grinding the iron ore

nier replicant: where to find iron ore

Theres really no getting around how much of a pain material grinding is in most RPGs, let alone Nier. A remake to 2010s Nier Gestalt, Nier Replicant has improved upon its source material in virtually every respect without needlessly modernizing the game. Unfortunately, this also means Nier retains quite a few of its ugliest traits, most notable being the sheer amount of effort needed to grind for certain items.

Quite a lot of Iron Ore is needed for both side quests and weapon upgrading in Nier Replicant, to the point where anyone looking for 100% completion will need to grind. To make matters worse, Iron Ore isnt even one of Niers rarest items.

Updated on June 22, 2021 by Renan Fontes:Nier Replicant does not make grinding easy and will break most players before they're even halfway to upgrading all their weapons. The inventory limit also means that you can't hold onto all the materials you'll need, especially when it comes to Iron Ore. Nier can only hold 99 of each item at a time, but players will have to grind over 300 Iron Ores to fully upgrade every weapon and attain 100% side quest completion. The grind is worth it for some handsome payouts and the strongest weapon in the game, though.

Iron Ore is one of the most common materials in Nier Replicant and can be obtained multiple ways. Unfortunately, so much Iron Ore is needed to 100% Nier that this ultimately doesnt matter. Players will need to get their hands on at least 303 Iron Ore before they can so much as think about selling any for profit. Iron Ore can be obtained by:

Iron Ore is fairly pricey at 1,000 Gold per pop, so its not exactly wise to just up and buy all the Ore you need. Money isnt too hard to come by, but hundreds of Iron Ore purchases do add up and your Gold is better spent on rarer materials.

A total of 30 Iron Ore are needed for side quests in Nier Replicant. The Creaky Wheel is a Part 2 side quest that has Nier traveling to Facade to repair his Village waterwheel. The quest is triggered in Nier's Village and can be completed at any point. Players need 10 Iron Ore and 10 Logs to commission the parts at the Strange-Thing Store. Logs can be purchased for 500 Gold in the Village, but theyre also a common drop at forested harvest points. Once all the materials have been found and Nier has spoken with the owner of the Strange-Thing Store, return to your Village to check up on the wheel and net your 10,000 Gold reward.

A City Reborn is also a Facade side questand unlocks after completing the Loyal Cerberus Key Fragment. Speak to the Royal Guard posted outside the Facade Castle and he'll request some materials to help in the city's reconstruction. Nier needs to exchange 20 Iron Ore, 20 Clay, and 20 Logs to benefitFacades economy. Clay can be found at mineral harvest points just like Iron Ore, but they can also be purchased at the Facade material shop. Once all the materials have been collected, speak with the guard to get your 50,000 Gold reward.

Anyone whos looking to upgrade every single weapon in Nier Replicant should make peace with all the grinding theyre going to have to do. To get 100% weapon completion in Nier, you need a total of 273 Iron Ore for nine different weapons including the YoRHa DLC weapons from Nier: Automata. The following weapons need Iron Ore to be upgraded:

Beastbain, Cruel Oath, and the Ending E Sword are easily three of the best weapons in the game, so do hold onto any Iron Ore. The Ending E Sword in particular actually has the highest damage output, so it's worth saving materials specifically to fully upgrade it ASAP. That said, you'll only be doing so after fully completing the game. Feel free to start selling off any Iron Ore once youve exhausted all necessary 303. Until then, enjoy the grind and know that farming for Iron Ore is only the tip of the iceberg when it comes to Nier Replicant.

beneficiation of iron ore

Beneficiation of Iron Ore and the treatment of magnetic iron taconites, stage grinding and wet magnetic separation is standard practice. This also applies to iron ores of the non-magnetic type which after a reducing roast are amenable to magnetic separation. All such plants are large tonnage operations treating up to 50,000 tons per day and ultimately requiring grinding as fine as minus 500-mesh for liberation of the iron minerals from the siliceous gangue.

Magnetic separation methods are very efficient in making high recovery of the iron minerals, but production of iron concentrates with less than 8 to 10% silica in the magnetic cleaning stages becomes inefficient. It is here that flotation has proven most efficient. Wet magnetic finishers producing 63 to 64% Fe concentrates at 50-55% solids can go directly to the flotation section for silica removal down to 4 to 6% or even less. Low water requirements and positive silica removal with low iron losses makes flotation particularly attractive. Multistage cleaning steps generally are not necessary. Often roughing off the silica froth without further cleaning is adequate.

