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If you're the type of person who prefers the clean smell of fresh sawdust to the scent of expensive cologne, if you can imagine the beauty of the sudden quiet when a saw is shut down after a long morning's workout, and if you like the idea of pocketing an honest profit as a happy customer drives away with a pickup load of lumber . . . then it might be worth your while to explore the possibility of owning and operating your own family small-scale sawmill business.
Don't be mistaken, though . . . sawyering is not an easy profession to take up. Far from it . . . it demands muscle-straining, back-taxing work! Still, since it does allow you to be your own bossand to earn as much (or as little) as your energy, ambition, and luck will permitcutting lumber for a living can sure beat the heck out of working for someone else . . . either in a stuffy factory or an air-conditioned office.
Furthermore, despite the weakness of the economy and the mounting power of the large lumber "factories" (which are causing the demise of small operations everywhere), a few well-organized, intelligently run, independent sawmills are somehow managing to remain financially solventand even to thriveduring these difficult times.
But why not learn the facts from "them that's doin' "? Here are a few brief profiles of folks who are now successful small-scale sawyers . . some observations as to why they're making a go of it when others are facing bankruptcy . . . and a number of suggestions as to how, if you've a mind to, you might do the same.
To supplement the income of his working Ohio farm, Ronald H. boughtin 1978a Mobile Dimension saw that he could hitch to the back of his pickup and haul out into the woods to log and cut boards for his neighbors. He chose the portable outfit, rather than a larger circular saw, because he knew that he'd be cutting only during off farming seasons. Currently, still working only a few months a year with his Mobile saw, Ron is pleased to say that he and his mini-mill can make as much as $200 a day, which is double what he was able to earn when he started out.
Ralph J. and his two sons quit raising goats in the Blue Ridge Mountains when government regulations became too restrictive. At the time, they decided to settle back and catch up on their homestead projects until they could figure out another way to make their land work for them. So, in order to cut down on the land-clearing and construction costs that faced them, the family purchased a used Mobile saw.
After learningfrom local old-time sawyersjust how to go about cutting wood properly, Ralph started to clear his land. But when folks discovered that his mill was up and running, he soon found himself unable to get his house built because too many people were asking to buy boards from him!
Not being one to pass up an opportunityespecially when it stared him in the eye and winkedRalph rapidly set about marketing his lumber. He soon sold his original unit and bought an old circular saw with a diesel engine . . . a tool that, he figured, would let him cut enough lumber to satisfy the growing demand.
Not long thereafter, a reporter from a nearby daily newspaper came out to do a human interest story on Ralph and the "last of the mountain sawmills" . . . and after the article appeared, Ralph and his two boys (who helped him run the mill) found that they had more business than they knew what to do with! "Some Saturday mornings we couldn't even drive down the mill road, what with all the farmers waiting in their trucks for us to come sell them some wood!" Ralph proudly exclaims.
Our third sawing-for-profit success story centers on Jim B.an electrical engineer from Dallas, Texaswho decided, several years ago, that he'd had enough of the constant pressures he faced working 10 or 12 hours a day to "earn a lot of money for someone else". So after a great deal of soul searching, he finally bought some land near a small city and moved his family across the country to settle upon it . . . with absolutely no idea of what he was going to do to earn a living in his "new world".
Upon arrival, Jim (like Ralph) decided to set up a small sawmill to reduce his land-clearing and building expenses. However, unlike Ralph, Jim was unable to find anyone to teach him how to operate the old circular saw he'd bought. The Texan isn't one to give up easily, though, so he just set to and taught himself how to run the equipment!
"Sawing isn't very difficult to pick up," he says. "You've simply got to take it one step at a time and be careful to pay close attention to each of the tasks you perform. Then, if you do something wrong, you can correct it next time around . . . and if you do something right, you can repeat it!"
Jim soon found that he actually enjoyed the process of cutting wood, and this realization led to his eventual decision to take up sawyering professionally. So, once he'd developed his skill to the point that he was able to cut quality lumber consistently, Jim started to advertise his mill in the classified section of the nearby city's newspaper. It did take him a year or so to earn the trust of his neighbors and to establish his reputation . . . but today his business is thriving.
You've likely, from reading those examples, already formed a few ideas about what must be done to make a small mill turn a profit these days. For example, it's hard to overlook the fact thateven if you cut the highest-quality lumber and sell it at low pricesyou darn well better advertise if you want to get customers. An occasional buyer may happen to drive by and stop at your mill . . . but to depend on this sort of walk-in business (which, believe it or not, has been a common practice in the past!) would almost certainly prove to be disastrous.
So if you begin to saw and want to sell . . . at the least, do as Jim did and take out an ad in the classified section of the nearest daily. And while you're at it, why not traipse up to the top of your mill road and hammer in a sign so folks can find you? You'd be surprised how many small mills have no sign, no advertising, and, as a result, no business nowadays.
Pretty soononce folks discover that your wood is every bit as good as you say it isyou'll begin to benefit from word-of-mouth promotion. And you'll need the respect and trust of your neighbors if you hope to stay afloat . . . because you'll have to depend on local homesteaders, farmers, and such for about 90% of your business (the rest will come from sales to nearby dry kilns, pallet companies, planing mills, and the like). Fortunately, in most parts of the country, there are still plenty of people who'd rather buy boards from someone they know and trust than deal with a large, impersonal lumberyard.
Naturally, there are many details about the actual process of setting up a milland even about just how one gets a squared board out of a round logthat need to be examined . . . and it's a darn shame that there aren't more good books to explain the business step by step. As questions come up, though, you may be able to get assistance from your state forestry service (see the note at the end of this article for details). Or you might even want to look into one of the technical schools that offer full courses in sawyering.
In order to choose the right saw, you'll first have to determine what kind of operation you plan to run and how much money you can afford to invest in equipment. For instance, if you want to work merely on a part-time basisas Ronald doesand if you can finance it, you might consider purchasing a Mobile Dimension saw directly from the company. The firm sells a basic outfit, which includes saw and power source, for a little over $7,000. (For more information, write or phone the helpful folks at Mobile Mfg. Co., Dept. TMEN, Troutdale, Oregon.)
Other manufacturers are now marketing apparatus that will allow you to cut lumber with a chain saw. If you're planning to saw only small quantities of wood, you might want to investigate these relatively inexpensive products. (See the articles on such devices in MOTHER EARTH NEWS NO. 64, page 116 . . . and NO. 77, page 120. To order back issues, turn to page 48.)
However, if you're thinking of going into full-time lumber production, your best bet will probably be to buy a circular saw matched with a diesel- or gas-fueled power unit (it might even be an old 18-wheeler engine). Belsaw is one of the largest and most respected manufacturers of this kind of equipment. (For more information, write to Belsaw Machinery Co., Dept. TMEN, Kansas City, Missouri .)
