how much does a machine that dries clay costs

2021 cost of plasterer | plastering prices

Plastering is the method of finishing interior walls to prepare for painting. There are several different options to choose from for your plastered walls. Homeowners need to hire a professional to apply plaster as it can easily make a mess.

The national average to apply plaster ranges between $450 and $550, with most homeowners spending around $500 for a 100 square foot project. On the low end, to plaster a 100 sq. ft easy to reach surface will cost around $200. On the higher end, plastering a difficult to reach surface of 100 sq. ft. with prep work and finishing styles will run you at least $1,200.

This cost guide has been fully updated. Now there is a section explaining the cost of a plasterer and subsections with information about the cost to plaster walls and ceiling. Then, a new section about the cost to apply plaster per square foot with a table with the most important information is now present in the cost guide. After that, a section with the different types of plaster and its costs has been added, as well as another with the costs of plastering depending on the room. Now there is a section explaining the cost to plaster a wall depending on the surface, with several subsections and a table summarizing the most important information. Sections such as Plaster Removal Cost, Skim Coat Plaster Cost, Preparation of Surface for Plastering, and Pros and Cons of Plaster Walls are now present in the cost guide. Then, there is a section explaining the different plaster textures, as well as another one with the different types of finishes. A section about maintenance has been added. Versus sections have been included: Plaster vs Drywall Cost, Spackle vs Plaster. and New Plaster vs Refinishing. Then, the enhancements have been included, which informs readers about painting over plaster, seal plaster, and decorative plastering. After that, the additional considerations and costs section contains further complementary information. Finally, a FAQs section, an image and some visualizations have been added, and all prices were updated.

Applying plaster is done by professional plasterers1 and is not a job that can be undertaken DIY. A plasterer begins by taping all the joints in the drywall2, then giving them a skim coat of plaster to create a flush surface. Plaster dries quickly, so a plasterer works quickly to trowel the plaster onto the walls in smooth, even strokes. A wall will cure within one hour. So, during this time, the plaster will be applied, cut into the edges, and smoothed out to a flat, even finish with no blemishes. While most plasterers charge by the square foot, at a rate of between $2 and $10 per sq. ft., the plasterer cost per hour is about $45 to $90. Adding special designs, textures, or finishes may run you $1 to $3 more per square foot. High walls or ceilings add square footage. You can expect to pay an additional amount for plaster installation. For instance, a 10 x 10 room with regular 8-foot ceilings may cost you $500, but if that same room has 12-foot ceilings, it could add $800. Outdoor applications are more expensive due to the type of plaster needed. Exterior plaster costs $7 to $13 for a square foot.

An expert plasterer starts with a base coat, which is about 2 mm in thickness. The focus here is to achieve a smooth, even surface. A clean trowel will be used to complete the first coat. Moving into the second coat, the goal is to add about half of the thickness of the first coat while eliminating as many holes as possible. At this point, the professional plasterer allows the plaster to dry for a bit. While the plaster is still tacky, the surface will be evened out, and any ridges, bulges, or holes filled and smoothed. Using firm pressure on the trowel creates the right surface for finishing.

While it may sound like a simple procedure, some difficulties can come up in the process. Curved walls, corners, and other challenges require extra skill. Straight corners are accomplished by using a metal piece called an angle bead or corner bead. The bead is nailed in place and used as a guide to float the plaster. A curved wall is constructed using a product called Gyprock Flexible. This plasterboard is 6.5 mm thick and easily bends. These specialty areas require more time and materials. Consumers should expect to pay an additional $100 to $1,000 for corners or curved walls, depending on the complexity of the situation.

Plastering a ceiling may be challenging. A professional will have the right tools and experience to do it! Using a trowel, the plaster is applied away from the edges in a firm, even movement. It is important to work quickly in a small area at a time. During application, it is important that the plaster not spill over the edge of the trowel. The plaster is spread to the edges, carefully avoiding build up. Next, the trowel is used to smooth out and even the surface before the second coat is applied. As the plaster is hardening, water is added, and the final troweling is done. The plaster ceiling price is around $300 to $800, depending on the ceiling height and any special textures or finishes added.

Professional plasterers may choose to use a pump or spray to apply the product. However, many use hand tools. This type of application is more expensive. The cost also depends on what type of plaster is utilized. The average cost to plaster a room, including labor and materials, should be calculated at a rate of $5 to $10 per square foot. The cost to plaster a house will vary, of course, by the size of the home. The cost of plastering a house that is 2,000 square feet would be about $10,000 to $20,000.

Different varieties of plaster have advantages and disadvantages. The variations in durability, style, cost, and ideal environments make understanding the characteristics of each a vital part of your decision. Another factor is the complexity of the product. Some plasters may require special training and experience to be installed properly. Homeowners should note the differences and choose wisely to receive the full benefit of your plaster.

Veneer3 plaster price per square foot is $5 to $10. This construction methodology is the process of putting a thin veneer plaster over a substrate. The substrate most often used is gypsum or blue board. Veneer plaster is harder than drywall, so it eliminates problems such as dents or dings. It doesnt show joints at all. It creates a great surface for paint to adhere smoothly and evenly. The only concern is that it must be installed correctly to ensure a long-lasting veneer plaster.

The Venetian plaster price per foot is $5 to $15. Venetian plaster is made with fired lime plaster. It was used in the 90s during the Tuscan movement. However, todays Venetian plaster has been improved upon and has recently become popular when looking for a minimalist style. The difference between this plaster and others is there are no aggregates mixed with it. Traditional Venetian plaster has a shiny surface, while Marmorino plaster has more of a matte finish. It is a durable, low-maintenance product that is forgiving. Applying it is a complicated procedure that must be performed by someone who knows what they are doing.

Expect to pay around $9 to $11 for a square foot of this product. One of the best choices, lime plaster, is lightweight, flexible, and crack resistant. It is a mixture of hydrated lime, sand, and water. While lime plaster is breathable, it doesnt work well in extremely damp environments. Application requires a talented, experienced plaster specialist. You will see it often in older homes due to its flexibility.

Gypsum plaster cost per square foot is $10 to $11. Gypsum plaster is an excellent choice as it is easy to install, does not require an extra finish, and provides good thermal insulation. It is stylish but also deters the spread of fire. On the con side, it doesnt recover well from water damage, is less robust mechanically, and may be prone to rust due to steel corrosion.

