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drones for mining lower costs & aid operations safely - sensefly

When it comes to optimising the management of your quarry, pit or aggregate operation, accurate geospatial data is key. Today, no tools comes close to providing this data as efficiently, or as safely, as mining drones (or UAVs/UAS).

With a single automated flight, a mining drone can collect timely, georeferenced imagery that is quickly transformed into a precise 3D copy of your site. You can then use this digital version to calculate volumes, perform site surveys, optimise traffic management, design road layouts and much more.

Learn how the surveying department at Barrick Gold Pueblo Viejo in the Dominican Republic uses fixed-wing senseFly eBee surveying drones to monitor the construction of its tailing dam, reconcile volumes, calculate stock pile inventories and more. The result is reduced costs and improved worker safety.

French quarry operator, Groupe CB, turned to drone data analytics expert Redbird to provide accurate geospatial data across nine sites. The result: a major improvement in on-site safety, a 5X reduction in survey costs, and an increase in the depth of Groupe CBs topographic data.

An in-depth conversation with Aidan OConnor of ASM Ireland. Aidan is one of the countrys most knowledgeable commercial drone operators, with particularly extensive experience in the field of quarry surveying.

At senseFly, we believe in using technology to make work safer and more efficient. Our proven drone solutions simplify the collection and analysis of geospatial data, allowing professionals in surveying, agriculture, engineering and humanitarian aid to make better decisions, faster. The company is a commercial drone subsidiary ofParrot Group.

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nevada gold mines, us - mining technology | mining news and views updated daily

Nevada Gold Mines, a joint venture between Barrick (61.5%) and Newmont Goldcorp (38.5%), comprises ten underground and 12 open-pit mines, two autoclave facilities, two roasting facilities, four oxide mills and five heap leach facilities.

Nevada Gold Mines, a joint venture between Barrick (61.5%) and Newmont Goldcorp (38.5%), comprises ten underground and 12 open-pit mines, two autoclave facilities, two roasting facilities, four oxide mills and five heap leach facilities.

The Twin Creeks and Lone Tree complexes are in the Winnemucca region further west while the Phoenix gold / copper project, where ore processing has started building up to a full rate output of 350,000420,000oz/y of gold and around 21,000t/y of copper, is near Battle Mountain.

Newmont Mining Corp started mining gold at Carlin, Nevada, US, in 1965 and thereafter built up a strong land position in the state. Newmont Gold Company later became the companys only major asset while the acquisition of Santa Fe Pacific Gold in 1997 increased Newmonts options for optimising mining and processing. In early 2001, Newmont acquired Battle Mountain Gold Co. and in 2002 Normandy Mining, so further extending its gold mining and exploration base in Nevada. In 2002, Newmont owned or controlled 7,915km of land along Interstate 80.

Mining started with open pits, some of which have been extended underground since 1994. Processing is by a number of methods, according to ore type. In 2005, the company operated 13 open pits, four underground mines and 14 active processing facilities in Nevada. Most, including Leeville (where development ore production started in Q3 2005, totalling 16,000oz by the year-end), are located on the Carlin Trend west of Elko, exploiting the unique mineralisation identified by Newmont in 1964.

Carlin type deposits comprise strata-bound disseminated gold mineralisation, occurring in carbonate rocks of palaeozoic age that have been metamorphosed to varying extents. They are usually structurally controlled.

Mineralisation may be predominantly oxides, sulphides, refractory or carbonaceous sulphides and ore type determines the treatment route. High-grade oxide and sulphide ore can be treated by conventional milling and cyanidation, but for the lower-grade oxides Newmont developed heap-leaching technology.

Similarly, for the large proportion of refractory ores that cannot be processed by conventional methods, the company completed a roasting unit for higher grades and a proprietary bio-oxidation system for lower grades, both in 1994. Refractory ore with a carbonaceous content is treated in the bio facility or by ammonium thiosulphate leaching. The Winnemucca operations use autoclaves to pre-treat refractory ores.

Open-pit mines remain the major source of Carlin Trend ore. Carlin is the original pit but Gold Quarry, which opened in 1985 and has been supplemented by the Tusc satellite pit since 1994, is the largest. Other major pits have been Genesis and Post, while Bootstrap, Beast, Lantern and Sold were opened in 1995. Mining is conventional, using large shovels and haulers.

Underground mining, in higher-grade ore down-dip from existing open pits, started in 1994, with two extensions from Carlin. Rain, which works oxide ores by longhole stoping, is an extension of the depleted Rain pit, and Deep Star is an extension from Genesis. Deep Post, which started up in 2001 and produced 227,000oz in its first year, has its portal located within Barrick Goldstrikes Betze/Post open pit.