Although a new saw does represent a significant investment, most of the companies supplying such products will be happy to teach you to use their machinery, and they'll also be around to answer any questions that might come up later. (Again, because there's an astounding dearth of written material about the operation of small sawmills, the free advice could be worth a lot in the long run.) But if you're determined to be thrifty, you may well be able to pick up a used blade and power unitperhaps from someone who's either been driven out of the business or retired from itfor around $5,000 (that's for both saw and motor).
While you're in a spending frame of mind, you might also want to consider buying a forklift to help tote wood around your lot. Bought new, such a vehicle will cost around $20,000, but you might be able to locate a used one for closer to $8,000 if you check with firms that use the handy machines regularly.
The bulk of your equipment maintenance chores will involve keeping your saw greased and its engine in good working order . . . and sharpening the blade periodically (often several times a day) with a good file. You'll keep your honing tasks to a minimum, though, if you brush off each log before you send it through . . . since it often takes only one dirty hunk of timber to dull a blade!
And as you clean the wood, look for nails or pieces of barbed wire that might be lodged in it. A single bit of metalsuch as a nailcan completely ruin a set of expensive (about $75!) saw teeth. Sometimes, though, metal will become implanted in a sapling, and the bark will grow over it, so you won't always be able to detect these bit-butchers. For that reason, it's a good plan to keep an extra set of teeth on hand at all times.
Of course, in order to produce boards, a sawyer needs a steady supply of logs . . . and you'll have to determine whether you'll fell the trees yourself, buy timber from a logger, or cut up logs supplied by your customers. It used to be that any small-scale lumbermaker worth his or her salt would log all the necessary lumber . . cut it . . dry it . . . and sell it. But times have changed, and it's not always profitable to go through all four processes yourself.
Generally, the best bet is to find a few dependable loggers in your area who will sell you timber. But be careful not to purchase more wood than you think you can resell in a given time period. Ideally, you want to cutand marketapproximately 3,000 board feet in a day . . . keeping about one day's supply ahead. It also pays to saw up trees brought in by customers . . . charging them for your time and for the wear and tear on your equipment.
Just as you probably won't want to do your own logging, you willin most casesbe better of avoiding the next step beyond sawing, which is air-drying the boards. Drying lumber is a time- and labor-consuming proposition (not to mention the fact that it takes up a lot of space).
Once you've narrowed your scope and settled on sawing and selling as your activities in the timber trade, you'll still likely have to work away at it for at least a year before you begin to show any significant profit. Running a sawmill is not a get-rich-quick venture. However, if you're willing to be patient, develop your ability, and employ the discipline necessary to put in a full day's work, you could eventually earn as much as $30,000 annually.
You probably won't be able to sell (or saw) boards year round. During the coldest weather there simply isn't as much demand for lumber as there is from spring through fall. You might utilize the "off ' time to clean up your woodlot, though. By the time winter rolls around, your work site should be littered with slabwood scraps and sawdust . . . and those slabs can be sold by the pickup load for firewood, while the sawdust can likely be marketed for use as bedding and insulation around plants.
In general, lumber (even when it's still in log form) is bought and sold by the board foot, a unit of measure equal to a board that's one foot square and one inch thick. In order to figure the worth of a log, then, you must learn to estimate how many board feet you can get from the timber. (Once you've cut up the log, of course, you can simply measure the planks.)
Naturally, the price that you'll be able to ask for your lumber will depend upon the market and upon the varieties of wood available to you. As an example, though . . . Jim B., who buys mostly in the Southeast, says that he can purchase white pine logs for $150 to $170 per 1,000 board feet andonce they're cutsell them for about $300 per 1,000. White oak, which is a hardwood and therefore more difficult to cut, can be bought for about the same price as the pine but sells for around $350.
For starters, you can check lumber prices at other mills to get an idea of what you should charge for your wood. And remember . . . if you can undercut someone else's rates and still turn a satisfactory profit, by all means do so!
In the end, after you've weighed all the ideas in this article (and beefed that information up with data from other sources), only you can decide whether or not the challenge of starting up your own mill appeals to you. Certainly, a sawyer's life is a strenuous and often uncertain one (see the sidebar accompanying this article) . . . but at the same time, it can be a godsend for an individual who's willing to use both brain and brawn to wrestle a big old log and turn it into an income!
EDITOR'S NOTE: To find out more about how to set up a small sawmill operation, you might want to check with the Forestry Products Utilization Specialist at your state forestry office. One of that individual's duties is to direct people to other sources of information that could be helpful to them. Also, write to the folks at the Forestry Production Lab, Dept. TMEN, Madison, Wisconsin . . . or ask the lab's publications department for the pamphlet entitled Circular Sawmills and Their Efficient Operation and a list of other relevant publications.
An old sawmillnestled back in a mountain cove and covered with kudzu and cobwebs from months of disuseis just about as depressing a sight as a weathered old sawyer who's burdened with the weight of bills that can't be paid. Now failure is never pleasant to consider, but it's a possibility that you must be aware of if you're to understand fully what it could be like to be a woodcutter today.
Many small sawmills, you see, are definitely facing hard times, and most of these businesses (whose owners are used to the "old ways" of operation) are totally unprepared for the modern hardships they'll likely encounter.
Perhaps the single major factor behind the demise of many small sawmills (more important than economic instability, poor wood supplies, or even the ever-increasing government safety regulations) is the growing power of the bigger mills. These giant firms are, quite simply, pushing the "little fellers"out of business.
For example, a large mill or lumberyard might start to buy custom-cut wood from a family-owned mill to satisfy certain customers .. . and later demand that the small sawyer sign an exclusive contract to sell only to the larger outfit (which means the sawyer would have to give up all other customers and depend solely on the large mill for his or her income). Then, when the big mill hasfor one reason or anotherno further need of the special services, the small enterprise could be cut off . . . and would have no regular customers to fall back on.
Some large mills and yards also employ their own graders to determine the quality of all the wood that comes in for sale . . . and the prices that such a firm will pay are fixed at wholesale rates according to what the grader says a given batch is worth. Ultimately, then, the amount of money a small sawyerselling to such an outfitreceives could be totally subject to the honesty of a grader he may never have seen. If that "expert" (whose "qualifications" are left up to his or her employer) is trying to help the boss save money or isn't quite on the up and upand, at the same time, if the small-scale woodcutter isn't exactly sure how good his or her wood isthe big buyer could obtain top-grade lumber at low-grade prices. It happens . . . not always, but it does happen.
Very detailed and very useful article, a real "how-to" instruction for beginnners. I've been also thinking about starting a small sawmill business (I've changed my mind though, but it's another story) and while surfing the web found one interesting idea for such business - sawmill for sunken logs http://www.lowbudgetprosper.com/2012/08/01/sawmill-business-sunken-treasure/ Never thought of sunken trees as a base for business, but it turns out it is and it brings really high profits.