The iron ore beneficiation flowsheet presented is typical of the large tonnage magnetic taconite operations. Multi-parallel circuits are necessary, but for purposes of illustration and description a single circuit is shown and described.

The primary rod mill discharge at about minus 10- mesh is treated over wet magnetic cobbers where, on average magnetic taconite ore, about 1/3of the total tonnage is rejected as a non-magnetic tailing requiring no further treatment. The magnetic product removed by the cobbers may go direct to the ball mill or alternately may be pumped through a cyclone classifier. Cyclone underflows usually all plus 100 or 150 mesh, goes to the ball mill for further grinding. The mill discharge passes through a wet magnetic separator for further upgrading and also rejection of additional non-magnetic tailing. The ball mill and magnetic cleaner and cyclone all in closed circuit produce an iron enriched magnetic product 85 to 90% minus 325 mesh which is usually the case on finely disseminated taconites.

The finely ground enriched product from the initial stages of grinding and magnetic separation passes to a hydroclassifier to eliminate the large volume of water in the overflow. Some finely divided silica slime is also eliminated in this circuit. The hydroclassifier underflow is generally subjected to at least 3 stages of magnetic separation for further upgrading and production of additional final non-magnetic tailing. Magnetic concentrate at this point will usually contain 63 to 64% iron with 8 to 10% silica. Further silica removal at this point by magnetic separation becomes rather inefficient due to low magnetic separator capacity and their inability to reject middling particles.

The iron concentrate as it comes off the magnetic finishers is well flocculated due to magnetic action and usually contains 50-55% solids. This is ideal dilution for conditioning ahead of flotation. For best results it is necessary to pass the pulp through a demagnetizing coil to disperse the magnetic floes and thus render the pulp more amenable to flotation.

Feed to flotation for silica removal is diluted with fresh clean water to 35 to 40% solids. Being able to effectively float the silica and iron silicates at this relatively high solid content makes flotation particularly attractive.

For this separation Sub-A Flotation Machines of the open or free-flow type for rougher flotation are particularly desirable. Intense aeration of the deflocculated and dispersed pulp is necessary for removal of the finely divided silica and iron silicates in the froth product. A 6-cell No. 24 Free-FlowFlotation Machine will effectively treat 35 to 40 LTPH of iron concentrates down to the desired limit, usually 4 to 6% SiO2. Loss of iron in the froth is low. The rough froth may be cleaned and reflotated or reground and reprocessed if necessary.

A cationic reagent is usually all that is necessary to effectively activate and float the silica from the iron. Since no prior reagents have come in contact with thethoroughly washed and relatively slime free magnetic iron concentrates, the cationic reagent is fast acting and in somecases no prior conditioning ahead of the flotation cells is necessary.

A frother such as Methyl Isobutyl Carbinol or Heptinol is usually necessary to give a good froth condition in the flotation circuit. In some cases a dispersant such as Corn Products gum (sometimes causticized) is also helpful in depressing the iron. Typical requirements may be as follows:

One operation is presently using Aerosurf MG-98 Amine at the rate of .06 lbs/ton and 0.05 lbs/ton of MIBC (methyl isobutyl carbinol). Total reagent cost in this case is approximately 5 cents per ton of flotation product.

The high grade iron product, low in silica, discharging from the flotation circuit is remagnetized, thickened and filtered in the conventional manner with a disc filter down to 8 to 10% moisture prior to treatment in the pelletizing plant. Both the thickener and filter must be heavy duty units. Generally, in the large tonnage concentrators the thickener underflow at 70 to 72% solids is stored in large Turbine Type Agitators. Tanks up to 50 ft. in diameter x 40 ft. deep with 12 ft. diameter propellers are used to keep the pulp uniform. Such large units require on the order of 100 to 125 HP for thorough mixing the high solids ahead of filtration.

In addition to effective removal of silica with low water requirements flotation is a low cost separation, power-wise and also reagent wise. Maintenance is low since the finely divided magnetic taconite concentrate has proven to be rather non-abrasive. Even after a years operation very little wear is noticed on propellers and impellers.

A further advantage offered by flotation is the possibility of initially grinding coarser and producing a middling in the flotation section for retreatment. In place of initially grinding 85 to 90% minus 325, the grind if coarsened to 80-85% minus 325-mesh will result in greater initial tonnage treated per mill section. Considerable advantage is to be gained by this approach.

