how effective is a gold dry wash

drywashers gold mining

In arid districts where water is scarce or expensive and a dry plant is proposed for the recovery of placer gold, a small dry washer may be the logical choice for processing samples. A number of small, hand-powered machines are on the market and most work quite well within certain limits common to all dry washers used in gold mining.

First, consider two identical gold particles, one in a dry washer and the other submerged in water. It will be shown that the relative weight of the dry gold particle is substantially less than its wet counterpart. This is illustrated by the following equations in which the specific gravity of gold is 19, the specific gravity of gravel 2.65, and the specific gravity of water is 1:

This shows the gold to be eleven times heavier than gravel when immersed in water, as compared to 7: 1 in air. Simply stated the relative weight of gold is about 1 times greater when passing through a wet process than when passing through a dry washer. The lesser ratio in air is not too apparentwhen processing coarse or shotty gold but it no doubt contributes to the dry washers often poor recovery of fine or flaky gold.

To respond to dry washing the material treated must be almost completely dry. In most cases 3 percent moisture is considered a maximum. The goldparticles must also be completely liberated and free of cementing material such as caliche. In addition, effective separation is usually dependent on use of a closely-sized feed, sometimes not larger than screen-size. One might say that the amenability of a dry placer to working by the usual (dry) methods varies in proportion to its suitability to sizing by screening.

Besides the well-known difficulties related to drying placer material prior to dry washing and using small-mesh screens, there are other problems less generally appreciated. Wilson and Fansett in referring to tests made at the University of Arizona sum these up by saying:

A dry concentrator will not make as high recovery as a wet concentrator. Under favorable conditions, the recovery will be approximately ten to fifteen percent less with a dry machine as compared with a wet machine.

This tells us that in cases where a dry processing plant is proposed for the recovery of gold in a commercial-scale placer operation, it might he advisable to process the initial samples with a small dry washer. Figure 19 illustrates a type of machine found suitable for this purpose. If all else is equal, the recovery obtained from the dry (sample) washer should indicate the recovery to be expected from the full-scale operation. On the other hand, if the samples are washed in a rocker or other wet device, a suitable recovery correction factor may have to be applied to the indicated sample values.

Equipment used for the recovery of placer gold has changed very little over the years and, in general, remains relatively simple. Most devices employ some form of riffled surface to hold the gold or other heavy mineral after it has beenseparated from the valueless material. The actual separation relies on the ability of heavy minerals to resist the action of moving water while the lighter materials are carried away. In dry washers where a current of air is used as the transporting medium, the same principle applies. Although many have tried, no one to date has devised a gold-saving device or system which can economically replace the ordinary riffled sluices or placer jigs used on todays dredges or in other comparable large-scale placer operations. It is true that sluices may lose some of the fine gold but his is normally offset by their low operating cost and their high unit capacity which combine to return the greatest dollar profit.

When selecting a machine for washing and concentrating placer samples, the first consideration should be whether or not it will indicate the commercially recoverable gold content of the sample. Other desirable features would be:

It should again be stressed that no dredge or other large-scale placer equipment saves 100 percent of the values and because of this it is important that the sample washing process indicate the actual returns to be expected from a commercial operation. In this connection it is noteworthy that the pan, rocker, and the sluice when used by experienced placer operators fulfill this requirement.

A variety of small mechanical gold washers have been manufactured and put on the market over the years and although most were intended to be used for small-scale mining operations, some were advertised and sold as prospecting or sampling units. The typical machine consists of a small trommel screen with a feed hopper for shoveling in, a short sluice (which is usually provided with a shaking motion or some kind of special riffle), a pump, and a water distribution system, all run by a small gasoline engine. The typical machine weighs more than 500 pounds and requires a pickup truck or a trailer for transportation. Most are no longer manufactured and have passed from the scene but two of the better-known machines are still on the market.

These are manufactured and known as the Denver Mechanical Gold Pan and the Denver Gold Saver respectively. The mechanical pan has been well received in the industry over a 30-year period and is generally referred to simply as a Denver Pan. It comprises an assembly of three shallow, nested pans 2 feet in diameter with two superimposed screens arranged to wash and reject the plus -inch material. The combined assembly is mounted on a horizontally gyrating base driven by a small gasoline engine and the resultant motion is said to duplicate hand panning. The minus -inch material after passing through the screens, progressively flows over the three pans, one discharging into the next. The uppermost pan is provided with an amalgamating plate, and the two successive pans with special rubber mats or cocoa matting held down by coarse wire screen. Capacity of a single unit ranges up to 2 cubic yards per hour and water consumption is said to be as little as 1 to 2 parts (by weight) per part of gravel which would indicate an average of about 1,000 gallons per cubic yard. Single or double units are available and these can be provided with a scrubber and a trommel-type screen. The largest (Duplex) unit when so equipped has a rated capacity of 4 to 6 bank-run yards per hour and weighs 2100 pounds. The single (Simplex) unit without the trommel weighs 675 pounds. The Denver Mechanical Gold Pan is sturdily built and is suitable for continuous use such as would he encountered in a mining operation.

The Denver Equipment Companys second machine, sold under the name of Denver Gold Saver, is well suited for general sampling work in that it can be quickly and easily cleaned thus eliminating the danger of carry-over of values from one sample to the next. It consists of a feed hopper, a combined scrubber and trommel to wash and screen out the plus -inch material, a special vibrating molded rifle, a reserve water storage tank and a centrifugal pump with suitable piping sprays, etc., all powered by a 1 HP gasoline engine. The complete assembly weighs 750 pounds and has a rated capacity of 2 to 3 cubic yards per hour.

