gold mining industry overview

global gold mining industry

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"With more than 20 years experience in the industry, this is the first time we have come across such an extensive market analysis for our industry." Ven Cote, CEO, ZCL

"With more than 20 years experience in the industry, this is the first time we have come across such an extensive market analysis for our industry." Ven Cote, CEO, ZCL

overview of the gold mining industry and major gold deposits - sciencedirect

The gold mining industry is presented as an overview covering key aspects and examples regarding gold discovery, deposits, and production. Segmentation of gold ore types is made based on major processing routes, ie., free-milling, refractory, heap-leachable, and concentrate sales. This division covers gross differences in mineralogy, gold grades, and co-elements. Data covering the 20 largest gold mines by production in 2011 are analyzed; in this group refractory ores supplied the largest quantity of gold (38%), followed by heap leaching (30%) and free-milling cyanidation/carbon-in-pulp/carbon-in-leach (18%), and 14% as by-product gold from the smelting of copper concentrates. Over half of the refractory gold from the top 20 operations in 2011 was produced by roasting, 10% by pressure oxidation, 5% by ultra-fine grinding, and 3% by bacterial oxidation.

Mike D. Adams has over 30years of diverse experience in the development and assessment of metallurgical projects, including processes for gold, platinum (PGE), uranium, and base and rare metals recovery. He consulted independently for over 10years with his company, Mutis Liber Pty Ltd., and was also previously director of Rockwell Minerals Ltd. (now merged with ASX-listed Elementos Ltd.), metallurgical manager with SGS Lakefield Oretest, and head of Process and Environmental Chemistry at Mintek.

Mike completed BSc(Hons) and MSc degrees in Applied Chemistry at the University of the Witwatersrand, and later a PhD with a dissertation on The Chemistry of the Carbon-in-Pulp Process and a DSc(Eng) Senior Doctorate of Science in Engineering, with a dissertation on Advances in the Processing of Gold Ores. Mike is a Chartered Professional (Metallurgy) and is a Fellow of the Australian and the South African Institutes of Mining and Metallurgy, as well as the Royal Society of Chemistry. He is Associate Editor for Hydrometallurgy journal and an editorial board member of Minerals Engineering journal, and has edited three books, including Advances in Gold Ore Processing (2005, Elsevier), the first edition of the current second edition volume of Gold Ore Processing, 2e (2016, Elsevier). Dr. Adams is widely published in metallurgy and chemistry, including some 50 papers on gold processing. He has made a significant contribution to the chemistry and optimization of the carbon-in-pulp process for gold recovery, for which he received the Raikes Gold Medal from the South African Chemical Institute and two silver medals from the South African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy.

Notable contributions have included project management and metallurgy of integrated pilot-plant campaigns for definitive feasibility studies on the processing of nickel laterites and sulfides, PGM concentrates, gold ores, and zirconiumniobiumrare earth element ores. Currently director of Fugue Pte Ltd., Mike has been assisting from the early stages with the development of the Kell Process, a hydrometallurgical alternative to smelting, which is his current focus.

gold mining market research reports & gold mining industry analysis

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... provides historical and forecast data on gold production by country, production by company, reserves by country and world gold prices. The report also includes a demand drivers section providing information on factors that are affecting ... Read More

... The report covers the company's structure, operation, SWOT analysis, product and service offerings and corporate actions, providing a 360 view of the company. Key Highlights Harmony Gold Mining Co Ltd (Harmony) is a gold exploration ... Read More

... covers the company's structure, operation, SWOT analysis, product and service offerings and corporate actions, providing a 360 view of the company. Key Highlights Northern Star Resources Ltd (NSRL) is a gold mining company. It develops, ... Read More

... report provides historical and forecast data on Chinas gold production, production by major producers, reserves, top gold mines by reserves and insight on the impact of COVID-19 on the countrys gold mining industry. Demand section ... Read More

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... Elevated gold prices will partially mitigate the challenging regulatory environment in Tanzania and encourage furtherinvestment into the gold mining sector. Barrick Gold's progress in repairing relations with the government will help to boostproduction in 2021. Read More

... refining. Some firms process gold through flotation extraction methods. Some companies dredge for gold or rework tailings for gold. This report covers the scope, size, disposition and growth of the industry including the key sensitivities ... Read More

