hammer impact mill lay out

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pugmill mixers

When it comes to industrial mixing applications, FEECOs continuous pugmill mixers, also referred to as paddle mixers, are ideal for tackling tough jobs. Their heavy-duty construction, along with their U-type trough design, makes them an excellent choice for agglomerating, mixing, or conditioning in demanding settings. Pugmill mixers can be used as stand-alone agglomeration equipment, or as a mixing step in a larger agglomeration process utilizing a disc pelletizer or agglomeration drum.

Pugmills utilize dual rotating shafts with pitched paddles to create a kneading and folding over motion inside the trough. Material and binder (when applicable) are continuously fed into the mixer. The action of the pitched paddles moves material from the bottom of the trough, up the middle, and back down the sides to create an intimate mixture of materials.

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All FEECO equipment and process systems can be outfitted with the latest in automation controls from Rockwell Automation. The unique combination of proprietary Rockwell Automation controls and software, combined with our extensive experience in process design and enhancements with hundreds of materials provides an unparalleled experience for customers seeking innovative process solutions and equipment.

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FEECOs robust pugmills are custom designed and backed by over 65 years of providing solutions for agglomeration needs. Weve got the material knowledge and process background to take your material from raw feed to end product. Our lab testing & tolling facility can test your material to determine if it will agglomerate, and if so, what equipment is needed to get the job done.

hammer mill: components, operating principles, types, uses, adva

Hammer mill is the most widely used grinding mill and among the oldest. Hammer mills consist of a series of hammers (usually four or more) hinged on a central shaft and enclosed within a rigid metal case. It produces size reduction by impact.

The materials to be milled are struck by these rectangular pieces of hardened steel (ganged hammer) which rotates at high speed inside the chamber. These radically swinging hammers (from the rotating central shaft) move at a high angular velocity causing brittle fracture of the feed material.

The material is crushed or shattered by the repeated hammer impacts, collisions with the walls of the grinding chamber as well as particle-on-particles impacts. A screen is fitted at the bottom of the mill, which retains coarse materials while allowing the properly sized materials to pass as finished products.

The above subtype is based on the direction of the rotor (clockwise direction, anticlockwise directions or in both directions). Their working and grinding actions remain similar despite the fact that their construction differs in many respects.

resident evil village part 14 | well puzzle, ottos mill, stronghold, and urias boss fight - vg247

However, before you go and take up the offer of a parlay, there are a few new optional side paths now accessible to you. These will set you up with a good supply of Lei and food to spend upgrades for the endgame.

As you go deeper into the woods, youll be attacked by a pack of lycans. Methodically take them out with whatever weapons you have available. The sniper rifle is particularly useful in this open area.

Before you leave, take the stairs down to the left of the ladder. Here theres a secret room to search. Theres some money, some chem fluid, then some interesting notes on Lady Dimitrescu, before you find a pipe bomb and some shells.

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charpy impact testing - an overview | sciencedirect topics

To determine k1C values of materials, specimens in the form of plates are fashioned containing machined cracks of known length as shown in Fig. 7-31 A. As tensile loads are applied the specimen halves open, and the resulting crack extension is continuously monitored (Fig. 7-31B). Noting the critical crack size and stress necessary to induce fracture, use of Eq. 7-27 yields the value for k1C. Although it might not be suspected from Charpy impact testing, where a specimen of standard dimensions is used, the toughness of a material depends on its size. This is demonstrated schematically in Fig. 7-32, where the k1C dependence on plate thickness is shown. Thin plates exhibit shear lip or slant fracture surfaces under so-called plane stress conditions. The shear stress-induced plastic deformation is associated with considerable toughening as reflected in the large k1C values. Thick plates, on the other hand, exhibit a flat fracture surface. In this plane strain geometry, plastic deformation is constrained, and low, relatively constant k1C values are obtained over a broad thickness range. In between, a mixed fracture mode is evident. More conservative engineering practice often mandates the selection of minimum k1C values, and these are the ones usually reported.

FIGURE 7-32. Fracture toughness as a function of plate specimen thickness. Note: Plane strain conditions generally prevail when plate thickness B exceeds 2.5 (K1C/0)2. After H. O. Fuchs and R. I. Stephens, Metal Fatigue in Engineering, Wiley, New York (1980).

The use of additional instrumentation with a standard Charpy impact machine allows monitoring of the load-time response of Charpy V-notch specimen deformation and fracture. It is now, however, very important to develop an instrumented Charpy impact test using methods based on current fracture mechanics knowledge applicable to evaluating the dynamic toughness of materials. Therefore, Kobayashi et al. have applied the fracture mechanics approach to the instrumented Chary impact test and have developed a new dynamic fracture toughness evaluation system which they have called the CAI (Computer Aided instrumented Charpy Impact testing) system (Kobayashi et al. 1993). According to the CAI system, evaluation of dynamic fracture toughness values such as Kd, Jd, Tmat and various absorbed energy analyses can be carried out easily by recording the loaddeflection curve of a single pre-cracked specimen for both ductile and brittle materials.

The CAI system consists of an instrumented Charpy impact testing machine aided with a personal computer having software for the analysis of dynamic properties. Load is measured by a semiconductor strain gauge attached to the striker edge portion of the Charpy impact testing machine and deflection is recorded from the angle of the hammer that is measured by the potentiometer attached to the rotating axis of the hammer. Based on the elasticplastic fracture mechanics, a crack initiation point is necessary to evaluate the dynamic fracture toughness. The crack initiation point is detected by the compliance change rate method. The compliance change rate is defined as:

where C/C is the compliance change rate, C is the secant compliance (mmN1) and Cel is the elastic compliance.When C/C is plotted against the deflection, a sudden transition point of the gradient will appear on the C/C vs. deflection plot as schematically shown in Fig. 3(a). Crack extension (a) is estimated by the key curve method. In the analysis software for ductile material, the key curve function is given by Eqn. (2):

where P is the load, b0 is an initial ligament width (=Wa0; a0 is the initial crack length), pl is a deflection due to the plastic deformation, and n and k are constants determined by fitting the load-deflection curve using Eqn. (2). The key curve method is based on the assumption that the loaddeflection curve with crack growth will intersect the one without crack growth at the same a/W ratio as schematically shown in Fig. 3(b).