In 2002, development began on the 700m-deep Leeville deposit, which has reported reserves of 2.7Moz, with ore hoisting scheduled to start by mid-2006 and to reach 1900t/d by end-2006: full-rate gold output should be 500,000l550,000oz/y for more than eight years. Newmont is using MineStar to help manage its Nevada operations.

The process plants available, some using Newmont proprietary technology, provide considerable flexibility: a linear programme helps to direct ore types to the plant offering the highest economic return. Newmont groups its Nevada process units as follows:

In 2005, Newmonts Nevada open pits mined 175Mt of material and the underground mines 1.42Mt. The oxide mills processed 4.20Mt averaging 4.3g/t gold, the refractory mills 8.15Mt averaging 6.8g/t, and leach dumps 17.5Mt averaging 0.9g/t to give a total output of 2.46Moz of gold.

The companys consolidated Nevada gold sales were down 3.7% to 2.44Moz, while applicable cash costs rose 18.1% to US$333/oz. As the electricity price is a key contributor to cost increases, Newmont constructed a 203MW power station near Elko, which saves up to $20/oz in total cash costs and was completed in 2008.

gold ore processing plant manufacturer gold mining equipment

This small scale rock gold processing plant is suitable for 1-2 tph capacity.It will include a jaw crusher, a hammer mill, a ball mill and 1-2 sets of shaking tables. Except these machines, you can also add a 8-10 meters belt conveyor and make a hopper with grizzly bars. It will help you to feed the ores by the load vehicle. Contact Us to get more details of this processing plant.

1. The 1st step Crushing. The Raw rock minerals will be fed into the crushers to get the discharge size less then 25mm. Usually it will need 2 crushers, the primary crusher is for cutting down the big size of rocks, and the second crushers is for getting the size of -25mm.

2. The 2nd step Grinding. The grinding machine will be ball mill or wet pan mill. If you need to grind the minerals without waters, then you should choose ball mill. The ball mill has a grinding rotary drum, there are liners inside of the drum. Usually the liners are manganese steel liners, some times, the customers ask the liners can be corrosion resistant, so we will make ceramic liners and rubber liners. The discharge size from the ball mill will be around 200 mesh. It will make a good performance for the mineral particle separators by gravity separators or flotation machines.

3. The 3rd step Separating. The discharge from the grinding machines will be in the size of 0-2mm. Most gravity separators can do a good work for separating the concentrate from the ores. It includes the shaking tables, centrifugal concentrators, jigger machines and spiral chutes. Sometime, we do also choose the flotation machines to get the concentrate mud. It depends on the ores situations.

Due to the size,shape and specific gravity of alluvial gold, the most effecient method is using washing plant. It always includes a trommel screen, vibrating sluice boxes, a centrifugal concentrator and shaking tabls. If the alluvial gold with very sticky clay, then the trommel screen should be changed into a rotary scrubber with a trommel screen.

We have more than 25 years experience, and the machines are sold to all over the world. Our engineers can go to your local mining site for leading the processing plant installation and train your staffs.

romanian mining revives: from the black hole of the economy to profit

Slovakias OFZ has recently bought a manganese quarry. Located in Vatra Dornei, the quarry had been part of the defunct company MinBucovina, entered into bankruptcy in 2008 and it was subsequently taken over by another company that, in turn, went into insolvency. Against a price of EUR 1mln, the representatives of the Slovak company, which produces ferro-alloys, say that this quarry will provide about one-fifth of the manganese demand for at least 20 years.

Vast Resources, company listed on AIM market of the London Stock Exchange, owns in Romania 100% of the gold project Manaila, Suceava County, and 80% of the polymetallic mine from Baita, Bihor County, for which it is waiting to get the operating license from NAMR. The money announced to be invested represents part of the first instalment of the financing agreement of USD 9.5mln concluded in January this year by the British company with Mercuria Energy Trading SA.

By concluding this first phase of the agreement, Vast Resources will allocate USD 2.6mln to develop the mines managed in Suceava and Bihor counties. Companys priority for this year remains the construction of the metallurgical complex near the mine in Suceava, whose purpose is to contribute to reducing transport costs, streamlining the entire process and increasing the production capacity, a communique of the British company reads.