Free-Flow Sub-A Flotation is a solution to the effective removal of silica from magnetic taconite concentrates. Present plants are using this method to advantage and future installations will resort more and more to production of low silica iron concentrate for conversion into pellets.

investigation on iron ore grinding based on particle size distribution and liberation | springerlink

In the iron and steel industry, the production of narrow particle size distribution (PSD) for pellet feed making with acceptable liberation of valuables from the iron ore is very difficult. This study has been carried out to achieve desired pellet feed with narrow PSD and maximum liberation of hematite from the iron ore. The iron ores have been collected from three different sources (mines in Karnataka state) and milled. The iron ores and the blend feed samples were analyzed in the Optical Microscope (OM) and Quantitative Evaluation of Minerals by Scanning Electron Microscopy (QEMSCAN) to understand the PSD and percentage of hematite liberation. The new approach is adapted to identify the retention time (RT) of the iron ore in the mill, and the total RT taken for the blend sample in the Bonds ball mill is considered as the reference grinding time for milling in the Laboratory Ball Mill (LBM). The desired narrow PSD (150/+10m) with acceptable hematite liberation is achieved at an optimal grinding time of 7min in the LBM.

The present research work is in joint collaboration with NITK, Surathkal, and JSW Steel Pvt. Ltd., Ballari. The authors are thankful to the management of JSW and MHRD, India, for all the support extended during the course of this research work.

Hanumanthappa, H., Vardhan, H., Mandela, G.R. et al. Investigation on Iron Ore Grinding based on Particle Size Distribution and Liberation. Trans Indian Inst Met 73, 18531866 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12666-020-01999-5

iron ore grinding mill & grinding plants for iron ore

Iron ore is an important industrial source, is an iron oxide ore, a mineral aggregate containing iron elements or iron compounds that can be economically utilized, and there are many types of iron ore. Among them, the iron smelting products mainly include Magnetite, siderite, and hematite and so on. Iron exists in nature as a compound, and iron ore can be gradually selected after natural iron ore is crushed, milled, magnetically selected, flotation, and reselected. Therefore, iron ore is an important raw material in the field of steel production; generally iron ore grade less than 50% needs to go through the dressing before smelting and utilization. At present, the current status of the integrated steel industry and the resource characteristics of China's iron ore resources must be continuously improved in China's metallurgical ore beneficiation process in order to promote the rapid development of the industry, equipment investment in crushing and grinding operations, production costs, electricity consumption and steel consumption and other factors will largely determine the development of the industry and market efficiency.

Iron ore is an important industrial source, is an iron oxide ore, a mineral aggregate containing iron elements or iron compounds that can be economically utilized, and there are many types of iron ore. Among them, the iron smelting products mainly include Magnetite, siderite, and hematite and so on. Iron exists in nature as a compound, and iron ore can be gradually selected after natural iron ore is crushed, milled, magnetically selected, flotation, and reselected. Therefore, iron ore is an important raw material in the field of steel production; generally iron ore grade less than 50% needs to go through the dressing before smelting and utilization. At present, the current status of the integrated steel industry and the resource characteristics of China's iron ore resources must be continuously improved in China's metallurgical ore beneficiation process in order to promote the rapid development of the industry, equipment investment in crushing and grinding operations, production costs, electricity consumption and steel consumption and other factors will largely determine the development of the industry and market efficiency.

Main application areas of iron ore is the steel industry. In nowadays, steel products are widely used in the national economy and people's daily lives, is the basic material necessary for social production and life, steel as one of the most important structural materials in the national economy, occupies an extremely important position and has become an important pillar for social development.Steel, steel production, variety, quality has always been a measure of a country's industrial, agricultural, national defense and science and technology an important symbol of the level of development, of which iron as the basic raw material for the steel industry, is an important raw material supporting the entire steel industry, iron ore plays a huge role in steel industry, can be smelted into pig iron, wrought iron, ferroalloy, carbon steel, alloy steel, special steel, pure magnetite can also be used as a catalyst for ammonia.In order to give full play to the advantages of iron ore resources, in light of the characteristics of iron ore lean ore, less rich ore, more associated minerals, complex ore components and mostly finer grain size of ore ores, the ore dressing technology and ore dressing equipment need to keep pace with time, can we comprehensively improve the quality of iron ore products, quantity and comprehensive economic efficiency of enterprises.

