how does an iron ore crusher work

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challenges and opportunities in the iron ore crusher market | industrial vehicle technology international

January 25, 2019, the Vale iron mine in Brazil experienced a dam break, which led to the closure of large-scale mines. At the same time, the two major mines in Australia, BHP and Rio Tinto, were affected by the hurricane to reduce their shipments.

Since the end of January this year, iron ore prices have risen sharply, far exceeding the increase in steel and other raw materials. Therefore, iron ore has become the most popular investment in the eyes of investors. In July 2019, the price of iron ore reached more than US$120 per ton.

For the time being, the investment prospect of iron ore is very bright. So what is the global reserves and distribution of iron ore? How much does it cost to build an iron ore processing line? This article will answer you in detail.

The data released by USGS in early 2005 showed that the global iron ore reserves were 160 billion tons, the reserves of mineral iron (ie, iron contained in iron ore) were 80 billion tons and the basic reserves were 180 billion tons.

The worlds iron ore is mainly reserved in Ukraine, Russia, Brazil, China and Australia. The reserves are 30 billion tons, 25 billion tons, 21 billion tons, 21 billion tons and 18 billion tons respectively, accounting for 18.8%, 15.6%, 13.1%, 13.1% and 11.3% of the worlds total reserves respectively.

In addition, Kazakhstan, the United States, India, Venezuela and Sweden also have rich iron ore resources, and their iron ore reserves are 8.3 billion tons, 6.9 billion tons, 6.6 billion tons, 4 billion tons and 3.5 billion tons, respectively accounting for 5.2%, 4.3%, 4.1%, 2.5% and 2.2% of the worlds total iron ore reserves.

The worlds mineral iron is mainly reserved in Brazil, Russia and Australia, with reserves of 14 billion tons, 14 billion tons and 11 billion tons respectively, accounting for 17.5%, 17.5% and 13.8% of the worlds total reserves. The sum of the reserves in the three countries accounts for 48.8% of the total reserves in the world.

Mineral iron reserves and basic reserves are the most representative of the richness of a countrys iron ore resources, so Brazil, Russia and Australia are the worlds richest iron ore resources. At the same time, it shows that although Ukraine and China have large reserves of iron ore, they have more lean ore and less rich ore.

Iron ore resources are mainly reserved in more than10 countries, and 90% of proven reserves are distributed in10 countries and regions. They are: CIS (proven reserves of 114 billion tons, of which Russia is more than 80 billion tons), Brazil (68 billion tons), China (50 billion tons), Canada (over 36 billion tons), Australia (35 billion tons) ), India (17.57 billion tons), the United States (17.4 billion tons), France (7 billion tons), Sweden (3.65 billion tons).

The global iron mine reserves increased from 232 billion tons in 1996 to 370 billion tons in 2006, an increase of 59.5% in 10 years. The total amount of iron ore resources in the world is estimated to exceed 800 billion tons (the amount of iron ore), and the iron content exceeds 230 billion tons and there is still great potential for future discovery.

The major countries of iron ore resources include Brazil, Australia, China, Russia, Kazakhstan, Ukraine, the United States, India, Sweden, and Venezuela. High-grade ore is widely distributed in Brazil, Australia, India and other countries. The low mining cost and relatively high grade of iron ore make these countries the major iron ore suppliers in the world.

Before dry selection, the lean iron ore requires millimeter-scale fine crushing by the fine crusher. If the particle size of the iron ore is not small enough in the crushing stage, low-grade iron ore is difficult to be selected later, which will cause serious waste of resources.

The common problem in the iron ore crushing production line is that the wear parts of the fine crusher are seriously worn out, and the repair and maintenance of the fine crusher are too frequent, which makes the production efficiency of the iron ore crushing production line lower.

Different iron ore has different features. According to these features, the crushers are made of different materials. Therefore, the prices of iron ore crusher are different. However, reasonable crushing processes and crusher can be used to save the cost investment and achieve the required crushing effect.

In the crushing process of lean iron ore, in order to obtain the best process configuration and the lowest crushing cost, it is necessary to master the relationship of particle size among the primary crushing, the secondary crushing and the fine crushing.

