function of distance from the seismic source, the seismic velocities of the underlying soil/rock units and the depth to geologic contacts can be determined. The geophone spacing and the distance between the seismic source and the first geophone are designed to obtain the needed penetration and resolution. The method is usually employed to areas where seismic velocity increases or is constant with depth.

The seismic data are studied by plotting the arrival time of the wave at each geophone versus the distance from the seismic source to the geophone. These charts are commonly known as travel-time plots. The data have to be fitted with straight-line segments. Each line segment corresponds to a different stratus or layer. The reciprocal of the slope of the line is the apparent wave velocity of the layer. Current state-of-the-art analyses use forward and inverse modeling and ray tracing that seek to minimize discrepancies between field measured arrival times and corresponding times traced through the velocity model.

The seismic velocity of a geologic stratus can be known by the refraction method and a relative estimate of the depth to different acoustic interfaces. Seismic refraction surveys are very useful to obtain information on depth at different locations. Refraction surveys are useful in buried valley areas to map the depth to bedrock thickness of overburden. The information obtained can be related to various physical properties of the bedrock; rock types have specific ranges of velocities. For example, dolomites and granites have different seismic velocities. A key aspect of this method is the line length to me measured. It is recommended that the distance from the seismic source to the geophone station or reception point have to be three or more times the desired depth of exploration.

It is essential in the evaluation of a gold deposit to have, as accurately as possible, a model of the mineralized zone geometry, shape, size, quality, variability, and limits. Physical, chemical and geological characteristics may vary greatly within a single deposit and from deposit to deposit. Critical data can be collected in a variety of ways, including drilling, surface and/or underground mapping, geophysical or geochemical surveys, or studies of rock mechanics properties, mineralogical types and relations.

The initial prospecting work is conducted on the potential place and consists in taking samples. The first samples are grab as single pieces and later can be composited if were necessary in nature, lacking any definite width characteristics, but useful in identifying local mineralization and possible geochemically anomalous zones. The rock sampling can be done by regular people, but ideally a geologist must oversee this task. It is important to determine sample station using handheld GPS devices, usually accurate to within 5-10 m. As was mentioned samples are initially grab in nature, but also, it is important to take chip samples across structures and veins in order to determine widths of mineralization and the presence of any wall rock mineralization near to these structures.

If the sampling program is detailed, the initial number of samples is more than 500 and this can be composited according to the first mineralogical assessment. For example, it is good practice to prepare at least 100 composites from grab samples in 1-4 m2 areas along 50 m and spaced lines at 10 m spaced sample locations. The samples can be assayed for several elements if there is not any economical restriction, otherwise the assays must include at least gold and silver. In this way we can know a preliminary distribution of metals. For example, of 100 samples collected the average gold value can be 2 g/t, with 40 samples reporting more than 1 g/t gold. Usually, the silver content is higher than gold content. If other metals were assayed, it is possible to establish a correlation between base metals and precious metals. In some places, local high sulphidation epithermal overprints within a predominantly polymetallic style hydrothermal system.

Other initial information to be obtained is the possible occurrence of anomalous to significant contents of precious metals in the different zones where grab samples were taken. If more information is required, part of the samples can be submitted for Whole Rock Analysis and X-Rays. It must be mentioned that samples usually vary from fresh to altered ores. The results to be obtained can confirm the existence of several populations among different rocks such as volcanic and andesite. Then, we can infer can some rock were formed or derived from the chemical reaction or weathering of other rocks. Essentially, it is possible to establish a preliminary paragenesis of the deposit.

Other points to be sampled are stream sediment. These samples have to be collected in different stations along each drainage and theirs positions can be determined by using a GPS. Results of the survey provide information on potential areas of anomalous base and precious metal values throughout the place. By performing statistical analysis is possible to know what zone or zones are more important and basically the gold and silver distribution.

Soils must not be overlooked. It is important to take collected samples over 2.0 km x 2.0 km areas. Samples can be taken at 40 m station along 150 m spaced grid lines, each line approximately 2 km in length. One more time, sample stations are located using a GPS device. Results of this survey let identify precious metals within the grid area.

Preliminary exploration can be performed by trenching. This method needs a backhoe or bulldozer, which makes possible to observe and take bulk samples on a continuous basis across the mineralized zone. Several ore types are weathered easily at the surface and these layers have to be removed in order to have good information on mineralogy and lithology. Preliminary trenching and pitting may be done with the objective of providing initial information to geologists in order to improve the parameters estimated for this sampling program.

Normally, trenches are excavated by hand employing picks and shovels until the bedrock is visible, most the time at depths of 1 to 3 metres. Trench sampling can be carried out by channelling a sample along the floor of the trench. Each channel is between 10 to 20 cm wide and 5 to 10 cm depth. Samples are taken for geological purposes. In this way, veins, altered zones or different mineralized zones can be sampled so that the contacts can be 2-4 cm within the sample boundaries. Sample weights are usually between four to eight kilos.

In serious and big trenching programs, bulldozers are employed to explore the different areas at different depths. That kind of equipment is easily available when is necessary to move huge tonnes of waste material to access the place. Mechanical or hydraulic rippers are employed in difficult mineralized zones. If extra depth is required, a shallow shaft is sunk at lower cost and with less damage to the surface. The face or uphill side of the trench is a zone of geological information and sampling point due to these zones are virgin and clean of broken material. Trenching programs are useful when they are planned properly, but they could be a waste of money and time when the program was prepared without technical considerations.

If the grab sample gave interesting results, a drilling program must be planed in order to have a better knowledge on the deposit. The drilling program can involve one or more types of drilling, conditioned by the material to be sampled, rock environment, and the reason of the sampling. Basically, there are two types of drilling, one involves core drilling and the other one is reversed circulation.

The core drilling is employed for most the mining companies. The main disadvantages are the cost and the time required to complete the programs, however the information to be obtained is excellent. Essentially, provides accurate samples of a mineral deposit, the rock types, mineral types, and rock structures. By employing this method, the core is removed from the hole. There are some variations of this technique than improve the time required to extract the core. This greatly accelerates the drilling process and improves core recovery. However, it yields a smaller diameter core. Some drilling techniques often produce poor core recovery, but with improved core barrels, a good design, the total core recovery can be improved. Disadvantages of diamond core drilling are its high cost, small size of sample and slow penetration rate. Bulk sampling for metallurgical testing or placer deposit testing are generally obtained by the drilling of large diameter holes (plus 6-inches in diameter), or by sinking winzes.

During the drilling program the core has to be stored and extracted for geological and metallurgical purposes, which reduces cost and time. There are five main sizes of diamond core employed for mining projects,

The cost is influenced by rock type, terrain conditions, environmental conditions, and time required to complete the program. The time depends on ore body size, diamond core diameter required, geology department and the previous information obtained at the beginning of the project. For instance, if the objective is to have complete information on mineralization and perform metallurgical tests (e.g. comminution, concentration, leaching), the time required is around eight weeks. Obviously, there are several activities involved such as mobilisation of the drill team on site, drilling, geological mapping, core splitting, core logging, and core packing. Finally, the samples are delivered to different laboratories.

Reversed circulation drilling is a fast and cheap method. Unfortunately, the samples obtained provide no much information on mineralogy and the metal content can be no very reliable. Since the sample are not very deeper, information and data have to analyzed and studied carefully. A hammer transmitting its force through drill rods to a rotating drill bit which does the penetration. Air or water is circulated through the drill rods to cool the bit and carry out the rock cuttings to the collar of the hole, where they are collected and prepared for study and assay. The method works well where the wall rock is competent, dry and impermeable. It has a practical depth limit of 45 to 90 m. Metal values may be lost by seepage into the wall rock, or added or diluted by caving or seepage into the drill hole. Reverse circulation of the drill water down the hole and up the drill rods greatly improves the accuracy of the sample. Sometime, mining companies during the first months of operation employ this method to study zones that were not studied well during the exploration program. Results are different. For example, by employing a core drilling program the average gold content was 5 g/t. however, the second method on the same place gave higher values, 10 g/t. This situation creates doubt and conflict between the design criteria and the new values. For this reason, results obtained by reversed circulation need a special study and interpretation.

There is other option called Rotary drilling. This technique is inexpensive and fast and similarly to the reverse circulation drilling, there is some disadvantages such as samples are broken into small chips that dont show the structure of the bedrock and the samples submitted for assaying are not very realistic. Most of the rigs are truck mounted and completely self contained, including the air compressor. Standard tri-cone bit can drill a hole four inches in diameter and the drill cuttings are blown out of the hole with compressor air. Samples are piled on the ground in rows, each pile represents approximately 0.50 to 3.0 meters of advance and each row from 6.0 to 30.0 meters of hole. Ideally, the sample must be collect in appropriate containers. This method is preferred by people who want to perform the sampling and logging in the same drilling hole.

Sometime, the drilling can be performed in two parts if the first program didnt cover all the mineralized area. This additional drilling program can be complemented with geophysical methods in order to define the objectives of the program. For example, magnetic surveys identify magnetic zones that are related to silica cap areas. If the deposit presents high sulphidisation in areas far from the main ore body, the extra drilling is recommended. This can occur in deposits with structural and stratigraphic control and consequently some areas could be occulted. If the mineralization is close to the surface, at deeper areas may be or not possible to find high mineralization.