Perhaps the most widely used dry recovery technique is dry washing gold, using a dry washer. The dry washer is basically a short, waterless sluice. It separates gold from sand by pulsations of air through a porous medium. Screened gravel passes down an inclined riffle box with cross riffles. The bottom of the box consists of canvas or some other fabric. Beneath the riffle box is a bellows, which blows air in short, strong puffs through the canvas. This gives a combined shaking and classifying action to the material. The gold gravitates down to the canvas and is held by the riffles, while the waste passes over the riffles and out of the machine.

A basic dry washer is composed of a frame in which a well-braced, heavy screen is covered with burlap overlain with window or fly screen and covered with fine linen. Above this, riffles made of one-half to three-quarter-inch, half-round moulding or metal screen are placed 4 to 6inches apart. The slope of the box varies from 4 to 6 inches per foot (Figure 11). If amalgamation of flour gold is desired, pockets to hold mercury are constructed in front of the riffles. A power washer of this type can process up to 21 cubic feet (approximately 0.8 cubic yards) of screened material an hour. Hand-powered washers operated by two men can process 1 or more cubic yards per 8 hours, depending on the size of the material handled.

For recovery of gold, the ore must be completely dry and disintegrated. If the ore is slightly damp below the surface, it must be dried before treatment. For small-scale work, sun drying will dry material about as fast as it can be processed. In operation, dry ore is fed into the vibrating screen of the dry washer where the fines fall through to the riffles and the oversize falls off the edge. The bellows and screen are operated by hand cranking or powered by a small engine. The bellows should be operated at about 250 pulsations per minute with a stroke of about 3 inches. These figures will vary with the coarseness of processed material and the fineness of the gold. Operation continues until about one cubic yard of material has been processed.

During cleanup, the riffle box is lifted out and turned over onto a large flat surface. The concentrates from the upper three riffles are first panned, and the gold removed. Usually the coarse and some fine gold can be saved here. The lower riffles may contain a few colors, but nearly all the recovered gold is caught in the upper riffles. The concentrates from the dry washer are further refined by panning or other means. If water is very scarce, the concentrates my be concentrated in the dry washer a second time and further cleaned by blowing away the lighter grains in a pan. Dry washers are portable, inexpensive, and easy to use. As with all dry placer methods, a large percentage of very fine gold is lost.

Dry washing usually has failed or been indifferently successful in this country. Winnowing as practiced in Western Australia, where the sand is very dry and there are strong prevailing winds, has not worked well here because of retained moisture in the sands and because of insufficient wind. For successful dry washing, the gravel must be completely dry and thoroughly disintegrated. Machines similar to

that shown in figure 122 consist of screens and flat-sloping, riffled canvas decks, under which air pulsations are produced by bellows or other means to agitate the sand and work it down the deck over the riffles, the gold and other heavy minerals being caught behind the riffles. The machine illustrated was operated to give 250 pulsations of air per minute, and the capacity was reported to be about 0.8 cubic yard per hour, bank measure.

building the ultimate dry washer - diy projects - nugget shooter forums

Last year I started a project to build a custom Dry Washer in order to process much larger quantity's of material while also improving efficiency as much as possible to retain all gold fed into it. That project was completed last night except for the final feed hopper that is still in design.

Very slow at processing gravel and the gravel must be pre screened down to 1/4" minus. Material must be run twice or more. Poor riffle design and riffles are poorly sealed against gold migrating to one end and going under and around the riffles while following the sluice side. The method of vibration rotating parallel to the sluice induces a rotational vibration that forces heavies to one side of the sluice where it piles up and starts to walk over the riffles. Steel riffle trays are heavy and poorly fitted to the box allowing paths around or under the riffles for fine gold to be lost. No air control other than motor speed so more vibration also means more air through the cloth which is not always desired. No dead space behind riffles to let the heavies settle out and stay in place. All riffles are made the exact same as well as air flow up through them.

To make the thing light and strong the entire thing is made of 6061 T6.5 aluminum sheet and plate including the riffles. The punch plate is 3/16" aluminum and machined for air movement in front of each riffle in varying amounts as well as the dead space behind each riffle varies. The height of the riffles vary as do their spacing. In the rear of the box is an air damper that can be adjusted for air flow. The surface of the punch plate is machined flat as is the bottom and sides of the riffle tray for an air tight seal when closed. There are other mods also including a totally different approach to vibration that prevents gold from shaking to one side of the box but I'm not willing to tell how yet in case it has commercial value.

Tried the box out last night with fine and coarse lead mixed into a bucket of actual wash material brought home from the last trip for just this testing purpose with 100% recovery on all 4 runs as well as quite a bit of gold I did not know was in the dirt on the first run. No gold was found in the following runs of the bucket. It runs the material faster than my 151 also.

The way I understand it after all these years is that if you hold the valid claim, all minerals contained on it (surface gravels for placer and bedrock materials for hard rock) are yours to remove pursuant to the plan or notice agreements with the governing agency involved. Dry washers are looked at somewhat favorably with FS and BLM as doing minimal disturbances and my contacts with Prescott FS resulted in no plan being required for our intended operations. I know of no rules that says I can't remove the pay gravels and process them at my "facility" of choice. When doing so though I do keep a copy of my claim papers with me to help prove my story of the materials source being legal for me to have in possession.

I think your title-"Building the Ultimate Dry Washer, A Dry Washer that equals a dredge in recovery rates" is somewhat misleading. There's simply no way you can build drywasher that will equal the recovery rate of a dredge 100% of the time. It all depends what area you're in, what size gold if found as well the type of ground. It may get 100% in some areas but far less in others.

Very slow at processing gravel and the gravel must be pre screened down to 1/4" minus. Material must be run twice or more. Poor riffle design and riffles are poorly sealed against gold migrating to one end and going under and around the riffles while following the sluice side. The method of vibration rotating parallel to the sluice induces a rotational vibration that forces heavies to one side of the sluice where it piles up and starts to walk over the riffles. Steel riffle trays are heavy and poorly fitted to the box allowing paths around or under the riffles for fine gold to be lost. No air control other than motor speed so more vibration also means more air through the cloth which is not always desired. No dead space behind riffles to let the heavies settle out and stay in place. All riffles are made the exact same as well as air flow up through them.

