Water hammer occurs when the flowrate of fluid in the pipe changes rapidly. It is also known as surge flow. It can cause very high pressures in pipes, very high forces on pipe supports, and even sudden reversals of flow. It can cause burst pipes, damaged supports and pipe racks, and leakage at joints.
Water hammer can occur for any fluid, in any pipe, but the severity varies depending on the detailed conditions of the fluid and the pipe. It usually occurs in liquids, but it can occur in gases. It can cause pipes to burst and structures to collapse.
This article will describe the conditions most likely to lead to water hammer problems and the issues that pump and pipe designers and operators can face. It also outlines some of the ways to resolve the problems.
Increased pressure occurs every time a fluid is accelerated or retarded by pump condition changes or valve position changes. Normally this pressure is small and the rate of change is gradual, and water hammer is practically undetectable. However under some circumstances, the pressure created can be many tens of bars, and forces on supports can be many tonnes, exceeding their specifications. In pipe bridges, collateral damage can occur. The risk to safety, assets and environment are obvious.
Slight water hammer can be detected by pipe movements, banging noises and pulsing flows. Serious water hammer gives the same effects but these might be large enough to cause serious damage, and might only occur once! Pipe systems that show the characteristics that can lead to serious hammer should be analysed by computer software, especially if hazardous chemicals are being carried in them. Its presence can also be revealed sometimes by unexpected opening of relief valves.
Water hammer is a shock wave passing down the pipe as a result of a sudden flowrate change. The most common cause is a valve closing too quickly, or a pump tripping or starting up suddenly. This causes a shock wave which starts at the valve or pump and passes along the pipe, changing the fluid velocity as it goes. This is the cause of high pressure. If the wave is sharp and it passes through pipe bends, the pressure step change can cause out-of-balance forces which move the pipe. This might cause the pipe to move off its supports or transmit the force to its anchors. The pressure wave can travel through pumps, damaging the impellor and drive.
Water hammer can also be caused by cavitation due to the pressure dropping below the vapour pressure, and then the bubbles collapsing as the pressure swings back up. This can happen after a valve or downstream of a pump. As the valve closes or the pump trips, the pressure downstream can fall to a level that the fluid boils, creating a vapour cavity. This suction can cause the liquid to flow backwards and the cavity collapses as it approaches the closed valve or stopped pump. When it collides with the valve or pump, a severe hammer can occur.
The closure of non-return valves can also cause water hammer. Some systems are very prone to this, and the use of a simple swing check valve can give severe water hammer. Some companies manufacture non-return valves which minimise water hammer caused by their operation.
Its not possible to give simple, infallible rules for spotting water hammer potential. Computer programs exist that allow pipe systems to be modelled and any potential for water hammer problems to be revealed. In experienced hands they can also be used to find the best solution to any such problems. Simple hecks can be done by hand calculation, and some vendors have nomographs to help predict hammer and design suitable alleviators. However most systems need good computer software to do this accurately.
There are several programs, including Flowmaster, HiTrans, Hammer, and Wanda. The author has extensive experience in Flowmaster and HiTrans, and some experience in Hammer. These are all capable programs but require significant training and experience to use confidently. HiTrans is inexpensive but is only suitable for simple systems, whereas the others can model complex networks but are expensive. They all produce accurate results on pressures created in the system. Flowmaster and HiTrans are not capable of calculating forces, but the author has developed spreadsheets that take their pressure-time history results and analyse them for pressure and force peaks and action times. Hammer can calculate instantaneous force values in three dimensions given suitable pipe information input. Results from the programs can be fed into stress analysis programs like Caesar for consideration with other pipe stresses. Force analysis however is complex as forces can have durations from several seconds to only a few milliseconds.
As a quick fix, if its a valve causing the problem, slow it down a lot! Theres a rule of thumb 1 second closure time for each inch pipe diameter but I find it to be poor, and recommend 5 seconds per inch diameter, or more. If its a pump, fit multi-turn valves (fit gearboxes to butterfly and ball valves) and make the operators use them slowly.
However it is much better to model the system using suitable software, then all potential solutions can be tested in the model to enable the designer to select the best and most cost effective solution for his pipe system. This should be mandatory for long pipes (say >500m long) carrying toxic or flammable materials.