The drilling procedure can be designed under several considerations such as the geology team set out the holes in an area close to the drill rigs, drilling pads are done with bulldozers and the geologist oversee the work, cores are laid out for inspection, the final hole depth is decided by the geologists, hole location is recorded by GPS system, and geologist performs logging and coordinate the sample storage. There are other considerations that depend on the drilling target.

There are two types of samples to be studied. The first group is formed by the grab samples taken at the beginning of the project. These samples are basically rock chips. These samples must be bagged and sent to the lab for assays and metallurgical tests. The second group is constituted by cores from drill holes, cut channel samples or bulk samples from trenches, or underground workings. Similarly to the first group, the samples need to be assayed and tested metallurgically. For assays, these samples must be reduced in volume and size of particles without dilution or enrichment of metal values.

Field samples are sent to the sample preparation facility where the samples will be divided for geology and metallurgical information. In order to deliver the sample in the best condition to the laboratory facility is necessary to consider some factors such as use appropriate labels and names to identify the samples, define the procedure to be employed for bagging and sample collection, assure the sample preservation, manipulate the sample when is necessary, and minimize the movement of the sample in and out of the container. The storage and transportation must consider the oxidation conditions to be exposed the samples and more even if the presence of sulphides is important. Under this consideration, samples must be stored in a freezer. If the samples need to be logged and cut, they must be taken from the freezer. When the samples have to travel a long distance is good practice to wrap the samples in a bag which air was purged with nitrogen. In this way the sample will stay in inert atmosphere and the possible risk of oxidation will be minimized.

Normally, drill core samples are split in half with a diamond core saw. One half is submitted for analysis and/ore metallurgical tests and the other half is stored. The core has to be photographed at the site, geologically logged and geotechnically logged. The core samples are selected by the geologist based on logging information and must be labelled with the right code and name. Samples range in length from 0.20 m to 2.5 m and their weight is variable, 1.5 to 6.0 kilos. The half core samples are bagged and placed in sacks, security sealed and shipped to the laboratory for sample preparation according to the testwork program.

When the samples arrive to the laboratory for assays, they are codified according to the laboratory system and weighed. Each core sample is entirely crushed to almost 100% passing 1.7 mm (10 mesh). Samples are homogenized and one kilo is split and pulverized to approximately 90% passing 0.075 mm (200 mesh). Then, 200 to 300 grams are split. If the samples are wet, it will necessary to dry the samples without using any heating system in order to avoid any physiochemical change in the samples.

In order to control the sample preparation procedure, approximately 5 to 10% of the crushed and pulverized samples are submitted for a regular particle size analysis by using lab screens. Blank samples are included into this control so that the sample preparation procedure can be done properly. These samples can be added into the core samples at a frequency of 1 in 30.

In order to perform assays for gold and silver, 40-60 grams aliquots are taken for fire assay. This assay method employs fluxes according to the minerals present in the sample due to the fluxes are variable and there is not a unique recipe. Some assays for other elements are performed by atomic absorption. For example, we can have 1,000 to 50,000 samples to be submitted for 20-30 elements. Sometimes, assays for almost all the elements can be done by Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP). Gold is always assayed by fire assay using 25-35 g charges.

Certificated laboratories have a quality control procedure that includes the sample to be assayed, standard, blanks and duplicate samples into every assay. For example this procedure can consider three standards, two blanks and three repeats in every batch of 80 samples. If any discrepancy is found, the whole batch has to be re-assayed.

Prospecting is to search valuable mineral deposits and is the focus of many people around the world. Gold prospecting is a very special case due to is suitable for many speculations and potential objectives. Gold deposits are variable and the prospector needs few tools in order to detect potential mines. The modern equipment enables people to transform an obligatory task into a challenge. There is a question very important, where to look for gold? Try to answer this question is not simple, but there some clues to be considered.

Since gold is widely disseminated in the nature, it can be found in any geological formation, from the oldest rocks to the deposits that are still in formation. However, gold can be found in old regions and places where the earth surface has experienced many changes such as elevations, folding, tilting, faults and volcanic action, with resulting modifications and alterations in metal composition and crystalline structures.

Geological exploration is developed by steps, starting with studies in small scale and finishing with studies in big scale. In this way, the prospector has to analyze progressively the territories with important potential or perspectives to find the desired metal. This consideration obliges to evaluate different places with variable interest until find the right place so that it can be evaluated and verified as economical resource. Obviously, each step needs more detailed studies. Basically, there are four prospecting steps: regional, identification, local, and detailed exploration.

Regional exploration considers a region determined by geological, economical and accessibility factors. The limits of this sped are not necessarily associated to geological elements. Few times are carried out geochemical studies due to the main source of information are cosmic images, photogeological information and aerophysical data. The main objective is to define one or several districts within the region under study. The difference between district and region is arbitrary under special considerations. However, a district can be considered a discrete unit due to the identification and limits are conditioned by a special mineralization or geological considerations favorable to find any special mineralization.

It is necessary to perform studies on active sediments present in fluvial points. Typically, one sample per five square meters can be studied. In this way, the district will be defined. The geochemical study of rocks oriented to identify mineralized and sterile zones is appropriate.

Prospecting is the first exploration oriented to study a specific district, which was defined previously. The objective is to detect potential areas and not necessarily to find a mineralized place. The areas detected will be studied in detail according to the first results. This study is designed to define anomalies in a specific district or region. In order to do this is necessary to know the work scale that allows identifying the areas with major potential.

The sampling procedure must assure a detailed geological interpretation of the place, even to get information on the location of the geological contacts. In areas where there are prominent outcrops, the samples can be taken in areas of two square kilometers. The number of elements to be studied can be selected considering the previous study (regional study).

Local exploration tries to detect geochemical answers in small areas. The objective must be selected con precision and its location has to be very exact. Although the objective is not to locate a deposit, the development of the study could identify one. Basically, the objective is to define the mineralogy associated to anomalies of specific elements or group of elements. The sampling procedure and the expected answer are related to the type of mineralization required in the study. For example, sulphide deposits produce anomalous aureoles of hundreds of meters, and narrow veins are associated to anomalies developed in dozens of meters around them.

A detailed sampling of sediments at 20-200 m intervals is useful to define the location of any anomalous object. If the drainage system is poor, rocks can be studied only if the mineralization produces an extensive dispersion system. The number of samples is based on the drainage system and could be expensive.

Once the objective was defined, the next step is to locate the mineralized zone and its extension. Normally, studies of rocks and soils are the geochemical techniques more employed during a detailed exploration. It is common to take samples 150-400 m extensions with 30-90 m intervals. When the mineralized zone was located, samples will be taken with much more detail such 40-90 m with 5-10 m intervals in order to create a map with all the mineralization. The only way to identify the mineralization and all the changes into the zone is to perform a drilling program. Sometimes, trenching is an option. When the object was identified, the exploration process continues if the previous results were acceptable.

This term makes reference to the character of a rock described in terms of its structure, color, mineralization, grain size, and arrangement of its components. These parameters give a special characterization to the rocks contained into the deposit. For example is the prospection team identified a hydrothermal ore body, basically all the drill cores and outcrops around the deposit must have specific properties to this type of deposit.

Gold deposits can be located within breccias defined by multiple phases of breccias and associated to air fall pyroclastics. In this case, they could be divided in a sequence of bedded lithic, crystal and anomalous tuffs that overlie a massive basement. Basically, the host rocks are a sequence of lithic formations with fragmental texture and rapid changes during its formation. Then the prospector must be able to detect and/or identify these characteristics with information proportioned by the geologist. In this way, these lithic zones define a stratigraphy which special orientation. For example, they could deep between 5 to 15 towards the northeast, steeping and thickening proximal to the contact with the breccias.

The rock formation can stay beneath the lithic sequence and the contact could be unconformable. Then, it can be considered a modified mineralized zone with appreciable change into its structure. Sometimes, some rock formations formed a pre-existing land surface upon which the new formation was deposited. Probably, this kind of surface is related to breccia formation. A breccia formation is identified in the drilling program and/or trenching sampling program and the rock formation may to be in a large bowl shaped depression and could be constituted by two or more phases that form a new body. For example, if there are two phases, the first one is an early formation with consistent assemblages characterized by fine grained rocks. And the second one could have rounded particles with empty spaces formed during the cooling process. A typical example of the second phase is the presence of vughy silica.

It is important to identify the structure because the mineralized zone has a special orientation. Sometimes is difficult to recognize the right orientation, but the initial emplacement is the first reference point due to control the alteration and mineralization. The structures are characterized specific alterations, presence of stockworks with variable content of sulphides and brecciation. For example, some structures can be 1-3 m in width, but zones can be 30-50 m wide. This variation is an indication on the mineralogy into the deposits. For this reason, during the blasting sometimes is difficult to take a decision about the points to be drilled. This behavior is explained by the presence of hydrothermal fluids with subsequent mineralization.

There are some stockworks formed in areas very close to the mineralized zone or under special circumstances formed only in specific places. For example, some siliceous zones with important content of vughy silica can be detected in areas no very close to the main structure, which can be characterized by the presence of fractured stockworks. Certainly, this zone probably is influenced by combination of structures and breccias with different orientation. However, the mineralization is useful to detect these changes into the structures.

When are detected several fractures is important to try to determine how were formed because we can know the possible final orientation of the mineralized structures. Normally, the combination of these structures can provide the host rock into the ore body.