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A flour mill is an easy business to start. Additionally, you can start this business in both city and rural areas. Furthermore, a flour mill offers a wide range of manufacturing opportunities for entrepreneurs.
The object of crafting this article is to provide 6 flour mill business ideas to the new entrepreneurs. Additionally, we put a detailed about how to start a flour mill business with small startup capital investment.
The roller flour mill is a process industry to mill the grains and provide theendosperm as various fractions viz: maida, sooji, and atta. The skin or bran isseparated from the endosperm and sold as cattle feed.
These products have sufficient domestic demand. Additionally, there are export potentials also. Generally, atta, maida, suji, and corn flours are the basic ingredients for the wide range of processed foods. Additionally, these are the items for domestic daily use. Furthermore, the bakery industry of our country hugely depends on these ingredients as raw materials. So the flour mill project is a financially profitable business in our country.
This is a comparatively easy model and demands small capital investment. Also, this is a very traditional model of flour milling business. However, this model is not acceptable for long sustained businesses.
Another option is you set up an integrated flour mill. And offer the packaged products to your consumers. However, this business demands a moderate capital investment initially. Also, you need to have strategic planning for marketing and distribution.
So crafting a flour mill business plan or project report is necessary for initiating the business. Additionally, you must craft the business plan according to the products you want to produce and your investment capacity.
#2. Cornflour:Cornflour is an essential item in the food processing industry. Corn milling or maize milling is a highly profitable business. However, you must establish the mill in the location where you can source the corn easily.
Flour milling business comes under the food processing industry. So it demands specific licenses and registration before commencing the business. Check your state laws carefully. However, here we put a list of basic requirements.
Flour milling business generally demands two different types of investments. One is a fixed capital investment. It includes land (if you purchase the land), building, machinery, registration, and licensing fees. If you start the business with a rental premise then fixed capital includes the security deposit amount for the area of land.
Another is the working capital investment. It includes raw materials, staffing, rent, transportation, marketing, distribution, and administration costs. There are different types of small business loan providing companies in our country. And loan providers also offer various customized schemes for your specific requirements.
You can earn an inspiring profit margin from a flour milling business. However, the percentage of profit depends on several aspects. For enhancing the profit, you will need to reduce the production cost.
First of all, you have to secure a location for manufacturing operations. Check the available transportation facility, electricity, water, semi-skilled manpower, and drainage facility. For setting up a small scale unit with the entire product range, you will need to have 3000 Sq Ft built-up areas at least.
The production process for each item is a little bit different. You can source the manufacturing technology from the Govt. department in exchange for certain fees. However, here we put the basic steps of flour production.
First of all, clean the wheat grains thoroughly to remove dust, stone, and other foreign matters. Then temper the grains before grinding by treating with water so that the bran is separated from the endosperm.
Crush the wheat between corrugated rollers (Break rolls). It is a long process and may contain several breaks. The stock contains pieces of endosperm and bran and the stock from the last break is principally bran.
The middlings contains endosperm, bran, and germ which are then successively classified and some of the bran removed are sent to reduction rollers. These are smooth rollers, but as the break rolls they are graduated so that successive reduction becomes finer and finer.
After each reduction, siftersseparate the flour, middling and stock. And you have to continue the process until you can remove the most of the endosperm as flour. Additionally, you have to separate most of the bran in the sifters.
a machine for the pressure shaping of metal and other materials between rotating rolls (rolling). In a broader sense, a rolling mill is an automatic system or line of machines that performs both rolling and auxiliary operations: transport of the original billet from the stock to the heating furnaces and the mill rolls, transfer of the rolled material from one groove to another, turning, transport of the metal after rolling, cutting into sections, marking or stamping, trimming, packing, and conveyance to the stock of finished product.
Historical outline. It is not known when and where the first rolling mill was used. The rolling of nonferrous metals (lead, tin, copper, and alloys used in coinage) was undoubtedly practiced before the rolling of iron. The earliest document describing a machine used in rolling is a captioned drawing made by Leonardo da Vinci in 1495, which shows a device used to roll tin. Until approximately the end of the 17th century, rolling mills were manually operated. The first water-driven mills date to the 18th century. The industrial rolling of iron began in about the 18th century. In Russia, the rolling of iron became especially well-developed in the Ural Mountains. Rolling mills were used to produce roofing iron, to flatten wrought iron billets into strips or sheets, and to divide forged bands lengthwise into reduced sections with square or rectangular cross sections (so-called cutting mills).
Steam engines were first used to drive rolling mills in the late 18th century. Rolling became one of the three major components in the production cycle at metallurgical factories, gradually replacing the less efficient method of forging. During this period, the first industrial use was made of the rolling mill with grooved rolls, invented by H. Cort of Great Britain in 1783. In time, rolling mills were subdivided into cogging, sheet, and section mills. In the 1830s and 1840s, the rapid development of railroads in various countries led to the use of rolling in the manufacture of rails. In 1856 and 1857 the first mill for rolling large beams was set up in the Saar, Germany.
Design improvements and the specialization of mills led to the establishment of blooming and slab mills in the USA in the late 19th century. In 1867, H. Bedson constructed the first continuous wire mill in Great Britain. In 1885, the German brothers M. Mannesmann and R. Mannesmann invented a method of rotary-rolling seamless pipe in rolling mills with skew rolls. In 1886 in the USA, W. Edenborn and C. Morgan were the first to use a high-speed wire coiler with axial feed. The first flying shears were designed by W. Edwards and came into use in 1892 in the USA. In 1897 an electric motor was successfully used to drive a rolling mill in Germany. In 1906 a rolling mill with a reversible electric motor was put into service in Tinec, in what is now Czechoslovakia.
The principle of continuous hot rolling of sheets found its first practical application in 1892, when a semicontinuous mill was put into operation in Teplice, in present-day Czechoslovakia. The first continuous wide-band sheet mill was constructed in 1923 in the USA. Cold rolling of sheets was begun in the 1880s, and the cold rolling of pipes was introduced in 1930 in the USA.
The first Soviet achievement in the manufacture of mills was the construction of two blooming mills at the Izhora Factory. In 1933 these two mills were placed in operation at the Makeevka and Dneprodzerzhinsk metallurgical factories. In the 1940s, 1950s, and 1960s, the All-Union Scientific Research and Design Institute for Metallurgical Machine Building (VNIIMETMASh) designed a series of rolling mills for new technological processes that made it possible to roll many items previously manufactured by other, less efficient methods. The items included thin-walled flangeless pipes, tapered sheets, variable round sections, spheres, sleeves, coarse-pitch screws, and gilled pipes. Between 1959 and 1962, VNIIMETMASh and the Electric Steel Factory for Heavy Machine Building designed a number of fundamentally new pipe mills with infinite reduction of pipes, both by furnace and high-frequency welding. In addition, mills were designed for the continuous rolling of seamless pipe (mill model 30102) with outputs by some ten times higher than those of other mills of the time (about 550,000 tons annually). During this period, the first mills designed by VNIIMETMASh, the Scientific Research Institute of the Automotive Industry, and the Gorky Automotive Plant for the rolling of cylindrical and conical wheels were put into operation.
