how is portland cement manufactured

how portland cement is made? manufacturing process of portland cement - bright hub engineering

The basic ingredients of both the dry and wet processes are the same. By mass, lime and silica make up approximately 85% of portland cement. The materials that are commonly used are limestone, shells, chalk, shale, clay, slate, silica sand, and iron ore.

Since limestone is the main component, often cement plants are located near limestone quarries. The first step in both manufacturing processes after quarrying is primary crushing. Crushing reduces the size of the rock to three inches or smaller. Next, the raw materials are combined in the correct amounts and fed into the kiln system. In the dry process, the materials are grounded, mixed, and introduced into the kiln system in a dry state. In the wet process, the raw materials follow all of the steps with water added and are introduced into the kiln system in a slurry state.In the kiln system, the first process is pre-heating. The combined materials are fed through a series of vertical cyclones. As the material moves through these cyclones, it comes into contact with the hot kiln exhaust gases. The exhaust gases pre-heat the material before it enters the main part of the kiln. The pre-heat process allows the chemical reactions that take place in the kiln to happen quicker and more efficiently.In the main kiln, the raw materials are then heated to approximately 2,700 degrees F. In the kiln, the initial raw ingredients combine to from clinker. Clinker is mainly made up of tri and di-calcium-silicates which are the main chemicals that bond together when water is added to cement. Unwanted gases, including carbon dioxide, are also emitted from the process. In the next state of the process, clinker is cooled in coolers. The hot air from the coolers is returned to the pre-heater in order to save fuel in the overall process.The clinker is then ground to produce portland cement. Gypsum is added during the grinding process to control the set rate of the cement. Slag and fly ash can also be added to control other properties of the final product.Both the dry and wet processes are very energy intensive. The wet process, however, uses more energy than the dry process due to the amount of water that must be evaporated before clinker can be produced. The cement industry is constantly looking for ways to make the manufacturing process more efficient. For example, alternative fuel sources are now being used extensively throughout the industry to heat the kilns to reduce the amount of natural resources used in the process.Cement Plants

In the kiln system, the first process is pre-heating. The combined materials are fed through a series of vertical cyclones. As the material moves through these cyclones, it comes into contact with the hot kiln exhaust gases. The exhaust gases pre-heat the material before it enters the main part of the kiln. The pre-heat process allows the chemical reactions that take place in the kiln to happen quicker and more efficiently.

In the main kiln, the raw materials are then heated to approximately 2,700 degrees F. In the kiln, the initial raw ingredients combine to from clinker. Clinker is mainly made up of tri and di-calcium-silicates which are the main chemicals that bond together when water is added to cement. Unwanted gases, including carbon dioxide, are also emitted from the process. In the next state of the process, clinker is cooled in coolers. The hot air from the coolers is returned to the pre-heater in order to save fuel in the overall process.The clinker is then ground to produce portland cement. Gypsum is added during the grinding process to control the set rate of the cement. Slag and fly ash can also be added to control other properties of the final product.Both the dry and wet processes are very energy intensive. The wet process, however, uses more energy than the dry process due to the amount of water that must be evaporated before clinker can be produced. The cement industry is constantly looking for ways to make the manufacturing process more efficient. For example, alternative fuel sources are now being used extensively throughout the industry to heat the kilns to reduce the amount of natural resources used in the process.Cement Plants

The clinker is then ground to produce portland cement. Gypsum is added during the grinding process to control the set rate of the cement. Slag and fly ash can also be added to control other properties of the final product.Both the dry and wet processes are very energy intensive. The wet process, however, uses more energy than the dry process due to the amount of water that must be evaporated before clinker can be produced. The cement industry is constantly looking for ways to make the manufacturing process more efficient. For example, alternative fuel sources are now being used extensively throughout the industry to heat the kilns to reduce the amount of natural resources used in the process.Cement Plants

Both the dry and wet processes are very energy intensive. The wet process, however, uses more energy than the dry process due to the amount of water that must be evaporated before clinker can be produced. The cement industry is constantly looking for ways to make the manufacturing process more efficient. For example, alternative fuel sources are now being used extensively throughout the industry to heat the kilns to reduce the amount of natural resources used in the process.