For medium and low hardness lean iron ore, the second crushing equipment can use the impact crusher. The iron ore impact crusher utilizes a plate hammer on a high-speed moving rotor to produce a high-speed impact on the iron ore fed into the crushing chamber. The crushed iron ore is thrown at a high speed in the tangential direction toward the counter-attack at the other end of the crushing chamber.

During this process, the iron ore will collide with each other, causing cracks and looseness. When the iron ore particle size is smaller than the gap between the counterattack plate and the plate hammer, it is discharged outside the machine.

For high-hardness iron ore, a cone crusher can be used for the secondary crushing equipment. The HXJQ short-headed cone crusher can achieve a fine crushing effect of 3 to 13mm, which can fully meet the requirements of dry selection and grinding. However, due to the high hardness of such iron ore, the impact on the wear parts is large, so ordinary crushing equipment is difficult to exert its advantage.

In areas with low power consumption, the sand making machine developed and produced by HXJQ can achieve the fine crushing effect of high hardness and high output iron ore. Not only can the iron ore particle size be reduced to improve the dry selection efficiency, but also the ball mill load and operating cost can be greatly reduced, and the ball mill production capacity can be improved.

The price of iron ore crushing production line is related to various factors such as equipment combination, output level, and quality. Of course, the quotation standards of different manufacturers will also be different. Customers also need to analyze specifically when purchasing.

The comparison found that the price of the iron ore crushing production line of HXJQ Machinery is the most economical and reasonable, ensuring that the production line has a long service life, less failure, high efficiency, good effect, energy-saving and environmental protection, and can keep its price lower than other manufacturers 6% to 7%.

At the same time, the HXJQ configuration plan is all-sided, and there is a wide variety of equipment in HXJQ Machinery. If you are interested in these crushing equipment, please submit your relevant information on the right side, we will arrange a professional engineer to answer your questions.

crusher - an overview | sciencedirect topics

Roll crushers are generally not used as primary crushers for hard ores. Even for softer ores, like chalcocite and chalcopyrite they have been used as secondary crushers. Choke feeding is not advisable as it tends to produce particles of irregular size. Both open and closed circuit crushing are employed. For close circuit the product is screened with a mesh size much less than the set.

Fig. 6.4 is a typical set up where ore crushed in primary and secondary crushers are further reduced in size by a rough roll crusher in open circuit followed by finer size reduction in a closed circuit by roll crusher. Such circuits are chosen as the feed size to standard roll crushers normally do not exceed 50mm.

Cone crushers were originally designed and developed by Symons around 1920 and therefore are often described as Symons cone crushers. As the mechanism of crushing in these crushers are similar to gyratory crushers their designs are similar, but in this case the spindle is supported at the bottom of the gyrating cone instead of being suspended as in larger gyratory crushers. Fig. 5.3 is a schematic diagram of a cone crusher. The breaking head gyrates inside an inverted truncated cone. These crushers are designed so that the head to depth ratio is larger than the standard gyratory crusher and the cone angles are much flatter and the slope of the mantle and the concaves are parallel to each other. The flatter cone angles helps to retain the particles longer between the crushing surfaces and therefore produce much finer particles. To prevent damage to the crushing surfaces, the concave or shell of the crushers are held in place by strong springs or hydraulics which yield to permit uncrushable tramp material to pass through.

The secondary crushers are designated as Standard cone crushers having stepped liners and tertiary Short Head cone crushers, which have smoother crushing faces and steeper cone angles of the breaking head. The approximate distance of the annular space at the discharge end designates the size of the cone crushers. A brief summary of the design characteristics is given in Table 5.4 for crusher operation in open circuit and closed circuit situations.

The Standard cone crushers are for normal use. The Short Head cone crushers are designed for tertiary or quaternary crushing where finer product is required. These crushers are invariably operated in closed circuit. The final product sizes are fine, medium or coarse depending on the closed set spacing, the configuration of the crushing chamber and classifier performance, which is always installed in parallel.