To make the thing light and strong the entire thing is made of 6061 T6.5 aluminum sheet and plate including the riffles. The punch plate is 3/16" aluminum and machined for air movement in front of each riffle in varying amounts as well as the dead space behind each riffle varies. The height of the riffles vary as do their spacing. In the rear of the box is an air damper that can be adjusted for air flow. The surface of the punch plate is machined flat as is the bottom and sides of the riffle tray for an air tight seal when closed. There are other mods also including a totally different approach to vibration that prevents gold from shaking to one side of the box but I'm not willing to tell how yet in case it has commercial value.

Tried the box out last night with fine and coarse lead mixed into a bucket of actual wash material brought home from the last trip for just this testing purpose with 100% recovery on all 4 runs as well as quite a bit of gold I did not know was in the dirt on the first run. No gold was found in the following runs of the bucket. It runs the material faster than my 151 also.

While I agree that it's a pretty tough thing to accomplish I don't agree for a minute that its not possible. The changes in construction done to this unit has vastly improved its efficiency over other I've used. So far, so good and even more testing in real field situations will start this weekend. As it is now it's pretty darn close to a dredge of equal size.

Great idea and machine work. As a former gunsmith, I still wish I had my lathe and other equipment. Sold it all when I moved from Idaho to Arizona. Let us know how it works in the field. I'm betting pretty darn good results !!

That road is one of the better ones into good spots. LOL Next time in there I'll be taking 4, 55gal drums of water along with and drive all the way in in my rig. You will be welcome to come in and play for the weekend also.

You boys are silly! You know darn well I can't afford one of those after affording the drywasher! lol. I have been drying some dirt from a recent trip but now that christmas break is over, I get home so late, it's too darn cold!

By the way Bob... you don't have to scam me for a fishing trip. Your always welcome. Just have to catch me with money and time. At this particular moment it's honestly too cold lol. I am a big wimp. But when it warms up I'll be getting back into it. I don't ever catch anything but a buzz anyways. :ph34r2:

By the way Bob... you don't have to scam me for a fishing trip. Your always welcome. Just have to catch me with money and time. At this particular moment it's honestly too cold lol. I am a big wimp. But when it warms up I'll be getting back into it. I don't ever catch anything but a buzz anyways. :ph34r2:

gold drywashers at kellyco | gold prospecting equipment

If you are a metal detectorist, there is a great chance that you are also a gold prospector. These two hobbies seem to go hand in hand, as gold fever is a real thing. If you are prospecting for the shiny, valuable metal in the desert or in sandy areas, a gold drywasher is a very necessary investment. Here at Kellyco, we are happy to offer three different Keene Engineering drywashers that combine quality and affordability, helping you stretch your hobby dollars farther. Please reach out to us if you have any questions about gold drywashers, as we would love to help.

Gold drywashers have been used for decades, as they are a very efficient way to prospect for gold in dry conditions. Essentially, all gold drywashers accomplish their task in the same way. The gold is separated from the sand or sediment by bursts of air going through a cloth, using the density of gold and vibrations to separate the material. Vibrations and bursts of air help put the gold and other deposits in the dredge riffles, providing a fast, efficient way to sort small gold pieces out of sand and sediment.

While the function of gold drywashers is the same, the mechanics of the machines can vary largely. For example, Keene Engineering produces one model of drywasher that is operated by the prospector turning a hand crank. Another one of their drywasher models is one that is powered by a hands-free blower system. While they have different ways of getting airflow and vibrations, the Keene gold drywashers produce the same outcome.

Picking the right gold drywasher can be a tough task, as there are a few major considerations that should be taken into account. One of the largest factors to keep in mind is the size of the drywasher. For example, the Keene Engineering Hand Crank Mini Dry Washer is much more compact and portable than the Keene Vibrostatic Drywasher. If you are going to be prospecting in places that are remote and hard to get to, it is very important to strongly consider the size of the gold dry washer you pick out.

The next important factor that will help guide your decision is the way that your machine is operated. One of the Keene drywashers is powered by a hand crank. This is a great operational mode if you are looking for something you will always be able to repair, as there is no motor or electrical parts integral to its design. Another machine of Keenes is powered by an engine that blows the air. This can be a more complex fix, as there are many more things that could go wrong with it. That being said, there is much less effort involved with an engine.

The last and one of the most important factors on everyones mind is the price of the drywasher. The hand crank machine is half the price of the engine-powered machine, and this is always an important consideration for many. Regardless of which one you pick, they will all serve you well and help you find the gold treasure you are looking for.

While it is impossible to definitively say which drywasher is the best, there are a couple different options from Keene Engineering that are at the top of the list. Continue reading for a more in-depth look at each of these Keene Gold Dry Washers.

The Keene Hand Crank Mini Dry Washer is one of the lightest, most compact, and effective drywashers that you can purchase today. The oversized hopper allows you to control the flow of material to your desired setting, and the crank turns easily. It picks up the smallest gold nuggets and is built to serve you well for a lifetime.

The Keene Vibrostatic Drywasher is designed with a powerful engine that does all the work for you. It can pick up the tiniest gold nuggets and the large hopper allows you to work through a lot of material at once. This drywasher is built to last forever, and is easily assembled and disassembled, allowing you to spend more time prospecting and less time taking down and setting up.

the complete guide to watercolor wash techniques

I had just laid down a nice graded wash of watercolor for the background of a new painting. But it wasnt perfectly even. You know whats its like you often think you can do better. So I went back in with a damp brush to play with the wash some more. I was hoping to smooth out the gradient

Watercolor washes, whether flat or blended, need to be brushed quickly and evenly across the paper surface to achieve a smooth uniform result. You need to control the level of wetness of your brush and paper, and you can't waste time or you risk ruining the wash. Washes are said to be one of the fundamental techniques in watercolor painting, and they can be difficult to master !