The cost of cement plaster per square foot is $11 to $12. Cement plaster is a strong, easy to work with material. It works well in damp conditions. However, it isnt flexible, so homes that are older or that are settling wont fare as well and maybe prone to develop cracks in the plaster. It consists of a mixture of plaster, sand, cement, and water.

For acoustic plaster, expect to pay $13 to $14 a square foot. Acoustic plaster is mixed with cotton fibers to achieve its primary purpose of soundproofing. It is an easy install and produces a lovely finish that can be made to look like marble, stone, or cement. It works well as long as the humidity index isnt above 70%. It doesnt react well to water or leaks. Acoustic plaster is typically used for commercial buildings where soundproofing is required but could be used for a music or theater room in a house.

It is an expensive install at $15 to $16 per square ft with labor and materials. Originating in Moroccan architecture, Tadelakt is a lime-based product that is mixed with black soap from olives. The soap makes it waterproof and water-resistant. This unique blend makes tadelakt perfect for bathroom and kitchen applications. Though extremely durable, it has its drawbacks as it is challenging to repair and usually needs to be replaced if damaged.

When determining costs, experts will include drop cloths, trowels, scaffolding4 rental, brushes, and other items. Often these items can be reused when doing an entire house. Thus, it may be more expensive per square foot to do one room versus an entire house. Additionally, some areas are harder to plaster or require a special kind of plaster, such as a waterproof or heat resistant type for the bathroom or kitchen. As with just about everything, buying in bulk is less expensive. Another thing to consider is that professionals sometimes have a minimum amount they want to make before committing to do a project. So, if you just do one or two rooms versus a whole house, the square footage price may go up. Garage, basements, and attics may end up costing more due to accessibility and the need for more finishing work.

Adding plaster over an existing wall has its advantages. Although it is an old form of design, plastering has become much more popular over exposed brick, paint, and wallpaper. Many professionals advise against plastering over wallpaper, but other surfaces are an excellent receiving platform. Plastering is a simpler process that allows for texture and interest. Exposed brick portrays a more industrial look, so those looking for a more minimalist style may prefer smoothed plaster. Painted walls give a light, airy look and can be problematic in high traffic areas or areas where children and pets are present. Plaster is a durable, low maintenance way to cover these types of walls.

The cost for plastering over a painted wall is $3.50 to $6. In general, if the paint is in good condition and isnt cracked, peeling, or damaged in some way, you can put plaster over a painted wall. The painted wall should also be free of dust, dirt, or grease to allow the plaster to adhere properly. Additionally, the walls should be dry. If there are issues with the current paint, a professional should strip the paint before plastering.

The cost to put plaster over brick interior is $3.50 to $6 per square foot. Although plastering over a brick wall is a fairly simple job, there is some extra preparation. The plaster should stick easily to the brick unless there is damage. The brick should be dusted with a brush to remove any dust or dirt and then thoroughly dampened to help the plaster stick.

The pricing for manufacturing an interior concrete plaster wall is $3.50 to $6 per square foot. Concrete, just like brick, is an ideal surface for adhering to plaster. As with brick, the concrete will need to be undamaged and clean of dirt and grime. Water should be applied to prepare the concrete to receive the plaster properly.

To apply plaster over wood, the cost is $5 to $12 per square foot. The main concern with plastering over wood is moisture. No water damage can be present that could grow mold or mildew when covered with plaster. Wood walls should be cleaned, sanitized, and completely dry before applying plaster. Additionally, a waterproof product should be applied to protect the wood from the moisture in the plaster. Some professionals advise against putting plaster over wood.

The cost for this process is $6 to $8 for a square foot. A breeze block wall is commonly seen in warmer climates like Florida. These walls are typically open style concrete blocks. This is to provide more of a breeze between buildings or on the side of a carport area. These are typically hollowed out bricks, so a bonding plaster will need to be added to the hollow area. Then, a finishing layer is added.

In older homes, it may be necessary to remove plaster walls or ceilings. The biggest problem in removing old plaster is the possibility of the presence of asbestos. Asbestos is a very dangerous construction material used primarily before the1980s. The natural mineral is a carcinogen and causes mesothelioma, a deadly cancer. Only those with training and education in asbestos should remove plaster due to this risk. It is a messy job to remove plaster that creates lots of dust, and it is easy to inhale asbestos5. Asbestos removal can be expensive. The average cost for removal starts at $400 to $500 and goes to as much as $10,000 for a more complicated project.

Plaster can become water damaged, cracked, buckled, bulging, or otherwise unusable. Remember that often the plaster can be repaired. This is always the best recourse. Plaster is thicker than many other types of walls and provides a natural acoustic barrier. It is also a major factor in the authenticity of historic homes. The cost to remove plaster walls is $2.10 to $3.20 per square foot.

Removing a plaster ceiling is slightly more expensive due to the nature of the work. It requires standing on a ladder or scaffolding with the neck and arms up for hours at a time. The cost to remove a plaster ceiling is $3.50 to $6.90 per square foot.

Skim coating is a type of plastering1 that consists of applying a thin layer of plaster. It can be done on an existing plaster wall to create a smoother finish. It can also be used to repair or cover drywall. Skim coating allows for a new look to your walls or ceilings. The average cost of skim coating is $.90 to $1.30 per square foot.

As with plastering, skim coating a ceiling is a difficult feat. A ladder or scaffolding is used to reach the ceiling. The process is the same as skim coating walls, but just more awkward. A ready-mix product may be used, and a smaller area completed at one time to avoid dripping before it dries. Skim coating a ceiling will allow for a smooth, uniform surface. The cost to skim a ceiling is slightly higher at $1.00 to $1.30 a square foot.

Skim coating walls is a little easier than ceilings. The walls need to be prepared first by repairing any dents, dings, or holes. A primer is applied and allowed to dry. Next, two thin layers are troweled onto the wall and smoothed out. Lastly, a finish is done--texture, paint, or other material. Skimming walls cost $.90 to $1.00 a square foot. Wall skimming costs may be higher if extensive repairs need to be done to existing walls.

Before you can start plastering, the surface where the plaster will be applied needs to be prepped. Prep work incurs an additional amount. The cost of plastering prep work varies based on the condition of the surface being plastered. Prep work includes sanding textured surfaces, moving furniture in rooms, filling holes in the wall, masking crown molding6 and switches and/or sockets with tape, and applying drywall mud and primer. The cost of plastering prep work ranges from $1 to $3 per sq. ft. and normally increases project costs by 10% to 30%.