The impact loading of a specimen will create inertial oscillations in the contact load between striker and specimen, and a time interval between 2 and 3 is required for the load to be dissipated, where is related to the period of the apparent specimen oscillations and can be predicted empirically for a span-to-width ratio of 4 by:

where W is the specimen width, B is the specimen thickness, Cs is the specimen compliance, E is the Youngs modulus, and S0 is the speed of sound in the specimen. For times t less than 2, it is not possible to use the striker signal to measure the specimen load due to inertial effects. An empirical specification for reliable load and time evaluation is:

In many cases, low blow impact testing is conducted to avoid violent oscillations caused by an inertial loading effect. In such cases, it is noted that the shape of the loaddeflection curve is changed by the applied energy rate, defined as the applied energy divided by the total absorbed energy. Since this behavior can be considered to be caused by the hammer speed reduction, the impact test must be conducted under conditions in which the hammer speed is not largely reduced. It has been clarified experimentally that such a condition is given by

This MDMT procedure is used to determine the lowest permissible temperature for which charpy impact testing is or is not required. The ASME Code requires this be determined for every pressure vessel and the MDMT be stamped on the nameplate. While every pressure vessel has its own unique MDMT, this may or may not be the MDMT that is stamped on the nameplate. Not only does every pressure vessel have its own unique MDMT, but every component of that pressure vessel has an MDMT. The vessel MDMT is the highest temperature of all the component MDMTs. On occasion, the MDMT is specified by the end user as an arbitrary value. The vessel fabricator is then responsible to verify that the actual MDMT of every component used in that pressure vessel is lower than the arbitrary value requested for the nameplate stamping. Considering this, there are various definitions for MDMT depending on how it is used. The definitions follow:

Arbitrary MDMT: A discretionary, arbitrary temperature, specified by a user or client, or determined in accordance with the provisions of UG-20. Some users have a standard value that has been chosen as the lowest mean temperature of the site conditions, such as 15F.

The ASME Code rules for MDMT are built around a set of material exemption curves as shown in Figure 2-43. These curves account for the different toughness characteristics of carbon and low alloy steel and determine at what temperature and corresponding thickness impact testing will become mandatory.

There is an additional exemption curve (see Figure 2-42), which allows a decrease in the MDMT of every component, and thus the vessel, depending on one of several ratios specified. This curve would permit carbon steel, without impact testing, to be used at a temperature of ()150F, provided the combined stresses are less than 40% of the allowable stress for that material. Granted, the vessel would be more than twice as thick as it needed to be for the pressure condition alone, but if the goal was to exempt the vessel from impact testing, it could be accomplished.

Since impact testing is a major expense to the manufacturer of a pressure vessel, the designer should do everything to avoid it. Impact testing can always be avoided but may not be the most economical alternative. Following these steps will help eliminate the need for impact testing and, at the same time, will provide the lowest MDMT.

Decrease the pressure at MDMT. This is a process change and may or may not be possible. Sometimes a vessel does not operate at full design pressure at the low temperature condition but has alternate conditions, such as shutdown or depressurization. These alternate low temperature conditions can also be stamped on the nameplate.

The compression behavior can be regarded as a crucial parameter for the application of a material as a load bearing device, especially when taking into account that even a small plastic deformation may lead to a blockade and the subsequent fatal failure of the bearing. As a quantitative measure for the performance of the material, compression tests were performed using the injection-molded plates. After increasing the compressive load up to 240MPa at 23C, which was applied by a cylindrical intender, the force was released to zero and the residual compressive strain was measured. The results for the various hybrid materials, summarized in Fig. 8.40, indicate that the presence of the nanoparticles mostly reduces the residual compression by a rather small factor. A considerable enhancement was only observed for the PEEK/CF system reinforced with additional CNFs only. However, a worse behavior was found for systems containing nanoscale solid lubricants only, that is, the Gr/MoS. Moreover, the residual compression was tremendously increased when adding the PTFE or PTFE/Gr, likely reflecting the soft nature of PTFE and the influence on the overall composite performance. It should be noted that a similar trend for all materials was also observed at elevated temperatures of 100C.

The intended technical application also demands for a high material stiffness in order to limit nondesired geometrical changes under an external load, and a good resistance to impacts; events that are numerously encountered during the lifetime of such a bearing. For both cases, characteristic values of all materials were evaluated using the dumbbell specimens and following well-known standards (tensile testing and Charpy impact testing according to ISO 527 and ISO 179eU, respectively). Again, the results shown in Fig. 8.41 are normalized to the PEEK/CF reference material. As can be seen, the addition of nanoparticles enhances both the impact resistance (+50%) as well as the tensile modulus (+25%). Nevertheless, distinct nanohybrids fail in showing enhanced properties, such as the CF/nGr/MoS. The materials containing PTFE, however, reveal an unexpected behavior. While the composite containing both PTFE and graphite shows a considerably lower Charpy impact strength and only a slight stiffness enhancement, the PEEK/CF/PTFE material reveals a superior impact resistance and, moreover, the highest modulus of all materials investigated. The orientation of the CFs as a main factor influencing these properties is likely to be affected by the presence of PTFE and PTFE/graphite and, thus, alters the mechanical behavior. Regarding these results, it can be argued that all properties were observed for specimens of a relatively large thickness of 4mm, although typically thin structures in the range of 1mm are encountered for a bearing. In the following, this aspect will be considered in some more detail.