Iron ore ingredient analysis sheet Ingredient\VarietyContaining FeContaining OContaining H2O Magnetite iron ore 72.4% 27.6% 0 Hematite iron ore 70% 30% 0 Limonite iron ore 62% 27% 11% Siderite iron ore Main ingredient is FeCO3 Iron ore powder making machine model selection program SpecificationEnd product fineness :100-200mesh Equipment selection program Vertical grinding mill or Raymond grinding mill

1,Raymond Mill, HC series pendulum grinding mill:low investment costs, high capacity, low energy consumption, equipment stability, low noise; is the ideal equipment for wollastonite powder processing. But the degree of large-scale is relatively lower compared to vertical grinding mill.

4,HLMX ultra-fine vertical mill:especially for large-scale production capacity ultrafine powder over 600 meshes, or customer who has higher requirements on powder particle form, HLMX ultrafine vertical mill is the best choice.

Phrase one: raw material crushing Iron ore blocks will be crushed to 15mm-50mm fineness by crusher. Phrase two: grinding Crushed iron ore blocks will be sent to the storage hopper by elevator, and then sent to main mill for grinding through feeder. Phrase three: classifying Ground material will be classified, coarse powder will fall back to the main mill for ground again. Phrase four: end product collecting Qualified powder will flow with the air and be collected by dust collector, then the finished powder will be transported to the product storage bin through discharge port. Finally, powder will be loaded by tank car or packed by packing machine.

Guilin Hong Cheng engineers are conscientious and responsible from the intention to order, field trips, production, debugging, and then to installation, not only successfully complished delivery, but also the operation of the equipment at the scene was impressive, stable running, reliable performance, production efficiency is very high, energy saving and also environmentally friendly, we are satisfied and are also very confident on Hong Cheng equipment.

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iron ore processing,crushing,grinding plant machine desgin&for sale | prominer (shanghai) mining technology co.,ltd

After crushing, grinding, magnetic separation, flotation, and gravity separation, etc., iron is gradually selected from the natural iron ore. The beneficiation process should be as efficient and simple as possible, such as the development of energy-saving equipment, and the best possible results with the most suitable process. In the iron ore beneficiation factory, the equipment investment, production cost, power consumption and steel consumption of crushing and grinding operations often account for the largest proportion. Therefore, the calculation and selection of crushing and grinding equipment and the quality of operation management are to a large extent determine the economic benefits of the beneficiation factory.

There are many types of iron ore, but mainly magnetite (Fe3O4) and hematite (Fe2O3) are used for iron production because magnetite and hematite have higher content of iron and easy to be upgraded to high grade for steel factories.

Due to the deformation of the geological properties, there would be some changes of the characteristics of the raw ore and sometimes magnetite, hematite, limonite as well as other types iron ore and veins are in symbiosis form. So mineralogy study on the forms, characteristics as well as liberation size are necessary before getting into the study of beneficiation technology.

1. Magnetite ore stage grinding-magnetic separation process The stage grinding-magnetic separation process mainly utilizes the characteristics of magnetite that can be enriched under coarse grinding conditions, and at the same time, it can discharge the characteristics of single gangue, reducing the amount of grinding in the next stage. In the process of continuous development and improvement, the process adopts high-efficiency magnetic separation equipment to achieve energy saving and consumption reduction. At present, almost all magnetic separation plants in China use a large-diameter (medium 1 050 mm, medium 1 200 mm, medium 1 500 mm, etc.) permanent magnet magnetic separator to carry out the stage tailing removing process after one stage grinding. The characteristic of permanent magnet large-diameter magnetic separator is that it can effectively separate 3~0mm or 6~0mm, or even 10-0mm coarse-grained magnetite ore, and the yield of removed tails is generally 30.00%~50.00%. The grade is below 8.00%, which creates good conditions for the magnetic separation plant to save energy and increase production.

2.Magnetic separation-fine screen process Gangue conjoined bodies such as magnetite and quartz can be enriched when the particle size and magnetic properties reach a certain range. However, it is easy to form a coarse concatenated mixture in the iron concentrate, which reduces the grade of the iron concentrate. This kind of concentrate is sieved by a fine sieve with corresponding sieve holes, and high-quality iron concentrate can be obtained under the sieve.