The second instalment of the agreement signed with Mercuria Energy Trading, worth USD 5.5mln, is expected to be traded in July this year, according to the plan announced by the company, which reported early this year through the voice of Andrew Prelea, CEO of the company, that for 2018 the investment budget allocated for Romania was USD 9.5-10mln. Shareholders of Vast Resources, a company listed on the alternative market of London Stock Exchange, include internationally renowned companies such as Barclays or Investec Wealth & Investment.

Companys manager, Nigel Munro Ferguson, has recently met with local authorities to find together the possibilities of reopening the mines in the area. Ferguson is not at the first attempt to take over mines in Romania, initially targeting a number of copper mines, but the discussions carried out at the Ministry of Economy havent been completed yet.

SAMAX Romania will have to pay taxes and royalties. The annual tax on mining exploitation is RON 34,180/sq km. Royalty is 5% of the value of mining production for non-ferrous ores and 6% for noble metals. Moreover, local taxes also have to be paid. The surface of the mining site is 27.678sq km.

Consequently, the annual value of the tax on mining activity is RON 946,034.04. The value of the mining production estimated for the concession period of 20 contractual years is USD 3,697,911,600 for gold and USD 1,772,194,945 for copper. Consequently, the value of royalty owed to the state budget for the concession period is USD 221,874,696 for gold and USD 88,609,737.25 for copper, the decision prepared by the Government shows.

The deposit in Rovina, near Rosia Montana, contains gold-copper ore of porphyry copper type, easier to exploit through the floatation method a technology that does not involve the use of cyanide. The gold deposit in Rovina is the second largest in Europe and is valued at around USD 5 billion.

how to build a mine

The old adage Mines are made not found is a good start to How to Build a Mine. There are thousands of mineral discoveries with very few that reach the positive feasibility stage and fewer yet where a profitable mine is actually built. There are three key components to building a mine, starting with a competent, experienced management team. The second component is the financing required to build the mine. The third component is the deposit, which needs to be technically sound and economically feasible. This article assumes that a positive feasibility study (FS) has been completed.

In a normal mining market, financing will be available to proven management teams. An experienced management team can make the most out of a marginal deposit, while an inexperienced team can botch up the best deposit. This is not to say that good teams have not failed, as a number of very successful mine builders have started with, or had at least one failure, in their careers.

An FS produces a Life-of-Mine plan with development and production schedules based on the mining method and operating rate determined. The operating rate is based on what is practically and technically achievable for the deposit. Operating costs and capital costs are developed to within +/- 20% or better. A Life-of-Mine cash flow model is developed to include all revenue, operating costs and capital costs with the cash flow generating Net Present Values for the mine at several discount rates. An after-tax Internal Rate of Return of about 20% to 30% would be considered positive, combined with a quick payback of capital of two to three years and a mine life of five to ten years with a longer mine life preferred.

Also, to allow some leeway for slower ramp up to full production, swings in metal prices and mistakes, it is very important to have sufficient cash flow, say double, to payback the initial capital. The strategy should be to develop the mine as quickly as possible with the least amount of capital and mining /processing the high-est grades first.

Armed with a positive FS, senior management and the board of directors of the company that owns the project must decide whether they want to sell the project or their company, find a joint venture partner, or to build the mine themselves. Managements first responsibility is to do what is best for the majority of the share-holders. Thus, if the price is right, a sale of the company may be the best route. A sale of the project and not the company is more complicated, as cash or shares remain in the company.

The second option would be to find a joint venture partner with the financing and or experienced team to build the mine, which is not as desirable, as the original owner will have to give up a significant amount of ownership to attract the new partner.

The third option is for the company to build the mine itself, whereby it will need to raise funds (financing) through equity (shares), debt such as loans, convertible debentures, royalty streams, smelter off-take agreements or some combination.

Assuming that the financing is in place, the project owner needs to hire a person to manage the project through to commissioning of the mine and potentially become the General Manager (GM) of the ongoing operation. This person should have experience in managing these types of projects and preferably have operations experience to mine manager level. The GM will hire several persons, the Owners Team to assist in managing the actual building of the mine and related aspects such as environmental, permitting, human resources and First Nations communications. Alternatively, the GM could engage a management company to act as the Owners Representative with a team in place that will manage most of the aspects required to build the mine. The key components for actually building the mine are engineering, procurement and construction management (EPCM). There are large firms that carry out all of this work and smaller individual consulting firms that can do the work in conjunction with associates. The Owners Team or Representative selects, engages and manages all of the consultants and contractors required to build the mine and will need to be in place through the EPCM phase, including commissioning of the process plant.