Finally, when discussing the property profile of multiphase composites, the orientation of the reinforcing additives in particular and the subsequent anisotropy in mechanical properties need to be taken into account. In Fig. 8.42, the bending strength of the PEEK/CF and the hybrid systems both in parallel as well as perpendicular to the injection direction can be seen (injection-molded plates as tested according to ISO 178). It should be noted that all values are normalized to the bending strength of the PEEK/CF perpendicular to the injection direction, and the diagonal line represents completely isotropic behavior. As commonly observed for fiber-reinforced systems, the strength in parallel to the injection direction is significantly higher as compared to the perpendicular direction for all systems. While the nanohybrids composed of at least one nanoscale additive show rather similar properties, the strength of the neat PEEK/CF is remarkably higher in the parallel case. Such a change in behavior is likely due to reduced orientation effects induced by the nanoparticles, which increase the viscosity and thus reduce the flow-induced orientation of the microscale fibers. Similar to the previous results, the performance of composites including PTFE is significantly reduced as compared to the other materials, in particular in the perpendicular direction. These observations are attributed to the poor interaction between the PEEK and the PTFE.

Notes:1.The governing thickness for heads is based on that portion of the head which is in tension. For a 2:1 S.E. head this is the crown position where R = 0.90.2.Includes pipe under tolerance.3.Thickness exclusive of C.a.4.Thickness at the hub (weld attachment) governs.5.The governing thickness of flat heads and blind flanges is 1/4 of actual thickness.6.Since the tension stress in the wear plate is less than the tension stress in the shell, the MDMT for the shell will govern.Design Conditions (for example)D.T. = 700 FP =400 PSIGC.a. =0.125Ri = 30E (Shell) = 0.85E (Head) = 1.00MDMT for vessel = + 11

Notes:1.The governing thickness for heads is based on that portion of the head which is in tension. For a 2:1 S.E. head this is the crown position where R = 0.90.2.Includes pipe under tolerance.3.Thickness exclusive of C.a.4.Thickness at the hub (weld attachment) governs.5.The governing thickness of flat heads and blind flanges is 1/4 of actual thickness.6.Since the tension stress in the wear plate is less than the tension stress in the shell, the MDMT for the shell will govern.

This MDMT procedure is used to determine the lowest permissible temperature for which charpy impact testing is or is not required. The ASME Code requires this be determined for every pressure vessel and the MDMT be stamped on the nameplate. While every pressure vessel has its own unique MDMT, this may or may not be the MDMT that is stamped on the nameplate. Not only does every pressure vessel have its own unique MDMT, but every component of that pressure vessel has an MDMT. The vessel MDMT is the highest temperature of all the component MDMT's. On occasion, the MDMT is specified by the end user as an arbitrary value. The vessel fabricator is then responsible to verify that the actual MDMT of every component used in that pressure vessel is lower than the arbitrary value requested for the nameplate stamping. Considering this, there are various definitions for MDMT depending on how it is used. The definitions follow:

Arbitrary MDMT: A discretionary, arbitrary temperature, specified by a user or client, or determined in accordance with the provisions of UG-20. Some users have a standard value that has been chosen as the lowest mean temperature of the site conditions, such as 15F.

The ASME Code rules for MDMT are built around a set of material exemption curves as shown in Figure 2-55. These curves account for the different toughness characteristics of carbon and low alloy steel and determine at what temperature and corresponding thickness impact testing will become mandatory.

There is an additional exemption curve (see Figure 2-54), which allows a decrease in the MDMT of every component, and thus the vessel, depending on one of several ratios specified. This curve would permit carbon steel, without impact testing, to be used at a temperature of 150F, provided the combined stresses are less than 40% of the allowable stress for that material. Granted, the vessel would be more than twice as thick as it needed to be for the pressure condition alone, but if the goal was to exempt the vessel from impact testing, it could be accomplished.

Since impact testing is a major expense to the manufacturer of a pressure vessel, the designer should do everything to avoid it. Impact testing can always be avoided but may not be the most economical alternative. Following these steps will help eliminate the need for impact testing and, at the same time, will provide the lowest MDMT.

Decrease the pressure at MDMT. This is a process change and may or may not be possible. Sometimes a vessel does not operate at full design pressure at the low temperature condition but has alternate conditions, such as shutdown or depressurization. These alternate low temperature conditions can also be stamped on the nameplate

Curve B1.SA-285 Grades A and BSA-414 Grade ASA-515 Grades 55 and 60SA-516 Grades 65 and 70 if not normalizedSA-612 if not normalizedSA-662 Grade B if not normalized2.all materials of Curve A if produced to fine grain practice and normalized which are not listed for Curves C and D below.3.except for bolting (see (e) below), plates, structural shapes, and bars, all other product forms (such as pipe, fittings, forgings, castings, and tubing) not listed for Curves C and D below.4.parts permitted under UG-11 shall be included in Curve B even when fabricated from plate that otherwise would be assigned to a different curve.

Curve C1.SA-182 Grades 21 and 22 if normalized and temperedSA-302 Grades C and DSA-336 Grades F21 and F22 if normalized and temperedSA-387 Grades 21 and 22 if normalized and temperedSA-516 Grades 55 and 60 if not normalizedSA-533 Grades B and CSA-662 Grade A2.all material of Curve B if produced to fine grain practice and normalized and not listed for Curve D below.

Spec. No.GradeImpact Test Exemption Temperature, FSA-193B520SA-193B740SA-193B7M50SA-193B1620SA-307B20SA-320B L7, L7A, L7M, L43Impact testedSA-3251, 220SA-354BC0SA-354BD+20SA-44920SA-540B23/24+ 10

The following shall apply to all material assignment notes:1.Cooling rates faster than those obtained by cooling in air, followed by tempering, as permitted by the material specification, are considered to be equivalent to normalizing or normalizing and tempering heat treatments.2.Fine grain practice is defined as the procedures necessary to obtain a fine austenitic grain size as described in SA-20.

Cooling rates faster than those obtained by cooling in air, followed by tempering, as permitted by the material specification, are considered to be equivalent to normalizing or normalizing and tempering heat treatments.