For finer product sizes, i.e. less than 6mm, special cone crushers known as Gyradisc crushers are available. The operation is similar to the standard cone crushers except that the size reduction is caused more by attrition than by impact, [5]. The reduction ratio is around 8:1 and as the product size is relatively small the feed size is limited to less than 50mm with a nip angle between 25 and 30. The Gyradisc crushers have head diameters from around 900-2100mm. These crushers are always operated in choke feed conditions. The feed size is less than 50mm and therefore the product size is usually less than 6-9mm.

Crushing is accomplished by compression of the ore against a rigid surface or by impact against a surface in a rigidly constrained motion path. Crushing is usually a dry process and carried out on ROM ore in succession of two or three stages, namely, by (1) primary, (2) secondary, and (3) tertiary crushers.

Primary crushers are heavy-duty rugged machines used to crush ROM ore of () 1.5m size. These large-sized ores are reduced at the primary crushing stage for an output product dimension of 1020cm. The common primary crushers are of jaw and gyratory types.

The jaw crusher reduces the size of large rocks by dropping them into a V-shaped mouth at the top of the crusher chamber. This is created between one fixed rigid jaw and a pivoting swing jaw set at acute angles to each other. Compression is created by forcing the rock against the stationary plate in the crushing chamber as shown in Fig.13.9. The opening at the bottom of the jaw plates is adjustable to the desired aperture for product size. The rocks remain in between the jaws until they are small enough to be set free through this opening for further size reduction by feeding to the secondary crusher.

The type of jaw crusher depends on input feed and output product size, rock/ore strength, volume of operation, cost, and other related parameters. Heavy-duty primary jaw crushers are installed underground for uniform size reduction before transferring the ore to the main centralized hoisting system. Medium-duty jaw crushers are useful in underground mines with low production (Fig.13.10) and in process plants. Small-sized jaw crushers (refer to Fig.7.32) are installed in laboratories for the preparation of representative samples for chemical analysis.

The gyratory crusher consists of a long, conical, hard steel crushing element suspended from the top. It rotates and sweeps out in a conical path within the round, hard, fixed crushing chamber (Fig.13.11). The maximum crushing action is created by closing the gap between the hard crushing surface attached to the spindle and the concave fixed liners mounted on the main frame of the crusher. The gap opens and closes by an eccentric drive on the bottom of the spindle that causes the central vertical spindle to gyrate.

The secondary crusher is mainly used to reclaim the primary crusher product. The crushed material, which is around 15cm in diameter obtained from the ore storage, is disposed as the final crusher product. The size is usually between 0.5 and 2cm in diameter so that it is suitable for grinding. Secondary crushers are comparatively lighter in weight and smaller in size. They generally operate with dry clean feed devoid of harmful elements like metal splinters, wood, clay, etc. separated during primary crushing. The common secondary crushers are cone, roll, and impact types.

The cone crusher (Fig.13.12) is very similar to the gyratory type, except that it has a much shorter spindle with a larger-diameter crushing surface relative to its vertical dimension. The spindle is not suspended as in the gyratory crusher. The eccentric motion of the inner crushing cone is similar to that of the gyratory crusher.

The roll crusher consists of a pair of horizontal cylindrical manganese steel spring rolls (Fig.13.14), which rotate in opposite directions. The falling feed material is squeezed and crushed between the rollers. The final product passes through the discharge point. This type of crusher is used in secondary or tertiary crushing applications. Advanced roll crushers are designed with one rotating cylinder that rotates toward a fix plate or rollers with differing diameters and speeds. It improves the liberation of minerals in the crushed product. Roll crushers are very often used in limestone, coal, phosphate, chalk, and other friable soft ores.

The impact crusher (Fig.13.15) employs high-speed impact or sharp blows to the free-falling feed rather than compression or abrasion. It utilizes hinged or fixed heavy metal hammers (hammer mill) or bars attached to the edges of horizontal rotating discs. The hammers, bars, and discs are made of manganese steel or cast iron containing chromium carbide. The hammers repeatedly strike the material to be crushed against a rugged solid surface of the crushing chamber breaking the particles to uniform size. The final fine products drop down through the discharge grate, while the oversized particles are swept around for another crushing cycle until they are fine enough to fall through the discharge gate. Impact crushers are widely used in stone quarrying industry for making chips as road and building material. These crushers are normally employed for secondary or tertiary crushing.