Once the mine Owners Team or Representative is in place and has engaged the consultants and contractors to carry out all aspects of building the mine, work will begin to build the mine based on the design, plan and schedule developed in the FS. The construction of roads, rail, air-strips or ports to access the mine plus the services such as water, sewage and power will begin, with much of this work similar to the work required for establishing other types of industries except that this construction could be in remote areas with added logistical challenges.

Construction of ancillary buildings such as the office, maintenance shop, warehouse, employee camp, and kitchen/ cafeteria is also similar to other industries. The key difference in construction is the mine itself, the crushing and processing plant, the tailings storage facility, permanent waste storage areas, in particular, if the waste is considered to be acid generating. For remote mine sites, it may be necessary to charter helicopters and/or private planes of various sizes to bring in equipment and personnel.

The FS will include base line studies of all environmental aspects to determine what the current environment is for the habitat of all living things and the long-term impact of building a mine. The quantity and quality of all ore and waste to be mined plus tailings will have been determined with regard to the potential to generate acid and other deleterious metals plus how to treat these issues while operating and at closure. The quantity and quality of water used during operation, the requirement for long-term treatment will have been determined. The work carried out for the FS is the basis for submitting plans for all permits required to obtain a licence to start mining. In Canada, there are two levels of permitting, provincial and federal. For smaller mines that do not have a significant impact on fisheries and waterways or international boundaries, only provincial permitting is required. For larger mines, both provincial and federal permitting is required.

What is called social licence to operate is now high on the list of risks in building a mine. Without approval from all stake-holders that will be impacted by the mine, governments will not provide approval to build the mine. Permitting includes a full closure plan for the end of the mine. In Canada, consultation is required with First Nations prior to granting a licence to develop a mine. This has complicated the permitting process, adding time, costs and risk to the process.

Development of the mine itself will be quite different for an open pit than an underground mine and will require different experience and equipment. Porphyry deposits are often large and many of the current deposits are near surface, thus are mined as open pits with large mining equipment; however, at depth some may have suitable characteristics to convert to large underground block caving mines. Vein type deposits are often narrow, can go to depth and are mined by underground methods with smaller equipment.

Operating costs are normally a function of the size of the equipment used for the mining method. Thus, open pits with large equipment have lower operating costs than underground mines. The grade of ore that can be mined is a function of the operating costs. Thus, the lower the operating costs, the lower the grade of ore that can be mined.

An open pit requires large equipment used to mine large quantities of ore and waste with overburden of soil stripped before the start of the pit. Sufficient over-burden is stripped and waste is mined, at a large capital cost, at the beginning, to provide the start to the open pit with the first benches of ore exposed and mined to sustain the process plant at capacity once the plant has started up. The mining method and equipment for an open pit mine is determined by the type of deposit, shape, size, and depth. The key pit design parameters are the slope of the walls, the bench heights and widths, the location of the road access for equipment and sizing of the equipment.

The underground mining method and operating rate chosen in the FS is mainly dependent on the thickness of the ore, the orientation (flat to vertical), the stability of the ore and the host rock, in particular the walls adjacent to the ore. Historic mining methods included a lot of timber support for unstable ground, whereas, modern ground support has changed to mechanized support such as rock bolts, screen and shotcrete. Wide veins and larger ore zones can now be completely mechanized for drilling, blasting, ground support and mucking. More precise long hole drilling and smaller mechanized equipment is now allowing many narrow veins to convert to safer sub level long hole mining instead of the more labour intensive conventional shrinkage and cut and fill mining methods.

Development of an underground mine is more complicated than an open pit and requires different experience and equipment plus different design depending on whether a shaft, adit or decline (sloping tunnel) is the main means of access. If the mine access is via an adit or decline, then this is easier to get started, requires less equipment, expertise, less development to open up the first stopes for mining and less capital.

Once the first stopes are developed, the decline can continue downwards, opening up new stopes after production commences. If a shaft needs to be sunk instead of a decline, then a headframe needs to be constructed with a hoist installed. The shaft needs to be sunk and equipped for a man cage and skip for ore and waste. As it is difficult to sink the shaft while the mine is operating and it is expensive to setup for deepening the shaft, the initial sinking will often be to a depth that allows mining for the first five to ten years, which is a large, initial capital outlay.

If a decline is required as well, then there is an additional expense, but with the benefit that mining of ore can start as soon as the first few months of ore have been developed from the decline. Subsequently, the shaft can continue sinking while the plant is already processing ore from the mine. In conjunction with the main accesses, other development will be required for ventilation and a secondary means of egress.