There are two methods for gravity separation of hematite. One is coarse-grained gravity separation. The geological grade of the ore deposit is relatively high (about 50%), but the ore body is thinner or has more interlayers. The waste rock is mixed in during mining to dilute the ore. For this kind of ore, only crushing and no-grinding can be used so coarse-grained tailings are discarded through re-election to recover the geological grade.

The other one is fine-grain gravity separation, which mostly deals with the hematite with finer grain size and high magnetic content. After crushing, the ore is ground to separate the mineral monomers, and the fine-grained high-grade concentrate is obtained by gravity separation. However, since most of the weak magnetic iron ore concentrates with strong magnetic separation are not high in grade, and the unit processing capacity of the gravity separation process is relatively low, the combined process of strong magnetic separation and gravity separation is often used, that is, the strong magnetic separation process is used to discard a large amount of unqualified tailings, and then use the gravity separation process to further process the strong magnetic concentrate to improve the concentrate grade.

Due to the complexity, large-scale mixed iron ore and hematite ore adopt stage grinding or continuous grinding, coarse subdivision separation, gravity separation-weak magnetic separation-high gradient magnetic separation-anion reverse flotation process. The characteristics of such process are as follows:

(1) Coarse subdivision separation: For the coarse part, use gravity separation to take out most of the coarse-grained iron concentrate after a stage of grinding. The SLon type high gradient medium magnetic machine removes part of the tailings; the fine part uses the SLon type high gradient strong magnetic separator to further remove the tailings and mud to create good operating conditions for reverse flotation. Due to the superior performance of the SLon-type high-gradient magnetic separator, a higher recovery rate in the whole process is ensured, and the reverse flotation guarantees a higher fine-grained concentrate grade.

(2) A reasonable process for narrow-level selection is realized. In the process of mineral separation, the degree of separation of minerals is not only related to the characteristics of the mineral itself, but also to the specific surface area of the mineral particles. This effect is more prominent in the flotation process. Because in the flotation process, the minimum value of the force between the flotation agent and the mineral and the agent and the bubble is related to the specific surface area of the mineral, and the ratio of the agent to the mineral action area. This makes the factors double affecting the floatability of minerals easily causing minerals with a large specific surface area and relatively difficult to float and minerals with a small specific surface area and relatively easy to float have relatively consistent floatability, and sometimes the former has even better floatability. The realization of the narrow-level beneficiation process can prevent the occurrence of the above-mentioned phenomenon that easily leads to the chaos of the flotation process to a large extent, and improve the beneficiation efficiency.

(3) The combined application of high-gradient strong magnetic separation and anion reverse flotation process achieves the best combination of processes. At present, the weak magnetic iron ore beneficiation plants in China all adopt high-gradient strong magnetic separation-anion reverse flotation process in their technological process. This combination is particularly effective in the beneficiation of weak magnetic iron ore. For high-gradient strong magnetic separation, the effect of improving the grade of concentrate is not obvious. However, it is very effective to rely on high-gradient and strong magnetic separation to provide ideal raw materials for reverse flotation. At the same time, anion reverse flotation is affected by its own process characteristics and is particularly effective for the separation of fine-grained and relatively high-grade materials. The advantages of high-gradient strong magnetic separation and anion reverse flotation technology complement each other, and realize the delicate combination of the beneficiation process.

The key technology innovation of the integrated dry grinding and magnetic separation system is to "replace ball mill grinding with HPGR grinding", and the target is to reduce the cost of ball mill grinding and wet magnetic separation.

HPGRs orhigh-pressure grinding rollshave made broad advances into mining industries. The technology is now widely viewed as a primary milling alternative, and there are several large installations commissioned in recent years. After these developments, anHPGRsbased circuit configuration would often be the base case for certain ore types, such as very hard, abrasive ores.

The wear on a rolls surface is a function of the ores abrasivity. Increasing roll speed or pressure increases wear with a given material. Studs allowing the formation of an autogenous wear layer, edge blocks, and cheek plates. Development in these areas continues, with examples including profiling of stud hardness to minimize the bathtub effect (wear of the center of the rolls more rapidly than the outer areas), low-profile edge blocks for installation on worn tires, and improvements in both design and wear materials for cheek plates.

With Strip Surface, HPGRs improve observed downstream comminution efficiency. This is attributable to both increased fines generation, but also due to what appears to be weakening of the ore which many researchers attribute to micro-cracking.

As we tested , the average yield of 3mm-0 and 0.15mm-0 size fraction with Strip Surface was 78.3% and 46.2%, comparatively, the average yield of 3mm-0 and 0.3mm-0 with studs surface was 58.36% and 21.7%.