This parameter can be considered as a physical and/or chemical variation in a rock or mineral during its formation. These changes have influence in the type of mineralization to be found into any structure. it is important to mention that alteration or changes and mineralization and processes developed in different periods. For example, an acid fluid leaches a rock producing a rock with many holes or empty spaces (vughy silica) and around this formation can be developed alunite and kaolinite zone.

According to the structure sequence and location is necessary different amounts of acid leaching agent to aggressively dissolve the rocks and the acid fluid formation are formed in water saturated places close to the structures. This creates zones with alterations into stratigraphic horizons. These zones can be characterized by containing variable amounts of different rock types whose alteration or leachability is different according to the stratigraphic horizons. In this way is expected to find zones of different level of porosity and permeability. For this reason, there are different types of vughy silica.

It is important to establish a relationship between altered zones and stratigraphic zones due to its formation and deposition is influenced by the leaching conditions. This is totally valid for gold deposit formation and especially when there are free gold particles deposited into the empty spaces of some minerals.

Alteration has influence on gold mineralization. For example, intense leaching creates pathways or routes for metal bearing fluids and some spaces or positions are created to host gold and heavy metal sulphides. For this reason, some underground operation can produce copper and lead concentrates with variable contents of gold. Obviously, is expected to find some undesirable elements.

Ore bodies present mineralization at different depths and they are characterized by variable contents of gold. Probably, some zones have higher content than the others and they were influenced by the leaching fluids and the type of mineralized structures. For example, some intersections the mineralization is disseminated and distributed by stratus.

Hydrothermal fluids run along different rock formation and produce dipping mineralization that can be detected a variable distance from the main structures. Probably, important gold contents can be detected in some structures due to some lithologies were leached with more intensity than others. This can be explained by the stratigraphy and gold content near to the surface. Then, metal content in sulphide areas are related to the degree of alteration and structure formation.

The geologist or prospector must have a knowledge on the ore types are most likely to carry gold; otherwise the time employed will be unfruitful. In most deposits is possible to identify the rock; volcanic, sedimentary, metamorphic, or even the river streams that transport gold. The valuable gold ores are brought in by different system of transportation such as percolating waters and gasses from cooling systems. The first one is probably the most important because they are charged with different heavy metals or base metals. The second one is other important source of gold ores and is characterized by special fluids locked into the rock in chemical combination. These fluids are extremely important in the formation of valuable ore bodies. They pass through different rock formations on their way to the surface dissolving several minerals and carry them in solution for large or short distances. These mineral loaded waters reach a space in the rock where they deposit their valuable charge. These spaces are open and formed by earth movements or large open spaces formed by dissolution of other minerals. In open fissures, vein deposits can be identified. Fluids may leave their metallic minerals into porous formation like granite to form disseminated deposits.

Gold is not very soluble and high pressures and under the presence of some chemical agents is possible to be transported in solution. Percolating fluids are mainly acid ground waters that penetrates rocks, dissolved the matrix and transport metals to different parts. These metals could be lead or copper. For these reason some polymetallic deposits contains important amounts of gold.

When we have to talk about gold mining, everybody thinks on free gold. This idea started at the first days of gold deposit processing. The gold from original veins was gradually disintegrated through the time. Gold being heavy and resistant to weathering has been concentrated in sand, gravel and different rock formations. Probably placer deposits have been mined for most miners since the first days on mining.

Placer deposits have been formed by the mechanical concentration of heavy minerals and the product to be extracted are of very important commercial value. This means the marketability is totally successful. Basically, the minerals to be present in marketable products include all the material characterized by high specific gravity and resistance to wear and weathering. Precious metals belong to this group and may be possible to find other heavy material such as magnetite, chromite, rutile, monazite, zircon or gem stones. The big alluvial placers have been formed after a long time. Placers deposits are easy to prospect and estimated in qualitative form. A gold pan is the first tool to be employed at the moment of find out the values minerals present in the deposit. The heavy concentrate collected is examined with great detail. For example, if magnetite is present, a magnet can removed this material and the remaining product can be examined by using a magnifier glass and reactivity to some chemical reagents. Even is good idea to evaluate radioactivity. If the results are positive, the material can be sent to a special laboratory in order to confirm and get more information on the material.

Placers are located in or adjacent to a river stream. The material has been formed by the action of running water, ocean, lake waves or winds. For many years, aquatic deposits have been mined, and most people overlooked deserts places. The main obstacle has been the lack of water at these places, but the technology has developed dry concentrators capable of recovering gold. These methods are the best alternative. The main examples of this type of deposits are located in Nevada and some areas of Australia. For some time, quicksilver was used, but results were not satisfactory and some operative problems were experimented by the amalgamation equipment.

In general, important values of precious metals may be found in any place, but they must be of practical level and quantity. Some small pieces may contain important values of gold, but the project must evaluate of the deposit. Normally, these cases are good for recreational activities or very small mining operations. In this way, the particle size and amount of material to be handled have an effect on the project. Sluices and rockers are good options for small miners.

Gold deposits may be located on the side of a mountain or on any bench removed from any body of water. These are ancient water deposits left by the flowing stream or probably the beach of a very old aquatic formation. Many times, formations are not accessible and the geologist or field prospector must remove material such as plants, rocks or ground. Some zones may report high gold contents, but the mineralogy is not always the same and the deposits could be extremely small. For this reason the metallurgical evaluation is complement with the deposit volume, otherwise, the project could not have the level of profit expected considering the first results.

It is well known that mountains and volcanic areas are more favorable for metallic deposits due to these places are characterized by faults and fractures in the rock formations that are appropriate for gold minerals concentration. In hilly or mountainous areas are favorable for the contact or outcrops, which indicate that values are under the surface. These are places where the vein could be exposed on the surface due to the action of different agents such as fluids or weathering. The first indications are mineral fragments or some material loose that look like a floating material. The last indication means that the ore source could be found in a slope.

Similarly to the placers, some outcrops can be covered by other undesirable material which has to be removed. Then, the prospector must be able to clean the area and follow the vein so that he can recognize the deposit orientation and possible volume. In general, outcrops are different in size and appearance. Some of them are characterized by silica rocks and standing notoriously on the surface. Other outcrops cannot be detected easily and apparently are small; however, many times they are big. It is well know that silica in limestone develops an obvious outcrop due to silica is more resistant to weathering conditions. In this way, many base metals and its mineral are weather easily and can be detected in outcrops. This is important to mention due to base metal minerals are potential gold carriers.

Outcrops may stay in an oxidation zone and the mineralization at deeper points could be totally different. Basically, the oxidation zone is influenced by the terrain, climate and geographical location. There may also be considerable enrichment in the oxidation areas, derived from the surface values. As the surfaces are weathered, eroded, leached and percolated by fluids, the valuable minerals are transported and deposited downstream. These processes proceed down to the groundwater level where oxidation disappears and sulphides appear.

Dry places are potential places where gold must be prospected. Normally these areas are dry, but in any moment a fluvial precipitation happen and the ground is eroded. A gold prospector must observe the zone and look for dry rivers.

innovative gold exploration using portable xrf

The industry-wide take-up of portable X-ray fluorescence has been truly remarkable over the past 10 years. The technology was originally born out of the alloy and scrap metal testing industry, and it was then identified that it could be effectively applied to environmental site monitoring, in particular, contaminated land and remediation work. The use of portable XRF in soil science spurred the natural segue into mineral exploration, and recent developments in sensitivity (limits of detection), speed of analysis, and rugged instruments has revolutionized the way geoscientists conduct real-time in situ and on-site investigations.

Traditionally, mineral exploration is centred on large-scale, routine geochemical sampling where samples are selected, excavated, or drilled and then submitted to a laboratory that is often far away or even in another country. These logistics combined with long lab turnaround times, time-consuming sample preparation, and complex analytical techniques meant that geologists could be waiting many weeks or months to get information back from the field. The use of portable XRF has vastly improved this feedback loop by providing real-time sample information in the field, which can then be used to drive and refine exploration programs on the hop. This is particularly useful for pre-screening and prioritizing samples, expediting significant samples to the lab, and reducing the amount of barren or waste-rock analysis.

Correct, modern geochemical techniques for gold often target gold at extremely low levels, generally at parts-per-billion (ppb) and even down to parts-per-trillion (ppt) in waters and specifically targeted resistate minerals. Portable XRF has a lower limit of detection (LOD) in the order of 25 parts-per-million (ppm) and thus not sensitive enough for use in most exploration regimes. Portable XRF also suffers from interferences with some more common elements such as arsenic, tungsten, and zinc, which can cause false positive results or conceal gold detection. As such we often discourage our clients from even adding gold to their analyzers in order to eliminate confusion and false positive reporting.

The other fundamental issue with direct gold analysis is sample heterogeneity where gold distribution is often extremely irregular and nuggety in rocks, rendering it extremely difficult to locate and quantify with confidence. The term finding a needle in a haystack is often applied to gold analysis and can only be mitigated through the collection of large samples and the use of good sample preparation to provide homogeneous gold distribution for final analysis.

Where portable XRF is really adding value is in the use for chasing what are called pathfinder or indicator elements in addition to litho-geochemistry or chemo-stratigraphy. All of the major gold mining companies, as well as most middle-tier and juniors explorers, are now applying the technology routinely in this way.