The crushing and processing facility is constructed based on the testing, flow sheet and design determined in the FS. Processing of the ore starts with understanding the mineralogy, then metallurgical testing for crushing, grinding and recovery of the metals and treatment/management of the tailings.

The metallurgy is extremely important and lack of sufficient testing up front has been the demise of a number of projects. Most deposits require one or two stages of crushing and sometimes a third stage, with at least one crusher in closed circuit, via screening to provide a feed to the grinding circuit of one quarter inch to half inch size. However, if semi-autogenous grinding (SAG) is used, the ore feed to the SAG from primary crushing may be six inch, thus eliminating the need for secondary crushing prior to the SAG Mill. Conventional grinding using a rod mill or ball mill will also be used, or some combination, to grind the ore to fine powder (micron size) using rods, balls, with the ore in the SAG mill to assist with the grinding, while the mills rotate.

Once the ore is ground to the prescribed size for optimum recovery of the economic minerals, then these metals are recovered by a number of processes. Gold and silver can be recovered by gravity for the free gold/silver followed by cyanidation of the lower grade ore to make dor bars on site from both products. Alternatively, after gravity, a flotation step can be used to produce a lower grade concentrate to be shipped to smelters worldwide for final processing. Base metal and polymetallic ores usually use differential flotation to produce one or more concentrates to be sent to smelters worldwide.

Heap leaching has been used for some time for lower grade, precious metal and copper deposits, whereby the ore only has to be crushed to a size that liberates most of the economic metals and does not have to be ground, a quarter inch to a few inches in size is sufficient to achieve metal recoveries in the order of 60% to 80%. Heap leaching eliminates the need for a grinding circuit, flotation and/or large cyanide tanks, thus reducing the initial capital and operating costs. The crushed ore is trucked or conveyed to a leach pad where an impervious liner collects the leach solution from the heap, which has been sprayed with cyanide as each layer of ore is placed.

Carbon-in-Pulp, Carbon-in-Leach, Merrill Crowe, Solution-Extraction-Electro-Winning are a few of the processes to recover precious metals from the cyanide solution. Gold and silver dor that is produced on site from conventional milling and heap leaching will be sent to refineries including the Canadian mint for final refining to 99.999% purity from a dor bar that contains between 80% and 99% gold or silver. Dor bars provide quick cash flow from production with low shipment and refining costs compared to concentrates of large volumes that may require shipment halfway around the world with payments for the metals staggered over months.

Tailings from all of the processes must be deposited in a conventional tailings storage facility, near the plant, with a dam and often lined, or dried and stacked, or deposited underground after thickening, or after it has been made into a paste. If cyanide is used, then residual cyanide in the tailings stream must be destroyed prior to leaving the plant.

In summary, building a mine takes a long time from discovery to mining the deposit, usually 10 years or more with a huge amount of capital invested by many investors from the high-risk exploration stage through feasibility to building the mine. The skills and expertise of people from very diverse backgrounds are used in the conception and planning regarding the technical, environmental, social and economic impacts of the project on the local habitat, communities and the country.

Mr. Sveinson is a professional mining engineer with more than 40 years experience in exploration, development, construction, operation and financing of mining projects ranging in size from 100 to 2,000 tonnes per day in Canada, the United States, South America and Africa. Mr. Sveinson is President of International Mine Builders Inc., a consulting firm providing management and technical services to the mining industry.

large scale mining operations in zimbabwe - mining zimbabwe

The government through the Ministry of Mines and Mining Development has a vision for the mining industry to earn the country US$12 BILLION annually by 2023 an achievement that will have the capacity to transform the countrys economy to yester-years heights.

The country has many mid-tier and large-scale Mines which are well geared and oiled and are actively playing a critical role in helping achieve President E.D Mnangagwas vision for the mining sector to achieve a US$12 BILLION industry by 2023.

Zimplats is 87 percent owned by Implats, a leading South African platinum producer. Its Ngezi operation is located on the Hartley Geological Complex on the Zimbabwean Great Dyke approximately 150 kilometres southwest of Harare.

The Hartley Geological complex is the largest of the PGM-bearing complexes containing 80% of the known PGM resources in Zimbabwe. In FY2018 the operation produced 270 800 ounces of platinum in matte (including concentrate sold).

Zimplats operates four shallow mechanized underground mines, one open-pit and two concentrators at Ngezi. The Selous Metallurgical Complex (SMC), located some 77 kilometres north of the underground operations, comprises a concentrator and a smelter.