These intelligently engineered units are ideal for classifying coarser cuts ranging from 50 to 200 mesh. The feed material is dropped into the top of the classifier. It falls into a continuous feed curtain in front of the vanes, passing through low velocity air entering the side of the unit. The air flow direction is changed by the vanes from horizontal to angularly upward, resulting in separation and classification of the particulate. Coarse particles dropps directly to the product and fine particles are efficiently discharged through a valve beneath the unit. The micro fines are conveyed by air to a fabric filter for final recovery.

Air Magnetic Separation Cluster is a special equipment developed for dry magnetic separation of fine size (-3mm) and micro fine size(-0.1mm) magnetite. The air magnetic separation system can be combined according to the characteristic of magnetic minerals to achieve effective recovery of magnetite.

After rough grinding, adopt appropriate separation method, discard part of tailings and sort out part of qualified concentrate, and re-grind and re-separate the middling, is called stage grinding and stage separation process.

According to the characteristics of the raw ore, the use of stage grinding and stage separation technology is an effective measure for energy conservation in iron ore concentrators. At the coarser one-stage grinding fineness, high-efficiency beneficiation equipment is used to advance the tailings, which greatly reduces the processing volume of the second-stage grinding.

If the crystal grain size is relatively coarse, the stage grinding, stage magnetic separation-fine sieve self-circulation process is adopted. Generally, the product on the fine sieve is given to the second stage grinding and re-grinding. The process flow is relatively simple.

If the crystal grain size is too fine, the process of stage grinding, stage magnetic separation and fine sieve regrind is adopted. This process is the third stage of grinding and fine grinding after the products on the first and second stages of fine sieve are concentrated and magnetically separated. Then it is processed by magnetic separation and fine sieve, the process is relatively complicated.

At present, the operation of magnetic separation (including weak magnetic separation and strong magnetic separation) is one of the effective means of throwing tails in advance; anion reverse flotation and cation reverse flotation are one of the effective means to improve the grade of iron ore.

In particular, in the process of beneficiation, both of them basically take the selected feed minerals containing less gangue minerals as the sorting object, and both use the biggest difference in mineral selectivity, which makes the two in the whole process both play a good role in the process.

Based on the iron ore processing experience and necessary processing tests, Prominer can supply complete processing plant combined with various processing technologies, such as gravity separation, magnetic separation, flotation, etc., to improve the grade of TFe of the concentrate and get the best yield. Magnetic separation is commonly used for magnetite. Gravity separation is commonly used for hematite. Flotation is mainly used to process limonite and other kinds of iron ores

Through detailed mineralogy study and lab processing test, a most suitable processing plant parameters will be acquired. Based on those parameters Prominer can design a processing plant for mine owners and supply EPC services till the plant operating.

Prominer has been devoted to mineral processing industry for decades and specializes in mineral upgrading and deep processing. With expertise in the fields of mineral project development, mining, test study, engineering, technological processing.

development of a novel grinding process to iron ore pelletizing through hpgr milling in closed circuit | springerlink

The earliest industrial application of high pressure grinding rolls (HPGR) at comminution was in 1984 in the cement industry. Since then, the equipment has been widely applied in mining activities. Despite the rapid spread across the industry, several challenges are still present in the equipments application, especially considering the complex ore breakage behaviour reported for this process. The pellet feeds HPGR comminution was recognized as fundamental to efficiently increase the particle surface area (e.g., blaine specific area, BSA) at a lower energy and water consumption level (Chapman et al. in J Southern Afr Instit Mining Metall 113:407413, 2013). The present study considers a novel milling process applying only HPGR as a re-regrind stage after concentration. The amount of successive ground product recirculation into the machine to achieve the required particle size for the pelletizing process was investigated. The study compared the ball wet milling process with the innovative processing technology for hematitegoethite ores. Green pellet balling and induration processes were simulated in bench and pilot scale. The milling results showed a considerably steep increase in BSA after each recirculation step into the HPGR, although compared with the ball-milled product the size fraction <45m% increased a modest five percentage points after three recirculation cycles, remaining steady until the last recirculation step. As a result, the green pellet generated presented higher concentration of pellets between 10 and 16mm (%10-16mm), with a higher drop number than typically observed when produced with ball-milled feedstock. Consequently, on the induration process, a higher pellet deformation was observed during the pot grate loading. Despite that, the fired pellets still presented an outstanding performance in cold crush strength (CSS) considered suitable to an industrial application.