... the techniques employed for proper disposal and storage of mining waste. Mining waste is generated during the extraction and processing of metals and minerals, such as coal, copper, gold, iron, lead, zinc and bauxite. Some ... Read More

... gold industry. It provides historical and forecast data on gold production and reserves by country and production by company. The report also includes an extensive demand drivers section providing information on factors that are affecting ... Read More

... -17.54%, this is due to lockdowns imposed by governments globally and restrictions on the movement of people and goods owing to the COVID-19 outbreak. The market is then expected to recover and grow at a ... Read More

... doing business, corruption index and mineral overview. It also provides a comprehensive coverage on the countrys mining regulatory bodies, laws, rights, and obligations, as well as current and future tax-related proposals.The countrys mining industry is ... Read More

... growth from 2021 onwards will be slow as we expectminers to gradually return to normal operations. Furthermore, the global coking coal prices will continue to ease in the long term asChinese steel production slows, thus ... Read More

... sales prices for both gold and silver have remained volatile over the past five years, leading to significant industry contraction. Meanwhile, demand from manufacturers of electrical equipment, electronic products and jewelry, which comprise the industry's ... Read More

mining industry - an overview | sciencedirect topics

Mining industries need process improvements across all facets including mineral extraction, processing, transportation, and marketing to remain cost efficient and gain a firm foothold in the competitive market.

The mining industry is like any other manufacturing industry in that it utilizes sophisticated and productive machinery, along with digitization, so that it can prosper by increasing productivity while decreasing costs. Development in mining technology is ongoing throughout the world, notwithstanding India. Operational monitoring and control systems have enhanced the productivity, safety, and efficiency of mining. In addition, the mining industry is now using heavier and larger machinery. As things stand, the point of diminishing returns has been reached. The solution to this is IT-enabled automation. Increasing mechanization calls for more maintenance, repair work, operating supplies, and inventories. Advances in IT might be of benefit to all of these. Strategic directions are detailed in Figure4.14.

Mining industry site covering exploration through to mining, processing and transport of minerals are privately owned or PS activity in countries like: Osisko Mining, Argentina, Red Back Mining in Canada, Australia, Europe, United States, Latin America, Anglo American plc, Anglo Platinum, De Beers, Exxaro Resources Ltd, Gold Fields, Harmony Gold, Impala Platinum, JFPI Corporation, Kumba Resources, Rio Tinto and Wesizwe Platinum in South Africa and Equinox, Meteopex, Mopani Copper, Konkola Copper, Zambia Consolidated Copper Mines, First Quantum Minerals, Venturex Resources Ltd, and Vale, Zambia. The other international exploration companies are CSR Ltd, Forteseue Metals Group, Rio Tinto Group, Santos, Zinifex Ltd, Goldstream mining NL, IMX Resources Inc., Australia, Cameco Uranium, Goldcorp, Exeter resource Corporation (2002), Canada, Codelco Mining Corporation (1976), and Capstone Mining Corporation, Chile. The major Indian PS exploration and mining companies are: ACC Ltd, ADI Gold Mining Pty Ltd, Binani Zinc Ltd, Birla Corporation Ltd, BHP Billiton, De Beers India Pvt Ltd, ESSAR Mineral Resources Ltd, Ferro Alloys Corp Ltd, Rio Tinto India Pvt Ltd, Sesa Goa Ltd, Tata Steel Ltd and Vedanta Resources plc. The companies are permitted to explore and mine nonrestricted minerals. The PS are equipped with technical personnel and machineries to conduct exploration and evaluation of mineral deposits in on going mining as well as in virgin areas.

Mining industries need process improvements across all facets including mineral extraction, processing, transportation, and marketing to remain cost efficient and gain a firm foothold in the competitive market. Application of business process management (BPM) helps analyze and optimize mining organization's processes, promotes better collaboration as well as coordination among various departments to improve efficiencies and ensure best results ( BPM can automate field reporting systems to improve operations and maintenance by up-to-date operational information. Cloud computing can provide a relatively inexpensive solution to ensure relevant and accurate information to sales and marketing personnel on production schedules, output and inventory across a wide variety of product specifications.