Gold deposits form due to the complex interaction between structures in the ground and mineralised gold-bearing solutions, and they form in a large variety of different settings and ages of rocks around the world. A pathfinder or indicator element is one that is intimately related to the style of gold deposit that a company may be looking for. Typical elements can include arsenic, copper, silver, antimony, and potassium and are often referred to as geochemical signatures and contain elevated levels of these elements that can be detected by portable XRF. Another positive of these geochemical signatures is that they are quite often present at a scale much larger than that of the gold deposit itself, so they can make the footprint of the target much, much bigger and, hence, easier to explore for. Table 1 (below) contains a summary of the common geochemical signatures associated with several well know styles of gold deposits.

In the example below, a company working in northern Canada used arsenic, copper, and zinc in soil samples as pathfinders to explore for a gold deposit. The charts on the left show the positive correlation between portable XRF and routine laboratory analysis while the geochemical maps on the right show the same result derived from both the portable XRF and lab analysis. This shows the true advantage of being able to generate this type of data in real-time, in the field with XRF.

Litho-geochemistry or chemo-stratigraphy is the understanding of the chemical components that make up a lithology (rock) and can be used to determine the type of rock, alteration, and order in which the rocks have formed, also termed stratigraphy. This becomes a very useful tool, particularly when geologists have a hard time identifying, deciding, or agreeing on what a particular rock type is. This results when the grain size is too small for visual identification or when the rock has undergone severe deformation due to weathering, alteration, or metamorphism where heat and pressure had changed the rocks.

As portable XRF can easily measure many of the key rock-forming elements (Mg, Al, Si, K, Ca, Feetc.) as well as many of the trace elements (Cu, Ti, Zr, Sr, Rb, Y, Nb etc.) it can be used for litho-geochemical determination. By using simple rock classification diagrams (Figure 2, below), XRF data can be plotted, classified, and then used to predict rock types. Gold explorers have used this successfully, particularly in high weathered terrains when the rocks are too difficult to log visually. Additionally, this technique has been used within gold mines to determine the stratigraphy and, in turn, target areas where the gold exists and where future exploration should be prioritised.

Pretty much everything and anything! It all depends on the stage of exploration and the objective of the individual programme. I have seen it applied from the day the geologist first sets foot on a project; this can be in the form of rock chip mapping of outcrops or soil and regolith mapping in weathered terrains. As the projects progress, it can be applied to various drilling campaigns including percussion, reverse circulation, and even directly on diamond drill core. At the mature, in-mine stage we even see it applied to trenching and directly on active mining faces in open pits as well as in underground development exposures. The main things to consider when planning the sampling strategy with portable XRF are what are the objectives and are the techniques fit-for-purpose?

The true value of using portable XRF comes in the form of accelerated information generation and lowering analytical costs. Companies can react quicker and make better decisions about where and when to conduct activities, as well as when to stop or decide that enough work has been done. The ability to fast-track decisions can vastly accelerate projects and ultimately lead to faster discovery. We have seen a lot of this in recent times in West Africa during the recent gold boom when gold prices moved above US$1500/ounce and companies were scrambling to favorable locations: an old-school gold rush of sorts!

It all depends on how much work a company is conducting, but its not uncommon to see a case where millions of dollars have been saved in a season. We have had clients that are drilling up to 40,000 m of RC drilling in a year and analysing all of it in the field with two portable XRF devices. From this, they may only choose to send say 10,000 m to the lab, as they are not interested in analysing all 40,000 m. Including logistics, sample preparation, and laboratory assay techniques, this may equate to $50+ a sample. So saving 30,000 m at $50/sample can equate to over $1.5 million, for less than a $100,000 upfront investment in their two portable XRF instruments.

Portable XRF devices, like most technology, have become very intuitive and easy to use. They are basically a point-and-shoot device where the operator selects the sample and places the instrument directly upon it, or they can opt to use a test stand or workstation where the sample can be sat in place. As portable XRFs are low-level radiation emitting devices, most countries and states do have legislation and licencing requirements. These are usually pretty straightforward and require the user to take our manufacturer specific training, pay a fee, and, in some instances, take an exam. We have a lot of experience in this area and assist our clients in obtaining whatever measures are necessary to get them up and running quickly.

Yes, it is still extremely important to have a well-trained geologist supervising the operation of any geochemical sampling program, as at the end of the day the data needs to be well collected, processed, and interpreted. The most important training aspect with portable XRF is selecting the right sample and performing appropriate sample preparation to enhance the results. Geologists are very used to conducting these studies, usually termed orientation studies or baseline geochemical surveys. During this process, the geologist will validate the sampling techniques, which elements to use, test times, and calibration refinement to ensure they are generating both accurate and precise results. Often this is where a company can come unstuck if they cut corners, but the technique has evolved significantly over the past few years and some great research work has been conducted and published. This is also very relevant to publishing portable XRF data. The industry bodies responsible for reporting standards and conduct have come up with guidelines and examples to assist companies with getting this right.

Olympus involvement and link to NASAs Mars rover Curiosity comes by way of our portable X-ray diffraction devices. The technology utilised in our TERRA and BTX XRD systems is the same as what has been deployed to Mars on Curiosity to perform mineral identification. This differs from portable XRF in that XRD is used to determine the crystal structure of a mineral which, in turn, defines the chemical compound that the mineral is derived of. A good example is looking at iron ores, where iron can be present in the mineral magnetite, hematite, and goethite and are related to the oxidation state of iron on formation. XRF can only tell us how much iron and other elements are present, whereas XRD can tell us if the mineral is magnetite, hematite, or goethite. This becomes particularly important for mineral processing and extractive metallurgy once the mined materials need to be refined. This can also be very useful to gold explorers, as gold deposits typically have complex mineralogy, and XRD can be used to better define controls on mineralisation.

The other cool link to the Mars rover is the ruggedness and engineering of the sensor payload. Many of NASAs key requirements for the rover are well aligned with remote fieldwork in harsh operating conditions and are synonymous with exploration and mining. These include low power consumption, hot working environments, dusty and wet conditions, and the need for high availability and uptime with low downtime combined with reduced or zero servicing requirements. These have become hallmarks of Olympus analytical instruments and set us up well in the minerals industry.

Low-level, in situ, real-time gold analysis is the pinnacle of the analytical requirements in our industry and has been for some time. As such, we remain focused on working with key mining companies, industry-leading researchers, and collaborators around the globe in this endeavor. There is a lot of excitement and energy developing in this area, and we hope that we can be involved in a major breakthrough in this area in the near future. As with all analytical instruments, the key drivers continue to be the faster identifications at lower concentrations, a lower price, and the ability to analyze samples in situ and in real-time.

Aaron is the Principal Geologist International Mining Group for Olympus Scientific Solutions Americas and is based in Sydney, Australia. He has been working with Olympus (and formerly Innov-X Systems INC.) since 2008. Aaron has become an Industry specialist in the application of field portable x-ray fluorescence (pXRF) & x-ray diffraction (pXRD) analyzers for mineral exploration, mining, mineral processing & environmental markets. He is currently focused on the development of real-time mineral analysis technologies, including the adaption of systems used by NASA on the Mars Curiosity Rover for terrestrial mineral analysis. He is also involved in all aspects of product development, research & development, global business development and key account management.

Aaron is a qualified Geologist with over 15 years experience, spanning analytical products, consulting, mining operations & mineral exploration. He is a graduate of the Western Australian School of Mines (WASM), Curtin University - Kalgoorlie and holds a Bachelor of Science in Mineral Exploration & Mining Geology, with 1st Class Honours. Prior to joining Olympus, Aaron spent time with Barrick Gold, Mincor Resources, Straits Resources and Breakaway Resources working in a variety of management and operational roles, throughout Australia & Canada in various gold, nickel and copper deposits. Aaron is also a Member of the AusIMM, AIG, SEG, AAG & the WASM Graduates Association.

Aaron is also a qualified snowboard instructor and when not working, you can find him hitting up the slopes in the USA, Canada & Australia, as well as wake boarding, fishing & kayaking with his family in the summer time.

[1] Arne, Dennis C., Rob A. Mackie, and Stacie A. Jones. The use of property-scale portable X-ray fluorescence data in gold exploration: advantages and limitations. Geochemistry: Exploration, Environment, Analysis 14, no. 3 (2014): 233244.

[1] Benn, Chris, Neil Jones, Kiril Mugerman, James Bell, and David Weeks. Lithological discrimination in deeply weathered terrains using multielement geochemistry: an example from the Yanfolia Gold Project, SW Mali. 25th International Applied Geochemistry Symposium, Finland, 2011.

Disclaimer: The views expressed here are those of the interviewee and do not necessarily represent the views of Limited (T/A) AZoNetwork, the owner and operator of this website. This disclaimer forms part of the Terms and Conditions of use of this website.

Stuart graduated from the University of Wales, Institute Cardiff with a first-class honours degree in Industrial Product Design. After working on a start-up company involved in LED Lighting solutions, Stuart decided to take an opportunity with AZoNetwork. Over the past five years at AZoNetwork, Stuart has been involved in developing an industry leading range of products, enhancing client experience and improving internal systems designed to deliver significant value for clients hard earned marketing dollars. In his spare time Stuart likes to continue his love for art and design by creating art work and continuing his love for sketching. In the future Stuart, would like to continue his love for travel and explore new and exciting places.

Olympus Scientific Solutions Americas (XRF / XRD). (2019, October 23). Innovative Gold Exploration Using Portable XRF; Effective Use of Pathfinders & Litho-Geochemistry. AZoMining. Retrieved on July 09, 2021 from

Olympus Scientific Solutions Americas (XRF / XRD). "Innovative Gold Exploration Using Portable XRF; Effective Use of Pathfinders & Litho-Geochemistry". AZoMining. 09 July 2021. .