Athayde M, Bagatini MC (2018) Iron ore concentrate particle size controlling through application of microwave at the HPGR feed. Mining Metall Explor 36(2):353362. https://doi.org/10.1007/s42461-018-0013-y

Chapman NA, Shackleton NJ, Malysiak V, Oconnor CT (2013) Comparative study of the use of HPGR and conventional wet and dry grinding methods on the flotation of base metal sulphides and PGMs. J Southern Afr Instit Mining Metall 113:407413

Forsmo SPE, Samskog PO, Bjrkman BMT (2008) A study on plasticity and compression strength in wet iron ore green pellets related to real process variations in raw material fineness. Powder Technol 181(3):321330

Thomazini, A.D., Trs, E.P., de Assis Dutra Macedo, F. et al. Development of a Novel Grinding Process to Iron Ore Pelletizing through HPGR Milling in Closed Circuit. Mining, Metallurgy & Exploration 37, 933941 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s42461-020-00202-z

research of iron ore grinding in a vertical-roller-mill - sciencedirect

Two magnetite iron ores were comminuted with a pilot scale vertical-roller-mill.The effect of three mill parameters was quantified using DoE methods.The developed regression models were used for optimisation.The VRM produced a higher magnetite liberation than a conventional pebble mill.

The total energy consumption for ore comminution will further increase within the next decades. One contribution to minimise the increase is to use more efficient comminution equipment. Vertical-roller-mills (VRM) are an energy-efficient alternative to conventional grinding technology. One reason is the dry in-bed grinding principle. Results of extensive test works with two types of magnetite iron ores in a Loesche VRM are presented here. Within these test works, mill parameters like grinding pressure, separator speed and dam ring height were varied, following a factorial design of the experiments. The effects of the grinding parameters on the liberation of valuable minerals are characterised using mineral liberation analysis (MLA). It is shown how the different mill parameters influence important performance values like energy consumption, production rate and mineral liberation. Via multiple regression analysis, an optimal parameter range can be modelled for both ore types. The parameter predictions have been successfully verified in practical test works.

iron ore slurry filtering solutions

Iron ore is ground to finer particle sizes through different grinding systems. Large grinding mills using grinding ball media are one of the most common and particularly in pelletizing plants where finer particle size are required for the pelletizing process. Those large mills operate either with water mixed in with the ore called wet grinding or without water - dry grinding.

A fair amount of water is used in the wet grinding process. The material exiting the mills is in form of slurry with water content typically ranging from 30 to 50 %. The surplus of water should be removed prior to the balling process through dewatering equipment given that pelletizing requires a much lower moisture content (from 8 to 10 % for most plants).

We find few de-watering technologies in the industry, but slurry filtering through vacuum disc filters is still the main equipment seen in pelletizing operations and particularly in Canada, USA, Mexico, Brazil, Chile, Russia, Ukraine, etc.

Metal 7 manufactures rotating disc filtration systems for mineral processing. They are produced according to the clients specific needs in order to obtain a filter cake that meets the highest standards in production.

The filters were designed in close collaboration with end users to reduce maintenance and maximise equipment utility. They make it possible to achieve high production standards without having to increase the vacuums capacity or the plants needs in energy.

Different filter configurations are offered depending on the number of discs and their diameter. The most common filter in the iron ore industry includes 12 discs, 9 feet in diameter, therefore a 1290.20 sq. ft. filtration space (120 m, or 120 sectors of 1 m).

The ore, in the form of slurry, is brought to the filters tank in which a number of discs rotate at a regulated speed. Each disc is assembled with hollow triangular (pie shape) sectors which are connected to filtrate tubes. The sectors are covered by a membrane of fabric. Suction inside the sectors forming the disc is fed from a vacuum network while the sectors enter the slurry tank. The vacuum draws the water through the fabric and holds the ore on the filtration membrane assembled on the sector walls. Once the sector exits the slurry tank with the rotation of the disc, the suction is maintained to dry further the ore. Just prior the sector reach again the slurry tank, the vacuum ceased and a blow of compressed air released the ore from the sectors. The discharged product is called filter cake. The filter cake, combined with the required humidity level, falls on a conveyor to be transported to the next process stage.