Some causes can be resolved by arranging for the elimination or control of the problem item. Apart from the items previously discussed, this might include vibrating pressure relief valves, fast emergency shutdown valve closures, and some manual valve closures eg butterfly valves. Soft starters can assist with some water hammer problems induced by pumps.
Stuart Ord is a chemical engineer in England. He has a 1st class honours degree in chemical engineering and is a Fellow of the Institution of Chemical Engineers. He had a career in major chemical companies but now works as a private consultant specialising in hazard studies, risk assessments and water hammer analysis. Stuart can be contacted on +44 7981 569058,[email protected], or via his websitewww.CEDCS.com
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When washing clothes in my washing machine on warm, I get water hammer throughout the wash fill cycle. I had my house re-piped 2 years ago and thats when it started. I suspect its because fill is alternating quickly between hot and cold. Do I need to be concerned?
DEAR SIR WE HAVE FIR FIGHTING PIP NET BUT WHEN accumulator disassemble from system pressure increase at pip net from 8 bar to 14 bar without pump working what is the reason maybe accumulator or another . note :- pressure increase during morning 12oclock not happen in night.
Hello I am an electrical engineer working for a partner of ABB in Scotland, we have solved a similar problem for Scottish Water to reduce transients related to water booster pump stations, we have successfully reduced their burst rates linked to theses stations by over 80% saving over 1 million over the last two years. We have designed and fitted new panels with variable speed drives which allow us to keep a constant outlet pressure by varying the speed of the pumps to keep a constant outlet setpoint pressure, essentially the pump never stops only slows down and speeds up depending on demand, removing water hammer by eliminating hard start/stops. We measure the outlet pressure and feed the analogue directly into the drives to give precise closed loop control. We have completed over 100 successful installations, with over 100 on order, if anyone would like more details please feel free to get in touch. Thanks Steven.
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wikiHow is a wiki, similar to Wikipedia, which means that many of our articles are co-written by multiple authors. To create this article, 14 people, some anonymous, worked to edit and improve it over time. There are 12 references cited in this article, which can be found at the bottom of the page. This article has been viewed 297,784 times. Learn more...
You can quickly identify most gemstones by observing a few basic characteristics, like color and heft. If you want a more thorough, accurate identification, though, you will need to use special tools to examine the interior of the stone.
To identify gemstones, get an identification chart you can reference. When you find a stone, feel the surface to make sure its smooth, which is a sign that its a gemstone. The stone should not be malleable if it is a true gemstone. Then, check that the stone isnt an assembly of rock fragments by shining a light into it to see if it is made up of more than 1 piece. Look at the stones color and transparency and compare it to your chart to try to match it to a specific gemstone. To check the quality of the stone, shine a light on the part of the stone with the best polish to check the shine or its luster. For information about how to determine if the stone is synthetic, keep reading! Did this summary help you?YesNo
Machine tool, any stationary power-driven machine that is used to shape or form parts made of metal or other materials. The shaping is accomplished in four general ways: (1) by cutting excess material in the form of chips from the part; (2) by shearing the material; (3) by squeezing metallic parts to the desired shape; and (4) by applying electricity, ultrasound, or corrosive chemicals to the material. The fourth category covers modern machine tools and processes for machining ultrahard metals not machinable by older methods.
Machine tools that form parts by removing metal chips from a workpiece include lathes, shapers and planers, drilling machines, milling machines, grinders, and power saws. The cold forming of metal parts, such as cooking utensils, automobile bodies, and similar items, is done on punch presses, while the hot forming of white-hot blanks into appropriately shaped dies is done on forging presses.
Modern machine tools cut or form parts to tolerances of plus or minus one ten-thousandth of an inch (0.0025 millimetre). In special applications, precision lapping machines can produce parts that are within plus or minus two millionths of an inch (0.00005 millimetre). Because of the precise dimensional requirements of the parts and the heavy cutting forces exerted on the cutting tool, machine tools combine weight and rigidity with delicate accuracy.