Olympus Scientific Solutions Americas (XRF / XRD). "Innovative Gold Exploration Using Portable XRF; Effective Use of Pathfinders & Litho-Geochemistry". AZoMining. (accessed July 09, 2021).

Olympus Scientific Solutions Americas (XRF / XRD). 2019. Innovative Gold Exploration Using Portable XRF; Effective Use of Pathfinders & Litho-Geochemistry. AZoMining, viewed 09 July 2021,

mining 101: ultimate list of gold mining equipment - precious metal info

Found in Bulgaria are some of the oldest gold artifacts known to mankind, in the Varna Necropolis, a collection of graves built between 4700 and 4200 BC. This finding, dating back nearly 7000 years, provides evidence of the first civilization to use gold mining equipment. Some archeologists claim the Sakdrisi site in southern Georgia, which dates to roughly 4000 BC, is the worlds first gold mine.

In the 19th century, gold rushes occurred around the globe and people migrated to different regions hoping to strike it rich. The Victorian Gold Rush took place in Victoria, Australia, between 1851 and the late 1860s, and the Second Boer War took place in South Africa between 1899 and 1902. In America, the famous California Gold Rush took place in 1949, and discovery of Nevada's Carlin Trend,North America's largest gold depository,took placein 1961.

Since the beginning of civilization, humans have mined around 6 billions troy ounces of gold. Today, 2.5 percent of all gold production happens in Nevada, making it one of the primary regions on earth. As of 2017, China produced the most gold per year at 429 metric tons, followed by Australia, and then Russia. However, there's still a lot of gold out there, and you can join in the gold mining industry by investing in basic gold mining equipment.

There are two basic steps to gold mining: prospecting and production. "Prospecting" refers to the actual search in a certain area for valuable minerals, and "production," also known as mining, is the physical act of removing the gold from where you found it. Since different equipment exists for prospecting and mining, this article explores, briefly, equipment used for prospecting, and then focuses, primarily, on gold mining equipment.

How do you find gold? In the gold mining industry, theres a lot of value in learning from others who have gone before you. No one ever gets all the gold out of any one location. So, try going to where gold exists in abundance. Consider this: the California Gold Rush only removed a small percentage of the gold thats out there. That's right.

There are areas in California that are still open to recreational prospecting, including the Auburn State Recreation Area and the South Yuba Recreation lands. Once you get your feet wet in an area proven to have gold, you can move on to other areas closer to home. After mastering prospecting and gold-mining techniques, you might even want to look for gold in your own back yard.

Some people say, Gold is where you find it. What this means is you have to learn what to look for. First, understand that the way water moves in rivers and streams determines where gold deposits might settle. Next, you need to learn why gold concentrates in certain areas, and then search those areas.

Once youve selected a specific waterway for mining, youll want to pick specific points to search. Since it is impractical to search the entire stream or river, there are ways to read a waterway to determine the most likely places to find gold. The following describes how to find those places.

The first thing to know is gold is heavy. Its about 19 times heavier than the same amount of water and 6 times heavier than solid material found in streams and rivers. So, anything that slows the movement of water is likely to trap gold deposits. Things that slow down moving water are:

Water on the downriver side of obstacles will move slower, and this is where heavier gold will settle. When looking at a chosen waterway, begin by searching for natural dams where gold may have collected. Another place that collects heavier objects in a waterway is inside bends, places where water naturally slows down. Heavy objects will often form a bar at these points, and the upside of a bar inside bends is a great place to look for gold.

Once gold has settled in a stream, over time, it works its way down layers of soil and settles in bedrock. A great location for gold is in the material coating bedrock under a stream. Choose a location on the inside a bend where there is an obstruction and then dig to the bedrock. Sifting the soil coating bedrock, usually, will produce gold.

Learn to delay the excitement of seeing gold for the first time and you will have more gold-filled dirt to take home with you. Once you get better at choosing locations, and especially if you find a proven location, its best to spend your time digging and removing dirt, rather than sifting and cleaning it on site. Delay celebrating and get as much dirt as possible to take home. Once you get home, sift and clean the gold youve found.

Another great place to look for gold is in tall grass growing above an inside bend. Grass acts like a sieve and the largest gold pieces end up at the roots of grass. They often call this kind of gold oat gold. The pieces might be smaller than gold found in other places, but there could be a lot.

If you want to invest a little in your endeavor, you can purchase a metal detector designed to find gold. This gold mining equipment can cut down on the time spend hunting, but a mid-level detector can cost about $600.

When considering getting involved in gold prospecting and mining, make sure you learn and follow the rules. There are certain places where prospecting is legal and others where it is not. Many prospecting clubs exist and joining one can help ensure you are following rules. For examples, most sites require that you refill any holes you have dug, and that you do not destroy local plant life. Learn the rules before you head out with your gold mining equipment.

Once youve finished prospecting and have a location where you know there is gold, you will need gold mining equipment. What you use will depend on the size of your operation. If you are working in the gold industry, you will have industrial gold mining equipment. If you are mining on your own as a hobby, youll need smaller, personal gold mining equipment. Lets look at both.

If you want to use industrial mining equipment, make sure you have the proper training. If working for a business, they should provide needed training. However, if you purchased industrial gold mining equipment for a personal claim, be certain you know what you are doing. Safety should always come first.

Miners use drills for underground mining to create access holes for descending underground, or to place explosive charges to bring material to the surface. The drill miners choose depends on how and what is being mined.

Blasting tools create an explosion to blast away chunks of material to access minerals. Blasting can also remove chunks of unwanted materials that are keeping other machines or people from getting to a seam of wanted materials. In underground and open pit mines, miners use both drilling and blasting tools, often together. They use drills to place blasting tools at the right depth and in the right place.

Earth-moving machines move around large amounts of materials. They might haul material after blasting, move other materials allowing access to seams of minerals, dig underground mines, or get down to the bedrock where minerals might exist.

Crushing equipment moves materials around an underground mine. Miners use this equipment to keep the flow of materials going at an efficient rate, and to save money. It is easier to remove crushed rocks rather than heavy chunks, so crushing equipment saves time and effort.

A sluice box is a way to sift through raw material more quickly. Essentially, its automated panning. These machines used to be large and heavy in the early days of panning, but are now lightweight and easier to use. If youre serious about mining, they are worth checking out.

A higher quality sluice box, high banker boxes have a water pump allowing more material to move through faster. These boxes recycle water so you dont have to rely on water flow in the river. They recover more gold than basic models.

If you arent going into the professional gold mining industry, but are looking for a hobby or a part-time job to bring in a little extra money, consider joining a mining club to help you once you begin your prospecting journey. The club will help you learn about personal gold mining equipment, but, for now, lets take a quick look at what you will need.

There are lots of different sizes, colors, and options in gold pans. Essentially, a 14-inch plastic pan is the best size, by far. Color does not matter, however gold shows up better in black. Black sand shows up better in blue or green. There are many new kinds of pans, but a basic pan with sharp, undercut riffles is all you need. Make sure the bottom of the pan is as wide as possible to catch more gold.

You will need a place to store the gold you find. All you need is a waterproof container you can close tightly, such as a 35mm film container. You can purchase containers on the internet, specifically made for holding gold.

The last thing to consider is investing in Gold Lab, a personal system that recovers gold from the concentrate you have refined. A good gold panner can get most of the gold from refined dirt, but a Gold Lab kit will allow you to further refine and recover 100% of your gold.

Once you have your equipment, its time to get in the river to pan for gold. This simple technique mimics what the river does naturally. You recover material, or dirt and place it in the pan, from a river location where you think there might be gold. Then, you shake it in a left-to-right motion underwater to sweep away light materials while causing heavier materials to go to the bottom of the pan.

Take the pan with the riffles on the far side and shake it, vigorously, left and right. This breaks up materials sending heavier items to the bottom. Do not slosh water out of the pan. If you need to, repeat the previous step and break up larger chunks again.

Continue shaking the pan back and forth and keep removing the top layer of lighter materials until you are down to only the heaviest materials, such as coins, BBs, old bullets, buckshot, nails, garnets, black iron rocks and black sand. You should now be able to see gold in the pan when shaking and tilting it forward slightly.

Use a magnet to remove black sand and other metal objects. Keep removing things until only gold remains. Remove the larger gold pieces and save any leftover concentrate. Let it sit for a while so you can recover any remaining pieces of gold that settle.

If you have enjoy the outdoors, and have just a little ambition, you can make a hobby out of gold prospecting and mining. All you need are basic tools that as your gold mining equipment and the willingness to do a little research. Once you decide where to go, or join a mining club to help you find locations, pack up your tools and prospect. It may take practice at panning before you find anything, but once you do, youll love the feeling of satisfaction and discovery. If you find you enjoy the hobby, invest in semi-professional gold mining equipment and see if you can up the amount you discover. Even if you only discover a few flakes, prospecting can be a great way to make new friends, learn about the gold industry, and understand a little about gold prospectors of old. Its an inexpensive hobby, so grab basic gold mining equipment and get started today.