Plaster walls have long been used in different types of housing but lost some popularity when drywall entered the industry. However, some pros and cons can be noted when choosing plaster walls instead of other choices such as drywall, wood, or brick. That is why plaster has regained marketability in the last several years.

A plaster wall is a stronger choice than drywall. The dents, dings, and nicks that come easily to drywall are not a problem with plaster. Additionally, plaster walls can be used to create a consistently flat wall. As a thicker application, plaster walls are better at thermal insulation and soundproofing. Your home will stay warm in the winter and cool in the summer while providing a quiet atmosphere. Plaster walls are believed to be more fire-resistant than drywall or wood.

One of the disadvantages of plaster is that you may have a poor Wi-Fi signal. Those strong walls that you love for aesthetic reasons are harder for a Wi-Fi signal to penetrate. Additionally, plaster walls are somewhat prone to cracking. Hanging up pictures and other decor is problematic.

One of the most interesting things about plaster walls is adding texture designs to create a unique, interesting wall. There are many different ways to produce these textures. While it may sound like an easy thing to do, it takes some artistic ability and knowledge about how the process works.

Dash plaster texturing makes the wall rough so keep that in mind. There are three types of dash plastering: fine, heavy, and knockdown. Fine dash texture is achieved by applying a fine mist of air pressure, heavy by using an even amount of air and product, and knockdown by using more product and less air.

Lace plaster gets its name from its look--a lacy one. This texture hides imperfections and looks lovely. It requires a base coat and then a texture coat. Most professionals offer a fine, medium, and coarse pattern.

Two-tone plaster is much like the Venetian plaster we mentioned earlier. The difference is that it uses two different colors to create a two-tone style. This plaster looks great for a dining room or hallway for more interest.

Available in fine, medium, or coarse, sand texture is perfect for a beach house or cottage as it mimics beach sand. This texture is the easiest to apply and can be done in one coat. A professional may prefer to trowel this texture on or spray it on and then trowel it.

Stucco7 plaster is a textured wall that looks very much like the stucco you see outside of houses. It is usually created with the use of a trowel and various swirled or looped patterns. Stucco plaster uses a lot of creative license, as there is no exact pattern.

Grooved plaster is constructed to look like bricks separated by grout. The surface is smooth except for the grooves made with a small tool to mimic the grout between the blocks. The effect is fairly easy to achieve, and the result is a stunning brick-like style without all the trouble of adding grout.

Finishes on plaster can change the entire feel of a home. Whether the finish is smooth, or rough, or somewhere in between, homeowners can obtain a distinctive design for any room. Finishes are often used to make a home appear more rustic, in the case of texture, or more simple, such as a smooth finish.

This finish involves the plasterer adding pebbles or small stones to the plaster before it dries. Sometimes the pebbles are thrown at the wall or applied with a float or a texturing machine. This type of finish might be nice for a small cottage or beach house.

Applied in one coat of 12 mm, the depeter finish is a gravel finish. The gravel rocks are placed by hand in the wet plaster. This type of finish results in a rustic look suitable for a cabin or woodland cottage.

With this type of finish, the plaster is smoothed until the surface is free of roughness. This can sometimes be difficult to accomplish and requires a highly experienced plasterer. The plaster must be mixed with very fine-grained sand.

This finish is applied in two coats. The first coat consists of one part cement and four parts sand mortar that is 12 mm in thickness. A zig-zag pattern is used to apply this coat. After a seven-day curing, the second coat goes on with a sponge. This mixture is 1:1 ratio at a thickness of 8 mm.

Plaster cleaning is an important part of the maintenance of your walls. The surfaces will look better and last longer if void of dirt, dust, and stains. Plaster walls that are textured are sometimes difficult to clean. Although it may seem like a DIY project, it is wise to consider hiring a professional to clean your plaster walls. Some cleaning agents may contain products that can harm your plaster. An expert will know just the right thing to use. Special non-toxic but effective brands are often only available to professionals. The average cost of cleaning walls is $300 to $400 for the whole house.

Water-based plasters such as tadelakt should only be cleaned with soap and water. Earth plasters require no maintenance except to repair cracks or holes as they appear. Joint compound8 or plaster can be used to fill these areas and will blend nicely with the plaster. The cost of plaster repairs and maintenance is $50 to $120 per square foot.

Drywall is often the preferred material for new homes as it is a quicker and easier install for builders. Plaster is more labor-intensive and requires a more specialized technique. So, finding a talented plasterer may cost more. However, drywall isnt practical for curved walls, so plaster is the better choice. Plaster can also be more aesthetically pleasing to provide certain textures or finishes not available in drywall. Both materials provide good insulation from heat or cold, especially because drywall is now available in various thicknesses. Older homes with existing plaster may not have sufficient insulation. Retrofitting those walls with insulation is a challenging feat. Both products allow for a long-lasting, durable finish. The cost difference is higher with drywall installation costs of $1.50 to $3.50 per square foot as opposed to plaster costs of $5 to $10 per square foot for labor and materials.

Spackle is typically used for repairs to drywall and plaster walls. Plaster is only used on plaster walls. Spackle dries much quicker than plaster and can be used in a very thin layer. Plaster requires more dry time, a thicker application, and multiple layers that must dry in between applications. The cost for spackling is very low, $50 to $80 total, while plaster repairs are commonly $50 to $120 per square foot.

Installing new plaster is significantly cheaper than resurfacing due to the extra preparation and restoration work needed before doing the new plaster overlay. If you are trying to decide between new or refinishing, consider the following pros and cons of each. Installing new plaster results in a more even finish and is less of a strain on the walls. It is also more durable. However, new plastering takes more time to install. Resurfacing is more expensive but requires less time. The disadvantages also include that it adds extra weight to walls and may not be as long-lasting. Replastering cost around $500 for a 100 sq. ft. surface. Resurfacing the same size will cost $1,000 or more.

Any plastering project involves some basic, conventional sub-tasks. First, the surface needs to be prepared for plaster. Next, any dust or mold must be removed. Third, the surface needs to be screeded for proper bonding. Once that is done, the mortar is prepared. Finally, the plaster is applied. However, for resurfacing, extra tasks are involved. They range from removing old plaster, which costs $2.10 to $3.20 per sq. ft. to repairing cracks and holes and tearing down and restructuring whole wall parts. The cost of resurfacing depends on the extent of the prep work and is usually above $10 per sq. ft. while new plastering averages around $5 to $10 per sq. ft.