Before the Industrial Revolution of the 18th century, hand tools were used to cut and shape materials for the production of goods such as cooking utensils, wagons, ships, furniture, and other products. After the advent of the steam engine, material goods were produced by power-driven machines that could only be manufactured by machine tools. Machine tools (capable of producing dimensionally accurate parts in large quantities) and jigs and fixtures (for holding the work and guiding the tool) were the indispensable innovations that made mass production and interchangeable parts realities in the 19th century.
The earliest steam engines suffered from the imprecision of early machine tools, and the large cast cylinders of the engines often were bored inaccurately by machines powered by waterwheels and originally designed to bore cannon. Within 50 years of the first steam engines, the basic machine tools, with all the fundamental features required for machining heavy metal parts, were designed and developed. Some of them were adaptations of earlier woodworking machines; the metal lathe derived from woodcutting lathes used in France as early as the 16th century. In 1775 John Wilkinson of England built a precision machine for boring engine cylinders. In 1797 Henry Maudslay, also of England and one of the great inventive geniuses of his day, designed and built a screw-cutting engine lathe. The outstanding feature of Maudslays lathe was a lead screw for driving the carriage. Geared to the spindle of the lathe, the lead screw advanced the tool at a constant rate of speed and guaranteed accurate screw threads. By 1800 Maudslay had equipped his lathe with 28 change gears that cut threads of various pitches by controlling the ratio of the lead-screw speed to the spindle speed.
The shaper was invented by James Nasmyth, who had worked in Henry Maudslays shop in London. In Nasmyths machine, a workpiece could be clamped horizontally to a table and worked by a cutter using a reciprocating motion to plane small surfaces, cut keyways, or machine other straight-line surfaces. A few years later, in 1839, Nasmyth invented the steam hammer for forging heavy pieces. Another disciple of Maudslay, Joseph Whitworth, invented or improved a great number of machine tools and came to dominate the field; at the International Exhibition of 1862, his firms exhibits took up a quarter of all the space devoted to machine tools.
Britain tried to keep its lead in machine-tool development by prohibiting exports, but the attempt was foredoomed by industrial development elsewhere. British tools were exported to continental Europe and to the United States despite the prohibition, and new tools were developed outside Britain. Notable among these was the milling machine invented by Eli Whitney, produced in the United States in 1818, and used by Simeon North to manufacture firearms. The first fully universal milling machine was built in 1862 by J.R. Brown of the United States and was used to cut helical flutes in twist drills. The turret lathe, also developed in the United States in the middle of the 19th century, was fully automatic in some operations, such as making screws, and it presaged the momentous developments of the 20th century. Various gear-cutting machines reached their full development in 1896 when F.W. Fellows, an American, designed a gear shaper that could rapidly turn out almost any type of gear.
The production of artificial abrasives in the late 19th century opened up a new field of machine tools, that of grinding machines. C.H. Norton of Massachusetts dramatically illustrated the potential of the grinding machine by making one that could grind an automobile crankshaft in 15 minutes, a process that previously had required five hours.
By the end of the 19th century a complete revolution had taken place in the working and shaping of metals that created the basis for mass production and an industrialized society. The 20th century has witnessed the introduction of numerous refinements of machine tools, such as multiple-point cutters for milling machines, the development of automated operations governed by electronic and fluid-control systems, and nonconventional techniques, such as electrochemical and ultrasonic machining. Yet even today the basic machine tools remain largely the legacy of the 19th century.
All machine tools must provide work-holding and tool-holding devices and means for accurately controlling the depth of the cut. The relative motion between the cutting edge of the tool and the work is called the cutting speed; the speed in which uncut material is brought into contact with the tool is called the feed motion. Means must be provided for varying both.
Because an overheated tool may lose its cutting ability, temperatures must be controlled. The amount of heat that is generated depends on the shearing force and the cutting speed. Because the shearing force varies with the material being cut and the tool material varies in its tolerance for high temperatures, the optimum cutting speed depends both on the material being cut and the cutting-tool material. It is also influenced by the rigidity of the machine, the shape of the workpiece, and the depth of the cut.
Metal-cutting tools are classified as single point or multiple point. A single-point cutting tool can be used for increasing the size of holes, or boring. Turning and boring are performed on lathes and boring mills. Multiple-point cutting tools have two or more cutting edges and include milling cutters, drills, and broaches.