Mining companies can extract benefits in at least four areas by use of BPM technology. It can help improve operations and maintenance by providing managers with up-to-date operational information. It can establish better collaboration and coordination between production and sales. Mining companies are highly dependent on the reliability of the equipment and vehicles used for mining and transportation of their products. Cloud computing can play a key role in determining how successful a company's operation and management efforts are in maximizing the uptime of machinery and vehicles used in mining, handling, and storage. It can be used to automate the recordkeeping for each vehicle and piece of equipment, keep track of warranties, and maintain planned schedules. Breakdowns and unplanned repairs can be monitored and best practices can be established for operating each unit. BPM can be used to set up a cost-effective repository quickly and efficiently for operating manuals and engineering drawings. This would allow access for employees from any department in the company as well as outside parties who have been given permission.

There are now several firms that offer BPM software products. Each product has its own unique features and user interface, but what they have in common is the ability to automate almost any business process regardless of industry or functional area.

The mining industry has been a significant part of the economy for many decades. Continuous pollution of the environment with heavy metals has been caused by mineral resources exploration and exploitation activities, as well as by processing of ores in factories.

The gold mining industry is a continuous pollution trigger, representing the primary source of heavy metal contamination during the exploitation and for many decades after the mining activity is ceased if the mining area is not environmentally cleaned. Gold mine tailings contain high levels of toxic metals such as Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd, As, and Hg with a negative influence on the environment.

Phytoremediation technology can represent a low-cost option for the remediation of industrially contaminated areas, especially for abandoned mines. Various associations and interactions between plants, their microbial rhizosphere flora, and pollutants make the phytoremediation mechanisms practical for a variety of organic and inorganic contaminants. Various phytoremediation methods can be widely used for the treatment of various solid, liquid, and gaseous substrates, in the decontamination of macronutrients (phosphate and nitrate), several elements (Pb, Cu, Zn, Cd, Fe, As, Mn, Ni, Mo, Cr, Co, F, Hg, Se, V, and W), radioactive isotopes (238U, 137Cs, and 90Sr), petroleum hydrocarbons, organic solvents, and herbicides.

The mining industry may consider itself as a temporary user of land. Adopting this position requires that the industry returns the maximum amount of land to a sustainable and constructive post-mining use. While all mining operations are finite, the tailings storage facilities constructed during these operations will be expected to remain in place essentially in perpetuity after cessation of operations.

The closure design of any TSF therefore needs to address the long-term stability, safety, and esthetic aspects of the structure while assessing the potential post-operational land uses of the TSF. These matters require close consultation with the stakeholders (including government authorities and the local communities) so that the final closure design will meet the reasonable expectations of those stakeholders at a cost acceptable to the operating company.

The mining industry has been the major driver of the wood industry development in Zambia. Hardwood industry was developed first to support the mining needs for wood and also for railway sleepers. The first and second national forest inventories of 1952 and 1965 provided data for the planning of wood exploitation and forest protection at district and national levels in Zambia (MTENR, 2008). The Forest Act No. 39 of 1973, as a legal instrument, provided for a legal framework for developing wood processing industries (WPIs) in Zambia (GRZ, 1965, 1973, 1998). With the legal framework in place Zambia embarked on the country-wide establishment of exotic tree plantations based on the 1965 forest inventory (Chisanga, 2005).

With the establishment of forest plantations, the softwood products industry developed in the Copperbelt Province around the 1990s targeting the mining industry. The commercial forest growing stock from industrial plantations was about 600,000m3 per annum by 2002, with an additional 100,000m3 per annum from Local Supply Plantations established in provincial centers (Ngandwe et al., 2012). Processing units such as pole treatment plants; sawmilling and kiln-drying facilities; and plywood, veneer, and blockboard manufacturing factories were developed around the country between 1992 and 1995. These processing units were mainly government-owned companies, established as parastatals.

During 19801992, the timber industry was dominated by state-owned enterprises and by 1990s most of these parastatals were performing badly. In about 1993 the Zambian government commenced major economic reforms focusing on the privatization of state-owned enterprises and liberalizing the economy. Following this macro-economic shift, the largest government-owned timber processing plants of the Zambia Forestry and Forest Industries Corporation (ZAFFICO) and Zambia Steel and Building Supplies (ZSBS) were privatized. According to a government report (GRZ, 2006a) privatization and structural adjustment programs resulted in the deterioration of the productivity in the manufacturing sector. Many employed persons in the formal sector were retrenched.