If size reduction is not completed after secondary crushing because of extra-hard ore or in special cases where it is important to minimize the production of fines, tertiary recrushing is recommended using secondary crushers in a close circuit. The screen overflow of the secondary crusher is collected in a bin (Fig.13.16) and transferred to the tertiary crusher through a conveyer belt in close circuit.

Primary jaw crushers typically operate in open circuit under dry conditions. Depending on the size reduction required, the primary jaw crushers are followed by secondary and tertiary crushing. The last crusher in the line of operation operates in closed circuit. That is, the crushed product is screened and the oversize returned to the crusher for further size reduction while the undersize is accepted as the product. Flow sheets showing two such set-ups are shown in Figs. 3.1 and 3.2.

Jaw crushers are installed underground in mines as well as on the surface. When used underground, jaw crushers are commonly used in open circuit. This is followed by further size reduction in crushers located on the surface.

When the run of mine product is conveyed directly from the mine to the crusher, the feed to the primary crusher passes under a magnet to remove tramp steel collected during the mining operation. A grizzly screen is placed between the magnet and the receiving hopper of the crusher to scalp (remove) boulders larger than the size of the gape. Some mines deliver product direct to storage bins or stockpiles, which then feed the crushers mechanically by apron feeders, Ross feeders or similar devices to regulate the feed rate to the crusher. Alternately haulage trucks, front-end loaders, bottom discharge railroad cars or tipping wagons are used. In such cases, the feed rate to the crusher is intermittent which is a situation generally avoided. In such cases of intermittent feed, storage areas are installed and the feed rate regulated by bulldozers, front loaders or bin or stockpile hoppers and feeders. It is necessary that the feed to jaw crushers be carefully designed to balance with the throughput rate of the crusher. When the feed rate is regulated to keep the receiving hopper of the crusher full at all times so that the volume rate of rock entering any point in the crusher is greater than the rate of rock leaving, it is referred to as choke feeding. During choke feeding the crushing action takes place between the jaw plates and particles as well as by inter-particle compression. Choke feeding necessarily produces more fines and requires careful feed control. For mineral liberation, choked feeding is desirable.

When installed above ground, the object of the crushing circuit is to crush the ore to achieve the required size for down stream use. In some industries, for example, iron ore or coal, where a specific product size is required (iron ore 30+6mm), careful choice of jaw settings and screen sizes are required to produce the minimum amount of fines (i.e. 6mm) and maximum the amount of lump ore within the specified size range. For hard mineral bearing rocks like gold or nickel ores where liberation of minerals from the host rock is the main objective, further stages of size reduction are required.

A gold ore was crushed in a secondary crusher and screened dry on an 1180micron square aperture screen. The screen was constructed with 0.12mm diameter uniform stainless steel wire. The size analysis of the feed, oversize and undersize streams are given in the following table. The gold content in the feed, undersize and oversize streams were; 5ppm, 1.5ppm and 7ppm respectively. Calculate:

The self tuning control algorithm has been developed and applied on crusher circuits and flotation circuits [22-24] where PID controllers seem to be less effective due to immeasurable change in parameters like the hardness of the ore and wear in crusher linings. STC is applicable to non-linear time varying systems. It however permits the inclusion of feed forward compensation when a disturbance can be measured at different times. The STC control system is therefore attractive. The basis of the system is:

The disadvantage of the set up is that it is not very stable and therefore in the control model a balance has to be selected between stability and performance. A control law is adopted. It includes a cost function CF, and penalty on control action. The control law has been defined as:

A block diagram showing the self tuning set-up is illustrated in Fig. 18.27. The disadvantage of STC controllers is that they are less stable and therefore in its application a balance has to be derived between stability and performance.

Bone recycling is a simple process where useful products can be extracted. Minerals such as calcium powder for animal; feed are extracted from the bone itself. The base material for cosmetics and some detergent manufacturing needs are extracted from the bone marrow.