Firstly, when watercolor artists refer to a wash they often mean the wet paint you use to paint with mixed from water and pigment. When you mix some paint at the beginning of a new painting, this is called your wash puddle.

Secondly, the term wash also refers to an area of paint applied to the paper in a smooth, uniform zone of flat color, or a subtle gradient changing in tone or color. Washes are areas of a painting where you cannot see the individual brush strokes, and any transition of value or hue is gradual.

But you need to decide for yourself which method you prefer. So Im going to describe every possible type of wash (flat, graded and variegated), and each possible technique (wet on dry and wet on wet), so you get a full picture of what watercolor washes are about and the choices you have.

A board which can easily be titled. Whether you stretch your paper or just fix it down with masking tape, wash techniques benefit from being able to incline the paper and use gravity to improve the flow of wet paint.

A jar of water which is not rinse water. Some wash techniques need clear water for pre wetting paper or diluting the paint strength. I usually use two jars whenever I paint, one for rinsing and another for a supply of clean water.

A watercolor wash brush. Washes are usually painted with large soft brushes. But you should try to adapt the size and type of brush to the size of your wash area. Think about the kind of wash youre aiming for and choose your brush accordingly. Some brushes make the job easier than others. For example if the wash is small or irregularly shaped a number 8 round brush will probably do the trick. For large surfaces a 1 flat brush or something like a number 16 mop brush is a good choice. Squirrel hair is also a favorite because of it's excellent handling properties and its ability to hold a large reservoir of water (read this article for more details on choosing the best brushes).

Choose your paper well. When you start out painting watercolors I recommend you use watercolor paper with a slight texture, in other words, cold press watercolor paper. Rough textured paper will make it more difficult to execute a smooth wash. On the other hand, smooth hot pressed watercolor paper can be quite unforgiving and will show up any irregularities in your wash.

Make sure you mix a sufficient amount of paint. I would suggest mixing up more than you need for the area youre going to cover. There's nothing like running out of paint to spoil a good wash! Make sure the water and paint are thoroughly mixed so that you get a consistent hue.(For advise and tips about watercolor supplies you can read my recommendations here...)

For wet on dry, speed is important because the paint needs to stay wet until youve finished painting the wash area. Similarly, with a wet on wet method, you need to paint your wash before the pre wetted paper dries.

Begin by getting prepared (refer to the notes above if necessary). Incline the board with the watercolor paper by propping up the back edge. A 30 degree angle is sufficient but youll get a feeling for what works well.

Prepare a large amount of paint for the wash. Load your wash brush with paint and apply a horizontal line across the top of the paper. The paint will flow down the paper forming a bead at the lower edge of your brushstroke (a bead is an accumulation of excess moisture which forms at the end of a stroke).

Continue to paint with alternating horizontal brush strokes from left to right. Each brush stroke should be a little lower down the page, in the opposite direction, and slightly overlapping the previous stroke.

When you reach the end of your wash, blot your brush dry and use it to soak up the bead at the bottom. If you dont mop this up, you will see a backrun forming at the base of the wash. (A backrun is a feathery pattern which forms when a bead of moisture flows back into a settling wash).

To paint a wash using a wet on wet technique means you need to pre-wet the surface of the paper before laying down a wash. You need to paint your wash quickly because you dont want your paper to dry before youre finished.

To begin with, you dont need to incline your board. A bead will not form on a wet surface so you can paint on flat paper and simply tilt your board as needed to help the paint flow in one direction or another.

Youll also notice that your wash appears lighter because you are essentially diluting the paint with the water thats already on the paper. You can compensate for this by making your paint mix slightly stronger.

Wet on wet is also slightly more forgiving than a wet on dry technique. You can go back into a painted area and make corrections if needed. You can then tilt the board in different directions to even out the wash.

Begin by preparing your paper and mixing your puddle of paint, making the mix slightly stronger than the anticipated final color value. I recommend that you stretch your paper if using this technique because the increased amount of water will tend to buckle your paper. Alternatively use extremely heavy watercolor paper such as 300 lb / 640 gsm.

Apply your paint mix across the whole surface of the paper as quickly as possible while the paper is still wet. You dont necessarily need to apply horizontal brush strokes like you do with a wet on dry technique, just get the paint down as quickly as you can.

Help the pigment to spread evenly across the surface by inclining the board in various directions. Eliminate any excess paint by letting it seep to one side and blot up any excess moisture to avoid backruns.

As you can see from the results, a dry wash with uniform color is more difficult to pull off than than a wet on wet wash. Colors blend and diffuse more easily with wet on wet and its pretty difficult to avoid streaks with the wet on dry method (I was doing this on a hot day and taking my time, which maybe had an effect on the end result). But it IS possible to get a smooth wash with wet on dry Promise ! Even if wet on wet seems easier for a beginner, the downside is your paper will buckle and warp like crazy unless you stretch it first. Wet on wet is also a little more difficult to control since you cant always predict where the pigment will flow (youll see this especially with the variegated wash later). And wet on wet washes always dry lighter, meaning you may have to lay another wash on top to get the values you require.

A graded wash changes in value from dark to light. Its the kind of wash often used for painting sky backgrounds in landscapes. It can be tricky to get the transition exactly the way you want, but like with flat washes, practice makes perfect ! Again, we'll be looking at both wet on dry and wet on wet methods.

At the place you want your wash to become lighter in tone, add a couple of brush loads of clean water to your paint to weaken the mix. Load your brush with this diluted mixture and continue to paint horizontal passes with your brush.