The retrenched personnel, as a result of the Structural Adjustment Program of 19932000, started developing private small-scale forest-based sawmilling enterprises throughout the country as a means of livelihood (Njovu, 2011). Since 2001, there has been a modest small-scale private investment in sawmilling, particleboard, plywood, and pole treatment technologies. In the subsequent years, there has been a mushrooming of informal wood processing segments particularly in the Copperbelt and Lusaka Provinces providing additional employment. Since then, demand for industrial round-wood increased from 140,000m3 in 2001 to over 650,000m3 by 2010 (Ngandwe, 2011a; Ngandwe et al., 2011). On the other hand, technological development lagged behind as many sawmills continue to use obsolete machines characterized with low recoveries and low quality products. The lack of meaningful investment resulted in a policy development that would catalyze investment in the timber industry driven by the private sector.

In 2004 the Government of Zambia initiated the Forestry Department Credit Facility (FDCF) to address issues of lack of investment in the timber industry (Masinja, 2005). In most cases the lack of investment has been attributed to high interest rates, high collateral requirements and reluctance by Banks to lend money to entrepreneurs. The FDCF facility catalyzed the formation of over 500 enterprises engaged in sawmilling as a business in Zambia. The major downstream formal timber products processing units created by the fund were in sawmilling, wood furniture, and Woodcrafts. Today, sawmilling is by far the most dominant economic activity in Zambias wood industry with over 500 actors in the primary timber processing followed by the wood-based panels (WBPs) industry and wood furniture. The informal wood processing sector on the other hand, has over 1 million actors but has not benefited from the FDCF arrangement.

The mining industry has a considerable impact on the environment. Soil pollution by potentially harmful elements due to mining and smelting activities is a worldwide problem. The extraction of metals from sulfide minerals usually results in large amounts of tailings, which often contain elevated concentrations of potentially harmful elements. Tailings usually provide an unfavorable substrate for plant growth because of their extreme pH, low levels of organic matter and nutrients, high concentrations of potentially harmful elements, degraded soil structure and low water availability. These mine tailings become potential sources of pollution due to wind and water erosion.

Conventional techniques used for remediation of contaminated soils, such as current engineering technologies, mainly excavation, removal, transport and disposal to landfills and physicochemical treatments, are costly, disruptive, labor- intensive and expensive. Efforts to restore the vegetation cover can enhance stabilization and pollution control. Therefore, the use of plants to remediate hazardous mine soils is considered a recommendable approach for improving the environmental quality of tailings. The latest and most conservative technique of remediation is phytoremediation, based on the properties of metallophytes.

Cunningham et al. (1995) and Schnoor et al. (1995) are considered the first authors to use the term phytoremediation, the use of plants for xenobiont containment, degradation or extraction from water or soil substrates (USEPA, 2000). Actually, the use of plants for remediation of contaminated soils emerged in 1970. Yamada et al. (1975) researched soil purification by plants that absorb heavy metals. Smith and Bradshaw (1979) and Williamson and Johnson (1981) discussed the reclamation of metalliferous mine wastes with plants. Other key references are: Chaney (1983), McGrath (1990), Baker et al. (1991), Brown et al. (1994), Vangronsveld and Cunningham (1998), Van der Lelie et al. (2001), Barcel and Poschenrieder (2003) and Bech (2015), among other.

Several approaches are taken in phytoremediation. In the mining industry, however, it seems that two major options envisaged are phytoextraction and phytostabilization. The first is the use of plants to remove pollutants from soils by accumulation in easily harvestable plant parts, mainly shoots.

The criteria to define hyperaccumulation of As, Co, Cu, Cr, Ni, Pb and Se is a concentration of 1000mgkg1 or higher, on a dry leaf basis (Kabata-Pendias and Mukherjee, 2007; Yoon et al., 2006) whereas the threshold value for Zn and Mn hyperaccumulation is 10,000mgkg1 (Kabata-Pendias and Mukherjee, 2007). Additionally, hyperaccumulation for Cd is defined as values larger or equal to 100mgkg1. Hyperaccumulators are also characterized by a shoot-to-root metal concentration ratio (i.e., translocation factor [TF]) of more than 1, whereas nonhyperaccumulator plants usually have higher metal concentrations in roots than in shoots. Several authors, such as Baker (1981) and others, include the bioaccumulation factor (BF) or shoot accumulation factor (SAF) as an element for classification as a hyperaccumulator species. The BF or SAF refers to the plant metal concentration and the soil metal concentration ratio. This ratio should be greater than 1 for inclusion into the hyperaccumulator category.