In pelletizing plants that operate with wet grinding to reduce the particle size of the ore prior to the balling/pelletizing process, it is necessary to dewater the slurry exiting the grinding mills to lower the moisture content in the ore. The pelletizing of iron ore normally requires from 8% to 10 % moisture depending on the ore characteristics.

However, they consume a lot of , primarily related to the operation of the large vacuum pumps required for the operation of the disc filter. Furthermore, they are also considered to be maintenance intensive equipment. No surprises there, since they are in constant rotation and they are exposed to a very abrasive material, the iron ore.

The challenge in the design of a filter is related with its availability (no unplanned shutdowns and low maintenance), its higher productivity and its energy efficiency. It also has to provide the end user with the lowest moisture content in line with the pelletizing requirement and consistency in this moisture level.

Lots of suppliers of vacuum disc filters are active on the market. But very few could combine reasonable tonnage per hour, energy efficiency, adequate and consistent moisture and low maintenance. Even fewer could maintain their performance after even few weeks of operation.

Improved air flow with more tonnage out of the filter for same filtering area. Increased sealing of the assembly. Any vacuum or snap blow air loss has a negative impact on the productivity of the filter;

However, with the high performance package, the vacuum disc filter is delivered with extra features improving further the sealing (sealing of the lubricated area and of the vacuum/snap blow air components). It also comes with parts manufactured with special materials to extend the life of the components, their performance in service over a longer period of time and the availability of the filter.

- An automatic system for the cleaning of the filter cake chutes without having to stop the filter; - Innovative design of protective guards around the filter; - Automatic lubrication system; - Instrumentation (slurry level, etc.); - Etc.

The filters are available in different sizes and capacity according to the requirements of the customer (different options in capacity, filtering area, disc diameter, number of disc, etc. are possible).

a- Lower maintenance: Components last longer thanks to the strategic use of better material. Better air flow contributes in lowering wear by erosion in critical elements of the filter, like in the filtrate tube;

- Consistency in the filter cake moisture content: Negligible variation of the moisture content. For instance, in changing to Metal 7s filters, one of its customers saw a variation of only 0.1 % in the moisture content in the whole range of RPM they operate. This variation was of 1.0 % (10 times greater) with the former well-known filters they previously used.

Metal 7 is one of Canada's biggest players in the metallic and ceramic coating field. Thanks to its leading expertise, the company stands out from its competitors by proposing extremely sophisticated, high-performance solutions. This competitive edge allows the company to thrive on the international market. The products manufactured in its workshops are used in nearly fifty plants in 20 countries, on all five continents. Metal 7 exports over 70% of its annual production outside Canada.

damp mill ball grinding machine | iron ore pelletizing equipment

The damp mill is an improved design based on the ball mill. It adopts a unique feeding and discharging method to solve the movement problem of semi-dry and semi-wet materials in the mill. Generally, the ball mill can be divided into the wet type and dry type, with water and air as the carrier for forced material discharge or grid plate discharge. They seldom deal with semi-dry and semi-wet materials. Damp mill, as its unique structure, can efficiently grind the material containing certain moisture. It has three main features: forced feeding, peripheral discharging, and rubber lining.

As the main equipment in iron ore pelletizing plants, a damp mill is mainly used for the damp grinding of iron ore to provide materials for the pelletizing disc. It can deal with the iron ore with a water content of 8-13%, not only increase the surface area of the ore particles but also make the ore fully mixed and ground to shorten the whole pelletizing process. Besides, it can also reduce the production energy consumption, increase the strength of green pellets, and improve the metal recovery rate, so it has been widely used in pelletizing plants.

The damp mill is mainly composed of a feeding part, main bearing, cylinder, gear device, reducer, main motor, low-speed driving unit, jacking device, lubricating device, electric control device, and other parts.

The damp mill is a kind of single chamber and peripheral discharge ball mill. The equipment cylinder with grinding medium (steel ball) inside is driven to rotate through the main motor, reducer, and gear device. After materials enter the cylinder through the quill shaft, the grinding medium is lifted to a certain height under the combined action of lining plate friction and centrifugal force, and then falls, giving the material a certain impact force so that the large-sized materials are broken. After the materials are fully ground and mixed, they are discharged from the damp mill through the discharge holes around the cylinder.

AGICO Group is an integrative enterprise group. It is a Chinese company that specialized in manufacturing and exporting cement plants and cement equipment, providing the turnkey project from project design, equipment installation and equipment commissioning to equipment maintenance.