You may want to paint your plastered walls or casing once they are dry. Painters charge around $40 to $75 per hour, and one painter can take one to two hours to paint a 100 sq. ft. wall at a total cost of $40 to $150.

It is wise to seal plaster before painting it. The sealant will make it less absorbent so that the paint will adhere more successfully. It is best to use a watered-down emulsion product to paint, but this can be messy unless you are familiar with how it works. Using a white topcoat may result in darker patches which have to be faded with a stain block. Although there are paints specifically geared to use on bare plaster, the costs can add up as they are expensive. The cost for the application of sealant is $1 per square foot.

Decorative or ornamental plaster is a specialty item used in plastering. Plastic is used to mold a design of your choosing and then applied to the wall. You may have seen such decorative plaster mouldings on cornices, arches, ceiling domes, fireplace surrounds, and more. Decorative plaster ceiling molds include roses, medallions, and rosettes. These unique additions will make an ordinary home unique. The average cost for these types of molds varies greatly based on the intricacy of the design and the size. A fairly detailed cornice would run you around $1.50 per square foot.

The disadvantages of using plaster for your walls or ceiling are the cost and the time it takes. Plaster application is also a messier process. Additionally, plaster walls often block Wi-Fi signals, and hanging things such as pictures or decor is more difficult due to the hardness of the surface.

Hairline cracks are normal in plaster. When you begin to see multiple cracks that are large, discoloration, bubbling, bulging, or a convergence of cracks headed in one direction, that is when you have to worry. This can mean settling has occurred.

This cost guide has been fully updated. Now there is a section explaining the cost of a plasterer and subsections with information about the cost to plaster walls and ceiling. Then, a new section about the cost to apply plaster per square foot with a table with the most important information is now present in the cost guide. After that, a section with the different types of plaster and its costs has been added, as well as another with the costs of plastering depending on the room. Now there is a section explaining the cost to plaster a wall depending on the surface, with several subsections and a table summarizing the most important information. Sections such as Plaster Removal Cost, Skim Coat Plaster Cost, Preparation of Surface for Plastering, and Pros and Cons of Plaster Walls are now present in the cost guide. Then, there is a section explaining the different plaster textures, as well as another one with the different types of finishes. A section about maintenance has been added. Versus sections have been included: Plaster vs Drywall Cost, Spackle vs Plaster. and New Plaster vs Refinishing. Then, the enhancements have been included, which informs readers about painting over plaster, seal plaster, and decorative plastering. After that, the additional considerations and costs section contains further complementary information. Finally, a FAQs section, an image and some visualizations have been added, and all prices were updated.

how much does modeling clay cost? - cement answers

PASTA MACHINES WHAT DO I NEED TO KNOW ABOUT THEM? Pasta machines can be used to condition clay, roll even thickness sheets of clay, gives a crackled finish to metal leaf on clay, texturise with a thin texture mat and to mix colours. HOW LONG DO I NEED TO CONDITION THE CLAY? As a rule of thumb, you should condition clay for the same amount of time it takes to thoroughly blend two colors. There is no need to re-condition after resting clay. Such as glass, do not stick well to clay; if youre attaching clay to glass, either make sure the clay goes all the way around the piece or bake the clay and then attach the baked piece to the glass with an adhesive.

How can I dry modeling clay quickly? Use wax paper. Put lotion on your hands first. Do not make the clay too thin. Use toothpicks. Remove imperfections with water. Flip your project over during drying. Use the oven to speed up drying time. Store clay in an air tight container.

Does modeling clay expire? If it is stored correctly, polymer clay lasts indefinitely (a decade or longer). However, it can dry out and its possible to ruin it under certain conditions. Before talking about how to tell whether your clay is beyond help and how you may be able to save it, its helpful to know what polymer clay is.

How do you harden non hardening modeling clay without an oven? Place your clay piece in the microwave-safe bowl. Cover the piece with water. For smaller pieces, such as beads, microwave about two minutes. Continue to boil the water until you believe the clay is baked.

If by the time the oven is cool and the sculpture is still not dry, I turn the oven on for another round. When you remove your sculpture from the oven be gentle, especially if it is still warm. Letting it fully cool ensures you can tell if its really dry and also prevents any new clay youre adding from cracking.

Air dry clay does not need to be heated, unlike traditional clays that need to be fired in a kiln at a high temperature, or polymer clays that need to be heated in an oven to cure. This kind of clay hardens and cures at normal room temperature and once dry, it can be painted and decorated in a variety of ways.

Can you paint air dry clay before it drys? The short answer is no, you should not. If you paint air-dry clay before it is dry it can cause the clay to deform slightly in the area where you painted it. The paint can also lead to the clay not drying evenly which can in turn cause cracks if you are unlucky.

Non-hardening modeling clay wont dry out when you leave it exposed to the air, which makes it great for reuse. Unfortunately, if you are working with plasticine or other oil-based clay, you wont be able to harden it.

When you dont want to cure clays that harden at a specific temperature in the oven, you can use a heat gun, hair dryer or heat-embossing tool set to the desired temperature. Place the polymer clay creation on a nonstick surface, such as a piece of ceramic tile or block of wood.

To harden modeling clay thats polymer-based, start by placing the clay on a ceramic baking dish. Then, bake the clay in the oven for 10-30 minutes at 215-300 degrees Fahrenheit, depending on what the packaging your clay came in says.

CRAYOLA Modeling Clay is a non-hardening art material. It is designed to be re-molded and re-used, and cannot be hardened. Painting is not recommended. Baking the clay will not dry it out and is not recommended since it hasnt been designed for this type of use.

In short, the best paints for air dry clay are waterbased paints like acrylic paints or tempera. Waterbased paint has to be sealed after they have dried, however. Enamels, latex, or spray paints can also be used and they dont have to be sealed afterward.

how much does sculpting clay cost?