In addition to softening behavior, the resistance to notch sensitivity (ductility) of FQZ is also investigated via the Charpy impact testing. Fig. 23 shows the specimen dimension and notch schematic diagram of Charpy V notch (CVN) test [21]. Small-sized CVN specimens are prepared from 6-mm-thick TIG welded RDE40 and AA7018 alloys. The metallographic observation is performed first to locate the FQZ and make sure the notch is well prepared within FQZ.

The Charpy impact energy values of both TIG welded RDE40 and AA7018 are summarized in the following Table 1 [21]. The RDE40 welded joints present relatively better impact toughness compared with AA7018, whether in the BM, FZ and FQZ. Besides, the very similar trend is observed in the two welded joints that compared with FZ, the BM and FQZ have the largest and lowest Charpy impact energy, respectively.

The considerable difference in notch sensitivity is closely related to microstructural features. As discussed in Section 3.2, the severe solute segregation, intergranular network eutectics and microcracks result in the poor notch toughness of FQZ compared to weld metal. Moreover, the eutectic products at the grain boundary within AA7018 FQZ are found to be continuous but rather unconnected for RDE40 FQZ, as shown in Fig. 13. As a result, it is understandable that the impact toughness of FQZ within AA7018 welds is much worse with respect to RED40.

The three-point bending beam test is used to study fracture [130] and, specifically, the mixed I-II modes of crack propagation [89]. Extensive research has been done in the literature on the application of the PD theory for the prediction of fracture in specimens under the three-point bending flexure test, where pre-notched beams are subjected to impact loading using a modified Charpy impact testing system [8793]. Both Liu et. al [87] and Chen etal. [89] studied impact damage of pre-notched brittle materials by using the bond-based PD model to predict dynamic fracture. The mixed-mode fracture, including the crack initiation and propagation, was captured realistically and was in good agreement with the experimental data, as displayed in Fig.5. Furthermore, Liu et. al [87] also validated the influence of the notch location with the type of fracture mode, and the ability of PD to capture complex crack branching and nucleation with increasing impact velocities. Caimmi etal. [91] studied mode I and mixed mode fracture due to impact of pre-notched PMMA specimens and obtained good results with respect to the fracture strength.

Ren etal. [88] coupled the bond-based PD theory with the Discontinuous Galerkin FEM approach to capture the 3D dynamic crack growth and branching under impact at different notch locations. The linear constitutive relationship (shown in Fig.3) of the bond-based PD theory [48] limits the types of materials that can be modeled. Motivated by this limitation, Yang etal. [90] introduced a trilinear quasi-brittle damage model that accurately captured impact fracture in concrete structures by comparing with experiments. Breitenfeld [92] and Zhou etal. [93] successfully determined crack path using the non-ordinary state-based PD theory, where the latter incorporated the maximum tensile stress criterion and the Mohr-Coloumb stress criterion to their PD model for the prediction of crack initiation, propagation, and coalescence in the brittle materials under quasi-static and dynamic loads. A rate-dependent ordinary state-based peridynamic model was developed by Wu etal. [110] to predict the behavior of concrete structures under impact loading by modifying the bond failure criterion to include compression and tensile damage. An investigation into the crack development behavior in notched three-point bending test indicated that the proposed model from Wu etal. [110] managed to capture the crack growth under different configurations in comparison to the experimental results.

Maritime structure is likely faced with low temperature environment when it operates in the arctic region. Such harsh condition is quite challenging, which should be carefully considered for the design of marine structures regarding damage tolerance at low temperature [117]. Some core materials show brittle behaviours at low temperature, which makes sandwich composites susceptible to extreme loadings. When colliding with ice particles in the cold water, the damages below the surface of composite structure could be extremely significant, including matrix cracking, delamination, fibre breakages, face sheet and core interface debonding, and core crushing.

In order to study the damage behaviour of composite structure subject to extreme loadings at low temperature, several types of experiments were performed, including drop weight testings [117124], Charpy impact testings [125127], Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar apparatus (SHPB) [128130], ballistic testings [131], and blast testings [129].

Drop weight test is the most commonly used method. Elamin et al. [117] employed a drop tower machine (Fig. 13a) with a climate chamber to study the impact behaviour and failure mechanisms of CFRP/foam sandwich composite at low temperature. Testings were conducted at different temperatures, including room temperature (23C), standard freezing temperature (0C), average temperature in the arctic region (-30C), and the lowest temperature recorded in the arctic region (-70C). The climate chamber was connected to a liquid nitrogen tank to generate low temperature environment for the composite specimen. Results implied that the behaviour of CFRP/foam composite was remarkably affected at -30C and-70C. More brittle behaviour, reduced strength of face sheet, and increased structural stiffness were revealed at low temperature. Severe damages, including fibre breakage, delamination, face sheet and core interface debonding, and core crushing, were observed after the experiment using Micro-CT. It is worth noting that the debonding area was dramatically increased at low temperature, which was attributed to the weaker matrix interface in such environment.

Fig. 13. (a) Drop weight testing facility to study the impact behaviour and failure modes of CFRP/foam sandwich composite at low temperature [117] (b) Charpy impact testing facility to study the energy absorption of composite structures [125].

Charpy impact test was a method utilised to study the energy absorption of GFRP laminates. The experimental setup employed by Li et al. [125] is shown in Fig. 13b, which aimed to study the impact properties and failure mechanisms of composite at room temperature (20C) and liquid nitrogen temperature (-196C) respectively. For the experiments at liquid nitrogen temperature, the specimen was placed in a container filled with liquid nitrogen for more than two hours before testing. The absorbed energy in the composites at different temperatures was compared, and the failure mechanisms were identified using a scanning electron microscope. The increased impact energy indicated improved impact resistance of specimen at liquid nitrogen temperature (-196C) than room temperature (20C). Authors explained this improvement as the results of the increased stiffness and strength of the resin matrix and the enhanced bonding effect between fibre and matrix at low temperature. However, they also pointed out that at a temperature of -196C brittle failure feature became more apparent.