The TF and SAF factors were determined to accurately assess the tolerance strategies developed by these metallophytes and to evaluate their potential for phytoremediation purposes, mainly for phytoextraction and phytostabilization. Phytostabilization (Yoon et al., 2006) is the use of plants to immobilize or inactivate soil pollutants in situ. The latter seems to be more suitable for natural land restoration of mine tailings. In this case, the abrupt topography of mine dumps or open cast mining often prevents the use of agronomic techniques, making phytoextraction impossible. Phytostabilization does not remove heavy metals from soils, but may help to minimize environmental and health risks, such as erosion and even landslides due to rain impact or wind, and limit site migration of contaminants. In phytostabilization, metallophytes with high growth rates, dense canopies and rooting systems, and high rates of propagation are recommended.

The mining industry applies software-based computerized extension functions for estimation of acceptable mine production block/subblock grades based on the principle of gradual change. Inverse power of distance or (1/Dn) interpolation is the preferred method. The technique uses straightforward mathematics for weighting the influence of samples around the block being estimated (Fig.8.12). It selects only those samples falling within the influence zone relevant to mineralogical affinity (continuity function) of the population. It also reflects the anisotropic character within the deposit, and varies the distance weighting function directionally with the help of a semivariogram function in various directions (refer to Chapter 9).

The mining block is divided into a series of regular 2D or 3D slices within the planned boundary equivalent to a blast hole of mine production. A 2D cross-section model or rock matrix is illustrated in Fig.8.13. The block dimensions and approach for an open pit mine are 12.5m along the strike (infill drill interval), 10m vertically (bench height), and 5m across the dip (face movement). Each cell is designated by a code number (say200, 17, 19) controlled by identification of section, bench, and cell; e.g.,200 is south 200 section, 17 is the bench between 330 and 340m level, and 19 is the cell position between 40 and 45 east.

The samples along the boreholes are converted to uniform composite length (5m). The selection of samples for computation of a panel is controlled by a search ellipse oriented with its major axis along the down-dip of the orebody (range=90m) and minor axis across (range= 30m). The intermediate axis is oriented along the strike direction (range=115m) in the case of 3D computation. The ranges in various directions are obtained from the semivariogram function (Chapter 9). The search ellipse moves on the plane of the cross-section, centering the next computational panel while performing interpolation. The strong anisotropic nature, if observed in the semivariogram, is further smoothened by differential weighting factors onsamples selected through search ellipse screening. Thesamples located down-dip are assigned a greater weighting factor than across the orebody. These factors are tested in various options near controlled cells. In this method the near sample points receive greater weighting than points further away. The power factor is often employed as d2.

The tonnage of each panel is estimated by block dimension and bulk Sp. Gr. The cell values (tonnage and grade) can be displayed as a series of bench plans for production scheduling. The inverse power of distance computation is performed by in-house or commercial software following:

The mining industry is a business full of risks, requiring substantial long-term investment. One of the risks is the technical risk associated with project evaluation, process development, plant design, mine planning, and performance of mineral processing/metallurgical unit operations, which is mainly caused by ore variability. To minimize and reduce the technical risk, mining companies have been using geometallurgy in the past two decades to measure and quantify the spatial variability of the deposits that are being developed. Geometallurgy is an interdisciplinary approach that links the geological, geochemical, and mineralogical characteristics to the metallurgical performance of an orebody. Combined with mine planning, it has been used in scoping, prefeasibility and feasibility studies, process design, and optimization of gold, coppergold, coppermolybdenum, nickel and iron projects, among others (Williams and Richardson, 2004; Dobby etal., 2004; Bulled, 2007; Bulled etal., 2009; Lotter etal., 2013; Kormos etal., 2013; Muinonen etal., 2013; Leichliter and Larson, 2013; Leichliter etal., 2013; Hatton and Hatfield, 2013; Baumgartner etal., 2011, 2013; Hoal etal., 2013; Zhou, 2013). The goal of a gold or coppergold geometallurgical program is to characterize and understand the metallurgical variability of an orebody, such as comminution, gravity, flotation, and cyanidation parameters and metal recoveries, and to build a geomet model that can be used to assist in mine planning and to predict plant performance. In any geometallurgical program, representative sampling is the key to ensure that the results of a geometallurgical study will reflect future performance once the plant is commissioned. Mineralogical characterization and metallurgical testing, which leads to an understanding of the orebody, lies at the core of a geometallurgical program. Geometallurgy complements, but does not replace, the traditional mineralogical and metallurgical approach during the development and operation of a gold or coppergold project. Geometallurgy is a methodology for test work design and a framework for mine planning. The first part of this chapter provides an overview of geometallurgy fundamentals and application in gold ore processing, with a focus being on ore characterization.

As a powerful tool in ore characterization, automated mineralogy has been used widely by the minerals industry and research institutes for more than two decades and is commercialized in the form of techniques such as mineral liberation analysis (MLA), QEMSCAN, and more recently Advanced Mineral Identification and Characterisation System (AMICS). It generally uses scanning electron microscopy (SEM) hardware as a platform, combined with electron-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and sophisticated software, to provide information on mineral speciation, composition, liberation, association, and size distribution, etc. This information is not only required for new flowsheet development and process selection but is also useful for plant optimization. The second part of this chapter will first provide an overview of the basic functions of an automated SEM/EDS system, from sample preparation, to measurement, data processing and reporting, introducing model analysis and liberation analysis as basic results. Then, methods especially related to automated gold mineralogy analysis, such as bright/rare phase search (BRPS) and sparse phase liberation (SPL), are discussed.

In the mining industry, cyanide is primarily used for leaching gold and silver from ores, but it is also used in low concentrations as a flotation reagent for the recovery of base metals such as copper, lead, and zinc. At many of these operations, cyanide treatment systems may be required to address potential toxicity issues in regard to the health of humans, wildlife, waterfowl, or aquatic life. This may include the removal of cyanide from one or more of the following:

Cyanide treatment is generally classified as either a destruction-based process or a recovery-based process. In a cyanide-destruction process, either chemical or biological reactions are used to convert cyanide into another less toxic compound, usually cyanate. Cyanide recovery processes, described in more detail in Chapter 36, represent a recycling approach in which cyanide is removed from the solution or slurry and then reused in a metallurgical circuit.

Selection of an appropriate cyanide-treatment process for a particular site involves the consideration of many factors, but normally the number of candidate processes for a particular application can be narrowed following review of the untreated solution or slurry chemistry, the desired effluent quality and the availability of reagents or suitable process waters. Common applications for cyanide treatment in the mining industry are described next.

Tailings slurry treatment is used when the cyanide level must be lowered prior to being discharged into a tailings storage facility. In this application, the initial tailings slurry weak acid dissociable (WAD) cyanide level typically ranges from about 100 to 500mg/L, and treatment to less than 50mg/L cyanide is commonly established as the goal for wildlife and waterfowl protection (Hagelstein and Mudder, 2001; ICMI, 2002).

Solution treatment is used when the cyanide level in decant or process solution must be lowered prior to being discharged into the environment. Treatment of WAD cyanide to low levels is normally required to ensure the protection of human health or aquatic ecosystems. Treatment technologies for solutions commonly employ chemical oxidation and polishing processes, which are applicable to relatively low concentrations of cyanide and generate high-quality effluent.

gold & silver ore mining in the us - industry data, trends, stats | ibisworld

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This ratio is a rough indication of a firms ability to service its current obligations. Generally, the higher the current ratio, the greater the "cushion" between current obligations and a firms ability to pay them. While a stronger ratio shows that the numbers for current assets exceed those for current liabilities, the composition and quality of current assets are critical factors in the analysis of an individual firms liquidity.

This ratio is a rough indication of a firms ability to service its current obligations. Generally, the higher the current ratio, the greater the "cushion" between current obligations and a firms ability to pay them. While a stronger ratio shows that the numbers for current assets exceed those for current liabilities, the composition and quality of current assets are critical factors in the analysis of an individual firms liquidity.