What kind of clay do you use for sculpting? The most easily recognized form of modelling materials is clay sculpting, that is, the creation of a 3-dimensional piece of art typically using some type of clay: PLASTILINA (oil-based clay also known as plasteline, plasticium, plasticine), self-hardening (non-firing) clay, ceramic/pottery clay, WAX or other polymer-

These are very popular clays for pottery making whether wheel throwing or hand building. -Stoneware Clay Pricing: Price per box decreases as you purchase more clay for pottery. There are price breaks at 100,500,1000,2000,6000,12000 and 26,000 pounds.

Poly Plasticine is a non-hardening, sulfur-free modeling clay. It is non-toxic, odorless, and has a smooth, firm consistency. Its great for sculpting, which might be what most people think of when they hear modeling clay; however, we use this clay for varied purposes in our mold shop.

Lightweight when dry, it can be carved and painted. Use Activa Air Dry Clay for all types of classroom activities, including character sculpting and jewelry making. Soft and pliable, Crayola AirDry modeling clay allows kids to create arts and crafts without the need for an oven or kiln.

Clay From Water and Cornstarch Pour 2/3 cup of water into a saucepan and heat. Add in two cups of salt, and a few drops of desired food coloring if you would like colored sculpting clay. Pull the saucepan off the burner, and slowly stir in one cup of cornstarch, making sure to mix a smooth, even consistency.

For the average electric kiln, bisque temperature will generally be reached three to eight hours after the kiln goes on high. The controller or kiln sitter should automatically shut the kiln down. For a fuel-fired kiln, check the cone packs every half hour.

Carving stone, or constructing enormous steel sculptures is certainly more strenuous than painting on canvas, but then, creating an enormous mural on the side of the building is also hard physical work. In the end, you can only judge each artist by the work they produce.

Polymer clay is oil-based and basically a plastic. It basically wont shrink while hardening (air-dry clays will shrink). Polymer clays can do many things that other clays cant do. It can be used for sculpting like they can, but will do many other things as well (caning would be just one example).

The only similarities this modeling clay has to play-doh is that you can mold it. This clay is very light and pliable and can be dried. When it dries it does not have the same cracks that appear on the play-doh.It also does not stick to carpets and food and hair like play doh does.

Yes, you can FORM clay into pottery without a kiln. But to have pottery to keep and use, it must be fired at a very hot temperature. If youve chosen the right kind of clay, a low fire earthen clay, and do not have a kiln, you could technically pit fire pottery in the ground although probably NOT at a school.

The higher the maturing temperature of stoneware clay, the more durable and more water proof is the ware. Porcelain and kaolin clay are used for high-quality ware including laboratory equipment. Porcelain and kaolin clays are virtually identical and are considered the best clays available for making pottery.

how much does a clay cost? - ceramics

My general rule of thumb is to plan for about a 1/2 pound of clay per student. I have 24 primary classes so I order 12 25 lb boxes of clay, and I always have leftover clay. Ive tried giving students bigger pieces of clay to start with but most of the time they dont use al of it.

Clay can be light grey, dark grey, brown, orange, olive, cream, ochre, red and many other colours. If the clay is exposed without that vegetational cover, it is either in dry or moist form. Dry form has special properties: the upper surface cracks with very clear and distinctive cracks.

Stoneware clay with a fine grog is best for a beginner choosing clay. This is because it is cooperative and does what the potter wants. And it holds its form once shaped. It is versatile and can be used for throwing, hand-building and modeling.

Self-hardening clay, also known as air-dried or non-firing clay, is a direct modeling material that cures naturally and does not require mold making and casting to achieve a finished piece. In addition, this modeling clay does not need to be fired in a kiln.

The habit of eating clay, mud or dirt is known as geophagy. Though the practice is rarely if ever recommended by medical professionals, some nutritionists now admit the habit of eating clay may have some real health benefits. It is possible that the binding effect of clay would cause it to absorb toxins, said Dr.

Porcelain and kaolin clays are virtually identical and are considered the best clays available for making pottery. They are also the most expensive. They are a largely silicate clay and are resistant to high temperatures. If you want to make high-quality ware, then this type of clay is best for you.

pricing - machine learning | microsoft azure

US government entities are eligible to purchase Azure Government services from a licensing solution provider with no upfront financial commitment, or directly through a pay-as-you-go online subscription.

Azure Germany is available to customers and partners who have already purchased this, doing business in the European Union (EU), the European Free Trade Association (EFTA), and in the United Kingdom (UK). It provides data residency in Germany with additional levels of control and data protection. You can also sign up for a free Azure trial.

US government entities are eligible to purchase Azure Government services from a licensing solution provider with no upfront financial commitment, or directly through a pay-as-you-go online subscription.

Azure Germany is available to customers and partners who have already purchased this, doing business in the European Union (EU), the European Free Trade Association (EFTA), and in the United Kingdom (UK). It provides data residency in Germany with additional levels of control and data protection. You can also sign up for a free Azure trial.

Machine Learning Studio (classic) is offered in two tiersFree and Standard. Features by tier are compared in the table below: Free Standard Price Free $- per ML studio workspace per month $- per studio experimentation hour Azure subscription Not required Required Max number of modules per experiment 100 Unlimited Max experiment duration 1 hour per experiment Up to 7 days per experiment with a maximum of 24 hours per module Max storage space 10 GB Unlimited - BYO Read data from On-Premises SQL Preview No Yes Execution/performance Single node Multiple nodes Production Web API No Yes SLA No Yes Hourly charges only apply to active use of the service. Where multiple meters are present they are applied concurrently. Production Web API pricing Machine Learning Studio (classic) enables you to deploy predictive analytics solutions as web services. The deployed web services are subject to the following plans: Dev/Test* Standard S1 Standard S2 Standard S3 Tier Price per month $- $- $- $- Features Included transactions (per month) 1,000 100,000 2,000,000 50,000,000 Included compute hours (per month) 2 25 500 12,500 Total number of web services1 2 10 100 500 Overage rates N/A $- per 1,000 transactions $- per API compute hour $- per 1,000 transactions $- per API compute hour $- per 1,000 transactions $- per API compute hour * API usage restrictions apply on the testing tierLimited to two concurrent RRS calls. 1 Number of web services customer can associate with a plan at any given point of time. The classic version of web services is still available at the following pricing: $-/production API compute hour (hourly unit) $-/1,000 production API transactions (transactions unit) Hourly charges only apply to active use of the service. Where multiple meters are present they are applied concurrently. For more information between the classic web services and the new web services, please refer to the documentation.