Compared with low-velocity drop weight test, a high-velocity impact trial in low-temperature environment was conducted by Lpez-Puente et al. [131]. This experiment aimed to examine the effect of low temperature on impact damage extension on CFRP laminates. The setup is shown in Fig. 14(a). They employed a gas gun to accelerate a spherical-shaped steel projectile and impact the composite specimen in a climate chamber. This chamber provided cryogenic environment by allowing the liquid nitrogen flow inside and the fan constantly recirculate. Fig. 14b presents the details of the chamber. Composite specimens were tested at three different temperatures (20C,-60C,-150C) for comparison. Failure mechanisms were observed, and damage areas were identified by C-scan. It was demonstrated that the low temperature had a negative effect on high-velocity impact response of taped CFRP laminates, whereas it showed little effect on damage severity once the impact velocity was beyond the ballistic limit.

Fig. 14. (a) Schematics of experimental setup to examine the effect of low temperature on impact response of CFPR laminates (b) photos of climate chamber to provide a low temperature environment for composite specimens [131].

Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar (SHPB) apparatus, which utilises stress wave propagation in elastic bars to generate dynamic load on target structure [143], has also been used at low temperature to capture the high rate stress-strain response of composite structures [128130].

To authors best knowledge, the only blast test on composite structures at low temperature was performed by Gupta and Shukla [129] in 2012. Similar as one type of the UNDEX laboratory-scale experiment, they employed a shock tube apparatus to generate blast loading (Fig. 15a). The shock load was replicated by pressurizing the driver section. The GFRP/foam sandwich composites were tested at three different temperatures (40C, 22C, 80C). To achieve the target low-temperature, the composite specimen was cooled down to 70C using the cooling system shown in Fig. 15b and quickly placed inside the shock tube apparatus. The blast test was conducted when the temperature of core dropped to 40C. During the experiment, high-speed camera with DIC technique was utilised to record the real time displacement as shown in Fig. 15c. Results indicated that the tested composites experienced larger displacement and severer damages at low temperature than at room temperature. The main damage modes observed after experiment were core cracking and face sheet/core debonding.

Fig. 15. (a) Schematics of the shock tube apparatus to study the temperature effect on dynamic response of maritime composites subject to blast load, including driver section, driven section, muzzle section and test section [144] (b) cooling system to obtain target temperature for composite specimen (c) high-speed images showing the real time deformations of composite at room temperature (22C) and low temperature (40C) respectively [129].

Full-scale and large-scale experiments, as reported in literatures, could capture the shockwave pressure magnitude and composite response, including acceleration, velocity, strain, and failure modes. An approximately real simulation of in-service conditions is highlighted [110]. However, only a limited number of full-scale and large-scale UNDEX testings have been performed and data from these experiments are quantitatively limited (no repeat experiment) [111]. This attributes to the costly and time-consuming manufacture of sample structures, challenging and expensive experimental setups. To this regard, computational model of UNDEX experiments is recommended as a design tool to predict and evaluate composite behaviours [66].

Laboratory-scale experiment aims to investigate behaviour of composite structures during UNDEX event using small facilities. It requires less preparation time, lower cost, whereas it is repeatable, safer and more controllable than full-scale and large-scale experiments. The four types of experimental setups mentioned above applied different working principles and captured slightly different characteristics during the UNDEX testings. The shock tube and chamber systems could examine both air-backed and water-backed samples, while the spherical vessel and cubic tank systems are only for water-backed and air-backed respectively. Both shock wave pressure history and structure response could be captured by four types systems, whereas only the transparent shock tube system allows direct observation of the entire process during experiment. With the aid of high-speed camera (with DIC), behaviours of bubble and effects of FSI are also captured. However, the real case is always more complicated than the controlled laboratory environment. Also, the geometry and boundary conditions of the samples tested in laboratory are much simpler than the composites used in maritime structures. Further experimental studies in this field could focus on investigation of composites with more complex geometries and made of different materials. Additionally, near field denotation of explosive charges could also be studied extensively regarding its localized effect.

55 types of hammers - the ultimate guide - engineeringclicks

When we use the term hammer we all know what to expect, what they are used for but do you realise how many types of hammers there are and their crucial design elements? In its most basic form you can describe your hammer as a handheld tool which is simply used to strike another object. The first hammers date back to 2,400,000 BC when stones were used as the hammerheads then we have the first real modern day hammer with stones attached to sticks via strips of leather and animal sinew (dating back to 30,000 BC). However, it was only really in the Bronze Age that we saw the creation of the hammers styles which we see today and often take for granted.

There is historical evidence to suggest that bronze/copper hammerheads were used around 3,000 BC in an area of the world we now know as Iraq. In reality this was the first major breakthrough in the design of the modern day hammerhead allowing for much tougher materials to be used in construction. Indeed archaeological digs from 200 BC show that the ingenious Romans had created a range of different types of hammerhead with even a claw hammer dating back to 75 AD discovered during Roman settlement digs.

By very definition, the fact that a claw hammer was available in Roman times would seem to indicate that metal nails were also a common construction tool. What we see today is very often taken for granted but we do know that the range of modern day hammers can be traced back thousands of years.

While there are many different variations on the traditional hammer they all have two main components which are the head and the handle. The shape, size and material used for each of these elements will vary depending upon their use. Believe it or not the force created by a hammer blow is directly proportional to the weight of the hammerhead, the length of the hammer handle, the force with which it is driven down (or up) and good old-fashioned gravity. We take many things for granted in the modern world but the ability to balance good old-fashioned brute force together with accuracy is not easy.

Can you imagine the individual force drawn down upon a hammerhead not to imagine the cumulative force over the life of a hammerhead? These elements of the hammer are created during a process called hot forging which sees a steel bar heated to temperatures approaching 2350F (1300C). This process softens the steel bars which can then be manipulated into the shape of a hammerhead using an array of dies. One of the dies is static while another is brought down with force creating immense pressure which moulds the molten steel into the required shape.