In the 1960s, the USSR, the USA. the Federal Republic of Germany, and Italy began work on foundry and rolling units that combine the processes of continuous casting and rolling in one unbroken line. These units are already widely used in the production of aluminum-alloy sheets, steel billets, and wire rod made from aluminum and copper alloys.
Classification and design. The major factor determining the design of a rolling mill is the mills function relative to the range of production or the technological process. Based on the range of production, rolling mills are divided into billet mills (including mills that roll slabs and blooms), sheet and band mills, section mills (including beam and wire mills), and mills that roll tubes and various parts (tires, wheels, axles). Rolling mills are also classified on the basis of their technological processes as casting and rolling units, mills for the reduction of ingots (including slab and blooming mills), reversing single-stand mills, tandem mills, multistand mills, continuous mills, and cold-rolling mills. The size classification of a rolling mill designed for rolling sheets or bands is determined by the roll body. The size classification of a rolling mill designed for billets and section metal is determined by the diameter of the rolls, and that of a tube mill is determined by the external diameter of the rolled tubes.
The apparatus for deforming metal between rotating rollers is called the main apparatus, whereas the apparatus for carrying out other operations is called the auxiliary apparatus. The main apparatus consists of a single line or of several main lines, each of which contains three types of devices: (1) one or several roll stands, consisting of the rolls, bearings, frames, adjusting gears, plates, and leads, (2) electric motors for turning the rolls, and (3) transmission devices from the motors to the rolls, consisting mainly of gear housings, spindles, and clutches. A reducer is sometimes placed between the gear housing and the electric motor. If each roller has its own electric motor, the transmission consists only of shafts. Mills with horizontal rolls are the most common and may be two-high, three-high, four-high, or multiroll. Stands with vertical rolls (edgers) are used to cog the metal on its side surfaces. Universal mills, in which the vertical rolls are placed near the horizontal rolls, are used to roll wide bands and H beams. In rotary-rolling, the rolls are placed askew in the roll stands at an angle to the feed. These mills are used for rolling tubes, axles, and spheres.
The number and arrangement of the roll stands of a rolling mill are determined by the function of the mill, the number of times the metal must pass between the rolls to produce a given section, and the assigned output. Eight types of rolling mills are distinguished on this basis. Single-stand mills include most blooming mills, slab mills, ball-rolling mills, and mills for the cold rolling of sheets, strips, and tubes. Mills with several roll stands are used when it is impossible to place the required number of grooves in one roll stand or when a high output is required. The most advanced multiple-stand mill is a continuous mill in which the metal is simultaneously rolled in several stands. Continuous mills are used in the hot rolling of billets, bands, section metal, wire, and tubes and in the cold rolling of sheets, sheet metal, and strips.
Rolling speeds vary greatly and depend mainly on the required output of the rolling mill, the range of rolled products, and the technological process. In cogging, billet, thick-sheet, and heavy mills, the speed of rolling is about 28 m/sec. The highest speeds are those attained by continuous mills when rolling section metal (1020 m/sec), band metal (2535 m/sec), and wire (5070 m/sec) and when cold-rolling sheet metal (40 m/sec). Table 1 presents data on the output, drive power, and weight of the equipment of some of the most common rolling mills used in the USSR to produce hot-rolled steel.
Billet mills fall into two types, depending on whether cast ingots or continuously cast billets serve as the starting material. When cast ingots are used, the billet mill is also a cogging mill. Typical examples of these mills are slab mills, in which flat billets with large cross sections (slabs) are used, and blooming mills with an attached continuous billet mill, which are used if billets must be rolled for section or tube mills. Flying shears are sometimes installed after the last stand of these mills to cut the billets into segments of the required length. Alternatively, saws and racks are used for cutting, cooling, and inspection of the billets. When continuously cast billets are used, the billet mill is installed next to the machine for continuous casting in order to use the heat of the uncooled metal. Some billet mills are constructed in such a way that the cast billet proceeds from the ingot mold into the rolls of the continuous mill without cutting; in other words, an infinitely long billet is rolled that is divided by flying shears or saws into segments of the required length after leaving the mill rolls.
Sheet and band mills for hot rolling are designed to take plates 50350 mm thick, sheets 350 mm thick, and reeled bands 1.220 mm thick. Thick-sheet mills usually consist of one or two two- or four-high stands, with roll bodies ranging in length from 3,500 to 5,500 mm. Additional stands with vertical rolls for cogging the side edges are sometimes attached to the front of the mill. Wide-band continuous or semicontinuous mills consisting of 1015 four-high stands with 1,5002,500 mm roll bodies and several stands with vertical rolls are the types most commonly used for rolling bands. All the rolled material is wound in reels weighing 1550 tons. Because these mills are considerably more efficient than thick-sheet mills, they are also used for rolling sheets 420 mm thick; the sheets are made by unwinding the reels and then cutting the metal. Roll tables and a great deal of auxiliary equipment used in subsequent treatment of the rolled product and transport are installed on the side where the rolled metal exits the rolls. In thick-sheet mills, the auxiliary equipment includes straighteners, shears, and furnaces for heat treatment. In wide-band mills, the equipment includes coilers for rolling the bands into reels, a conveyor for transporting the reels, and equipment for unwinding the reels, straightening the metal, and cutting the metal into sheets.
Section mills vary widely in their features and in the arrangement of equipment. Universal mills for rolling wide-band beams usually consist of three or five stands arranged one behind another; two or three stands are universal stands with horizontal rolls about 1,350 mm in diameter, and one or two stands are two-high stands with rolls about 800 mm in diameter. Multistage rail and beam mills consist of two or several lines with three-high or two-high working stands and rolls about 800 mm in diameter. Multistage or semicontinuous mills for large sections consist of two or several lines with three- or two-high working stands and rolls about 650 mm in diameter. In addition, there are semicontinuous or noncontinuous multistage medium mills with two or three lines, mills for small sections, usually continuous or semicontinuous, continuous thin-band mills, and continuous wire mills.
Casting and rolling mills are the most efficient mills for producing wire made from aluminum and copper alloys. The wire is manufactured by a continuous process from liquid metal. After crystallization of an infinite ingot between the rim of the mills rotating wheel and the steel band covering the wheel, the rolling operation is carried out on a continuous mill. Output is 58 tons per hour.
Like sheet mills, section mills have various auxiliary devices set up along the flow of the rolled metal that perform all auxiliary technological and transport operations at the appropriate rate without manual labor, from introduction of the starting billet to conveyance to the stock of finished product.