Features by tier are compared in the table below: Free Standard Price Free $- per ML studio workspace per month $- per studio experimentation hour Azure subscription Not required Required Max number of modules per experiment 100 Unlimited Max experiment duration 1 hour per experiment Up to 7 days per experiment with a maximum of 24 hours per module Max storage space 10 GB Unlimited - BYO Read data from On-Premises SQL Preview No Yes Execution/performance Single node Multiple nodes Production Web API No Yes SLA No Yes Hourly charges only apply to active use of the service. Where multiple meters are present they are applied concurrently. Production Web API pricing Machine Learning Studio (classic) enables you to deploy predictive analytics solutions as web services. The deployed web services are subject to the following plans: Dev/Test* Standard S1 Standard S2 Standard S3 Tier Price per month $- $- $- $- Features Included transactions (per month) 1,000 100,000 2,000,000 50,000,000 Included compute hours (per month) 2 25 500 12,500 Total number of web services1 2 10 100 500 Overage rates N/A $- per 1,000 transactions $- per API compute hour $- per 1,000 transactions $- per API compute hour $- per 1,000 transactions $- per API compute hour * API usage restrictions apply on the testing tierLimited to two concurrent RRS calls. 1 Number of web services customer can associate with a plan at any given point of time. The classic version of web services is still available at the following pricing: $-/production API compute hour (hourly unit) $-/1,000 production API transactions (transactions unit) Hourly charges only apply to active use of the service. Where multiple meters are present they are applied concurrently. For more information between the classic web services and the new web services, please refer to the documentation.

Production API call times can vary significantly, generally ranging from hundreds of milliseconds to a few seconds, but may require minutes depending on the complexity of the data processing and machine learning model. The best way to estimate production API call times is to benchmark a model on Machine Learning.

pottery clay for sale at discount prices

WARNING: This product can expose you to chemicals including Silica, crystalline (airborne particles of respirable size), which are known to the State of California to cause cancer. For more information go to www.P65Warnings.ca.gov.

Kota Porcelain ^5-6 is their newest cone 6 very translucent, bright white Porcelain. It is sister to the beloved White Lightning, however it is more forgiving and trimmable. It is also translucent but a little less so than WL.

Magnolia Porcelain is an English style Grolleg based porcelain with excellent throwing/trimming qualities. It is less prone to cracking than any cone 10 porcelain we have tried. It is a crisp white in oxidation and a cool white in reduction with very good translucency when thin.

Super smooth, tight, and plastic body that fires a deep red at cone 5 and dark red brown at cone 7. Throws and hand builds well. Matures cone 5-7. Won't warp or bloat at cone 7. For best results fire slow.

A warm brown speckled plastic clay good for all forming techniques. Offers nice warmth tones at cone 6 and gives a reduction look to glazes. For best results with speckled clay bodies we suggest firing at a slow-medium speed.

A cool white stoneware that is durable and a pleasure to throw. Does not get too soupy if you throw with a lot of water. Super plastic, throws and hand builds well. Matures cone 5-6. Can be pushed to cone 7 slow fired.

A speckled version of Kentucky Mudworks Ice Man. Dark Star is very plastic, forgiving white stoneware that produces brilliant black specks at maturity. For best results, bisque fire to Cone 06 and glaze fire at slow speed to cone 5/6.

A nice super smooth, plastic body that fires a dark chocolate brown at cones 5-6. Matures cone 5-6. Contains no grog. Gives nice warmth to glazes, giving that reduction look to them in oxidation. For best results fire slow.

A nice super smooth, plastic body that fires a dark chocolate brown at cones 5-6. Matures cone 5-6. Won't bloat at soft cone 7 if fired slow through the last 300-400F. Contains no grog. Gives nice warmth to glazes, giving that reduction look to them in oxidation. Recommended to bisque fire SLOW speed between ^06 and ^04 and always SLOW speed glaze firing.

Black Ice is black porcelain body noted for its beautiful black graphite fired color. It has high plasticity, which makes it ideal for wheel-throwing and modeling. Its formula is very stable and provides a secure firing range between Cone 6 and Cone 7. Suitable for tableware (food safe). Biscuit: Cone 06

Upsala is a unique blue porcelain noted for its beautiful cobalt blue. It has high plasticity, which makes it ideal for wheel-throwing and modeling. Its formula is very stable and provides a secure firing range between Cone 6 and Cone 7. Suitable for tableware (food safe). Biscuit: Cone 06

Gray sculpture clay body with 40% fine grog (up to 35 Mesh). Formulated for artistic and decorative ceramics, it is ideal for sculpture and pieces for outdoors (garden pots, tiles, etc.). The high content of grog confers a beautiful textured surface and an excellent behavior during drying and firing. Biscuit: Cone 06

Black sculpture clay body with 40% fine grog (up to 35 Mesh). Formulated for artistic ceramics, it is ideal for sculpture. The high content of grog confers a beautiful textured surface and an excellent behavior during drying and firing. Its beautiful and intense black firing color in oxidizing atmosphere is very exclusive of PRN range and becomes an ideal artistic mean of expression. In reducing atmosphere, metallic effects with shades of blue are obtained. Biscuit: Cone 06

**FREEZE WARNING: CLAY WILL FREEZE!!! CLAY-KING NOR THE SHIPPING COMPANIES WE USE ARE RESPONSIBLE FOR DAMAGE DONE TO CLAY DUE TO EXTREME COLD WEATHER. PLEASE TAKE YOUR LOCAL WEATHER INTO CONSIDERATION BEFORE YOU PLACE YOUR ORDER.

If you're curious about trying out a new clay body but don't want to invest the time and effort to make and bisque your own test tiles, we've got you covered! We now stock double-sided test tiles of ALL of our Porcelain and Stoneware bodies for your convenience. All tiles are bisque fired at slow speed to cone 06 to ensure acceptable absorption and gas expulsion to keep pinholes and glazes blisters to a minimum!