Continue to add water to your palette to dilute the paint mixture. Your final brush strokes can be applied by just dipping the brush into clear water and applying it directly to the page. Dont rinse the brush clean, because you want a bit of pigment to remain on the brush head.

Add full strength paint to the top of the paper, moving down the page with alternating brushstrokes. Next use a diluted mix of paint or add clear water to your brush and start painting the transition from dark to light. You want the paint to seep into the area of saturated paper below.

A variegated wash is a blend of two or more colors. This kind of wash changes in color or tone across its surface. Again this can be painted using a wet on dry or wet on wet method, but personally I find the wet on wet technique much easier because it encourages the different colors to blend. If youre practicing this kind of wash for the first time I suggest you stick to just two colors to begin with.

You will need two separate mixes of color ready to go in your palette. Begin the wash in exactly the same way as you would for a wet on dry flat wash. Paint alternating horizontal brush strokes with color no.1. Your board should be inclined and you should try to always have a bead of moisture at the base of each stroke.

When you reach the moment that you want to make the color transition, rinse your brush and load it with color no.2. Start painting again, adding the new color to the existing bead of the previous color. The two colors will blend together where the second color was introduced producing a variegated effect. You will probably need to rinse your brush before the next brush stroke because your brush will be contaminated by the first color.

Prepare your paper and your paint. For best results use two mixes of fairly concentrated paint and stretched or heavy watercolor paper. As with other wet on wet methods you need to pre wet the paper in an even manner.

Whether you incline the board or not is up to you and depends on the result youre trying to achieve. If you want a smooth linear transition from one color to another then try tilting the board. If you want a random blend of colors then you can leave the board flat and just incline the board afterwards if you need to move pigment around the paper surface.

If youve tried the other exercises above youre probably getting used to the effects created with a wet on wet technique. Use whatever brush strokes you feel like, horizontal if you want a linear appearance or just drop color onto the paper from the brush in a random pattern. You can either cover the whole surface with a flat wash of one color then add a second color while the wash is still wet. Or you could paint one area and then apply another color to an adjacent area of the paper.

So long as the surface remains shiny wet you can blend two colors together, but at some point the paper starts to dry. The paper may still look moist but at this stage there is very little surface flow. If you continue to add wet paint to damp drying paper you will probably end up with blooms and backruns (those feathery patterns caused by liquid flowing into a wash which has started to dry). For this reason, like with most wash techniques, you need to work quickly while the stage of wetness is just right.

With time and experience you can probably develop enough confidence in your brush control to lay washes around any shape you want to reserve on the paper. But for us mere mortals who struggle with this, here are a couple of tips.

For a start, pre wetting the wash area is advantageous when painting around complex edges, because the longer drying time gives you more time to paint accurately. Using a wet on wet technique effectively extends the time your have to complete your wash.

Alternatively, you can use watercolor masking fluid (also known as watercolor frisket). Masking tape also works but make sure you use the low tack variety so your can remove it without damaging the paper surface.

So now you know, the three main types of watercolor wash (flat, graded, and variegated) can be painted using two techniques: wet on dry or wet on wet. I suggest you try each technique to see what suits your style of painting best. Hopefully the guidelines above will help you paint successful washes.

As you have probably figured out, pre wetting the paper has some benefits. This type of technique is slightly more forgiving and allows the artist to do some corrections while painting a wash. Wet on wet can improve the evenness of the wash and help to hide brush marks. It also gives you a little more time to work on your watercolor wash. This is a real advantage for certain pigments which have a tendency to dry more quickly. Blending is very smooth with wet on wet so its especially useful for graded washes or variegated wash types.

But the downfall with wet on wet is that you really need to stretch your paper if you want to keep control over your painting. When the paper buckles the paint pigments tend to gather in the dips wrinkles of the paper making a smooth wash almost impossible. Soaked paper also takes more time to dry so you need to be patient !

Hi, I'm Anthony. So you're ready to make a dent in the world of watercolors ? Good for you. My love affair with painting began when I was a kid. But this blog isnt about me... I started this website to share everything I've learned about watercolors in the hopes that it might help & inspire others to pursue the same creative voyage. You're welcome to follow along... Read more About Me...

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drywashers for gold

GOLD DRYWASHERS ARE BELOWSCROLL DOWN TO VIEWIn the past, most dry concentration was slow and inefficient. Even today, some dry washers have trouble recovering gold after the top layer of dry sand has been removed, due to the moist sand and gravel below the surface. New technological improvements allow modern units such as the 151 drywasher model made by Keene to help dry out this material and increase gold recovery to very high levels. Don't miss our drywashing books and videos - CLICK HEREWe offer many sizes - from compact drywasher models perfectly suited for the lone prospector, to larger units that can handle 3 people shoveling non stop.

Search Gold Fever Prospecting for: Sign up for The "Gold-Fever-Prospecting Newsletter" and we'll enter you for FREE into our monthly GOLD GIVE AWAY! Join the Gold Fever Prospecting mailing list Email: Gold Prospecting Questions? EMAIL USCopyright 2020 Motherlode Outfittersdba: Gold Fever ProspectingHenderson, NV 89074Toll Free: 888-985-6463VISIT US ON FACEBOOKREAD THE GOLD FEVER BLOG Gold Prospecting Equipment / Buy Gold Nuggets Gold Panning Paydirt / Mining T-Shirts Drywashers / Metal DetectorsSuction Dredging for GoldBrowse Site Map

Search Gold Fever Prospecting for: Sign up for The "Gold-Fever-Prospecting Newsletter" and we'll enter you for FREE into our monthly GOLD GIVE AWAY! Join the Gold Fever Prospecting mailing list Email: Gold Prospecting Questions? EMAIL USCopyright 2020 Motherlode Outfittersdba: Gold Fever ProspectingHenderson, NV 89074Toll Free: 888-985-6463VISIT US ON FACEBOOKREAD THE GOLD FEVER BLOG Gold Prospecting Equipment / Buy Gold Nuggets Gold Panning Paydirt / Mining T-Shirts Drywashers / Metal DetectorsSuction Dredging for GoldBrowse Site Map