This figure expresses the average number of days that receivables are outstanding. Generally, the greater the number of days outstanding, the greater the probability of delinquencies in accounts receivable. A comparison of this ratio may indicate the extent of a companys control over credit and collections. However, companies within the same industry may have different terms offered to customers, which must be considered.

This is an efficiency ratio, which indicates the average liquidity of the inventory or whether a business has over or under stocked inventory. This ratio is also known as "inventory turnover" and is often calculated using "cost of sales" rather than "total revenue." This ratio is not very relevant for financial, construction and real estate industries.

Because it reflects the ability to finance current operations, working capital is a measure of the margin of protection for current creditors. When you relate the level of sales resulting from operations to the underlying working capital, you can measure how efficiently working capital is being used. *Net Working Capital = Current Assets - Current Liabilities

This ratio calculates the average number of times that interest owing is earned and, therefore, indicates the debt risk of a business. The larger the ratio, the more able a firm is to cover its interest obligations on debt. This ratio is not very relevant for financial industries. This ratio is also known as "times interest earned."

This is a solvency ratio, which indicates a firm's ability to pay its long-term debts. The lower the positive ratio is, the more solvent the business. The debt to equity ratio also provides information on the capital structure of a business, the extent to which a firm's capital is financed through debt. This ratio is relevant for all industries.

This is a solvency ratio indicating a firm's ability to pay its long-term debts, the amount of debt outstanding in relation to the amount of capital. The lower the ratio, the more solvent the business is.

It indicates the profitability of a business, relating the total business revenue to the amount of investment committed to earning that income. This ratio provides an indication of the economic productivity of capital.

This percentage indicates the profitability of a business, relating the business income to the amount of investment committed to earning that income. This percentage is also known as "return on investment" or "return on equity." The higher the percentage, the relatively better profitability is.

This percentage, also known as "return on total investment," is a relative measure of profitability and represents the rate of return earned on the investment of total assets by a business. It reflects the combined effect of both the operating and the financing/investing activities of a business. The higher the percentage, the better profitability is.

This percentage represents the total of cash and other resources that are expected to be realized in cash, or sold or consumed within one year or the normal operating cycle of the business, whichever is longer.

This percentage represents all claims against debtors arising from the sale of goods and services and any other miscellaneous claims with respect to non-trade transaction. It excludes loan receivables and some receivables from related parties.

This percentage represents tangible assets held for sale in the ordinary course of business, or goods in the process of production for such sale, or materials to be consumed in the production of goods and services for sale. It excludes assets held for rental purposes.

This percentage represents tangible or intangible property held by businesses for use in the production or supply of goods and services or for rental to others in the regular operations of the business. It excludes those assets intended for sale. Examples of such items are plant, equipment, patents, goodwill, etc. Valuation of net fixed assets is the recorded net value of accumulated depreciation, amortization and depletion.

This percentage represents obligations that are expected to be paid within one year, or within the normal operating cycle, whichever is longer. Current liabilities are generally paid out of current assets or through creation of other current liabilities. Examples of such liabilities include accounts payable, customer advances, etc.

This percentage represents all current loans and notes payable to Canadian chartered banks and foreign bank subsidiaries, with the exception of loans from a foreign bank, loans secured by real estate mortgages, bankers acceptances, bank mortgages and the current portion of long-term bank loans.

This percentage represents all current loans and notes payable to Canadian chartered banks and foreign bank subsidiaries, with the exception of loans from a foreign bank, loans secured by real estate mortgages, bankers acceptances, bank mortgages and the current portion of long-term bank loans.

This percentage represents obligations that are not reasonably expected to be liquidated within the normal operating cycle of the business but, instead, are payable at some date beyond that time. It includes obligations such as long-term bank loans and notes payable to Canadian chartered banks and foreign subsidiaries, with the exception of loans secured by real estate mortgages, loans from foreign banks and bank mortgages and other long-term liabilities.

This percentage represents the obligations of an enterprise arising from past transactions or events, the settlements of which may result in the transfer of assets, provision of services or other yielding of economic benefits in the future.

This figure represents the sum of two separate line items, which are added together and checked against a companys total assets. This figure must match total assets to ensure a balance sheet is properly balanced.