The companys Half-year revenue for the half-ended 31 December 2020 increased by 79 percent to US$674.9 million compared to the same period last year, largely driven by increases in average metal prices and volumes of metal sold.

RioZim separated from Rio Tinto plc in 2004 and became a wholly-owned Zimbabwean company that produces gold, coal, toll refines nickel and copper, it is listed on the Zimbabwe Stock Exchange. The group is divided into five distinct business units; RioGold, RioBase Metals, RioChrome, RioDiamonds, and RioEnergy. RioZim currently operates the Dalny mine, One step mines, Renco Gold mine in the south-east of Zimbabwe, the Cam & Motor gold mine in Kadoma, the Maranatha ferrochrome refinery in Kadoma, and the Empress Nickel Refinery near the city of Kadoma in Mashonalandwest. The group also owns 50 per cent of Sengwa Colliery Pty Ltd in Gokwe North.

The Renco Mine is 100 per cent owned by RioZim Limited. The mining rights are held through mining claims, a mining lease, and a special grant covering a total area of 2 736 hectares. The mine is located in the South-East of Zimbabwe in Nyajena communal lands, approximately 75km southeast of Masvingo.

Rios flagship mine is Cam and Motor Mine located 130km southwest of Harare, 10km to the east of Kadoma, at Eiffel Flats on the site of the former Cam and Motor Mine. The mine was once the largest producer of gold in Zimbabwe and produced in excess of 150 tonnes of gold in its entire life.

In Zimbabwe, Premier is building a mining operation at RHA tungsten and conduction exploration programmes on its Zulu Lithium and Tantalum project as well as at exploration for Rare Earth Elements at Katete and Lubimbi projects.

RioZim holds a 22 percent interest in Murowa Diamonds Pvt Ltd and is moving into the chrome mining and smelting industry of Sengwa Colliery Pty Ltd in Gokwe North holds a 22 percent interest in Murowa Diamonds Pvt Ltd and is moving into the chrome mining and smelting industry.

The Company has mining operations in Manicaland in Mutares Chiadzwa area and Chimanimani. The Company is conducting exploration and resource evaluation programs across Zimbabwe and expects to open new mines in other parts of the country soon.

Controversial Chinese mining company, Anjin operates diamond mining in Zimbabwe at the Chiadzwa mining fields in Marange. Anjin had to shut operations back in 2015 after the Mugabe administration forced the closure of seven mining companies and the subsequent merger of their assets into the Zimbabwe Consolidated Diamond Company (ZCDC).

Caledonia Mining owns one of Zimbabwes largest gold producers, Blanket Mine which produces around 60 000 ounces by 2022 the Company plans to increase its annual production by 45 percent up to 80,000 ounces.

Caledonia is committed to evaluating investment opportunities in Zimbabwe and has entered into two option agreements to acquire the mining claims over Glen Hume and Connemara North in the Midlands province.

The company owns Golden Quarry mine in Shurugwi. Founded in 1991, Falcon Gold Zimbabwe is a subsidiary of New Dawn Mining Group. New Dawn Mining Corp. is involved in the exploration, development, extraction, processing and reclamation of precious metal deposits in Zimbabwe.

It primarily explores for gold, base metals and precious metals. Falcon Gold Zimbabwe Limited also has an operational processing plant and ancillary infrastructure which supports a central processing plant that treats ore from Pickstone.

Duration Gold Limited offers gold exploration and production services. The company owns 5 core assets with historic production of 4.6 million oz. It also sells gold at international spot prices. The company was founded in 2006 and is based in Bulawayo, Zimbabwe. Duration Gold Limited operates as a subsidiary of Clarity Enterprises Limited. One of its flagship gold mines is Vubachikwe, which is one of Zimbabwes oldest gold mines and also Gaika, Queens mine among others.

Dallaglio is a gold mining company with the potential to become Zimbabwes largest producer, producing 4 tonnes of gold annually. The firm owns Pickstone Peerless Mine and The Giant gold claims in Chegutu District in Mashonaland West Province and Eureka Gold Mine in Guruve District, Mashonaland Central Province.

Bilboes Gold Ltd, a subsidiary of Bilboes Holdings. Bilboes Holdings (Pvt) Ltd (Bilboes) owns and operates the Isabella-McCays-Bubi Oxide Complex, which comprises three existing gold mining operations. The company also owns When, Bubi and McCays gold mines in the southern region of the country.

Unki Mine is owned by Amplats and is located in the southern half of Zimbabwes Great Dyke geological formationwidely recognised as the second-largest resource of PGMs in the world. The Midlands-based miner is currently Zimbabwes second-largest PGM producer after Zimplats.