This is repeated numerous times eventually, bit by bit, creating the finished article. As you might expect when excess molten steel is forced out of the dies it can form what is known as flash which is effectively unwanted steel compromising the shape of the hammerhead. This flash has to be removed using trimming dies which clamp the desired shape cutting off the excess material due to the enormous force at which the dies are brought together. As a final quality check each hammerhead is cooled and any rough spots are removed manually.

When you bear in mind the excessive force which a hammerhead will experience during its lifetime you might suspect this is not the end of the process. In order to prevent chipping and damage to the hammerhead, which takes the full force of the kinetic energy created by downforce, the hammerheads are heated and then cooled very quickly which changes the structure of the steel material. This ensures that the impact area has a different type of grain to the rest of the hammerhead and will not be compromised when used.

The final process is known as shot blasting which cleans and smooths the hammerheads using small steel particles which are fired at great speed effectively smoothing the outer surface. Hey presto, the hammerhead is finished and can be painted and polished.

The most common types of hammer handles are wood and metal with the wood type simply shaved into the desired shape on a lathe. After this process the wooden handle is clamped and a diagonal slot created at the top which is where the hammerhead and handle will be united. The process for a metal hammer handle is very similar to the creation of the hammerhead with steel bars heated to extreme temperatures and molten steel forced into shaped dies. Other materials can be added to the centre of the hammers to give greater strength and longevity.

Once the hammer handles have been completed the wooden type is secured using wedges and steel pins with the metal handles connected using epoxy resin. The finished product will then be examined both from a visual point of view and tested for quality control. While all elements of the hammer making process are important it is the hardening of the impact area which is perhaps most vital from a safety point of view as well as value for money for customers.

So simple yet so effective it is no surprise that the claw hammer is perhaps the most widely used hammer today. Popular in the construction industry and DIY market the hammerhead is specifically curved with one side used to hammer nails into a material while the other side, split head, is used to extract nails.

Often referred to as a stonemasons hammer the brick hammer is designed to act as both a traditional hammer and a simple chisel tool. The blunt end of the hammer is used to split stones and hard masonry while the chisel shape can be used to round off the edges and smaller pieces of stone.

It is quite easy to confuse the framing hammer with a simple claw hammer but there are some subtle differences. The framing hammer is much heavier, around double the weight of a traditional claw hammer, and designed to bring down extreme force on large nails. The much longer handle together with the gripped impact head ensure less slippage when hammering in large nails. The claw element is also straight as opposed to curved with more focus on separating materials such as skirting boards, etc as opposed to extracting nails.

While hammer welding itself may be an art form which is fast disappearing from the modern day world, a welders hammer is a very useful reminder of days gone by. This particular tool is used to remove waste material from round a weld with both a pointed tool and a chisel tool on either side of the hammerhead.

While many different hammers are perfectly refined replicas of the traditional claw hammer there are some subtle differences. The so-called electricians hammer has the claw tool at a different angle and a polished tempered steel head for impact force. The handle is made of high strength fibreglass which is able to absorb the shock of multiple impacts.

The drywall hammer is an innovative tool which is perhaps a lot more useful than it looks at first glance. The traditional impact head is bevelled with a waffle shape allowing you to hammer in nails on a drywall without breaking the outer layer. It also adds a bevelled effect to the wall which can be useful when adding new layers of plaster, etc. The other side of the hammerhead has a simple nail extractor, an axe-shaped sharpened edge for scoring and a useful hook to allow multiple people to carry strips of drywall using their hammers.

A soft face hammerhead is made of non-ferrous materials such as wood, plastic and is very basic with two impact areas and a shaft which is often made of wood, rubber or fibreglass. The soft materials used reduce what is known as bounceback as they are able to absorb the vast majority of the impact energy. In many ways they are a smaller version of the traditional mallet but for use in more delicate situations.

The tack hammer is used when securing upholstery using either small nails or specialist tacks. The two sides of the hammerhead can vary between the traditional smaller impact area and one which is magnetised for help in positioning the tack or a small nail remover similar to a claw hammer. These hammers are relatively small and perfect for delicately securing upholstery.

The sledgehammer does not need much introduction! With a relatively large head and extended handle it is possible to gain significant impact speed which is perfect for tasks such as breaking rocks and driving fence posting into the ground. The hammerhead is larger than normal, traditionally made of metal and can take extreme impact force.

The blacksmiths hammer has an interesting history all of its own which goes back many centuries. Effectively it is designed for multipurpose forging allowing a blacksmith to bend and chip away at extremely hot metal materials to create a specific product. This is a specialist tool and is not designed for traditional use.

A bushing hammer in its simplest form is a vital masonry tool which allows stone and concrete to be texturised. These tools have an array of small pyramid-like designs on the hammerhead which imprint onto the concrete and stone. They are used for decorative purposes or to allow greater traction/adhesion were further work may be required.

The linemans hammer is traditionally associated with the task of hammering bolts or large screws into materials such as utility poles. It may appear very slight in structure and design but the principle is the same with two rounded hammerheads and a handle designed to absorb shock often enhanced by rubber grips.

As you might guess, the mechanics hammer is instrumental when looking to remove dents from car panels. The design is very different to a traditional hammer with a metal flat hammerhead complemented by a pointed impact tool. Watching a mechanic remove dents from a car panel is a joy and an art in itself.

The design of a chasing hammer is very different from your traditional hammer with a long rounded handle and a hammerhead which consists of a flat impact area and a ball-peen. Used traditionally with metalwork and riveting it offers a good mix of good old fashioned force as well as the ball-peen tool used to sink rivets flat with the surface.

Also referred to as a machinist hammer the ball-peen hammer is used in metalworking offering a relatively small hammerhead with a flat impact area and a rounded head tool. This is one of many hammers used for tasks such as riveting, offering a one stop tool to punch the rivet into the metal and round it off.

Forged out of one piece of metal the tinners hammer is predominantly used in the metal roofing industry. The hammerhead consists of a slightly bevelled flat head as well and a rounded cross peen. This is perfect for hammering rivets into the roofing and sinking them with the rounded edge.