There are two types of operation; either the tool is moving on a straight path against the stationary workpiece, as on a shaper, or the workpiece is moving against the stationary tool, as on a planer. Relief or clearance angles must be provided to prevent the tool surface below the cutting edge from rubbing against the workpiece. Rake angles are often provided on cutting tools to cause a wedging action in the formation of chips and to reduce friction and heat.
A parent emailed me the other day with a question on lacrosse goalie lingo One question, how did you come up with the rat moniker? For me as an old guy, doesnt seem to totally fit with the quality of your material.Perhaps the older generation isnt aware of the slang term a lax rat onewhose life is consumed by lacrosse. So naturally, I am the lax goalie rat.This got me thinking of all the lacrosse slang terms that are out there today. Theres a list going at e-lacrosse.com (edit: Im not sure what happened to e-lacrosse.com but the site doesnt appear to be live anymore. Link removed.) but that one is missing some tasty gems, like crispy with the rock. That one also has a lot of non-slang terms mixed in like assist.Todays post is a fun one. A quick guide to understanding lacrosse slang terms old and new.Real quick if youre new to this site, let me give you a quick intro. I write about lacrosse goalies tips, drills, mindsets, coaching, and general advice all for lacrosse goalies, goalie coaches, and those interested in learning more about being or training a great goalie. If that sounds good to you join my email list here.Lacrosse Slang TermsOne caveat on slang terms they change constantly and some are completely region specific.When I was growing up as a kid in California, we used the word Rad (meaning cool or awesome) all the time. Thats so rad!. But I havent used nor heard that word in years, except in rad 80s movies of course.All thatto say this list of lacrosse lingo may or may not be accurate given when and where youre reading this.Here is the full list of alphabetized lacrosse slang terms that either I know, used, have heard or have read about:ATW Around the World:similar to BTB except the stick is wrapped around the opposite directionand the shot comes from over the shoulder of the shooting hand. Scored a goal on a sick ATW last game.Backbreaker:a trick shot where the stick is held by both hands above the head and the ball is shot underhand and behind the back AND between the legs.Bag / Sack / Bagged Out:the lacrosse stick pocket, a very deep one. How do you throw with that bag?Bar Down: A shot that pings off of the bottom of the top cross bar and ricochets on a steep angle toward the ground into the goal. Essentially the perfect shot that all attackman are trying to achieve. They passed it up top for a 12 yard shot and he went bar down.Ball Hunt / Egg Hunt / Pill Hunt / any slang word for ball + Hunt:a practice ritual where players search for lost balls in the grass, woods, bushes, etc.Black Hole:a ball hog. Dont throw it to him, hes a black hole.Boarding: In indoor box lacrosse, checking an opposing players against the boards. Usually a penalty.Brave Heart:Where two players from each team take the field, a goalkeeper and a middie. The two middies face off and go one on one full field until one scores.BTB Behind the Back:any shot or pass that you throw over the opposite shoulder of the shooting/passing hand.Bucket / Lid: Helmet. Bucket is also used to refer to the old style of lacrosse helmets with the laces in the back.Buddy Pass / Hospital Pass / Murder pass / Star pass:a pass that is lobbed high and/or slowly through the air such that the recipient iscrushed bydefenders as he receives it.Cage / Rack: the goal. Take it to the rack.Cannon / Crank / Frozen Rope / Rope / Lazer / Howie(howitzer) / Beam: a hard shot. That dude has got a cannon.Celly Celebration. That attackman did a sick celly after scoring.Cheap it (Cheap the ball) / Gilman:Slang forclearing the ball from the defensive end with a long random pass into the offensive end.Cheap Shot: A late and/or dirty hit or check. He gave him a cheap shot after the whistle.Coast to Coast: When a defender or goalie carries the ball the length of the field and scores a goal. Same meaning as basketball.Crispy with the Rock: describes a player with precise feeding/shooting abilityCup Check:teammatestapping on a protective cup to prove that it is there. Also slang for a shot that hits adefender or goalie right in the groin.Dime / Dish / Apple: A great pass or