Clay Body: Highwater Earthen Red Highwater Raku Highwater Little Loafers Highwater Speckled Brownstone Highwater Desert Buff KY Mudworks Kota - Add $0.90 KY Mudworks Magnolia - Add $0.90 KY Mudworks Sheltowee KY Mudworks Speckled Turtle KY Mudworks Iceman KY Mudworks Dark Star KY Mudworks Brown Bear Laguna B Mix 5 Out of Stock

Clay Body: Highwater Earthen Red Highwater Raku Highwater Little Loafers Highwater Speckled Brownstone Highwater Desert Buff KY Mudworks Kota - Add $0.90 KY Mudworks Magnolia - Add $0.90 KY Mudworks Sheltowee KY Mudworks Speckled Turtle KY Mudworks Iceman KY Mudworks Dark Star KY Mudworks Brown Bear Laguna B Mix 5

how much does polymer clay cost? - cement answers

What is the best oven bake clay? Polyform Polymer Clay. Polyforms polymer clay is the original oven-bake clay. Sculpey Classic Collection. CiaraQ Polymer Clay Kit. TEMONING Polymer Clay. Staedtler Polymer Clay.

With polymer clay, you dont have to worry about tossing out any ruined product. Polymer clay is also available in a number of pre-made colors more than air-dry clay. It also maintains its shape better over time, allowing you to create more exact shapes and detailing.

Sculpey Original Clay comes in white and terra cotta in 1 pound, 1.75 pound, and 8 pound boxes. It is soft and pliable to work and has a ceramic feel. Super Sculpey is formulated for dollmakers. Sculpey III is softer right out of the package than the Original or Super Sculpey and therefore easier to condition.

Introduction: Sculpting With Polymer Clay Polymer clay is wonderful stuff. Its inexpensive, easy to find, and can be molded into anything you can dream of. A few years ago I started playing with the clay as a way to focus my creative energy away from video games.

Air-Dry clay has a permanent shape after drying. Most brands of air-dry clay are non-toxic. Air-Dry clay will not pick up every piece of dust like the oven-bake clay. If air-dry clay becomes hard, you can add a little bit of water and kneed it to make it soft and fresh again.

Polymer Clay Light Air Dry Clay - More durable after bake, waterproof and long lasting Tends to dissolve in heat or water Requires time to condition the clay before start Super light, feels softer, dry faster Wont shrink at all while hardening Shrink a little during the drying process

DAS air-hardening modeling clay is a versatile, fibrous, paper-based product. At first it is not too malleable, but with a little water and manipulation, the clay becomes more pliable. Because of the fibers in the clay, forms created with it are sturdy and less likely than other products to break once dry.

Sculpey III is easy to use and stays soft and has a matte finish when baked. Premo is more durable, soft and firm; ideal for jewelry, home decor and functional items for everyday use. Souffle is easy to condition, holds shape during modeling and will not break or crack when baking large pieces.

There are many brands of polymer clay and they all have their good and bad features. Some clays are better for caning, others are better for sculpting. Some are completely unsuitable for jewelry making, others work very well. Its best to use a major name-brand clay such as Fimo, Premo, Kato, Pardo, Cernit, and Filani.

how much does a vasectomy cost?

If you've decided you're done having children or do not want to have children you may be considering a vasectomy. What is the cost of this procedure? Does medical insurance usually cover these costs? In the big picture, how does the cost of a vasectomy compare with other methods of birth control? Read on to find out.

A vasectomy, also known as male sterilization, is considered to be a permanent birth control method. In the U.S., an estimated 527,476 vasectomies were performed in 2015. In some regions, such as the U.K, the number of men undergoing a vasectomy has dropped significantly in recent years.

The failure rate for vasectomy is very low, with rates of pregnancy following the procedure between 0.04% and 0.08% six months after the procedure (the rate can be higher, 0.3% to 9% under six months). In other words, it's over 99% effective in preventing pregnancy once a semen analysis shows that sperm is no longer present in the semen.

A vasectomy is considered to be a surgical procedure, yet the cost of a vasectomy is about five times less than the cost of tubal ligation (female sterilization). Before you seek a vasectomy, it may be helpful to ask your doctor if your state has any sterilization requirements or restrictions. In some areas, there may be waiting periods, age restrictions, required counseling, or spousal consent.

In the United States, a vasectomy costs between $300 to $3000. The cost of vasectomy will typically cover your initial consultation, the actual vasectomy procedure, anesthesia, and follow-up semen analyses (you may need to have two to three of these done after your vasectomy is performed).

Though most doctors or clinics will include all of these in one price, some may charge for each individual, so make sure to inquire about this when researching potential doctors. In most cases, the cost is the same for both types of vasectomy procedures: the no-scalpel vasectomy or a conventional vasectomy.

Vasectomy costs may differ considerably depending on where the procedure takes place. Typically, a vasectomy is performed in a doctors office, clinic, or outpatient surgical facility/hospital by a board-certified urologist.

Your vasectomy may cost more if it takes place in an outpatient medical facility because some of these centers charge an additional facility fee. It's also important to keep in mind that side effects or complications of a vasectomy may sometimes add to the cost.

A discussion of the costs of a vasectomy would be incomplete without discussing the costs of foregoing a vasectomy. If you are certain you wish to prevent pregnancy, the effectiveness of the procedure is an important consideration.

The cost of having another childthough the child would be loved no less than if plannedis substantial. It's not just an unplanned pregnancy, however, that must be weighed when comparing the cost of a vasectomy.

Other forms of birth control can be pricey as well (if not covered by health insurance) whether from the standpoint of your pocketbook or with regard to your health and wellness. The birth control pill is relatively inexpensive, but when all of those months are added up until menopause, the cost could well exceed that of a vasectomy.

And that's just the monetary costs. Some people who take oral contraceptives experience uncomfortable side effects such as weight gain or mood swings, and in those who have a genetic predisposition to breast cancer, the pill can mildly increase the risk.

From the male contraceptive standpoint, a lifetime supply of condoms may or may not cost more than a vasectomy. It depends on your taste and the frequency with which you need them. From a non-monetary standpoint, a vasectomy is much more convenient.

There are many other questions to consider when choosing a form of birth control, but the take-home message is that the costat least the financial costmay be minor in comparison with other reasons for your choice.

Most health insurance companies will cover vasectomy costs if performed as an outpatient procedure, but you should check with your insurance provider to make sure that they include vasectomy benefits.

Usually, health insurance companies will cover most or all of your vasectomy cost after your yearly deductible has been met. If you qualify, Medicaid or other state programs in your area may also cover the cost of a vasectomy.

You can also check with your doctor to determine if they may offer you a discount on your vasectomy cost if you pay in cash or if a payment plan can be established. Make sure you also inquire about which payment options your doctor accepts.