911MPE has for target market what mining professionals consider the pilot-plant scale mining operation or artisanal mining operations with a focus around under 500TPD. Metals you can extract include: gold, silver or other of the precious group as well as the classic base metals; copper, lead, zinc, nickel, molybdenum. Much of our ultra-small scale equipment allows you to process from just a few kilo (pounds) per day and work on your passion for a small budget.

goldport corporation | guyana gold | junior mining exploration

Gold Port Corporation is an established gold exploration company focusing on Guyana, South America. The Company owns 100% of the Groete Gold Copper Project, which contains a NI 43-101 Technical Report defined gold copper inferred resource. With an experienced management team, corporate owned exploration equipment, and significant exploration funding, Gold Port intends to maximize shareholder value by further evaluation of the Groete Gold Copper Project.

Gold Ports present objective is to enhance the current defined Mineral Resource both in size and classification. Work to date has only drilled 1,200 meters of a 4 km strike. A Guyana experienced team is in place, and plans are set to move the project forward quickly.

June 23, 2021 / Vancouver, BC / Gold Port Corporation (CSE: GPO) (OTCQB: GPOTF) (the Company) is pleased to announce that, effective June 21, 2021, it has commenced trading on the OTCQB under the symbol, GPOTF. The Company has chosen to trade on this US...

gatling exploration inc will employ artificial intelligence to identify possible gold targets at the larder gold project in ontario

The company said AI experts with Windfall Geotek will use their advanced Computer Aided Resource Detection System (CARDS) to marktargets which will be evaluated and explored using traditional exploration techniques in upcoming programs.

Gatling's Larder Gold project occupies 3,370 hectares along the Cadillac Larder Lake Break, a prolific structural gold trend. The property hosts three high-grade deposits along the main break, as well as two additional, underexplored gold trends, recently discovered 6 kilometers north.

The company said AI uses pattern recognition and machine learning to make predictions based on compiled datasets. The Larder project benefits from a vast database of recent and historical data, including 2,000 drill holes, 90,000 assays, 1,000 surface rock samples, 500 soil samples, as well as geophysics, Lidar and bedrock geology.

The area to be analyzed has numerous deposits including, but not limited to, Agnico Eagle's Upper Beaver, Kerr Addison, Mistango River Resources' Omega Mine and Gatling's 3 high-grade gold deposits: Fernland, Cheminis and Bear,Gatling said in a statement.

Proactive Investors Australia Pty Ltd ACN 132 787 654 (the Company, we or us) provides you with access to the content set out above, including any news, quotes, information, data, text, reports, ratings, opinions,...

Gatling Exploration (CVE: GTR-OTCQB: GATGF) Vice President of Exploration Nathan Tribble shared news with Steve Darling from Proactive Vancouver that Gatling has been able to connect a continuous 4.5 km gold strike at their Larder Project. Tribble explains how they were able to do that,...

satellite imagery and gold exploration | a cost-effective solution? | inn

Exploring for gold is a costly endeavor that often comes with great risks, especially for junior miners. These companies are faced with the challenge of locating a metal that is extremely rare, and hard to find in economically viable quantities.

Thats where the use of satellite imagery and remote sensing comes in. Using satellite systems helps explorers survey land without having to invest heavily in equipment or develop on-site infrastructure.

When the first Landsat satellite was launched in 1972, geologists used sensors to collect simple data, such as surface features. They were able to get clues on potential mineral deposits beneath the surface, and could use the data for mapping. However, since then, imaging sensor technology has undergone rapid advancements that have allowed explorers to collect increasingly more useful data.

Satellites are now fitted with more advanced sensors that use spectral properties to identify materials without having to view them in person. Spectral data is collected by aircraft and satellites using infrared, near-infrared, thermal-infrared and short-wave technology. Geologists can use this data to pick out rock units and find clues about subsurface deposits of minerals, oil and gas and groundwater.

The very first sensors used on satellites were problematic, mainly because of their poor spectral resolution and inadequate spectral coverage. These limitations rapidly changed in the early 1980s with the launch of Landsat 4 and 5, which carried the Thematic Mapper scanning system. The system added coverage of short-wave infrared and mid-infrared regions of the spectrum.

The technology in satellite systems has advanced to the point where not only individual mineral species can be mapped, but also chemical variations within the molecular structure of the crystal lattice of the mineral. The resolution of sensors on satellites cant be compared to aircraft spectral remote sensors, but these satellites do come with other advantages. For example, satellite systems are able to collect more data from larger areas without having to fly any aircraft over the land in interest.

With the ability to determine texture and petrology from miles above the ground, locating, analyzing, identifying and mapping the composition of the Earths surface is now greatly advanced. Here are a few benefits of using satellite imagery in mineral exploration.

Satellite imagery helps reduce the cost of surveying land due to the fact that on-site personnel and equipment arent needed. Explorers can instead use a number of data sources to draw valuable insights for potential projects. This is especially helpful for juniors that have to justify risks to gather financing or begin operations.

Geospatial data is critical to mineral exploration, but it can also be applied to all phases of the mining life cycle. Satellite images can be used to inform activities like building mine infrastructure or anticipating risks that are linked to a sites geography. The relatively low cost and high utility of satellite imagery makes it a versatile technology for explorers.

The advancement of sensor technologies has allowed companies to combine valuable satellite data with other information sources like drone mapping, feasibility studies and historical data about geographical sites. Satellite imagery also helps gather data that otherwise wouldnt be attainable due to challenges in topography or climate. Diversifying information sources and increasing the sheer amount of available data means miners and scientists can gather new insights through their analysis.

Satellite imagery certainly isnt the only tool available to explorers, but the technology serves as an excellent complement to more accurate and resource-intensive technologies like LiDAR, GPS surveying and unmanned aerial vehicles.

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Can you help us get a a satellite image for GOLD deposits in Edgewood NM or surrounding areas? W are new to this and really are not sure how to obtain sat images for gold deposits in our area.This is for private use and could use some help in the right direction.Thank you.

Can you assist in obtaining satellite imaging data for coordinates in Brazil, specifically for gold exploration? Also especially interested in how your technology differs from other available tech on the market.

i am living nearby the mining operation and the mining company is interested to do mining activity within my lot, Can i send the coordinate of my property lot plan so can detect the gold volume underneath. through satellite reading? thank you and best regards! Johnny Pacsi

equipment | classifieds | icmj prospecting & mining journal

New and used gold mining equipment, including shaker tables, washplants, mills, crushers, motors, dredges, drills, concentrators, drywashers, flotation cells, pumps, jigs, furnaces, ore bins, conveyors, detectors, screens, sluices, highbankers, trommels, gold pans, augers, hoppers, cranes, amalgamators, and more

BRAND NEW HARD ROCK MINING equipment available for immediate order, from Mt. Baker Mining and Metals. We are a USA manufacturer located in Bellingham, WA. Call us today at (360)595-4445 for more information.

3x6 Ball Mill (1TPH), complete with drive, 20hp motor, balls, frame -- $37,000 1 Ton/hr Turn-key Ore Processor, ready-to-run -- $99,500 6x10 Jaw Crusher (1-3TPH), 7.5hp 3-phase -- $8,600 10x16 Jaw Crusher (5-20TPH), 20hp 3-phase -- $16,700 Mini Mobile Gold Processor 1 Ton/hr, Honda 22hp gas -- $16,000 16x12 Hammer Mill (1TPH), 15hp, 3-phase -- $12,325 24x16 Hammer Mill (2TPH), 30hp, 3-phase -- $22,900 4x8 Shaker Table (1TPH), single phase -- $14,900

2x4 w/ 1/2 ton extra balls. In barely used condition Used briefly for gold mine research & design at the shop only, never seen production work at the mine Portable, trailer-mounted. Comes with: 15x30 long stacking conveyor 6x10 Hopper & stand frame mounted Stationary single-deck grizzly screen Lots of pictures. All the info about everything from specs to production to what uses from an expert engineer, call for details, inspection, close up pictures, shipping etc.

B-70 and B-701 Mc Englevan (MIFCO) metal melting pot furnaces with high pressure blowers. -- $9,500, each Exhaust and pouring system for B-70 MIFCO furnace consists of a 5X9 hood and 20-foot-tall chimney with 1hp fan, trolly with cantilever crucible extractor, crucible tongs and pouring table. -- $10,000 Bullion molds for silver, 50 to 500 ounce plus conical mold to separate metal and slag. -- $5,000 Chemical fume hood on stand, 4-foot-wide, with 3/16 thick safety glass front sash and exhaust fan. Excellent conditionno rust, Alberine stone working surface. We have 2. -- $2,500 each Chemical Scrubber for hood, 1,000 CFM with 50-gallon sump, circulating pump and exhaust fan. -- $2,000 Thum cell electrolytic silver refining system: 500+ ounce per day with power supply and cables. Shown in October 2018 ICMJ. Comes with electrolyte silver dissolver, crystal cleaning station, silver crystal drying oven. We have enough spare parts to make 3 cells. -- $25,000 each Olympus binocular stereo microscope Model SF-20, 30X magnification with fluorescent ring light. -- $195. OMYNO binocular boom microscope on 11-inch pole, 10-65x magnification with wide field eyepieces. Excellent for looking at large specimens. -- $395 Fiber optic illuminator for microscope -- $125 Micro sample splitter with pans, excellent for splitting gold placer. 2 each in stock. -- $95 each Laboratory Scale, Mettler AE160, capacity 75 grams, accuracy, 1/10 mg, reads 4 places to right of decimal. Professionally calibrated in May 2021. -- $1,500 Chain-o-matic Ainsworth double pan balance with set of weights. -- $1,200 12x12x12 lab drying oven. -- $500 Sweco, 4- foot diameter 3-deck sieve with 6 spare sieve. -- s$9,500 Lightnin mixers, air operated with 4 shafts and 3diameter props. -- $1,000 each

EQUIPMENT IN GOOD WORKING condition: Knelson MD30 Concentrator$18,000. 24 ga Gardner Denver mucker$6,000. (2) 24 ga 1-1/2 ton rocker dump and 1 end dump mine cars$2,000 ea. Stutenroth impact mill w/50 HP motor$6,000. GD 63 Jackleg drill$1,500. (970)560-0685 or send email.