Sign up for The "Gold-Fever-Prospecting Newsletter" and we'll enter you for FREE into our monthly GOLD GIVE AWAY! Join the Gold Fever Prospecting mailing list Email: Gold Prospecting Questions? EMAIL USCopyright 2020 Motherlode Outfittersdba: Gold Fever ProspectingHenderson, NV 89074Toll Free: 888-985-6463VISIT US ON FACEBOOKREAD THE GOLD FEVER BLOG Gold Prospecting Equipment / Buy Gold Nuggets Gold Panning Paydirt / Mining T-Shirts Drywashers / Metal DetectorsSuction Dredging for GoldBrowse Site Map

Sign up for The "Gold-Fever-Prospecting Newsletter" and we'll enter you for FREE into our monthly GOLD GIVE AWAY! Join the Gold Fever Prospecting mailing list Email: Gold Prospecting Questions? EMAIL USCopyright 2020 Motherlode Outfittersdba: Gold Fever ProspectingHenderson, NV 89074Toll Free: 888-985-6463VISIT US ON FACEBOOKREAD THE GOLD FEVER BLOG Gold Prospecting Equipment / Buy Gold Nuggets Gold Panning Paydirt / Mining T-Shirts Drywashers / Metal DetectorsSuction Dredging for GoldBrowse Site Map

Join the Gold Fever Prospecting mailing list Email: Gold Prospecting Questions? EMAIL USCopyright 2020 Motherlode Outfittersdba: Gold Fever ProspectingHenderson, NV 89074Toll Free: 888-985-6463VISIT US ON FACEBOOKREAD THE GOLD FEVER BLOG Gold Prospecting Equipment / Buy Gold Nuggets Gold Panning Paydirt / Mining T-Shirts Drywashers / Metal DetectorsSuction Dredging for GoldBrowse Site Map

Gold Prospecting Questions? EMAIL USCopyright 2020 Motherlode Outfittersdba: Gold Fever ProspectingHenderson, NV 89074Toll Free: 888-985-6463VISIT US ON FACEBOOKREAD THE GOLD FEVER BLOG Gold Prospecting Equipment / Buy Gold Nuggets Gold Panning Paydirt / Mining T-Shirts Drywashers / Metal DetectorsSuction Dredging for GoldBrowse Site Map

Gold Prospecting Questions? EMAIL USCopyright 2020 Motherlode Outfittersdba: Gold Fever ProspectingHenderson, NV 89074Toll Free: 888-985-6463VISIT US ON FACEBOOKREAD THE GOLD FEVER BLOG Gold Prospecting Equipment / Buy Gold Nuggets Gold Panning Paydirt / Mining T-Shirts Drywashers / Metal DetectorsSuction Dredging for GoldBrowse Site Map

Copyright 2020 Motherlode Outfittersdba: Gold Fever ProspectingHenderson, NV 89074Toll Free: 888-985-6463VISIT US ON FACEBOOKREAD THE GOLD FEVER BLOG Gold Prospecting Equipment / Buy Gold Nuggets Gold Panning Paydirt / Mining T-Shirts Drywashers / Metal DetectorsSuction Dredging for GoldBrowse Site Map

VISIT US ON FACEBOOKREAD THE GOLD FEVER BLOG Gold Prospecting Equipment / Buy Gold Nuggets Gold Panning Paydirt / Mining T-Shirts Drywashers / Metal DetectorsSuction Dredging for GoldBrowse Site Map

how effective is steam cleaning: is it just hype or a great help?

Many of us, specially detailers found revolutionary changes while detailing with a steam cleaner. But the question is, does it really kill germs while cleaning dust and debris from floor, carpet, etc.?

The study was taken by Colloff MJ, Taylor C, Merrett TG. The goal is to control dust mites by using extreme temperatures. They use 8 treated carpet with some known dust mites and 8 controls. The study took 4 months to observe the result. They took a sample before and after cleaning the 8 treated carpet.

To get a perfect result, researchers took 5 types of surface from 18 test sites. And then they have performed steam cleaning on the right side of each type of surface. Then they took samples from the treated and untreated area to compare.

Result: Researchers concluded by stating that steam cleaning could be a great alternative of chemical as steam cleaning significantly reduced numbers of bacteria from various types of surfaces in a veterinary hospital.

Traditional cleaners need chemicals to clean. Those chemicals could harm your pets and children if they stay around while cleaning.And you know, steam cleaners wont require chemicals to clean. High temperature is the ingredient of these tools.

Definitely, it depends on which steam cleaner you are using. There are some models that used re-usable filters or pads. You just need to wash the pads or filters after every use. This is definitely cost-effective other than those cleaners that need to refill or require replacement pads.

A soft product like carpet cleaning can take 24 hours to dry after steam cleaning. This is not convenient for the commercial area. But carpet cleaning is not done frequently. So, you can choose a weekend or a holiday to do that.

There are steam mop, cylinder steam cleaner and hand-held steam cleaner types available on the market. Get the one that is perfect for you?Steam cleaners are getting a popular cleaner for their performance. And it is an environment-friendly cleaner. So, there is no bad effect on cleaning with it.

how effective is gold as a hedge? history has an empirical answer investment watch

A hedge is an asset that tends to rise when others fall. For example, an investor holding common stocks might find it advantageous to hold some gold too, sinceit has historically been strong during the worst stock market crashes.

The research runs from January 1999 through September 2019, just shy of 21 years. This includes bull and bear markets in all assets, and thus offers accurate insight into golds value through various market environments.

The first chart shows the value of each portfolio at the end of each year. The blue bar represents zero gold (60% stocks/40% bonds), while the gold bar represents a portfolio with the maximum 10% gold allocation.