More commonly associated with geologists the prospectors hammer offers both a flat edge hammerhead to break stones and a chiselled type tool for more intricate work. These are the type of hammers you see in films where experts are digging for fossils. They make that breaking and chiselling look so easy!

While obviously associated with toolmakers, the toolmakers hammer is also be used in a variety of other environments. While the handle can vary in size and material the hammerhead is exactly the same with a flat impact area and a rounded tool. This is complemented by a magnifying lens placed just below the hammerhead creating an eye catching look.

Commonly referred to as a type of mallet the dead-blow hammer is perfect for use in relatively tight spaces. It is designed to minimise any damage on the contact area with minimal rebound also assisting where space is at a premium. Consisting of two identical hammerhead tools this type of hammer can be used for a variety of different tasks.

The railroad-spike maul hammer is a precision made tool used to hammer railroad spikes onto railroad track. The hammerhead itself is relatively thin as is the hammer handle although the design, length of the handle and the hammerhead allow for maximum impact force.

As the name suggests, the stone sledgehammer is traditionally used to break giant rocks into more manageable pieces. The long handle and relatively small head are perfect when looking to create maximum impact force where precision is not necessarily vital. This is the type of hammer which depends upon brute force.

Like many blacksmiths tools the blacksmiths sledgehammer goes back many years and is used to shape pieces of metal such as iron. The large flat metal head and extended handle allow the creation of significant impact force. While there is an emphasis on brute force to shape different pieces of metal there is also a need for precision impact.

The half-hatchet hammer is simply a cross between an axe and a hammer affording the user a variety of different options. Sometimes referred to as a rigging axe it can be used in a number of different everyday scenarios.

As the name suggests, a trim hammer is more delicate than a traditional nail hammer. These hammers are compact and lightweight and are very popular within the carpentry industry. The polished steel head and smooth texture do not mark the surface when hammering nails flush.

The club hammer is a small version of a sledgehammer where brute force is required to break down masonry, stones and demolition work. It can also be used as an impact tool where you are looking to cut stone/hard metal with a chisel where perhaps precision is not required.

The name gives it away because a boiler scaling hammer is a vital element of the toolkit of fitters and welders. The hammerhead is made of a hardened metal with both a horizontal and vertical chisel head which is perfect for the removal of scale from boiler plates. It can also be used in other scenarios.

Sometimes referred to as a rock climbing hammer the piton hammer is similar in design to a basic metal spike which can be driven into small cracks and crevices as rock climbers ascend a rock face. They may have been around many years but they offer a solid anchor and are one of the most important climbing aids.

The scutch hammer is used in the construction industry, specifically for cutting and chiselling bricks, but this is not your stereotypical hammer. The hammer comes with either a single ended or double ended scutch which allows specific cutting attachments to be used.

The gavel hammer has a history which goes back centuries allowing those in control to attract the attention of the crowds. Commonly used by auctioneers, judges and at public meetings this small compact hardwood hammer can certainly demand control of any room!

Sometimes described as a rubber mallet, a rubber hammer is an extremely important tool where there is a requirement for soft but firm blows. This type of hammer is commonly used in upholstery, woodwork and those working with sheet metal. The fact that the rubber head causes minimal damage also makes this a perfect type of hammer when forcing material such as plasterboard into place.

We see a number of hammers which are used in the blacksmith trade and the blocking hammer is one more to add to the list. While the wooden handle is traditional, this hammer has a flat square head on one side and a cylindrical shaped head on the other. When shaping metal on either an anvil or a block the blocking hammer is the perfect tool.

As the name suggest, the brass hammer has a brass cylindrical double head which is perfect for hammering steel pins into different materials without damaging the surrounding area. While useful in an array of different scenarios, it is most often used in the automotive industry and traditional woodwork shops.

The cross peen hammer consists of a traditional hammerhead together with a wedge shaped alternative. Those who have hit their fingers when trying to position a panel pin or tack into wood or plasterboard for example will appreciate this hammer. The wedge side allows you to start the pin or tack without risk of damaging your finger. The traditional hammerhead allows you to finish the job.

The cross peen pin hammer is a smaller version of the cross peen hammer which is more appropriate for wood and not suitable for metal and other hard materials. It has the same small traditional hammerhead and wedge head and is used more for light joinery and intricate cabinetwork. The relatively light nature of the cross peen pin hammer makes it ideal for relatively soft materials.

The engineering hammer is a hard wearing durable tool which has traditionally been used for locomotive repairs and other similar activities. It has a rounded head and a cross peen which makes it ideal for particularly difficult repairs. The term is also used to describe ball peen hammers and rounded double head hammers.

The hatchet hammer is a hybrid between a hammer and an axe. The axe blade is used like a traditional axe but also has a traditional hammerhead on the opposite side. In theory there are numerous situations in which the hatchet hammer will come in useful but they are most often associated with survival/emergency situations. The ability to cut with the axe and also hammer in a traditional manner has saved many lives over the years.

A planishing hammer is a relatively small hammer which is traditionally used to fine shape and smooth metal. It consists of two similar hammerheads one of which is slightly convex and the other has a peen tip with a cylindrical die. Due to the shape of the hammerheads in is possible to exert significant force with limited damage to the metal itself.

As the name suggest, a power hammer is able to exert immense pressure using compressed air which is used to power a large piston. The hydraulic system is perfect for shaping steel and other similar types of material which are less malleable with more traditional manual hammers. When you consider that the piston head can move up and down anything up to 200 times as a minute you begin to appreciate the potential power.

As the name suggest, the Rip hammer is not only used in construction but also extremely popular in demolition. Described by some as the professionals answer to a claw hammer, it is heavier in weight and the claw component is straight as opposed to curved on a traditional claw hammer. This has to be one of the more durable hammers used extensively in construction/demolition for actions such as digging holes to demolishing wood and brickwork.