assist.He threw me a BTB dime right on the crease.Dirty / Baller: Used to describe a very good player.That attackman is dirty.Dive: A play where an offensive player leaves his feet and lands in the crease in the attempt to score a goal. Recently made legal in 2019 in NCAA.Door Step: Area right above the crease. Fed the attackman right on the doorstep.Dust / Dusty: unskilled defensive player. Can also mean old or outdated. I wear the smallest elbow pads possible because anything else is dusty.Fish / NARP (Non-Athletic Regular Person) / Scrub: Unskilled player. Give me the ball Ive got a fish on me.Five Hole: In between goalies legs.Flow:Long hair in the back that flows out of the helmet.FOGO Face Off / Get Off: Slang for the specialty position that faces off and then substitutes out. Dude is the best FOGO in the league.Freshie: New ball.Gamer: Your stick that you use in games. This is the stick you actually use in a lacrosse game as opposed to your backup stick. I use my backup stick on rainy days, but this one is my gamer.Gamer can also mean a player who always steps up in big games. That dude is such a gamer.Garbage Goal: A goal scored in an unsettled situation like on a rebound or loose ball in front of the goal.GLE: Goal Lind Extended. An imaginary line extending out from the goal line to the sideline.GOAT: Greatest of all time. Queener is the GOAT.Goal Mouth: Introduced in 2019, an area in the crease (marked with lines) that the attackman cannot land in if they doing a dive else the goal is disallowed.Golfing It: making a shot like a golf ball.Goon Squad: guys on the bench that never play and always screwaround.Goose (Goose it):slang forflipping the ball (ice hockey style) from the ground to a teammate.Grandma Goal: When the ball hits the outside of the net and no one but your grandma yells NICE GOAL!Hatty: Hat Trick: 3 goal game. Double Hatty / Sock Trick: 6 goal game. Trip Hatty: 9 goal game.Hold: like whip but from the sidesHoover:A ground ball machine. A player adept at winning possession on looseballs.Ice pick: A check thrownstabbing downward with the butt of your stickIndian Pick-up / Baltimore Crab:a method of picking up a ball by rolling the top inside of the scoop over the ball, starting it moving in that direction, while turning the head under the ball quickly to collect it in one motion. Native Americans used this style of pickup given that their sticks had no scoops.Kayak: One of the harder and less useful checks to throw. Wrap your stick, butt end first around a guy for the check.Lax:Short for LacrosseLaxing: Playing lacrosseLax Bro: Short for lacrosse brothers. A member of the lacrosse brotherhood. Someone who fully embraces the culture of lacrosse.Lax Rat: Player who eats, breaths, and sleeps lacrosse.Laxtitute: Derogatory slang term for a female lacrosse fan interested in the male lacrosse players.Lettuce / Cabbage / Flow: long hair out the back of the helmet. For the best of the best in terms of flow youll want to checkout Bro Bibles All Flow Team. That dudes got more lettuce than a Whole Foods salad bar.Loosie: Nickname for a loose ball.Lumber (Lay some lumber):slang for a strong defensive check and the impact of that check.Naked:Wide open. He was naked on the doorstep.Paddington Bear: Fat goalie.Peanut Butter: Goal on the top shelf, cause thats where momkeeps the peanut butter.Pearls / Cupcakes / Dougie Fresh / Fresh Rocks:brand new white lacrosse ballsPhantom Check / Ghost Check:the mysterious loss of ball controlPillow / Popcorn / Egg / Gumball / Muffin:A soft shot thats an easy save for the goalie. Thanks for the popcorn!Pinwheel / Helicopter / Copter: When a stick gets checked out of the ball carriers hands so that it flies into the air spinning like a pinwheel or a helicopter.Pipe City / Wesley Pipes / Pipe Dreams / Jesus Pipes / Michelle Piper: Hitting the post on a shot.Plunger: a Face-off move where you half clamp the ball (45 degrees) then keeping right hand on ground raise left hand and butt end of thestick. This distorts the sidewalls of the head of the stick trapping the ball like a plunger.Possession Shot: A shot way over the goal on purpose, to ensure possession to the team.Rake: trying to pick up a ground ball by putting your pocket over the ball and pulling backward quicklyRide the Pine: To be on the bench.Rip Twine: A goalRip: Shoot particularly hard. He absolutely ripped that one.Rocks / Pills / Bullets / Cookies / Nut / Nuggets / Rock lacrosse ballsRusty gate: a check that involved spinning a full 360 degrees and checking them