As can be seen, the total value of each portfolio rises as the amount of gold is increased. A portfolio with 10% gold has performed better over the past two+ decades than ones with less amounts of gold.

After 20 years, only the portfolio with 10% gold reached a $250,000 value. This is not surprising considering gold acts as a hedge against stock market declines and recessions, while at other times can provide profit.

The exceptions were 2013 through 2015 where portfolios with gold underperformed those with no gold (the differences in 1999 and 2000 were less than 1%). In all other years gold improved portfolio returns.

It should be pointed out that the research specifically uses gold, not commodities. Most commodity funds have only a small allocation to gold, so similar results should not be expected when including a mixed fund.

how effective is gold as a hedge? history has an empirical answer

A hedge is an asset that tends to rise when others fall. For example, an investor holding common stocks might find it advantageous to hold some gold too, sinceit has historically been strong during the worst stock market crashes.

The research runs from January 1999 through September 2019, just shy of 21 years. This includes bull and bear markets in all assets, and thus offers accurate insight into golds value through various market environments.

The first chart shows the value of each portfolio at the end of each year. The blue bar represents zero gold (60% stocks/40% bonds), while the gold bar represents a portfolio with the maximum 10% gold allocation.

As can be seen, the total value of each portfolio rises as the amount of gold is increased. A portfolio with 10% gold has performed better over the past two+ decades than ones with less amounts of gold.

After 20 years, only the portfolio with 10% gold reached a $250,000 value. This is not surprising considering gold acts as a hedge against stock market declines and recessions, while at other times can provide profit.

The exceptions were 2013 through 2015 where portfolios with gold underperformed those with no gold (the differences in 1999 and 2000 were less than 1%). In all other years gold improved portfolio returns.

It should be pointed out that the research specifically uses gold, not commodities. Most commodity funds have only a small allocation to gold, so similar results should not be expected when including a mixed fund.

why use spray wax on your car? | gold eagle co

If you want your car to look its best, youre probably going to need to apply wax to it once in a while. But maybe you dont have the time it takes to methodically rub liquid wax on the surface of your car. Thats where spray wax comes in! In particular, 303 Automotive Spray Wax is recommended because its fast and easy to apply, giving your car a shine you can be proud of in just minutes. If youre still not sure if spray wax is the way to go, heres how it works and how your car can benefit from it.

Maybe you recently washed your car, but you still see random spots where it just doesnt look as clean and shiny as youd like. You might notice debris, dust, or areas that could simply look better with a little more attention. Thats when you take your bottle of 303 Automotive Spray Wax and spend a few minutes making your entire car shine!

This product is safe for every exterior part of your car. That includes the paint, fiberglass, and clear coat, as well as any exterior plastics. Plus, any metal on your carincluding chrome, aluminum, and stainless steelis a good candidate for an application of 303 Automotive Spray Wax.

Not only will this formula leave your car looking cleaner and shinier than before, but it will also offer UV protection for a whole monthwhich means your paint color is less likely to fade over time. This spray wax wont leave any residue behind, either, leaving your car simply looking spotless and shiny. Whether you have a classic car you want to enter in classic car shows or just like the feeling of driving a nice looking vehicle, you should look into spray wax!

If youre ready to see your car looking as glossy as possible, its time to apply 303 Automotive Spray Wax to it, which only takes minutes! But first, make sure your car is clean. The exterior surface can be either wet or dry, as long as it was recently washed. If it wasnt, its time to wash it, starting with the right car wash products, of course.

Now that the car is clean, decide which area youll treat first, and then spray the wax onto that spot. Take a microfiber towel and rub it over the treated area to spread the wax out evenly. Then grab another clean, dry microfiber towel and wipe the product off the surface. You should notice a difference in shine instantly!

You can re-apply 303 Automotive Spray Wax about every three to four months to keep your car gleaming at all times. If your car is exposed to the elementslike sunlight and rainon a regular basis, youll probably need to re-apply the wax every couple of months. And if your car is in storage or is just parked in a garage most of the time, you wont have to apply the wax as often.

top 7 best washes for painting miniatures and models (tips) - tangible day

Are you looking for the best washes for painting miniatures? How do you know what wash to use for your models? Acrylic washes are a thinned version of paint. Washes provide a way for you to darken, shift-color, or even highlight parts of your model. If you use washes a certain way, the techniques also provides a water-color effect to your model. For most miniature painters, the best washes are created specifically for small models. This means a wash with high-density pigment in a high-quality binding medium with low viscosity (thinned, high flow).

In this article, I present you with my top 7 washes that I recommend for painting miniatures. My favorite wash brands include those by Games Workshop and Vallejo. Army Painter makes a great set of washes, too.

Washing miniatures is a technique that uses a thin, low viscosity pigmented color that flows into deeper crevices, troughs, and cracks of a figure. When applied liberally over an entire model, a wash will flow off the high points and concentrate in the recesses.

For a starting point toward making your own washes that is nearly identical and much cheaper than Citadels version is to start with approximately 8 parts mixing medium (any brand, or use list below), 3-4 parts highly-pigmented ink (of any preferred color), and 2 parts flow aid/improver.

Fun fact: Many of the techniques that miniature painters use came first from fine scale modelers and model train hobbyists. These hobby spaces are much older, with storied histories. For those previous generations, painting techniques and reagents had to be developed from scratch.

Another miniature artist who uses an airbrush to apply glazes is Sergio Calvo. Glazing is a powerful technique. And, you can airbrush washes as a fast and easy way to apply glazes to subtly change the underlying color on your models!

My only hiccup with this set is that youll probably end up using up the black wash first, followed closely by the Umber wash. Both of these washes are useful for most miniatures (and bases/terrain pieces), that youll go through them quickly.