Tube-rolling units usually consist of three mills. The first mill makes a hole in the billet or ingot by rotary rolling, the second stretches the pierced billet into a tube, and the third reduces the diameter of the rolled tube. The design of the units is determined mainly by the technological process of the second (drawing) mill. The most efficient mills for this operation are continuous mills. Other mills that are also used include two-high mills
Cold-rolling mills for steel and nonferrous metals include (1) sheet mills for piece work rolling, (2) wide-band sheet mills for reel rolling, (3) strip-rolling mills for rolling strips 1 mm to 4 mm thick and 20 to 600 mm wide, the strips then being coiled or reeled, (4) foil-rolling mills for rolling bands less than 0.1 mm thick, (5) flatting mills for reducing wire to thin strips, and (6) mills for cold rolling tubes. When bands are reel-rolled, winding and tensioning drums set on both sides of the stand are used to unwind the reels before the metal is fed into the rolls and to wind the metal on exiting the rolls. Continuous mills are the most productive type of sheet mills and are also more efficient in their use of coilers and other auxiliary equipment. In continuous mills, coilers are placed at the rear, with mechanisms for feeding and unwinding the reels and directing the metal into the rolls of the first stand located in front.
Rolling mills that produce billets for machine parts operate mainly on the principle of helical rolling and make tools (hobs, drills) and precision billets for parts used in machine building (round indented shafts, balls, screws, gilled tubes, gear wheels). These mills vary in their construction and are highly mechanized and automated.
Equipment of rolling mills. The major parts and mechanisms of rolling mills, despite the variety and difference in function, are often identical in design. The major elements of the working stand are the rolls, bearing assemblies, frame, spindles, clutches, leads, and mechanisms for setting the rolls.
The roll bearings operate at very high stresses, which in some mills reach 3060 meganewtons (3,0006,000 tons-force) per roll. Size is limited by the diameter of the rolls. The rolling or liquid-friction bearings are mounted in large housings called cushions, which are located in openings of the frame.
Since the frame of the working stand accepts all the forces produced during the rolling operation, it is very large, weighing 60120 tons and more, and is made of cast steel with 0.250.35 percent carbon. It is installed on steel foundation plates bolted to a concrete or reinforced-concrete foundation. Section mills are making increased use of prestressed working stands, in which rigidity is increased by using special clamping mechanisms rather than by increasing the size of the frame.
The auxiliary equipment of rolling mills performs various functions. Ingot buggies transfer the metal from the heating apparatus to the mills receiving roller conveyor, turning devices turn the ingot on the roller conveyor, roller conveyors or transport vehicles transport the metal in accordance with the technological process, manipulators move the metal along the roll for transfer to the proper groove, and tilters turn the metal relative to its longitudinal axis. Other devices cool and pickle the metal (coolers and picklers), unwind the reels (unwinders), wind the bands into reels or wire into coils (coilers), and cut the metal (shears and saws). In the finishing operation, straighteners and presses are used to straighten the metal, and other devices are used for temper rolling, marking, stacking, oiling, and packing.
The electrical equipment of rolling mills has high power outputs and large drive systems. The power output of a single electric motor is 67 megawatts (MW) or more, and total power outputs are 200300 MW. The systems that control the electric drives are complex chiefly because of the need to regulate automatically most of the machines in the rolling mill at greatly varying rates.
The lubricating equipment of rolling mills provides for the continuous automatic feed of lubricant to all the operating parts. In the case of mills that roll nonferrous metals and cold-roll steel, the equipment also feeds industrial lubricants to the working surface of the rolls. The lubricating systems are usually located in special lower compartments.
The automatic equipment of large rolling mills consists of a series of linked local systems for controlling the entire technological process, from the time the starting material is brought to and taken from the stock to the time the rolled product is brought to the stock of finished product and loaded onto cars. Each local system has many and varied sensing devices to collect and transmit information on the technological process, including data on the temperature of the metal, the pressure of the metal on the roll, and the characteristics of the workpiece, especially the dimensions, position, and movement of the rolled section. All this information is fed into the computers of local systems for processing, after which commands are given for regulating the individual machines and mechanisms that are part of the given local system. The computers for the local systems also provide information to the computer that integrates the local systems, the central computer then making the necessary corrections in the operation of machines and mechanisms in segments of the rolling mill controlled by the other local systems. A major problem in automation and the one that is most crucial economically involves the process of automatically regulating the dimensions of rolled sections by means of automatic variations in the gap between rolls on the basis of continuous data provided by a section gauge. The resultant sharp increase in the precision of the section size leads to closer production tolerances, an increase in metal quality, and a reduction in the unit consumption of metal. This is especially true when thin sheets are being manufactured.
The successful resolution of the above problem has become possible through the use of computer technology. Conventional self-adjusting systems cannot regulate the space between the rolls because the speeds of rolling are too highsome 3040 m/sec.
Efficiency and economy are also greatly aided by automation of the processes of quality controlling the finished product and applying protective coatings. Because of their continuous operation and their large-scale production of a standard product, rolling mills have all the necessary prerequisites to become one of the first completely automated industrial systems.
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SMS group has banked almost 100 years of experience in ring and wheel rolling. This dates back to Keller & Banning Maschinenfabrik und Eisengieerei (machine works and iron foundry) and Wagner Maschinenfabrik. Today, our ring and wheel-rolling activities stand for innovative technology, precision, and top quality. Almost 600 ring-rolling machines, over 100 complete plants and facilities, as well as satisfied customers all over the world conclusively prove our leading position. So you can rest assured: we know the industry inside out and meetyour expectations.
Crucial to your products are the ring blanks. The better the starting product matches the final ring shape, the more cost-efficient your downstream processes are. This in turn means higher productivity. That's how you benefit from our reliable, future-proof ring blank presses with press forces of up to 100 MN.
Pressing forged ring blanks involves upsetting, pre-piercing, and piercing. There is also an extra step for profile blanks in the form of profiling. Sleeve-type rings are forged in a pot die. So, whatever the application and power range you want - we supply the right ring blank press for you.
Our ring rolling machines produce rings by enlarging the diameter of ring blanks. The process works like this: first, the blanks are heated to forging temperature. Then, our radial ring rolling machines reduce their wall thickness using a main roll and a mandrel. Alternatively, radial-axial ring rolling involves two axial rolls which simultaneously decrease the height of the blanks.
Here is another highlight from SMS group - our ring expanders which are perfect for ring rolling machines. The core components are a hydraulically movable expanding cone and expanding jaws. This is how you achieve excellent plastic deformation of rings. It's an extra advantage that the control system automatically accounts for the spring-back and compensates it during the next expanding stroke.
Newly available from SMS group is our special machine type for ring diameters of between 100 mm and 500 mm. The MERW small-ring rolling machine is designed for operation in an automated plant. We customize your machine so you always roll exactly the profiled and rectangular rings you require. It's the only proven way to ensure you get both - top precision and low costs.