Venice Mine Complex (VMC) is a complex of mines in Zimbabwe that holds 106 mining blocks covering an area of approximately 2,664 hectares. It has extensive underground and surface infrastructure and over 100 years of recorded production. VMC was closed down in 2002 whilst under the management of Falcon Gold Zimbabwe Limited citing a lack of adequate exploration and development on the mine, the deteriorating economic climate in Zimbabwe and a low gold price.

VMC was acquired by Maris in 2015, with a plan for reinvigoration in a phased approach. In 2013, in partnership with managing director David May, Maris invested in a group of 32 mining blocks covering 5 mines, which had laid dormant since the 1980s: Bee Mine, Bee Eater Mine, Pamela Mine, Commoner Mine and Welcome Back Mine in Zimbabwe.

Golden Valley mine is a gold-producing mine located in Patchway, approximately 18km from the City of Kadoma. It is currently owned by John Mack company with Head office located in Harare. The mine is one of the biggest producers of gold in Mashonaland West province.

Implats and Sibanye-Stillwater owned Mimosa mine in Zvishavane is Zimbabwes third platinum producer after Zimplats and Amplats Unki mine, as of 31 December 2020 Mimosa has 1.5 million oz of 4E PGM mineral reserves and 6.2 million oz of 4E PGM mineral resources.

At Mimosa, the focus is being given to developing the Mtshingwe Shaft and further evaluating the Mtshingwe Block, extending the life of mine, stabilizing production profiles at current performance levels, and fast-tracking the conversion of mineral resources to mineral reserves.

Alrosa is a Russian group of diamond mining companies that specialize in the exploration, mining, manufacture, and sale of diamonds. Alrosa is Russias leading diamond mining and distribution company, accounting for 95% of Russian diamond production and 27% of global diamond extraction.

Hwanges mining operations are predominately open pit. The company owns, the Hwange Coalfield and Chaba Mine located in the north-western region of Zimbabwe; its head office is in the capital city, Harare.

The coal miner is located in Matabeleland. The company is 60 percent owned by a group of Zimbabweans, while British and South African investors hold the rest. In July 2014 the company said it has plans to spend US$1.5 billion on a 600-megawatt power plant in Hwange. Construction was planned to start in 2018. Makomo would finance the plant together with Chinese investors. Makomo would mine the fuel for the power station; it also supplies the nearby state-owned Hwange power station.

Zambezi Gas Zimbabwe (Pvt) Ltd is a wholly-owned Zimbabwean private limited company operating in the coal mining and coalbed methane exploration industry since its incorporation on August 1st, 2002. Zambezi Gas explores mine, process, and market coal, coke, and their associated by-products. The company has in its portfolio an operating mine with a mining license expiring in 2042 as well as an on-going CBM exploration project both of which are situated in the Entuba Coalfields in Hwange Matabeleland North Province. The Entuba Rail Siding is located just 2km from the Companys mining operation which is approximately 12km from Hwange town.

Chilota Colliery began operations late last year and is now producing 30,000 tonnes of coking coal per month used to produce coke; the high-quality fuel needed by smelters. Chilota colliery is producing 30,000 tonnes of coking coal and about 30,000 tonnes of thermal coal for Zimbabwe Power Company (ZPC), which they are producing at Chaba Mines under a contract mining arrangement with Hwange Colliery.

The Zimbabwe Mining and Smelting Company (Zimasco) operates ferrochrome mines in Mashonaland West and the Midlands provinces. It also operates Zimbabwes largest ferrochrome smelter in the Midlands town of Kwekwe.

The Bikita mine is the largest lithium mine in Zimbabwe. Bikita is owned by Southern Africa Metals and Minerals Limited chaired by investor Mr. Wilfred Pabst. The mine holds the worlds largest-known deposit of lithium at approximately 11 million tonnes. The mine is located in southern Zimbabwe in Masvingo Province.

How mine is owned by Metallon Corporation. How Mine has been in operation since 1942 and has produced over a million ounces of gold to date. It comprises a single underground operation, where ore is processed at a central processing facility, using a combination of conventional milling and a carbon-in-leach process.

Redwing Mine is owned and operated by Metallons Kings Daughter Mining Company Limited. Redwing Mine resumed production in 2015 following dewatering. The mine is located in Manicaland province in the east of Zimbabwe, about 20 kilometres northeast of the city of Mutare and 265 kilometres southeast of Harare.