25mm OD core drill comes with backpack, Shaw gas-powered engine drill, coupling, diamond drill bit, loose materials bit, core cutter, 2 compression tanks, core breaker, knockout rod, barrel adapter, T-handle, aluminum gas can and 20 feet of drill steel. Excellent condition. Asking $2,800, includes delivery in the USA. UNION GULF RESOURCES, CORP. Send email or call (619)609-0234.

FOR SALE15 TON GIBSON ROD MILL, w/roll. Mint. Jaw, conveyor, feeder, classifier (2) table. Send $8. 14 pages, pictures, W.W. Gibson instructions. OREGON MINE SERVICE, PO Box 205, Sumpter, OR 97877. $15,000 Firm.

ORO INDUSTRIES TROMMEL and Centrifuge. Trommel is 24 diameter by 20 long, 10HP electric drive with Browning gearbox. 25 - 30 YPH. Centrifuge is 20 diameter with 3HP electric motor with 15 YPH production rate. Call (307)922-4754, MATT.

DENVER 5x4 SRL PUMP, 25 HP; Galigher 2 rubber-lined sump pump; 48 Sweco screen; Denver #12 drives/ 48 Dorr Oliver thickener mechanism; (2) 100 amp SS shut off boxes. MILLER EQUIPMENT, Tel: (865)475-7977, or send email.

Powered by JCB200 Excavator with 400 Link Belt Undercarriage. 100YPH Gold Watch Project washplant. 5 cylinder Duetz water pump. 24x8 container included with extra parts & supplies. Setup to work on land or ocean. Located in Nome, AK. Ready to work. Pictures available. $139,000 $79,000. Call ARNE BELSBY, send email or call(509)979-8265.

WANTED: WET DRUM MAGNETIC SEPARATORS in operating condition with feed tanksCASH BUYER FOR SALE: Deister 999 triple table in 40 trailer with sand screw & controls, very good condition for sale. LARRY (602)377-3774 Call or send email.

FOR SALE: 4x3 Denver SRL pump, 7.5 HP; 5x4 Denver SRL pump, 25 HP; 2 Galigher rubber-lined pump 5HP; 48 Sweco SD screen, Denver #12 drives, 48 Dorr Oliver thickener mechanism; (2) 100 amp SS shut off boxes. MILLER EQUIPMENT, Tel: (865)475-7977or send email.

EQUIP. SETUP FOR REMOTE MINE-MOUTH, NO POWER, OPS. Complete Assembly consisting of: M35A2 multi-fuel Army truck w/ mounted 10x16 rebuilt Austin-Western crusher (driven by new 50 HP Kohler gas motor). Crusher discharges to new vibratory overs/unders classifier. Unders supplies used Kamflex elevator discharging to new Stutenroth 2 tph impact mill w/ new 18 hp clutched Honda gas motor. Mill discharges to new vibratory variable speed classifier. All equip. has approx. 12 hrs. use. $34,000 OBO. If not sold by 10/31/21, equipment will be parted out & sold separately. (208)521-3649, leave a message or send email.

COMPLETE PLACER PLANT OPERATION in Arizona. Buy Any or All. Very Low Hours: Rock Systems feeder/hopper/grizzly/conveyer$30,000. Goldlands 50 YPH trommel$35,000. 6 Pump$5,000. Yukon Sluice$3,000. Goldlands sizing separator$9,000. MSI Water Clarification Unit$175,000. MSI Exit Conveyor $7,000. U-Tech Finishing Table$1,900. 4 Honda Pumps$4,000 ea. Power Panel$10,000. 75KW Generator$22,000. Cargo Trailer with tools etc.$8,000. Goldlands Spiral Separator$2,500. Much more: tools, generators, water tank, diesel tank, welding etc. Send email.

NOME 10-inch suction dredge Dola Mae 50-foot catamaran, (2) new 115 HP Yamaha 4-stroke engs. 5.9 Cummins diesel, 6X8 Berkeley water pump, new 6212 Garmin GPS. 16-wheel trailer. Sleeping quarters. $155K Send email or call WES (928)710-8404.

gold processing,extraction,smelting plant design, equipment for sale | prominer (shanghai) mining technology co.,ltd

Prominer maintains a team of senior gold processing engineers with expertise and global experience. These gold professionals are specifically in gold processing through various beneficiation technologies, for gold ore of different characteristics, such as flotation, cyanide leaching, gravity separation, etc., to achieve the processing plant of optimal and cost-efficient process designs.

Based on abundant experiences on gold mining project, Prominer helps clients to get higher yield & recovery rate with lower running cost and pays more attention on environmental protection. Prominer supplies customized solution for different types of gold ore. General processing technologies for gold ore are summarized as below:

For alluvial gold, also called sand gold, gravel gold, placer gold or river gold, gravity separation is suitable. This type of gold contains mainly free gold blended with the sand. Under this circumstance, the technology is to wash away the mud and sieve out the big size stone first with the trommel screen, and then using centrifugal concentrator, shaking table as well as gold carpet to separate the free gold from the stone sands.

CIL is mainly for processing the oxide type gold ore if the recovery rate is not high or much gold is still left by using otation and/ or gravity circuits. Slurry, containing uncovered gold from primary circuits, is pumped directly to the thickener to adjust the slurry density. Then it is pumped to leaching plant and dissolved in aerated sodium cyanide solution. The solubilized gold is simultaneously adsorbed directly into coarse granules of activated carbon, and it is called Carbon-In-Leaching process (CIL).

Heap leaching is always the first choice to process low grade ore easy to leaching. Based on the leaching test, the gold ore will be crushed to the determined particle size and then sent to the dump area. If the content of clay and solid is high, to improve the leaching efficiency, the agglomeration shall be considered. By using the cement, lime and cyanide solution, the small particles would be stuck to big lumps. It makes the cyanide solution much easier penetrating and heap more stable. After sufficient leaching, the pregnant solution will be pumped to the carbon adsorption column for catching the free gold. The barren liquid will be pumped to the cyanide solution pond for recycle usage.

The loaded carbon is treated at high temperature to elute the adsorbed gold into the solution once again. The gold-rich eluate is fed into an electrowinning circuit where gold and other metals are plated onto cathodes of steel wool. The loaded steel wool is pretreated by calcination before mixing with uxes and melting. Finally, the melt is poured into a cascade of molds where gold is separated from the slag to gold bullion.

Prominer has been devoted to mineral processing industry for decades and specializes in mineral upgrading and deep processing. With expertise in the fields of mineral project development, mining, test study, engineering, technological processing.

this ai company is the future of gold exploration

Gold mining is one of the very oldest human occupations. The earliest known underground gold mine, in what is now the country of Georgia, dates back at least 5,000 years, when people were just starting to develop written language.

Lately, however, innovation has slowed. Mining companies are incost-cutting mode,and many producers have favored generating short-term cash flow, often to the detriment of longer-term value. In last years Tracking the Trends report, Deloitte analysts observed that miners from 50 years ago would find little has changed if they entered todays mines, a situation that certainly doesnt hold true in other industries.

Consider the earth-shattering change thats taken place in oil and gas over the past two decades. Fracking and horizontal drilling have completely revolutionized how we extract resources from the ground, making hard-to-reach oil and natural gas accessible for the first time.

No equivalent technology exists in precious metals. Some companies are now usingcutting-edge technology like blockchainto improve supply chain efficiency and transparency, but to date theres no gold fracking method. As a result, metal ore grades are decreasing, andlarge-scale gold discoveriesare becoming fewer and farther between.

Some people call it peak gold, but I tend to think of it more as peak discovery, says Denis Laviolette, the brains behind Goldspot Discoveries, a first-of-its-kind quant shop that aims to use artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning to revolutionize the mineral exploration business.

A geologist by trade, Denis conceived of Goldspot while serving as a mining analyst with investment banking firm Pinetree Capital. His vision, as he described it to me last week, was to disrupt mineral exploration as profoundly as Amazon disrupted retail and Uber the taxi business.

We have more data at our fingertips than ever before, yet new discoveries have been on the decline despite ever increasing exploration spending on data collection, Denis continues. We believe Goldpsot can change that. Harnessing a mountains worth of historic and current global mining data, AI can identify patterns necessary to fingerprint geophysical, geochemical, lithological and structural traits that correlate to mineralization. Advances in AI, cloud computing, open source algorithms, machine learning and other technologies have made it possible for us to aggregate all this data and accurately target where the best spots to explore are.

Hence the name Goldspotthough I should point out that Denis considers the Montreal-based company commodity agnostic, meaning it collects and aggregates data for all metals, including base metals, not just gold.

Denis has the record to back up his extraordinary claims. In 2016, Goldspot took second place in the Integra Gold Rush Challenge, a competition with as many as 4,600 worldwide applicants. After consolidating more than 30 years of historical mining and exploration data into a 3D geological model, the company was able to identify several target zones with the highest potential for gold mineralization in Nevadas Jerritt Canyon district, among several others.