The bone recycling process passes through seven stages starting from crushing and ending with packing. Figure 13.14 gives a schematic diagram showing the bone recycling process which goes through the following steps:

Following the standard procedures in the Beijing SHRIMP Center, zircons were separated using a jaw crusher, disc mill, panning, and a magnetic separator, followed by handpicking using a binocular microscope. The grains were mounted together with the standard zircon TEM (417Ma, Black etal., 2003) and then polished to expose the internal structure of the zircons. Cathodoluminescence (CL) imaging was conducted using a Hitachi SEM S-3000N equipped with a Gatan Chroma CL detector in the Beijing SHRIMP Center. The zircon analysis was performed using the SHRIMP II also in the Beijing SHRIMP Centre. The analytical procedures and conditions were similar to those described by Williams (1998). Analytical spots with 25m diameter were bombarded by a 3nA, 10kV O2 primary ion beam to sputter secondary ions. Five scans were performed on every analysis, and the mass resolution was 5000 (at 1%). M257 standard zircon (561.3Ma, U=840ppm) was used as the reference value for the U concentration, and TEM standard zircons were used for Pb/U ratio correction (Black etal., 2003). Common Pb was corrected using the measured 204Pb. Data processing was performed using the SQUID/Isoplot programs (Ludwig, 2001a,b). Errors for individual analyses are at 1, but the errors for weighted average ages are at 2.

A stockpile can be used to blend ore from different sources. This is useful for flotation circuits where fluctuations ingrade can change the mass balance and circulating loads around the plant. Blending can also be done on the ROMpad.

The lowest cost alternative is to have no surge at all, but rather to have a crushing plant on line. This is workable for small-scale plant with single-stage jaw crushers as the availability of these simple plant is very high provided control over ROM size is maintained.

The second alternative is to use a small live surge bin after the primary crusher with a secondary reclaim feeder. Crushed ore feeds this bin continuously and the bin overflows to a small conveyor feeding a dead stockpile. In the event of a primary crusher failure, the crusher loader is used to reclaim the stockpile via the surge bin, which doubles as an emergency hopper.

For coarse ore, the next alternative is a coarse ore stockpile. Stockpiles of this type are generally 1525% live and require a tunnel (concrete or Armco) and a number of reclaim feeders to feed the milling circuit.

Multi-stage crushing circuits usually require surge capacity as the availability of each unit process is cumulative. A fine-ore bin is usually required. Smaller bins are usually fabricated from steel as this is cheaper. Live capacity of bins is higher than stockpiles but they also require a reclaim tunnel and feeders.

iron ore | bhp

Air that has been heated to around 1,200 degrees Celsius is injected into the furnace, creating a flame temperature of 2,000 degrees. This converts the iron ore to molten pig iron and slag.

Then, impurities are removed and alloying elements are added. The steel is then cast, cooled and rolled for use in finished products.

Our Western Australia Iron Ore business in the Pilbara region of Western Australia contains five mines, four processing hubs and two port facilities, all of which are connected by more than 1,000 kilometres of rail infrastructure.

rock crushers

The size requirement of the primary rock crusher is a function of grizzly openings, ore chute configuration, required throughput, ore moisture, and other factors. Usually, primary crushers are sized by the ability to accept the largest expected ore fragment. Jaw crushers are usually preferred as primary crushers in small installations due to the inherent mechanical simplicity and ease of operation of these machines. Additionally, jaw crushers wearing parts are relatively uncomplicated castings and tend to cost less per unit weight of metal than more complicated gyratory crusher castings. The primary crusher must be designed so that adequate surge capacity is present beneath the crusher. An ore stockpile after primary crushing is desirable but is not always possible to include in a compact design.

Many times the single heaviest equipment item in the entire plant is the primary crusher mainframe. The ability to transport the crusher main frame sometimes limits crusher size, particularly in remote locations having limited accessibility.