with your back turnedSauerkraut Ugly flowSecond Bar Syndrome / SBS Those who suffer from lack of tilt and are actually looking out of the 2nd bar of the helmet instead of the first.My man is suffering from some serious SBSSettled: Even, 6 on 6 playShiners / Greasers / Slick Ricks / Butterballs /Marbles / Dusty Rocks:an old used lacrosse ball that has been warm down so much thatits greasy and shines.Shortside: The side of the goal closest to the shooter. Opposite = far side.Sick: Good, nice. Sick pass dude.Steeze: Style plus ease.Stick Ninja / Stick Doctor: Player who is good at stringing sticks.Stuff: Close range save by the goalie.Tennis Racket: Apocket that is shallow, or not broken in enough and doesnt have much hold. The ball bounces right out of there like a tennis racket.Tilt: wearing your helmet so that it is angled down towards the ground. Bros got some serious tilt.Tiltand Flow! Its magical!Top Cheddar (aka Top Ched) / Top Cheese / Rip Top Swiss / Premium Gouda / Rip a Duck / RipTits / Top Shelf:Shot that scores in the top part of the goal. Ripping the top part of the goal has become so popular these days that this element of slang has taken on a life of its own. Stemming from Top Cheddar, really any cheese variety can be used to refer to the top quadrant of the goal.Turf Monster / Turf Sniper:The unseen beast that causes players to trip and fall by themselves when playing on turf. i.e., vicious check from the turf monster. Bro got hit by the turf sniper.Turn N Rake: The action a goalie must do after getting scored and picking the ball out of the goal.Twizzler: A backhand scoop shot more popular in the womens game.Matt Hasselbecks daughter executing a sweet Twizzler:Annabelle Hasselbeck with the backhand fanciness called by @notthefakeSVP s/o @Hasselbeck @BCwlax pic.twitter.com/bPt1XLW1s4 Paul Rabil (@PaulRabil) April 29, 2021Walk the Dog / Pizza Oven / Carry the Pizza: when a player runs down the field carrying the ball in their stick way out in front of them in one hand with their arm extended, and holding the bottom of the shaft. This keeps the ball in the head of the stick without needing to cradle and to avoid checks from behind.Wand / Spoon / Twig: Lacrosse StickWhip:the pockets ability to pull the ball down. A stick with too much whip will be very hard to throw with.Wizard / Dangler: Player who has good stick skills.Worm Burner / Carpet Burner / Toe Jammer: Underhand low to low shot that skims above the ground.Yard Sale / Yahztee / Detwigged / De-Spooned / De-Wanded:when a player gets their stick checked out of their hands.Yellow: Commonly used to tell the offense to slow down so that the team can sub middies through the box.Zebra / Stripes: RefereeConclusionThere you go. Just a quick list of all the lacrosse slang and lingo that I know.Any of your favorite lax slang terms not make the list? Let me know in the comments.Until next time! Coach Damon
This got me thinking of all the lacrosse slang terms that are out there today. Theres a list going at e-lacrosse.com (edit: Im not sure what happened to e-lacrosse.com but the site doesnt appear to be live anymore. Link removed.) but that one is missing some tasty gems, like crispy with the rock. That one also has a lot of non-slang terms mixed in like assist.
When I was growing up as a kid in California, we used the word Rad (meaning cool or awesome) all the time. Thats so rad!. But I havent used nor heard that word in years, except in rad 80s movies of course.
This is bugging me! What is the slang term given to a lax player that only really passes/shoots by their dominant hand? As is, in a defensive setup a defender will communicate to the rest of their team when the player they are up against (who has the ball) will not be a threat off hand.
maybe add swing or spin when you want the offense to move the ball across the field usually to less defended side. weak and strong side weak being the opposite side where ball is usually around goal. Making up houdinied fake flip pass that fakes out defense, goalie, and camera man that ends in a score (like navy at the beginning of 2017)
Lacrosse is my passion! The game has given me so much and this blog is my way of giving back to the lax community. Specifically the most bad a$$ part of that community - the goalies!After learning to play goalie from scratch,I wanted to create a site where Icould share what Ilearned with others so they too can become champions in the crease and in life. Learn more about Coach Damon.
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