Wheel rolling machines produce solid wheels and wheel disks from blank presses. Typical applications are wheels for rail-bound vehicles such as locomotives, carriages, and subway trains. To ensure high precision and smooth running, our machines feature two web rolls that simultaneously roll the wheel web and the inside of the tread.
What's best about our new electrohydraulic drive solution is that it saves you serious money. That's because it consumes between 25 and 50 percent less energy than conventional ring rolling machines. Instead of a large central hydraulic system, several small, self-contained electrohydraulic drives provide the necessary energy - wherever and whenever you need it.
However, not only a service partner for your plants and machines, SMS group is also there for your staff. Furthermore, You can enroll on standardized and individual training programs designed for you by our SMS TECademy. That ensures you strengthen your competence as a plant owner.
Whether you require one-off equipment checks, continuous condition monitoring, remote service, or regular plant inspections: our service experts will take care of it all. You can even outsource your complete maintenance operations to us. This ensures excellent plant availability plus best production results.
When the spare parts you need are no longer available or the new generation is not 100% compatible, you risk plant standstills. That's why SMS group constantly monitors the availability of all parts and, where necessary, offers modern alternatives - even for parts from third-party suppliers. This ensures competitiveness and full productivity over the entire life cycle of your plant.
Even plants "built to last" need to be critically examined from time to time, because markets and production processes are continuously evolving. Together with you, our service experts will find the best revamp options for your requirements. Once again bang up to date, your plants will then be ready to bolster your strong position on the market.
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CLICK ON THE CATEGORY OF Milling Machines YOU ARE LOOKING FOR! Bed Mills Gantry Type Ram Type (Horizontal & Vertical) Rolling Mills Vertical (Bridgeport Type) Vertical CNC New & Used Mills for Sale Are You Looking For A Good New or Used Metal Milling Machine? We have dozens of Milling Machines for sale in stock. Useful Tips: Features and Options What to look for Milling Machine Basics Video (find more on our podcast page!) Used Vertical (Bridgeport Type) Mill for sale currently in stockBrand New Vertical (Bridgeport Type) Mill for sale currently in stock View Machines Has a spindle axis is vertically oriented. Milling cutters are held in the spindle and rotate on its axis. The spindle can generally be extended (or the table can be raised/lowered, giving the same effect), allowing plunge cuts and drilling. There are two subcategories of vertical mills: the bedmill and the turret mill.Used Vertical CNC Mill for sale currently in stockBrand New Vertical CNC Mill for sale currently in stock View Machines Are the top of the line. CNC Mills or Machining Centers are Computer Numerical Controlled and can vastly speed production and set up time. With a CNC mill you can program your job and save the information to use laterUsed Ram Type (Horizontal & Vertical) Mill for sale currently in stockBrand New Ram Type (Horizontal & Vertical) Mill for sale currently in stock View Machines A mill that has a swiveling cutting head mounted on a sliding ram. The spindle can be oriented either vertically or horizontally, or anywhere in between. Van Norman specialized in ram type mills through most of the 20th century, but since the advent of CNC machines ram type mills are no longer made.Used Plain Horizontal Mill for sale currently in stock View Machines Plain mills are used to shape flat surfaces. Several cutters may be ganged together on the arbor to mill a complex shape of slots and planes.Used Rolling Mills Mill for sale currently in stock View Machines Rolling & Gear Reducer Mills typically have an automatic system that perform both rolling and auxiliary operations.Used Mills Universal Horizontal Mill for sale currently in stockBrand New Mills Universal Horizontal Mill for sale currently in stock View Machines A Milling Machine is probably the most popular and versatile machine in any shop mainly because of their ability to shape complex metal parts. It's basic form is that of a rotating cutter or endmill which rotates about the spindle axis (similar to a drill) and a movable table to which the workpiece is affixed. Vertical Mills Expanded Metal is extracted or chipped off by moving the X and/or Y axis, while the Z axis moves downward like a drill press. There are many different tools used with a milling machine to create the type of shape you are going for. The workpiece is held in by a vise or rotary table placed on the milling table using bolts held in by t-slots in the table. Once the piece is secure, you are ready to mill! Features and Options: Starting with the head of the machine, there are a few different ways to change head speeds. One option is a belt change, or step pulley machine which takes a little bit longer and is not recommended if you have many speed changes. To change the speeds more efficiently, you can get a variable speed head, which changes speeds as easy as you can turn a wheel. The most common option is a Powered table feed. This allows you to feed your workpiece automatically. Power feeds can be applied at any time and can be put on the x and y axis as well as the knee. This saves time work cranking the handles. Another popular option would be a Digital Read Out or DRO. This usually has some type of digital numbering system that shows you your measurements on screen instead of using the numbers on the dials for your x, y or z axiss. Another option would be a Power Draw Bar. This allows you to pneumatically open and close the draw bar with the touch of a button closing the collets without having to use a wrench to open the draw bar manually to change the collets. CNC Mills are the top of the line. CNC Mills or Machining Centers are Computer Numerical Controlled and can vastly speed production and set up time. With a CNC mill you can program your job and the control saves the information to use later; this helps reduce operator error and set up. What to look for: Some milling machines have scraped and chromed ways. Chroming adds strength to the ways for less wear and scraping evenly distributes the oil across the ways for a smooth flow. To make a machine flow smoothly you need a good lubrication system. Options include automatic lubricating system or a one shot lube system. When shopping for a Milling machine you should look at the key components of what makes a milling machine work and what parts get worn. Table working surface Swivel of head Longitudinal feed of table Vertical feed of head Vertical feed of table Spindle taper hole Table or knee feed range Spindle speed range Distance spindle to outboard support Maximum distance spindle to center of table Distance spindle to face of column We Buy & Sell all types of Mills such as: Vertical Milling Machine- Bridgeport, Sharp, Tree, Webb, Wells, Supermax, Lagun, Machinist Horizontal Mills- Kerney & Trecker, Cincinnati, Johnson, Production Simplex- Kent Owens, Cincinnati Plain Horizontal- All Brands Hydrotel-Vertical- All Sizes
Has a spindle axis is vertically oriented. Milling cutters are held in the spindle and rotate on its axis. The spindle can generally be extended (or the table can be raised/lowered, giving the same effect), allowing plunge cuts and drilling. There are two subcategories of vertical mills: the bedmill and the turret mill.
Are the top of the line. CNC Mills or Machining Centers are Computer Numerical Controlled and can vastly speed production and set up time. With a CNC mill you can program your job and save the information to use later
A mill that has a swiveling cutting head mounted on a sliding ram. The spindle can be oriented either vertically or horizontally, or anywhere in between. Van Norman specialized in ram type mills through most of the 20th century, but since the advent of CNC machines ram type mills are no longer made.
A Milling Machine is probably the most popular and versatile machine in any shop mainly because of their ability to shape complex metal parts. It's basic form is that of a rotating cutter or endmill which rotates about the spindle axis (similar to a drill) and a movable table to which the workpiece is affixed.