Denis quant approach to discovery reminds me a lot of Billy Beane, the former general manager of the Oakland As and subject of the2003 bestsellerand 2011 filmMoneyball.Beane was among the first in sports to pick players, many of them overlooked and undervalued, based on quantitative analysis. His strategy worked better than anyone anticipated.

Although the As had one of the lowest combined salaries in Major League Baseballonly the Washington Nationals and Tampa Bay Rays had lower salariesthe team finished the 2002 season first in the American League West.

Similarly, Goldspot seeks to help mining companies cut some of the costs and risks associated with discovering high-quality depositssomething its managed to do for a number of its clients and partners, including Hochschild Mining, McEwen Mining and Yamana Gold.

The company, not yet three years old, does more than assist in exploration. It also invests in and acquires royalties from exploration companies, similar to the business model practiced by successful firms such as Franco-Nevada, Wheaton Precious Minerals, Royal Gold and others.>

For this, Goldspot has also received accolades. It was one of only five finalists in Goldcorps 2017 #DisruptMining challenge, for revolutionizing the investment decision model by using the Goldspot Algorithm to stake acreage, acquire projects and royalties, and invest in public vehicles to create a portfolio of assets with the greatest reward to risk ratio.

Ill certainly have more to say about Goldspot in the coming weeks. For now, Im excited to share with you that the company is scheduled to begin trading on the TSX Venture Exchange early this week. The future belongs to those that can mine data and harness the power of AI, and Im convinced that what Denis and his partners have created fits that bill. Congratulations, and the best of luck to Denis Laviolette and Goldspot Discoveries!

Holdings may change daily. Holdings are reported as of the most recent quarter-end. The following securities mentioned in the article were held by one or more accounts managed by U.S. Global Investors as of (12/31/2018): Integra Resources Corp., Hochschild Mining PLC, McEwen Mining Inc., Yamana Gold Inc., Franco-Nevada Corp., Wheaton Precious Metals Corp., Royal Gold Inc.

U.S. Global Investors, Inc. is an investment adviser registered with the Securities and Exchange Commission ("SEC"). This does not mean that we are sponsored, recommended, or approved by the SEC, or that our abilities or qualifications in any respect have been passed upon by the SEC or any officer of the SEC.

Frank Holmes is the CEO and chief investment officer of U.S. Global Investors. Mr. Holmes purchased a controlling interest in U.S. Global Investors in 1989 and became the firms chief investment officer in 1999. In 2006, Mr. Holmes was selected mining fund manager of the year by the Mining Journal, and in 2011 he was named a U.S. Metals and Mining "TopGun" by Brendan Wood International. In 2016, Mr. Holmes and portfolio manager Ralph Aldis received the award for Best Americas Based Fund Manager from the Mining Journal. He is also the co-author ofThe Goldwatcher: Demystifying Gold Investing. More than 50,000 subscribers follow his weekly commentary in the award-winning Investor Alert newsletter and Frank Talk blog, which are read in over 180 countries.

Frank Holmes is the CEO and chief investment officer of U.S. Global Investors. Mr. Holmes purchased a controlling interest in U.S. Global Investors in 1989 and became the firms chief investment officer in 1999. In 2006, Mr. Holmes was selected mining fund manager of the year by the Mining Journal, and in 2011 he was named a U.S. Metals and Mining "TopGun" by Brendan Wood International. In 2016, Mr. Holmes and portfolio manager Ralph Aldis received the award for Best Americas Based Fund Manager from the Mining Journal. He is also the co-author ofThe Goldwatcher: Demystifying Gold Investing. More than 50,000 subscribers follow his weekly commentary in the award-winning Investor Alert newsletter and Frank Talk blog, which are read in over 180 countries.

local and target exploration of conglomerate-hosted gold deposits using machine learning algorithms: a case study of the witwatersrand gold ores, south africa | springerlink

Determining the gold grade and facies type in areas with little geological information and sparse exploration samples is fraught with uncertainties and often results in high operational costs. Point-wise gold grade data are commonly used to guide exploration and resource estimation with the application of spatial interpolation techniques such as kriging. Within this environment of data scarcity, the application of kriging leads to significant grade estimation errors, as high nugget thresholds reduce the effectiveness of kriging, a good example being the gold deposits in the Witwatersrand Basin of South Africa. To reduce the impact of subjective grade interpolation and geological interpretation, as well as to exploit currently unused geological descriptions, we present a novel machine learning-based algorithm called GS-Pred. It combines both sedimentological and gold assay data for point-wise gold grade prediction and automated facies identification in a conglomerate-hosted gold deposit. For this application, GS-Pred requires an input database of sedimentological descriptions, spatial information and gold grades and makes predictions of gold grades at any point within the spatial coverage of the input database, provided that it has appropriate sedimentological descriptions. In essence, GS-Pred examines the spatial and non-spatial variability of metal grades and provides information of the estimated resource below the nugget threshold. This proposed algorithm has been validated on subsets of data on gold grade and sedimentological characteristics of conglomerates in the Witwatersrand Basin. Validation results suggest that GS-Pred is more accurate than current machine learning techniques and ordinary kriging. The clustering result shows that there are four or at most five facies which can be distinguished from the clustering results within the dataset, which maximises the contrast in the inter-cluster prediction behavior. These clusters have a good spatial correspondence with the known geology, and the method, combined with gold grade predictions, was able to identify probable mineralization patterns, thus assisting in target exploration. This novel machine learning algorithm is entirely data driven. We have shown its successful application in a complex geological setting as the Witwatersrand Basin.

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Brub, C. L., Olivo, G. R., Chouteau, M., Perrouty, S., Shamsipour, P., Enkin, R. J., et al. (2018). Predicting rock type and detecting hydrothermal alteration using machine learning and petrophysical properties of the Canadian Malartic ore and host rocks, Pontiac Subprovince, Qubec, Canada. Ore Geology Reviews,96, 130145.

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Bouhlel, M. A., Bartoli, N., Otsmane, A., & Morlier, J. (2016b). An improved approach for estimating the hyperparameters of the kriging model for high-dimensional problems through the partial least squares method. Mathematical Problems in Engineering, 2016, 6723410.

Chen, T., & Guestrin, C. (2016). XGBoost: A scalable tree boosting system. In Proceedings of the 22nd ACM SIGKDD international conference on knowledge discovery and data mining (pp. 785794), San Francisco, California, USAAugust 1317, 2016.

Cracknell, M., & Reading, A. (2013). The upside of uncertainty: Identification of lithology contact zones from airborne geophysics and satellite data using random forests and support vector machines. Geophysics,78, WB113WB126.

Cracknell, M. J., & Reading, A. M. (2014). Geological mapping using remote sensing data: A comparison of five machine learning algorithms, their response to variations in the spatial distribution of training data and the use of explicit spatial information. Computers & Geosciences,63, 2233.

Frimmel, H. E., Groves, D. I., Kirk, J., Ruiz, J., Chesley, J., & Minter, W. E. L. (2005). The formation and preservation of the Witwatersrand goldfields, the largest gold province in the world. In J. W. Hedenquist, J. F. H. Thompson, R. J. Goldfarb, & J. P. Richards (Eds.), Economic geology one hundredth anniversary volume (pp. 769797). Littleton: Society of Economic Geologists.

Frimmel, H. E., & Minter, W. E. L. (2002). Recent developments concerning the geological history and genesis of the Witwatersrand gold deposits, South Africa. Society of Economic Geologists Special Publications,9, 1745.

Garcia-Gutierrez, J., Martnez-lvarez, F., Troncoso, A., & Riquelme, J. C. (2014). A comparative study of machine learning regression methods on LiDAR Data: A case study. In . Herrero, et al. (Eds.), International joint conference SOCO13-CISIS13-ICEUTE13. Advances in intelligent systems and computing (p. 239). Cham: Springer.

Guyon, I. (2009). A practical guide to model selection. In Marie J. (Ed.) Proceedings of the machine learning summer school. Canberra Australia January 26February 6 Springer Text in Statistics Springer (p. 37).

Kositcin, N., & Krape, B. (2004). SHRIMP U-Pb detrital zircon geochronology of the Late Archaean Witwatersrand Basin of South Africa: Relation between zircon provenance age spectra and basin evolution. Precambrian Research,129, 141168.

Kovacevic, M., Bajat, B., Trivic, B., & Pavlovic, R. (2009). Geological units classification of multispectral images by using support vector machines. In Proceedings of the international conference on intelligent networking and collaborative systems IEEE (pp. 267272).

Lloyd, S. P. (1957). Least square quantisation in PCM. Bell Telephone Laboratories Paper. Published in journal much later: Lloyd S. P. (1982). Least squares quantisation in PCM (PDF). IEEE Transactions on Information Theory,28, 129137.

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GN contributed to research and methods development, analysing data and preparing the paper, SEZ contributed to research and methods development, interpreting data and preparing the paper, HF contributed to compilation of the geologic background and helped in checking drafts of the paper, and MM, CD, RD, MB and LT helped in checking drafts of the paper.

Nwaila, G.T., Zhang, S.E., Frimmel, H.E. et al. Local and Target Exploration of Conglomerate-Hosted Gold Deposits Using Machine Learning Algorithms: A Case Study of the Witwatersrand Gold Ores, South Africa. Nat Resour Res 29, 135159 (2020).