Bindura based Freda Rebecca gold mine was previously owned by Freda Rebecca Holdings (Pvt) Limited and ASA Gold Limited (formerly Mwana Africa Ltd). The mine is one of the countrys leading gold and silver producer.

The mine is situated on the Mazowe-Bindura greenstone belt. The belts surrounding area is characterised by shamvaian sediments, diorite and granodiorite that are traversed by dolerite dykes. Ore bodies are located within two major mineralised envelopes.

The envelopes are characterised by shears. The two shears unite in the southwest and flatten at a height of about 850m before extending into metasediments. They are defined by a number of anastomosing shears that are separated by under-formed rocks.

Sabi Gold mine is a gold mine owned by Anesu Gold and the State of Zimbabwe. Includes Sabi Extra, Canada, and White Sabi to the north and Monte Carlo and Hazard to the south, all located within the main shear. The mine is one of the countrys largest producers of the yellow metal.

Dorowa Minerals is wholly owned by Chemplex Corporation and is the only phosphate mine in Zimbabwe. Mining is by opencast method and involves ripping and dozing in soft rock and drilling and blasting in hard rock.

The Dorowa deposit is volcanic and exists within a horseshoe-shaped range of hills. It is very fortunate that the deposit is only 5 kilometres from the Save River from which water is extracted at the rate of five million litres per day for use on the flotation plant.

The beneficiation plant consists of milling and flotation processes to produce phosphate concentrates which are converted into superphosphates at ZimPhos, a sister company. Ore from the pit is at 6, 5% P2O5 and the concentrates being dried and sent to Zimbabwe Phosphate Industries (ZimPhos) are at 37% P2O5.

Samrec Vermiculite Zimbabwe (Pvt) Ltd are the owners of the Shawa Vermiculite Mine. The Shawa Vermiculite Mine is located near the township of Dorowa, approximately 300 kms South East of Harare, the capital city of Zimbabwe.

The Shawa deposit is one of the largest vermiculite deposits in the world located within a 5.5 km radius alkali ring complex. The deposit was formed 209 million years ago, with the vermiculite being hosted within ijolite rocks.

ZSE listed BNC is operated and 73.64% owned by Kuvimba Mining House. The Mine is located, in Bindura Mashonaland East Zimbabwe. Its Smelter and Refinery Complex is located south of Bindura. The smelter produces nickel cathodes, copper sulphide and cobalt hydroxide. BNC is the countrys largest nickel producer

Kuvimba is also the majority owner of listed Bindura Nickel Corporation and is seeking to acquire chrome and more gold assets. The company is also linked to Darwendale platinum mine and owns Shamva, Jena, Golden Kopje, Elvington, ZimAlloys and Sandawana mines. Kuvimba already has interests in mining assets, including gold, chrome, nickel, gemstone, platinum group metals (PGMs) and chrome.

The company according to experts has the potential to become Zimbabwes biggest miner at the same time becoming the largest producer of gold, PGM and Chrome among other minerals. It is set to embark on exploration works at Golden Kopje and Elvington gold mines to establish their commercial viability and It wholly controls gold mines, Freda Rebecca.

TN gold is a mining company owned by Business mogul Tawanda Nyambira. The company owns Arcturus Gold Mine which previously belonged to Britain-based Metallon Gold. The Goromonzi based Arcturus mine is one of the oldest operating mines in Zimbabwe and has the potential to produce one tonne gold per annum.

The company owns Colleen Bawn mine in Matebeleland South. PPC Has two plants in Bulawayo and Colleen Bawn. The two PPC Zimbabwe plants are among the most modern in southern Africa and well located to serve both the Zimbabwean and neighbouring export markets. Combined, they have an annual capacity of 760 000 tons of cement. The Bulawayo plant can produce another 300 000 tons of cement per annum with clinker supplied from PPCs South African operations, while the installation of a new cooler and upgrade to the kiln at Colleen Bawn increased capacity by around 20% in 2010.

The company has two mining operations where limestone is extracted. These include Mbubu in Mashonaland East Province and Sternblick quarry in Harare. Lafarge Cement Zimbabwe has an installed Plant Capacity of 500 000 tonnes per annum.

Despite facing economic challenges for over a decade, mining in Zimbabwe is still going strong. It is an undisputed fact that some mines and mining companies need to up their game to increase production which currently the national focus as companies move to achieve the 12billion Mining Industry by 2023. The government can also necessitate increased production by maintaining consistency and improving service delivery which is seriously lagging behind in the Mines and Mining Development Ministry (MMMD).

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