Metal is extracted or chipped off by moving the X and/or Y axis, while the Z axis moves downward like a drill press. There are many different tools used with a milling machine to create the type of shape you are going for.
Features and Options: Starting with the head of the machine, there are a few different ways to change head speeds. One option is a belt change, or step pulley machine which takes a little bit longer and is not recommended if you have many speed changes. To change the speeds more efficiently, you can get a variable speed head, which changes speeds as easy as you can turn a wheel. The most common option is a Powered table feed. This allows you to feed your workpiece automatically. Power feeds can be applied at any time and can be put on the x and y axis as well as the knee. This saves time work cranking the handles.
Another popular option would be a Digital Read Out or DRO. This usually has some type of digital numbering system that shows you your measurements on screen instead of using the numbers on the dials for your x, y or z axiss.
Another option would be a Power Draw Bar. This allows you to pneumatically open and close the draw bar with the touch of a button closing the collets without having to use a wrench to open the draw bar manually to change the collets.
CNC Mills are the top of the line. CNC Mills or Machining Centers are Computer Numerical Controlled and can vastly speed production and set up time. With a CNC mill you can program your job and the control saves the information to use later; this helps reduce operator error and set up.
What to look for: Some milling machines have scraped and chromed ways. Chroming adds strength to the ways for less wear and scraping evenly distributes the oil across the ways for a smooth flow. To make a machine flow smoothly you need a good lubrication system. Options include automatic lubricating system or a one shot lube system.
(Pocket-lint) - Google introduced Hands-Free Calling for its Google Home and Nest speakers in 2017, making its smart speakers and displays a more compelling rival to Amazon Echo, if you're in the US or Canada.
Amazon's Echo devices have Alexa Calling, giving Echo users the ability to phone other Echo users and users of the Alexa app, or video call using Echo Show. Google's Hands-Free Calling - or Google's Supported Calling - alternative doesn't work in quite the same way though.
Here's everything you need to know about calling with Google Nest speakers and displays, including how it works, how to set it up and how to make a call using your Nest Mini, Nest Audio or Nest Hub devices.
Google's Hands-Free Calling feature allows you to call anyone for free, including personal contacts or local businesses if you are in the US or Canada. As of mid-December 2020, you can only use Google Duo for making calls using a Nest speaker or display in the UK with the Google Supported Calling feature no longer supported.
All calls using Hands-Free Calling are made over Wi-Fi and are separate from your smartphone. There's no way to call someone else's Nest speaker or smart display however. Google's Hands-Free calling feature only supports outgoing calls, and the only way to use the feature is with your Nest speaker or smart display device.
In other words, Google's hands-free calling does not work like Amazon's Alexa calling feature, which lets you call from one Echo to another Echo and even call someone's Alexa app. That said, Nest speakers and smart displays can identify different users in your house by voice, or your face if you have the Nest Hub Max, so if you say "OK Google, call mom" it will call your mom without even asking who is making the call.
If you want to use your Nest speakers or displays to make calls to personal contacts though, there are a couple of steps you need to do first. Remember, the feature is only available in the US and Canada. If you're in the UK, we have a separate feature for how to set up Google Duo calling on your Nest speakers and displays.
The person you're calling needs to be stored in Google Contacts for things to work so the next step is to sync your contacts to your Google Nest speaker or hub. If you're using another contacts app, make sure those numbers are stored in Google's cloud. Go here to learn how to sync contacts with your Google account.
Once set up following the steps above, to place Google Supported calls with Nest speakers or smart displays, all you have to do is say "OK Google, call [name of contact]." You can also say "Hey Google" if that's your preference.
Remember that for calling contacts, you will need to have setup Personal Results and given access to your contacts. For calling a Google-listed business, you can just search for them and say "Hey Google, call them".
If you've set up household contacts on a Google Nest display, you can also choose a contact by tapping 'Call' on the "Household contacts" card. The calling method used with household contacts will depend upon the contact selected.
It's also worth noting that if you link an account through mobile calling, calls you make will be placed using mobile calling instead of Google supported calling and will be charged according to your plan.
To end a call, either say "Ok Google, end call" or "Hang up". You can also tap the top of your Google Home or Home Max, or the centre of your Nest Audio, Nest Mini or Nest Wifi point. For those with a Google Home Mini, tap the side to hang up, while those with a Nest Hub or Nest Hub Max can tap "End call" on the display.
With just your voice, you can call millions of businesses in the US and Canada, thanks to built-in Google Search on Google Nest speakers and displays. You can also call your own personal contacts. So, you'll be able to say "Hey Google, call Bob's Pizza" or "Hey Google, call mum".
Payout availability depends on a number of factors such as the industry and country youre operating in, and the risks involved. When you start processing live payments from your customers with Stripe, you wont receive your first payout until 714 days after receiving your first successful payment. The first payout usually takes a little longer in order to establish the Stripe account. Processing subsequent payouts then happens according to your accounts payout schedule.
Provide a standard bank account with a financial institution (e.g., checking). Other types of bank accounts (e.g., savings) or those with a virtual bank account provider (e.g., N26, Revolut, Wise, etc.) are supported, but may see higher payout failures than standard bank accounts.
You can update your account details at any time in the payout settings of your Dashboard, which you can access by clicking Settings in the navigation sidebar and then Bank accounts and scheduling. Click the Edit button next to the desired bank account to modify your banking information.
Stripe users in some countries can use multiple bank accounts for different settlement currencies. If you receive payments in a presentment currency that is the same as your bank accounts settlement currency, Stripe automatically creates a payout to that account and does not perform currency conversion.
You can add one bank account per supported settlement currency. If you use multiple bank accounts, you must select a default settlement currency (this can be changed at any time). Any payments you receive that arent in a settlement currency you have a bank account for are converted into your default settlement currency.
For example, a Stripe user in the United Kingdom is using GBP and USD bank accounts, with GBP chosen as the default settlement currency. USD payments (where USD is the presentment currency) are automatically paid out to the USD bank account without conversion, whereas payments in all other currencies are converted into GBP.
By default, Stripe automatically creates payouts of your available account balance based on the schedule specified in the Dashboard. The schedule depends on your country and whether your business operates in a higher-risk industry.
When a payment is first received, its initially reflected as a pending balance (less any Stripe fees). This balance becomes available according to your payout schedule. For instance, it takes seven calendar days from a payment being received to it being paid out for Stripe accounts on a 7 calendar day schedule.
Payouts of your available account balance are made daily and contain payments processed two business days prior (this is how long it takes for your pending account balance to become available on this schedule). For example, payments received on a Tuesday are paid out by Thursday, and payments received on a Friday are paid out by Tuesday.
If your business operates in a higher-risk industry, this schedule may not be available. A 14 calendar day schedule might apply to your business instead. This delay protects your business, customers, and Stripe from the increased risk of chargebacks and potential cancellations.