what is portland cement and how it is manufactured? - mechanical booster

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It is invented by the Joseph Aspdin in 1824. But the credit for the invention of the modern Portland cement goes to his son William Aspdin in 1840s.Table of ContentsRaw Materials for PCChemical Composition of Portland Cements1. Tricalcium silicate2.Dicalcium silicate3.Tricalcium aluminate4. Tetracalcium aluminoferriteManufacturing of Portland Cement (PC)Raw Materials for PCThe various raw materials that is used in the manufacturing of PC are1. Calcareous rocks (CaCO3> 75% such as limestone, marl, chalk)2. Argillaceous rocks (CaCO3< 40% such as clay and shale)3. Agillocalcareous rocks (40-75%CaCO3such as clayey limestone, clayey marl)For the manufacturing of PC, materials from any two of these groups may be used but they must contain in proper form and proportions of lime, silica and alumina.Chemical Composition of Portland CementsThe raw material that is used in the manufacturing of Portland cement mainly consists of lime, silica, alumina and iron oxide.In the cement, the oxide content is about 90%. The oxide composition of ordinary Portland cement is given below:Common NameOxideAbbreviationAppropriate Composition Limits (in %)LimeCaOC60-66SilicaSiO2S19-25AluminaAl2O3A3-8Iron oxideFe2O3F1-5MagnesiaMgOM0-5AlkaliesSodaNa2ON0.5-1PotassaK2OK0.5-1Sulfur TrioxideSO3 1-3Also Read:16 Types of Cement used in Construction WorkA Typical Chemical analysis of PC isS.noItemPercentage1.CaO63.62.SiO220.73.Al2O364.Fe2O32.45.SO31.46.MgO2.47.Na2O0.18.K2O0.79.Loss on ignition1.310.Insoluble residue0.311.Free CaO1.1During the heating of raw material in the kiln, the oxides interact with each other and forms more complex compounds. The Portland cement consists of 4 basic chemical compounds. These four compounds are given in the table below:NameChemical formulaAbbreviationPercentageTricalcium silicate3CaO.SiO2C3S51Dicalcium silicate2CaO.SiO2C2S23Tricalcium aluminate3CaO.Al2O3C3A8Tetracalcium aluminoferrite4CaO.Al2O3.Fe2O3C4AF91. Tricalcium silicateIt hardens rapidly on addition of water and responsible for initial set and early strength.2.Dicalcium silicateIt hardens slowly. The effect of C3S on strength increases with ages beyond one week.3.Tricalcium aluminateIn first few weeks, it contributes in strength development. It hydrates first among all four compounds of the PC. Since it produces high heat and also reacts with soils and water that contains moderate to high sulfate concentrations, it is considered as the least desirable component of the PC.4. Tetracalcium aluminoferriteIt hydrates very rapidly but contributes very little to the strength of the concrete. It lowers clinkering temperature i.e. temperature at which clinker is formed.Manufacturing of Portland Cement (PC)First the raw materials obtained from the source is reduced to fine particle size.The raw materials are blended and mixed in such a manner that it produces uniform chemical composition containing Calcium carbonate (CaCO3), silica (SiO2), alumina (Al2O3), iron oxide (Fe2O3) etc.Now the blended raw mix is heated to a temperature at which all the moisture from it escapes out as steam or water vapor.The dried raw mix is heated to 8000C. At this temperature what happens, the calcium carbonate gets dissociated into calcium oxide (known as free lime) and carbon dioxide which escapes out as gas.As the temperature rises above 8000C, the formation of principal active compounds of Portland cement starts. And the completion of this process takes place at 1400-16000C. Final product that we get is PC clinker. Usually 1 ton of clinker is produced from 1.8 tons of raw material.The cement clinker so produced is cooled to a temperature of 60 to 1500Cand then stockpiled.After that the clinker is ground to specified fineness by adding small amount of gypsum. The gypsum added controls the setting time of finished cement.Finally the finished cement is stored in silos for a short period of time before it is being sent to the customers.The various production steps of the Portland cement areCrushing, screening and stockpiling of raw materials.Proportion calculation of raw materials.Preparation of raw mix by blendingFeeding of raw mix into rotary kiln.100 C: Evaporation of free water.150-300 degree C: Evaporation of more firmly bounded water.600 degree C: MgCO3 > MgO + CO2900 degree C: CaCO3 > CaO + CO2Reaction between lime and clay starts.1300 degree C: Initiation of major compound formation.1400-1600 degree C: completion temperature (clinker forms having C3A, C2S, C3S, C4AF)Cooling and storage of clinker.Clinker is ground with gypsum.Storing and marketing of cement.For Better Explanation Watch the Video Given Below:

For the manufacturing of PC, materials from any two of these groups may be used but they must contain in proper form and proportions of lime, silica and alumina.Chemical Composition of Portland CementsThe raw material that is used in the manufacturing of Portland cement mainly consists of lime, silica, alumina and iron oxide.In the cement, the oxide content is about 90%. The oxide composition of ordinary Portland cement is given below:Common NameOxideAbbreviationAppropriate Composition Limits (in %)LimeCaOC60-66SilicaSiO2S19-25AluminaAl2O3A3-8Iron oxideFe2O3F1-5MagnesiaMgOM0-5AlkaliesSodaNa2ON0.5-1PotassaK2OK0.5-1Sulfur TrioxideSO3 1-3Also Read:16 Types of Cement used in Construction WorkA Typical Chemical analysis of PC isS.noItemPercentage1.CaO63.62.SiO220.73.Al2O364.Fe2O32.45.SO31.46.MgO2.47.Na2O0.18.K2O0.79.Loss on ignition1.310.Insoluble residue0.311.Free CaO1.1During the heating of raw material in the kiln, the oxides interact with each other and forms more complex compounds. The Portland cement consists of 4 basic chemical compounds. These four compounds are given in the table below:NameChemical formulaAbbreviationPercentageTricalcium silicate3CaO.SiO2C3S51Dicalcium silicate2CaO.SiO2C2S23Tricalcium aluminate3CaO.Al2O3C3A8Tetracalcium aluminoferrite4CaO.Al2O3.Fe2O3C4AF91. Tricalcium silicateIt hardens rapidly on addition of water and responsible for initial set and early strength.2.Dicalcium silicateIt hardens slowly. The effect of C3S on strength increases with ages beyond one week.3.Tricalcium aluminateIn first few weeks, it contributes in strength development. It hydrates first among all four compounds of the PC. Since it produces high heat and also reacts with soils and water that contains moderate to high sulfate concentrations, it is considered as the least desirable component of the PC.4. Tetracalcium aluminoferriteIt hydrates very rapidly but contributes very little to the strength of the concrete. It lowers clinkering temperature i.e. temperature at which clinker is formed.Manufacturing of Portland Cement (PC)First the raw materials obtained from the source is reduced to fine particle size.The raw materials are blended and mixed in such a manner that it produces uniform chemical composition containing Calcium carbonate (CaCO3), silica (SiO2), alumina (Al2O3), iron oxide (Fe2O3) etc.Now the blended raw mix is heated to a temperature at which all the moisture from it escapes out as steam or water vapor.The dried raw mix is heated to 8000C. At this temperature what happens, the calcium carbonate gets dissociated into calcium oxide (known as free lime) and carbon dioxide which escapes out as gas.As the temperature rises above 8000C, the formation of principal active compounds of Portland cement starts. And the completion of this process takes place at 1400-16000C. Final product that we get is PC clinker. Usually 1 ton of clinker is produced from 1.8 tons of raw material.The cement clinker so produced is cooled to a temperature of 60 to 1500Cand then stockpiled.After that the clinker is ground to specified fineness by adding small amount of gypsum. The gypsum added controls the setting time of finished cement.Finally the finished cement is stored in silos for a short period of time before it is being sent to the customers.The various production steps of the Portland cement areCrushing, screening and stockpiling of raw materials.Proportion calculation of raw materials.Preparation of raw mix by blendingFeeding of raw mix into rotary kiln.100 C: Evaporation of free water.150-300 degree C: Evaporation of more firmly bounded water.600 degree C: MgCO3 > MgO + CO2900 degree C: CaCO3 > CaO + CO2Reaction between lime and clay starts.1300 degree C: Initiation of major compound formation.1400-1600 degree C: completion temperature (clinker forms having C3A, C2S, C3S, C4AF)Cooling and storage of clinker.Clinker is ground with gypsum.Storing and marketing of cement.For Better Explanation Watch the Video Given Below:

Chemical Composition of Portland CementsThe raw material that is used in the manufacturing of Portland cement mainly consists of lime, silica, alumina and iron oxide.In the cement, the oxide content is about 90%. The oxide composition of ordinary Portland cement is given below:Common NameOxideAbbreviationAppropriate Composition Limits (in %)LimeCaOC60-66SilicaSiO2S19-25AluminaAl2O3A3-8Iron oxideFe2O3F1-5MagnesiaMgOM0-5AlkaliesSodaNa2ON0.5-1PotassaK2OK0.5-1Sulfur TrioxideSO3 1-3Also Read:16 Types of Cement used in Construction WorkA Typical Chemical analysis of PC isS.noItemPercentage1.CaO63.62.SiO220.73.Al2O364.Fe2O32.45.SO31.46.MgO2.47.Na2O0.18.K2O0.79.Loss on ignition1.310.Insoluble residue0.311.Free CaO1.1During the heating of raw material in the kiln, the oxides interact with each other and forms more complex compounds. The Portland cement consists of 4 basic chemical compounds. These four compounds are given in the table below:NameChemical formulaAbbreviationPercentageTricalcium silicate3CaO.SiO2C3S51Dicalcium silicate2CaO.SiO2C2S23Tricalcium aluminate3CaO.Al2O3C3A8Tetracalcium aluminoferrite4CaO.Al2O3.Fe2O3C4AF91. Tricalcium silicateIt hardens rapidly on addition of water and responsible for initial set and early strength.2.Dicalcium silicateIt hardens slowly. The effect of C3S on strength increases with ages beyond one week.3.Tricalcium aluminateIn first few weeks, it contributes in strength development. It hydrates first among all four compounds of the PC. Since it produces high heat and also reacts with soils and water that contains moderate to high sulfate concentrations, it is considered as the least desirable component of the PC.4. Tetracalcium aluminoferriteIt hydrates very rapidly but contributes very little to the strength of the concrete. It lowers clinkering temperature i.e. temperature at which clinker is formed.Manufacturing of Portland Cement (PC)First the raw materials obtained from the source is reduced to fine particle size.The raw materials are blended and mixed in such a manner that it produces uniform chemical composition containing Calcium carbonate (CaCO3), silica (SiO2), alumina (Al2O3), iron oxide (Fe2O3) etc.Now the blended raw mix is heated to a temperature at which all the moisture from it escapes out as steam or water vapor.The dried raw mix is heated to 8000C. At this temperature what happens, the calcium carbonate gets dissociated into calcium oxide (known as free lime) and carbon dioxide which escapes out as gas.As the temperature rises above 8000C, the formation of principal active compounds of Portland cement starts. And the completion of this process takes place at 1400-16000C. Final product that we get is PC clinker. Usually 1 ton of clinker is produced from 1.8 tons of raw material.The cement clinker so produced is cooled to a temperature of 60 to 1500Cand then stockpiled.After that the clinker is ground to specified fineness by adding small amount of gypsum. The gypsum added controls the setting time of finished cement.Finally the finished cement is stored in silos for a short period of time before it is being sent to the customers.The various production steps of the Portland cement areCrushing, screening and stockpiling of raw materials.Proportion calculation of raw materials.Preparation of raw mix by blendingFeeding of raw mix into rotary kiln.100 C: Evaporation of free water.150-300 degree C: Evaporation of more firmly bounded water.600 degree C: MgCO3 > MgO + CO2900 degree C: CaCO3 > CaO + CO2Reaction between lime and clay starts.1300 degree C: Initiation of major compound formation.1400-1600 degree C: completion temperature (clinker forms having C3A, C2S, C3S, C4AF)Cooling and storage of clinker.Clinker is ground with gypsum.Storing and marketing of cement.For Better Explanation Watch the Video Given Below:

In the cement, the oxide content is about 90%. The oxide composition of ordinary Portland cement is given below:Common NameOxideAbbreviationAppropriate Composition Limits (in %)LimeCaOC60-66SilicaSiO2S19-25AluminaAl2O3A3-8Iron oxideFe2O3F1-5MagnesiaMgOM0-5AlkaliesSodaNa2ON0.5-1PotassaK2OK0.5-1Sulfur TrioxideSO3 1-3Also Read:16 Types of Cement used in Construction WorkA Typical Chemical analysis of PC isS.noItemPercentage1.CaO63.62.SiO220.73.Al2O364.Fe2O32.45.SO31.46.MgO2.47.Na2O0.18.K2O0.79.Loss on ignition1.310.Insoluble residue0.311.Free CaO1.1During the heating of raw material in the kiln, the oxides interact with each other and forms more complex compounds. The Portland cement consists of 4 basic chemical compounds. These four compounds are given in the table below:NameChemical formulaAbbreviationPercentageTricalcium silicate3CaO.SiO2C3S51Dicalcium silicate2CaO.SiO2C2S23Tricalcium aluminate3CaO.Al2O3C3A8Tetracalcium aluminoferrite4CaO.Al2O3.Fe2O3C4AF91. Tricalcium silicateIt hardens rapidly on addition of water and responsible for initial set and early strength.2.Dicalcium silicateIt hardens slowly. The effect of C3S on strength increases with ages beyond one week.3.Tricalcium aluminateIn first few weeks, it contributes in strength development. It hydrates first among all four compounds of the PC. Since it produces high heat and also reacts with soils and water that contains moderate to high sulfate concentrations, it is considered as the least desirable component of the PC.4. Tetracalcium aluminoferriteIt hydrates very rapidly but contributes very little to the strength of the concrete. It lowers clinkering temperature i.e. temperature at which clinker is formed.Manufacturing of Portland Cement (PC)First the raw materials obtained from the source is reduced to fine particle size.The raw materials are blended and mixed in such a manner that it produces uniform chemical composition containing Calcium carbonate (CaCO3), silica (SiO2), alumina (Al2O3), iron oxide (Fe2O3) etc.Now the blended raw mix is heated to a temperature at which all the moisture from it escapes out as steam or water vapor.The dried raw mix is heated to 8000C. At this temperature what happens, the calcium carbonate gets dissociated into calcium oxide (known as free lime) and carbon dioxide which escapes out as gas.As the temperature rises above 8000C, the formation of principal active compounds of Portland cement starts. And the completion of this process takes place at 1400-16000C. Final product that we get is PC clinker. Usually 1 ton of clinker is produced from 1.8 tons of raw material.The cement clinker so produced is cooled to a temperature of 60 to 1500Cand then stockpiled.After that the clinker is ground to specified fineness by adding small amount of gypsum. The gypsum added controls the setting time of finished cement.Finally the finished cement is stored in silos for a short period of time before it is being sent to the customers.The various production steps of the Portland cement areCrushing, screening and stockpiling of raw materials.Proportion calculation of raw materials.Preparation of raw mix by blendingFeeding of raw mix into rotary kiln.100 C: Evaporation of free water.150-300 degree C: Evaporation of more firmly bounded water.600 degree C: MgCO3 > MgO + CO2900 degree C: CaCO3 > CaO + CO2Reaction between lime and clay starts.1300 degree C: Initiation of major compound formation.1400-1600 degree C: completion temperature (clinker forms having C3A, C2S, C3S, C4AF)Cooling and storage of clinker.Clinker is ground with gypsum.Storing and marketing of cement.For Better Explanation Watch the Video Given Below:

S.noItemPercentage1.CaO63.62.SiO220.73.Al2O364.Fe2O32.45.SO31.46.MgO2.47.Na2O0.18.K2O0.79.Loss on ignition1.310.Insoluble residue0.311.Free CaO1.1During the heating of raw material in the kiln, the oxides interact with each other and forms more complex compounds. The Portland cement consists of 4 basic chemical compounds. These four compounds are given in the table below:NameChemical formulaAbbreviationPercentageTricalcium silicate3CaO.SiO2C3S51Dicalcium silicate2CaO.SiO2C2S23Tricalcium aluminate3CaO.Al2O3C3A8Tetracalcium aluminoferrite4CaO.Al2O3.Fe2O3C4AF91. Tricalcium silicateIt hardens rapidly on addition of water and responsible for initial set and early strength.2.Dicalcium silicateIt hardens slowly. The effect of C3S on strength increases with ages beyond one week.3.Tricalcium aluminateIn first few weeks, it contributes in strength development. It hydrates first among all four compounds of the PC. Since it produces high heat and also reacts with soils and water that contains moderate to high sulfate concentrations, it is considered as the least desirable component of the PC.4. Tetracalcium aluminoferriteIt hydrates very rapidly but contributes very little to the strength of the concrete. It lowers clinkering temperature i.e. temperature at which clinker is formed.Manufacturing of Portland Cement (PC)First the raw materials obtained from the source is reduced to fine particle size.The raw materials are blended and mixed in such a manner that it produces uniform chemical composition containing Calcium carbonate (CaCO3), silica (SiO2), alumina (Al2O3), iron oxide (Fe2O3) etc.Now the blended raw mix is heated to a temperature at which all the moisture from it escapes out as steam or water vapor.The dried raw mix is heated to 8000C. At this temperature what happens, the calcium carbonate gets dissociated into calcium oxide (known as free lime) and carbon dioxide which escapes out as gas.As the temperature rises above 8000C, the formation of principal active compounds of Portland cement starts. And the completion of this process takes place at 1400-16000C. Final product that we get is PC clinker. Usually 1 ton of clinker is produced from 1.8 tons of raw material.The cement clinker so produced is cooled to a temperature of 60 to 1500Cand then stockpiled.After that the clinker is ground to specified fineness by adding small amount of gypsum. The gypsum added controls the setting time of finished cement.Finally the finished cement is stored in silos for a short period of time before it is being sent to the customers.The various production steps of the Portland cement areCrushing, screening and stockpiling of raw materials.Proportion calculation of raw materials.Preparation of raw mix by blendingFeeding of raw mix into rotary kiln.100 C: Evaporation of free water.150-300 degree C: Evaporation of more firmly bounded water.600 degree C: MgCO3 > MgO + CO2900 degree C: CaCO3 > CaO + CO2Reaction between lime and clay starts.1300 degree C: Initiation of major compound formation.1400-1600 degree C: completion temperature (clinker forms having C3A, C2S, C3S, C4AF)Cooling and storage of clinker.Clinker is ground with gypsum.Storing and marketing of cement.For Better Explanation Watch the Video Given Below:

NameChemical formulaAbbreviationPercentageTricalcium silicate3CaO.SiO2C3S51Dicalcium silicate2CaO.SiO2C2S23Tricalcium aluminate3CaO.Al2O3C3A8Tetracalcium aluminoferrite4CaO.Al2O3.Fe2O3C4AF91. Tricalcium silicateIt hardens rapidly on addition of water and responsible for initial set and early strength.2.Dicalcium silicateIt hardens slowly. The effect of C3S on strength increases with ages beyond one week.3.Tricalcium aluminateIn first few weeks, it contributes in strength development. It hydrates first among all four compounds of the PC. Since it produces high heat and also reacts with soils and water that contains moderate to high sulfate concentrations, it is considered as the least desirable component of the PC.4. Tetracalcium aluminoferriteIt hydrates very rapidly but contributes very little to the strength of the concrete. It lowers clinkering temperature i.e. temperature at which clinker is formed.Manufacturing of Portland Cement (PC)First the raw materials obtained from the source is reduced to fine particle size.The raw materials are blended and mixed in such a manner that it produces uniform chemical composition containing Calcium carbonate (CaCO3), silica (SiO2), alumina (Al2O3), iron oxide (Fe2O3) etc.Now the blended raw mix is heated to a temperature at which all the moisture from it escapes out as steam or water vapor.The dried raw mix is heated to 8000C. At this temperature what happens, the calcium carbonate gets dissociated into calcium oxide (known as free lime) and carbon dioxide which escapes out as gas.As the temperature rises above 8000C, the formation of principal active compounds of Portland cement starts. And the completion of this process takes place at 1400-16000C. Final product that we get is PC clinker. Usually 1 ton of clinker is produced from 1.8 tons of raw material.The cement clinker so produced is cooled to a temperature of 60 to 1500Cand then stockpiled.After that the clinker is ground to specified fineness by adding small amount of gypsum. The gypsum added controls the setting time of finished cement.Finally the finished cement is stored in silos for a short period of time before it is being sent to the customers.The various production steps of the Portland cement areCrushing, screening and stockpiling of raw materials.Proportion calculation of raw materials.Preparation of raw mix by blendingFeeding of raw mix into rotary kiln.100 C: Evaporation of free water.150-300 degree C: Evaporation of more firmly bounded water.600 degree C: MgCO3 > MgO + CO2900 degree C: CaCO3 > CaO + CO2Reaction between lime and clay starts.1300 degree C: Initiation of major compound formation.1400-1600 degree C: completion temperature (clinker forms having C3A, C2S, C3S, C4AF)Cooling and storage of clinker.Clinker is ground with gypsum.Storing and marketing of cement.For Better Explanation Watch the Video Given Below:

It hardens rapidly on addition of water and responsible for initial set and early strength.2.Dicalcium silicateIt hardens slowly. The effect of C3S on strength increases with ages beyond one week.3.Tricalcium aluminateIn first few weeks, it contributes in strength development. It hydrates first among all four compounds of the PC. Since it produces high heat and also reacts with soils and water that contains moderate to high sulfate concentrations, it is considered as the least desirable component of the PC.4. Tetracalcium aluminoferriteIt hydrates very rapidly but contributes very little to the strength of the concrete. It lowers clinkering temperature i.e. temperature at which clinker is formed.Manufacturing of Portland Cement (PC)First the raw materials obtained from the source is reduced to fine particle size.The raw materials are blended and mixed in such a manner that it produces uniform chemical composition containing Calcium carbonate (CaCO3), silica (SiO2), alumina (Al2O3), iron oxide (Fe2O3) etc.Now the blended raw mix is heated to a temperature at which all the moisture from it escapes out as steam or water vapor.The dried raw mix is heated to 8000C. At this temperature what happens, the calcium carbonate gets dissociated into calcium oxide (known as free lime) and carbon dioxide which escapes out as gas.As the temperature rises above 8000C, the formation of principal active compounds of Portland cement starts. And the completion of this process takes place at 1400-16000C. Final product that we get is PC clinker. Usually 1 ton of clinker is produced from 1.8 tons of raw material.The cement clinker so produced is cooled to a temperature of 60 to 1500Cand then stockpiled.After that the clinker is ground to specified fineness by adding small amount of gypsum. The gypsum added controls the setting time of finished cement.Finally the finished cement is stored in silos for a short period of time before it is being sent to the customers.The various production steps of the Portland cement areCrushing, screening and stockpiling of raw materials.Proportion calculation of raw materials.Preparation of raw mix by blendingFeeding of raw mix into rotary kiln.100 C: Evaporation of free water.150-300 degree C: Evaporation of more firmly bounded water.600 degree C: MgCO3 > MgO + CO2900 degree C: CaCO3 > CaO + CO2Reaction between lime and clay starts.1300 degree C: Initiation of major compound formation.1400-1600 degree C: completion temperature (clinker forms having C3A, C2S, C3S, C4AF)Cooling and storage of clinker.Clinker is ground with gypsum.Storing and marketing of cement.For Better Explanation Watch the Video Given Below:

It hardens slowly. The effect of C3S on strength increases with ages beyond one week.3.Tricalcium aluminateIn first few weeks, it contributes in strength development. It hydrates first among all four compounds of the PC. Since it produces high heat and also reacts with soils and water that contains moderate to high sulfate concentrations, it is considered as the least desirable component of the PC.4. Tetracalcium aluminoferriteIt hydrates very rapidly but contributes very little to the strength of the concrete. It lowers clinkering temperature i.e. temperature at which clinker is formed.Manufacturing of Portland Cement (PC)First the raw materials obtained from the source is reduced to fine particle size.The raw materials are blended and mixed in such a manner that it produces uniform chemical composition containing Calcium carbonate (CaCO3), silica (SiO2), alumina (Al2O3), iron oxide (Fe2O3) etc.Now the blended raw mix is heated to a temperature at which all the moisture from it escapes out as steam or water vapor.The dried raw mix is heated to 8000C. At this temperature what happens, the calcium carbonate gets dissociated into calcium oxide (known as free lime) and carbon dioxide which escapes out as gas.As the temperature rises above 8000C, the formation of principal active compounds of Portland cement starts. And the completion of this process takes place at 1400-16000C. Final product that we get is PC clinker. Usually 1 ton of clinker is produced from 1.8 tons of raw material.The cement clinker so produced is cooled to a temperature of 60 to 1500Cand then stockpiled.After that the clinker is ground to specified fineness by adding small amount of gypsum. The gypsum added controls the setting time of finished cement.Finally the finished cement is stored in silos for a short period of time before it is being sent to the customers.The various production steps of the Portland cement areCrushing, screening and stockpiling of raw materials.Proportion calculation of raw materials.Preparation of raw mix by blendingFeeding of raw mix into rotary kiln.100 C: Evaporation of free water.150-300 degree C: Evaporation of more firmly bounded water.600 degree C: MgCO3 > MgO + CO2900 degree C: CaCO3 > CaO + CO2Reaction between lime and clay starts.1300 degree C: Initiation of major compound formation.1400-1600 degree C: completion temperature (clinker forms having C3A, C2S, C3S, C4AF)Cooling and storage of clinker.Clinker is ground with gypsum.Storing and marketing of cement.For Better Explanation Watch the Video Given Below:

In first few weeks, it contributes in strength development. It hydrates first among all four compounds of the PC. Since it produces high heat and also reacts with soils and water that contains moderate to high sulfate concentrations, it is considered as the least desirable component of the PC.4. Tetracalcium aluminoferriteIt hydrates very rapidly but contributes very little to the strength of the concrete. It lowers clinkering temperature i.e. temperature at which clinker is formed.Manufacturing of Portland Cement (PC)First the raw materials obtained from the source is reduced to fine particle size.The raw materials are blended and mixed in such a manner that it produces uniform chemical composition containing Calcium carbonate (CaCO3), silica (SiO2), alumina (Al2O3), iron oxide (Fe2O3) etc.Now the blended raw mix is heated to a temperature at which all the moisture from it escapes out as steam or water vapor.The dried raw mix is heated to 8000C. At this temperature what happens, the calcium carbonate gets dissociated into calcium oxide (known as free lime) and carbon dioxide which escapes out as gas.As the temperature rises above 8000C, the formation of principal active compounds of Portland cement starts. And the completion of this process takes place at 1400-16000C. Final product that we get is PC clinker. Usually 1 ton of clinker is produced from 1.8 tons of raw material.The cement clinker so produced is cooled to a temperature of 60 to 1500Cand then stockpiled.After that the clinker is ground to specified fineness by adding small amount of gypsum. The gypsum added controls the setting time of finished cement.Finally the finished cement is stored in silos for a short period of time before it is being sent to the customers.The various production steps of the Portland cement areCrushing, screening and stockpiling of raw materials.Proportion calculation of raw materials.Preparation of raw mix by blendingFeeding of raw mix into rotary kiln.100 C: Evaporation of free water.150-300 degree C: Evaporation of more firmly bounded water.600 degree C: MgCO3 > MgO + CO2900 degree C: CaCO3 > CaO + CO2Reaction between lime and clay starts.1300 degree C: Initiation of major compound formation.1400-1600 degree C: completion temperature (clinker forms having C3A, C2S, C3S, C4AF)Cooling and storage of clinker.Clinker is ground with gypsum.Storing and marketing of cement.For Better Explanation Watch the Video Given Below:

It hydrates very rapidly but contributes very little to the strength of the concrete. It lowers clinkering temperature i.e. temperature at which clinker is formed.Manufacturing of Portland Cement (PC)First the raw materials obtained from the source is reduced to fine particle size.The raw materials are blended and mixed in such a manner that it produces uniform chemical composition containing Calcium carbonate (CaCO3), silica (SiO2), alumina (Al2O3), iron oxide (Fe2O3) etc.Now the blended raw mix is heated to a temperature at which all the moisture from it escapes out as steam or water vapor.The dried raw mix is heated to 8000C. At this temperature what happens, the calcium carbonate gets dissociated into calcium oxide (known as free lime) and carbon dioxide which escapes out as gas.As the temperature rises above 8000C, the formation of principal active compounds of Portland cement starts. And the completion of this process takes place at 1400-16000C. Final product that we get is PC clinker. Usually 1 ton of clinker is produced from 1.8 tons of raw material.The cement clinker so produced is cooled to a temperature of 60 to 1500Cand then stockpiled.After that the clinker is ground to specified fineness by adding small amount of gypsum. The gypsum added controls the setting time of finished cement.Finally the finished cement is stored in silos for a short period of time before it is being sent to the customers.The various production steps of the Portland cement areCrushing, screening and stockpiling of raw materials.Proportion calculation of raw materials.Preparation of raw mix by blendingFeeding of raw mix into rotary kiln.100 C: Evaporation of free water.150-300 degree C: Evaporation of more firmly bounded water.600 degree C: MgCO3 > MgO + CO2900 degree C: CaCO3 > CaO + CO2Reaction between lime and clay starts.1300 degree C: Initiation of major compound formation.1400-1600 degree C: completion temperature (clinker forms having C3A, C2S, C3S, C4AF)Cooling and storage of clinker.Clinker is ground with gypsum.Storing and marketing of cement.For Better Explanation Watch the Video Given Below:

First the raw materials obtained from the source is reduced to fine particle size.The raw materials are blended and mixed in such a manner that it produces uniform chemical composition containing Calcium carbonate (CaCO3), silica (SiO2), alumina (Al2O3), iron oxide (Fe2O3) etc.Now the blended raw mix is heated to a temperature at which all the moisture from it escapes out as steam or water vapor.The dried raw mix is heated to 8000C. At this temperature what happens, the calcium carbonate gets dissociated into calcium oxide (known as free lime) and carbon dioxide which escapes out as gas.As the temperature rises above 8000C, the formation of principal active compounds of Portland cement starts. And the completion of this process takes place at 1400-16000C. Final product that we get is PC clinker. Usually 1 ton of clinker is produced from 1.8 tons of raw material.The cement clinker so produced is cooled to a temperature of 60 to 1500Cand then stockpiled.After that the clinker is ground to specified fineness by adding small amount of gypsum. The gypsum added controls the setting time of finished cement.Finally the finished cement is stored in silos for a short period of time before it is being sent to the customers.The various production steps of the Portland cement areCrushing, screening and stockpiling of raw materials.Proportion calculation of raw materials.Preparation of raw mix by blendingFeeding of raw mix into rotary kiln.100 C: Evaporation of free water.150-300 degree C: Evaporation of more firmly bounded water.600 degree C: MgCO3 > MgO + CO2900 degree C: CaCO3 > CaO + CO2Reaction between lime and clay starts.1300 degree C: Initiation of major compound formation.1400-1600 degree C: completion temperature (clinker forms having C3A, C2S, C3S, C4AF)Cooling and storage of clinker.Clinker is ground with gypsum.Storing and marketing of cement.For Better Explanation Watch the Video Given Below:

First the raw materials obtained from the source is reduced to fine particle size.The raw materials are blended and mixed in such a manner that it produces uniform chemical composition containing Calcium carbonate (CaCO3), silica (SiO2), alumina (Al2O3), iron oxide (Fe2O3) etc.Now the blended raw mix is heated to a temperature at which all the moisture from it escapes out as steam or water vapor.The dried raw mix is heated to 8000C. At this temperature what happens, the calcium carbonate gets dissociated into calcium oxide (known as free lime) and carbon dioxide which escapes out as gas.As the temperature rises above 8000C, the formation of principal active compounds of Portland cement starts. And the completion of this process takes place at 1400-16000C. Final product that we get is PC clinker. Usually 1 ton of clinker is produced from 1.8 tons of raw material.The cement clinker so produced is cooled to a temperature of 60 to 1500Cand then stockpiled.After that the clinker is ground to specified fineness by adding small amount of gypsum. The gypsum added controls the setting time of finished cement.Finally the finished cement is stored in silos for a short period of time before it is being sent to the customers.The various production steps of the Portland cement areCrushing, screening and stockpiling of raw materials.Proportion calculation of raw materials.Preparation of raw mix by blendingFeeding of raw mix into rotary kiln.100 C: Evaporation of free water.150-300 degree C: Evaporation of more firmly bounded water.600 degree C: MgCO3 > MgO + CO2900 degree C: CaCO3 > CaO + CO2Reaction between lime and clay starts.1300 degree C: Initiation of major compound formation.1400-1600 degree C: completion temperature (clinker forms having C3A, C2S, C3S, C4AF)Cooling and storage of clinker.Clinker is ground with gypsum.Storing and marketing of cement.For Better Explanation Watch the Video Given Below:

Crushing, screening and stockpiling of raw materials.Proportion calculation of raw materials.Preparation of raw mix by blendingFeeding of raw mix into rotary kiln.100 C: Evaporation of free water.150-300 degree C: Evaporation of more firmly bounded water.600 degree C: MgCO3 > MgO + CO2900 degree C: CaCO3 > CaO + CO2Reaction between lime and clay starts.1300 degree C: Initiation of major compound formation.1400-1600 degree C: completion temperature (clinker forms having C3A, C2S, C3S, C4AF)Cooling and storage of clinker.Clinker is ground with gypsum.Storing and marketing of cement.For Better Explanation Watch the Video Given Below:

Pankaj Mishra is a blogger by passion and Mechanical Engineer by profession. He has completed his B.Tech degree in mechanical engineering in the year 2015. He loves to share his knowledge and help others.

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