Unlike many forms of female birth control, vasectomies are not mandated to be provided free of charge under the Affordable Care Act. Each health plan will have its own coverage and deductible for the procedure.

A vasectomy reversal may cost between $3,000 and $15,000 and most health insurance companies will not cover this procedure. Not only does a vasectomy reversal cost a lot of money, the success rate for restoring fertility and achieving pregnancy greatly varies.

There are no other permanent birth control alternatives to vasectomy in a person who has testes. Permanent birth control for a person who has ovaries includes tying the fallopian tubes (tubal ligation).

A "typical" vasectomy costs between $300 and $3,000, but there are many non-monetary costs that must be considered as well in making this important decision. These costs, in turn, need to be weighed against the long-term costs of other birth control methods, both temporary and permanent.

Many factors come into play in choosing the best form of birth control including the wishes of both partners, health risks related to the method, and even the chance that you may later regret whatever decision you have made.

Anderson, J., Jamieson, D., Warner, L., Kissin, D., Nangia, A., and M. Macaluso. Contraceptive sterilization among married adults: National data on who chooses vasectomy and tubal ligation. Contraception. 2012. 85(6):552-7.

Kabagenyi A, Jennings L, Reid A, Nalwadda G, Ntozi J, Atuyambe L. Barriers to male involvement in contraceptive uptake and reproductive health services: a qualitative study of men and women's perceptions in two rural districts in Uganda.Reprod Health. 2014;11(1):21. Published 2014 Mar 5. doi:10.1186/1742-4755-11-21

cpap machine cost: is it cheaper without insurance?

The first step to getting the most out of your CPAP therapy and receiving the restful night of sleep you deserve is purchasing the right machine for you. CPAP, APAP, and BiPAP machines fit different needs, varying based on the lifestyle factors that matter the most to you.

Additional CPAP machine costs include the price of a humidifier, mask, hose, and replacement supplies, including disposable, reusable, and bacteria filters. These additional supplies add comfort, an increased level of effectiveness, and cleanliness to your machine setup.

In addition to the CPAP machine itself, you have to consider the cost of CPAP supplies and add-ons, such as a humidifier, mask, hose, and cleaning supplies. Supplies are covered by insurance, but coverage levels vary from state to state.

CPAP Humidifiers: Humidifiers typically cost between $150 to $200 and arent required for CPAP therapy. Humidifiers are designed to make your CPAP therapy more comfortable. Many machines come equipped with a built-in humidifier.

CPAP Hoses and Tubing: CPAP hoses typically cost between $10 and $40. CPAP hoses should be replaced every six to twelve months. The price difference in hoses lies in the type of hose you choose. Heated hoses are more expensive than standard hoses. With heated hoses, heating coils cut down on the formation of condensation inside the hose itself, making for a more comfortable therapy experience.

CPAP Supplies: Supplies like filters range in price from $10 to $40, based on what your specific machine requires. Almost all CPAP machines have different filters that are used to remove atmospheric irritants from the air you breathe.

The three different types of filters are disposable (fine), reusable (foam), and bacteria. Disposable filters are the cheapest and found on most machines. They cannot be washed, meaning they should be replaced frequently when they start to show wear and tear. Reusable filters are intended to be cleaned periodically and arent used in every machine. Reusable filters range from $9 to $20. Bacteria filters are optional but add another level of protection to your CPAP setup by filtering out mold, bacteria, and other tiny particles that make it past your machines standard defenses. Bacteria filters cost almost $20 for a five-pack.

To get the most out of your therapy, clean your equipment with cleaning suppliesincluding mask wipes, disinfectants, tube brushes, mask and hose soap, and the Lumin. Mask wipes cost around $10 and disinfectants around $13. Tube brushes cost around $15. Mask and hose soap is around $6.

Lets start with a potentially surprising ideaif you get your new CPAP machine from your insurance company, you may be overpaying. The cost of a CPAP machine with insurance is often much higher than the cost to buy it online. Lets explore why!

With most insurance companies, your machine is covered only if youve met your annual deductible. If you havent met your deductible, youll be on the hook for the cost of the machine, which may be more expensive than purchasing it yourself online.

Purchasing a CPAP machine through insurance isnt the same as the copay youre used to when you visit the doctors office. If you get your new CPAP machine through insurance, they may offer it to you on a rent-to-own plan that can cost you a hefty amount per month in rental fees, costing you more than the machine is worth. A second avenue is you may have to buy the machine outright if you havent met your deductible. If you have Medicare, youll pay 20% of the cost upfront and then rent it for 13 months.

To keep our prices low, CPAP.com doesnt bill insurance for our machines or accept Medicare. You can still file a claim with your insurance. However, since we dont work with insurance companies, we are able to offer you the lowest price for CPAP machines, allowed by the manufacturer.

When getting a CPAP machine with insurance, many people assume theyll get the best machine, which isnt always true.In many cases, the CPAP supplier your insurance company recommends is reimbursed the same amount of money regardless of the quality of your machine. Thus, theres no incentive for the CPAP supplier to give you the best machine.

While the most common way of starting your CPAP therapy through your insurance company is renting your machine, you are often required to use it in order to keep it. You read that rightif you dont regularly use your CPAP machine, then your insurance company can take it from you even if youve been paying for it monthly.

In comes compliance monitoring. Through compliance monitoring, your insurance will monitor your data every night. If you go a period of time without using your machine, it may indicate to your insurance company that youre not serious about your sleep apnea treatment, and they will request the machine back.

CPAP.com is considered an out-of-network DME or CPAP supplier, and insurance plans differ in coverage based on the DME. If you purchase your machine through us, you can still file a claim with your insurance company for reimbursement. If you have coverage, we can help you get reimbursed through your insurance company.

Its important to remember that just because you receive an insurance compliant invoice, theres no guarantee that you will get reimbursed. Its important to check with your insurance company if youre planning on filing for reimbursement.

Getting a good night of sleep translates to the overall productivity of your day. Without a good night of sleep, you can experience daytime sleepiness or trouble focusing. If your untreated sleep apnea is keeping you from getting the quality sleep you deserve, finding the best CPAP machine for you is the first step.

Taylor has seen sleep apnea treatment first-hand and has learned the ins and outs through formal training in CPAP machines, masks, and equipment. She strives to make learning about sleep apnea and sleep apnea therapies a breeze. Interested in sharing your story or have a topic youd like CPAP.com to investigate? Contact us!