In a smaller installation, the crushing plant should be designed with the minimum number of required equipment items. Usually, a crushing plant that can process 1000s of metric tons per operating day will consist of a single primary crusher, a single screen, a single secondary cone crusher, and associated conveyor belts. The discharge from both primary and secondary crushers is directed to the screen. Screen oversize serves as feed to the secondary crusher while screen undersize is the finished product. For throughputs of 500 to 1,000 metric tons per operating day (usually 2 shifts), a closed circuit tertiary cone crusher is usually added to the crushing circuit outlined above. This approach, with the addition of a duplicate screen associated with the tertiary cone crusher, has proven to be effective even on ores having relatively high moisture contents. Provided screen decks are correctly selected, the moist fine material in the incoming ore tends to be removed in the screening stages and therefore does not enter into subsequent crushing units.

All crusher cavities and major ore transfer points should be equipped with a jib-type crane or hydraulic rock tongs to facilitate the removal of chokes. In addition, secondary crushers must be protected from tramp iron by suspended magnets or magnetic head pulleys. The location of these magnets should be such that recycling of magnetic material back into the system is not possible.

Crushing plants for the tonnages indicated may be considered to be standardized. It is not prudent to spend money researching crusher abrasion indices or determining operating kilowatt consumptions for the required particle size reduction in a proposed small crushing plant. Crushing installations usually are operated to produce the required mill tonnage at a specified size distribution under conditions of varying ore hardness by the variation of the number of operating hours per day. It is normal practice to generously size a small crushing plant so that the daily design crushing tonnage can be produced in one, or at most two, operating shifts per working day.

henan mining machinery and equipment manufacturer - how does a slurry cyclone work at an iron ore plant

Home Mining Solutions iron ore cyclone plant process. ... NGP. Bench scale beneficiation studies on Iron ore cyclone ... Slurry ... (Hydrocyclone) Use cyclone to ...Wet Magnetic Separator works: After the ore slurry tank ... how a sand cyclone separator works - Gold Ore Crusher . How Does A Cyclone ... Iron Ore Processing Plant; ...

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roller crushers in iron mining, how does the degradation of hadfield steel components occur? - sciencedirect

The performance of the crusher steel component is a function of abrasion-impact process.Two wear/damage scales: micro- and macro scales were observed.Dynamic recrystallization on the working surface of the Hadfield steel was detected.Mechanical twinning was the main deformation mechanism.Crack propagation was observed trough with carbides at the grain boundaries.Cracks propagated along the grain boundaries related to the (111) orientation.

This work shows, for the first time, a systematic wear and damage analysis on a novelty roller crusher component used in the iron ore mining industry. Crusher suffers from complex abrasive-impact load during the comminuting the mineral ore in processing plants, which induce severe damage and defects that can result in a decreased performance or in a crusher breakage. The wear mechanisms and the extent of deformation have been studied by microhardness measurements, optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) including electron backscattering diffraction (EBSD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). It was found that the abrasive-impact contact causes a significant hardness increment of over 700HV, around three times than initial state of the base material, and the strain hardening extends up to a depth in the extremely deformed region above 18mm from the worn surface. SEM results of worn surfaces showed the impact and abrasion damages. Microstructure cross-section analyses exhibited the deformed microstructure is composed of bands and deformation twins. Also, it was observed the presence of crack propagated along with the large carbides at the grain boundaries. EBSD analysis of cracked and non-crack areas revealed that the high-distorted Taylor factor grains accompanied by grains oriented {111} parallel to the abrasive-impact dynamic load direction were susceptible to fatigue crack formation and propagation. Near to the cracks, a significant increase in dislocation density was found compared to other deformed regions, suggesting that these regions had a high level of stored energy resulting in an exhaust of the ability of plastic deformation. TEM results confirm the formation of nanoscale grains on the deformed surface layer.

henan mining machinery and equipment manufacturer - how do glass crushers work

Skull crushers mainly work the triceps. How does the jaw crusher work? A jaw crusher reduces large size rocks or ore by placing the ... Get Price.what is impact crusher how does it work, ... Container Glass Recycling VSI Crusher. As people realise that the world's mineral resources are finite, ...

Ore beneficiation equipment, sand making equipment, crushing equipment and powder grinding equipment, which are widely used in various industries such as metallurgy, mine, chemistry, building material, coal, refractory and ceramics.