A rock hammer is traditionally used in the field of geology and excavation. It offers the opportunity to not only chisel out stones and bricks but also break small rocks with the flathead. Weve also seen variations of the rock hammer used by bricklayers to loosen and part brick work joints. Due to the length of the pick hammer it has also proven useful when digging small holes.

The scaling hammer is a rather strange looking tool consisting of a vertical chisel and pick. This type of hammer is extremely useful when removing not only scale and rust but also extremely hard coatings from inside boilers which can build up over the years. The relatively thin points allow you to get under the surface of the scaling/rust and draw it out.

The shingle hammer is a hybrid of various hammers and often referred to as a roofing hammer. It has a spike head and a square head and usually incorporates a small claw for pulling out nails. The spike is used to create nail holes in shingle and slate which will often shatter and break when using a traditional hammer. Once the hole is made the square head is used to push the nail through the slate/shingle and position it on a roof or similar structure.

This is a hammer which is traditionally used to force spikes into the ground which hold train rails in place. There are two types of spike maul hammer one of which has a square tapered head which complements the main driving block. There is also a bell variation with long thin cylindrical heads one of which is thicker and the other is longer. It is difficult to comprehend the tremendous workload required to lay track and to ensure that each spike is firmly in place.

The straight peen hammer is very similar to the cross peen variation and perfect for shaping metal and putting nails in place. The only difference to a cross peen hammer is the fact that the peen (the pointed end) is parallel with the hammer shaft as opposed to vertical. The size and variation of the peen can vary as can the block hammer end.

To all intents and purposes a knife edged hammer is very similar to an axe with a flat square hammerhead on the opposite side. Using the knife edge it is very easy to cut and split wood while the flat surface is useful when looking to bludgeon the wood. Softening the wood (or driving a wedge into the wood) and then splitting with the knife edge is a perfect combination.

Rock climbing hammers are also known as wall hammers, aid hammers and big wall hammers and play an integral part in rock climbing. They allow the climber to place and remove pitons, copper heads and fixed anchors. The sharp end of the hammerhead helps position/loosen the anchors (bolts) and the blunt end is perfect for hammering them home.

A splitting maul hammer is best described as a cross between a sledgehammer and an axe. The axe head comes to a sharp point and is used to split wood. The sledgehammer side of the hammerhead can be used to bludgeon the wood or more commonly to push a wedge as deep as possible thereby opening up the wood for the axe tool. Both sides of the head are shaped in such a manner as to minimise the chances of becoming stuck in the wood.

A slaters hammer is an extremely useful tool which consists of a claw head for removing nails, together with a sharp pointed head for punching holes into slate and a sheer edge which allows the slate to be shaped to fit perfectly. There is also a more traditional hammer shaped head which allows the nails to be hammered home. Effectively four tools in one!

While thankfully dentistry has come on in recent times it is not that long ago primitive dental hammers were used during treatment. Traditionally they were either one cylindrical shape with two flat ends or two flat discs placed either side of a steel ball. We can only imagine the excruciating pain but they were used to condense filling material after treatment. It is not clear what kind of success rate they had bearing in mind the pressure and the continuous tapping on the filling and tooth.

Over the years we have seen many different types of reflex hammer but they all create the same end result. Modern day reflex hammers, with their rubberlike head, are used to tap on a deep tendon to test reflexes. As the hammer head is made of a rubberlike material, of varying shapes, it carries significant force but will not actually cause damage. Reflex hammers are also used for chest percussion.

While hammer and chains come in a variety of different sizes, and materials, they are traditionally used for fire alarms. We have all seen the panic glass on storage facilities with the chain and hammer hanging down below. A sharp jolt with the hammerhead is all it takes and this removes the chances of being cut when using your hands.

War hammers are probably exactly what you imagine, tough hammerheads on extended shafts which offer significant leverage. The style changed over the years but was always based on a sharp pointed head (similar to an ice axe) and a traditional hammer block. The spike would cause significant damage to an individual while the hammerhead did not even need to penetrate armour to cause potentially deadly concussion.

While copper and hide hammers are perhaps not as well-known as the other hammers in this list, they are perfect for shaping metal without actually penetrating the surface. The hammerhead is copper at one side and rawhide at the other. This allows metal, such as car bodywork, to be shaped back into place without causing damage. Old-fashioned it may be but it is extremely effective!

A lath hammer is used when manipulating the thin flat strips of wood which make the foundations of a plaster wall. The axe head allows the wood to be trimmed into shape, the notch helps with the removal of nails and the traditional hammer striking head is use when driving nails into the wood. Lath hammers have a metal head and shaft with a rubber handle which absorbs impact forces.

Norse mythology goes back centuries and Thors hammer was one of the most fearsome weapons available at the time. The hammer is regularly depicted today in cartoons and Norse history although the actual hammer itself is called Mjlnir. While hammers have been used in battles for many years Thors hammer has a mystery all of its own.

Arent you amazed at how many types of hammers there actually are? Many people will be surprised to learn how far back we can trace the use of hammers in their most basic form, i.e. stone, and then moving on to various types of metal. The design, angling and structure of individual hammer are aligned perfectly to create the desired impact force. They are also available in many different materials with some deemed soft in comparison to the traditional hard hammerhead.

Even though there are many automatic hammers, and other similar products, available today the good old-fashioned claw hammer and its many compatriots still play a major role in the construction industry and everyday life!

Thanks Mark that was a crackingarticle and you have certainly educated both myself and the readers about various types of hammers that are available in the world. I had no idea that there were so many types of hammers actually out there!

There are also many more types of hammers not covered by this article, and many variants. If you want us to tell you about them let us know. Im sure weve got a 55 moretypes of hammers article in us.

So readers, what are your favorite type ortypes of hammers? We certainly have a few of our own favorite types of hammers at EngineeringClicks! One of my favorite types of hammers personally is the Dead Blow hammer, mainly because of its cool sounding name. Tell us yourfavorite types of hammers in the comments below.

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