You can airbrush Citadel washes to use as a glaze. They are great for this purpose. The easiest way to transfer wash from Citadel Pots to your airbrush is with a brush. Just be careful you dont spill the top-heavy pots. Spilling Citadel pots is a very common issue.

Agrax Earthshade (Citadel) is the descendent (version 2.0) of the legendary Games Workshop Devlan Mud wash, or also known as liquid talent. If youre a new miniature painter and had to choose only one wash, this would be it. Ive found this useful in almost every miniature painting situation.

Agrax Earthshade is easy to apply. All Citadel shades and washes are acrylic water-based medium. But, you dont need to thin it with water. Simply load a brush and apply it across the surface of your miniature. The wash dries to an even matte brown tone.

Nuln Oil (Citadel) is a black-colored wash. It provides an easy way to quickly darken recesses on a model. When used well, it can be great substitute to black-lining certain models that have sharply sculpted recesses.

As a result, I prefer and recommend Nuln Oil for inorganic cold-feeling surfaces, such as metallic steel swords or guns/barrels, and armor plates. Because of the black hue, youll often want to layer up from this wash to re-introduce color saturation and highlights.

There are many other tricks and fun things you can do with Citadel Shades. At the end of the day, Citadel shades (aka washes) have an ease-of-use and predictability that make them perfect for experimentation.

This is my favorite wash for flesh-tones or other skin-like material. Reikland Fleshshade (Citadel) has a very warm, even red-toned color. Because of this warmth, this wash may also be useful for adding warmth to gold metallic paint.

For example, apply this over a layer of my favorite gold metallic paint, and youll get an attractive, majestic metal look. Paint more gold metallic over the raised edges and youll have a shiny, but very deep regal gold colored model (see image below).

This is the classic sepia tone. Seraphim Sepia (Citadel) carries a vintage-feel, old timey nostalgia. Sepia is that darkish orange-yellow you see on old photographs and historical documents that have sit out in the sun too long.

The dark brown wash is great for all the same reasons as Agrax Earthshade. The brown color provides a way to add darkness to recesses without going to black. Its a subtle method, but effective for adding more contrast.

Vallejo washes are acrylic water-based mediums. Therefore, in some cases, you may want to even dilute these washes with water and apply them in thinner layers, if youre going to use it on smaller models.

This is because Vallejo washes dry in much deeper, darker shades than Citadels versions. In other words, you need to pay more attention to how you apply it. Vallejo washes are more technical to use on smaller models.

I love using this for terrain pieces that require airbrushed shading. You dont need to thin this with water (although water does a great job) before airbrushing. It adds a subtle dark gray shade when sprayed at lower pressure.

On larger models, applying this black wash with the brush also leads to very dark recesses. Raised surfaces, however, will require some paint layering work to regain some of the lost saturation and brightness.

As with all the Vallejo washes (even those not in my list), they dry with a glossy sheen. This may throw some of you off, but I end up using a matte varnish spray at the end of all my projects anyway to even out the reflectiveness.

Rust Wash (Vallejo) is simply that: perfect for rust effects. I use this a lot to weather vehicles and terrain pieces. Mechanical parts with steel, iron, or other cooler metallic surfaces look worn and more realistic with a bit of rust patina.

Vallejo rust wash has the dark-iron rust look. Ive applied this as either a glaze with an airbrush, misting this over tank treads, pistons, and other doodads. With a fine brush, Ive added streaks from rivets and other metal work.

As you may have noticed, I prefer Citadel washes for smaller models and Vallejo washes for larger models. The ease-of-use and matte drying attributes of Citadel washes make them the preferred media for new painters, as well as speed painters.

Vallejo washes on the other hand provide a larger volume of dense pigmented media that work great in many other situations. As glazes through an airbrush, all of the Vallejo washes I listed look great on vehicles or terrain pieces.

In general, the colors I put on this list are the most useful across a range of color schemes, model types, and applications. Water soluble acrylic-based, the washes on this list are likely useful for thee majority of your modeling needs. I hope you enjoyed this article and brief review of washes.

Fantastic article about washes with a comprehensive section on making your own washes. For myself, I honestly did not know that there were pre-made washes for miniatures. I mean, it makes sense, but after so many years of making my own washes, I guess that I just never thought about it. Thanks for the ton of info.

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3 ways to clean gold teeth - wikihow

This article was co-authored by Alina Lane, DDS. Dr. Alina Lane is a Dentist who runs All Smiles Dentistry, a general practice dental office based in New York City. After completing a DDS at the University of Maryland, Dr. Lane completed a year-long clerkship in Implantology at the University of Maryland, where she focused on the advanced restoration of dental implants. She continued her advanced education by completing a General Practice Residency at Woodhull Medical Center, an affiliate of the NYU School of Medicine. She received the Woodhull Medical Center Resident of the Year 2012-2013. This article has been viewed 73,625 times.

Gold is a popular metal used for fillings and crowns. Gold is also popular for fake, removable teeth and grills. Taking care of gold teeth is just as important as taking care of your natural teeth. If you have a permanent gold tooth, filling, or crown, clean it just like your natural teeth. If you have a removable gold tooth or a grill, make sure to clean it every day with a mild cleanser and warm water and polish it with a soft cloth to keep its luster.

Cleaning permanent gold teeth doesnt require anything special. Just brush and floss them like you do for your other teeth. If you have removable gold teeth, clean these daily with a cleaner designed for gold teeth. After youve cleaned your gold teeth, use a microfiber cloth to polish them. Never use jewelry cleaners or gold polish on your gold teeth, since these are toxic if ingested. If you have a gold grill for your teeth, just clean it daily with toothpaste or soapy water. Avoid wearing your grill all the time, since it can trap bacteria between your teeth and cause tooth decay. For more tips, including how to avoid tarnishing your gold teeth with smoke, read on! Did this summary help you?YesNo