Stripe now offers accelerated payout speeds for users in Europe & Canada, with funds available within 3 business days. After meeting certain criteria based on risk and history with Stripe, users in Europe and Canada will be eligible for this faster payout speed option. Once eligible, Stripe will notify you and automatically update your payout speed in 2 weeks. You can choose to opt in or opt out of this accelerated payout speed by logging into the Dashboard. Some high risk industries may not be eligible and will remain at the standard timing.
Selecting either of these doesnt change how long it takes your pending balance to become available. If your account was operating on a two business day daily payout schedule, it still takes two business days for your pending balance to become available. For example, if a Stripe account changes from two business day rolling to weekly on Fridays, the available balance includes payments made in the last week before Wednesday.
If you turn off automatic payouts in the Dashboard, you must manually send funds to your bank account. You can do this either in the Payouts section of the Dashboard or by creating payouts using the API.
With Instant Payouts, you can instantly send funds to a supported debit card or bank account. You can request Instant Payouts 24/7, including weekends and holidays, and funds typically appear in the associated bank account within 30 minutes.
If you are eligible for Instant Payouts, youll need to add a debit card to your Stripe account. Use the External payout accounts and scheduling section in the Settings tab in the Dashboard. Your debit card must support Instant Payouts - you can check which banks support Instant Payouts.
Eligible Stripe users in the UK can use Instant Payouts with a bank account (beta). Use the External payout accounts and scheduling section in the Settings tab in the Dashboard to manage bank accounts. Your bank account must support Instant Payouts - you can check which banks support Instant Payouts.
Once you have a supported debit card or bank account linked to your account, you can check your available balance in the Dashboard and create an Instant Payout. Stripe assesses a fee on each Instant Payout, which is reflected in the Dashboard. More details can be found on the pricing page.
Each payout reflects your available account balance at the time it was created. In some cases, you may have a negative account balance. For example, if you receive 100 USD in payments but refund 200 USD of prior payments, your account balance would be -100 USD. If you dont receive further payments to balance out the negative amount, Stripe creates a payout that debits your bank account.
If your bank account cant receive a payout for any reason, your bank sends the funds back to us. This returns an error with the reason for the failure. It can take up to five additional business days for your bank to return the payout and inform us that it has failed. If this happens, youre notified by email and in the Dashboard. To ensure that your bank account details are correct, you need to re-enter them if a payout fails. After you re-enter your bank account details, Stripe attempts to perform the payout again at the next scheduled payout interval.
Make sure that the bank account information you provide is correct. If its not (e.g., a typo in the account number), its possible to send payouts to another bank account holder. If youre certain that your banking details are correct, or have contacted your bank to resolve any issues on their end, you can resume payouts by clicking Resume Payouts. If you still havent received a payout from Stripe, nor been notified that its failed after a suitable amount of time, please get in touch.
A secret to achieving maximum roll integrity is simple, but often forgotten: Roll tooling design is based on known parameters and goals. Using this approach as a road map to quality can save money, downtime, and frustration.
If a worn-out sample roll is submitted instead of a roll drawing, the manufacturer should take the time to reverse-engineer the roll, make a new drawing, and get it approved by the customer to avoid any misunderstandings when the new roll tooling is delivered.
If manufacturing managers get involved during the initial stages of a new product, they should point out trouble spots and help designers to develop a roll that does the job and is easy to produce--a move that benefits both parties.
Trouble Spots. When a company receives a roll drawing with trouble spots, it ought to review it with design engineers and manufacturing managers, ask for design changes, and explain why it wants the changes.
When laying out tool drawings over a flower progression, the material flow should be considered. Manufacturers should try to provide lead-in angles with generous radii to let the previous form flow in. Companies also should consider leading out into the next stationsometimes center fins can scrape a section's edges if stations are close.
Splitting. Splitting rolls sometimes makes it possible to produce economically an otherwise difficult roll. Splitting rolls, or piecing them together, allows for sectional replacement rather than repetitive new tooling purchases. It also makes setup easier in some cases. It is easier to put one piece on at a time than it is to struggle with heavy mating top and bottom rolls.
The first step in mill alignment is cleaning everything, especially bases and shafts. Then, operators should make sure horizontal centers are parallel by using micrometers to measure inboard and outboard distances.
Most machines have a double bearing mount on inboard bottom shafts or an outboard that is keyed in place. If the bottom shafts have single inboard bearings and no outboard key, an operator may need to install taper pins in the outboards after setting them parallel to each other.
Tool design starts from an imaginary line on one side of the paper, which represents any station's top and bottom shaft shoulder. By going from station to station, a plane is established. The top-to-bottom relationship is most important because it affects design clearance. The horizontal line carries less weight but should be as straight as possible.
Horizontal alignment should be checked first along the bottom (fixed) shaft shoulders. A straight edge works best on small mills. On both large and small mills, an optical scope with cross- hair sight can be used for better accuracy.
Vertical alignment can be checked with short, straight edges or with similar top and bottom slugs that can be depth-milked from one face to another. Once a deviation is recorded, bearing assemblies can be taken apart and corrected, or a set of compensating collars can bring shoulders into a flat datum plane square to all parallel shafts.
Two basic methods for putting rolls on a mill predominate. One is to put all the rolls on at once, and the other is to put one pass on at a time while adjusting and checking profiles along the way. Most rolls are designed with rims and hubs using a stock thickness for clearance. This way, vertical centers can be set and an operator can ensure shafts are parallel at the same time.
After rolls are installed, strip is run through one station at a time. At this point, fine adjustments can be made for any play in the vertical adjusting screws. This ensures that the rolls are set up the way the designer intended.
The first goal in line troubleshooting is to define the problem. If dimensional problems arise, exactly which one is wrong? Is the material within specifications? Has a different wall thickness just been tried? Is the temper and chemical composition within specifications, or has it changed recently? Are galling problems present? Is the material too heavy? Is the surface softer than the specifications call for? Have frequency marks appeared, possibly from a chip on a roll?
One way to fix problems on a particular dimension is to look through the tooling progression and find a pass that looks like it controls the dimension without having a major effect on the rest of the section. It is usually best to make only one adjustment at a time.
Another tip is to look for damaged or worn tooling that may no longer define critical bend points and to make sure the entry table guides the material evenly and squarely. If possible, the operator should back up the machine and look at how the progressive forming flows.
Operators should look for proper tracking and possible climbing or pinching. Sometimes, severe straightness problems are created by overworking one pass. If backing up does not show excessive pressure, an operator can try putting a coat of heavyweight lube oil on a roll.Running the roll around once can show high and low pressure points. If this fails to work, an operator can run the strip out, check tool clearance with a mirror, and go through the setup procedure as previously described before looking for possible tool design errors.
The heart of roll tooling maintenance lies in good record keeping. Production records can help in finding trouble spots and predicting future problems. They can help justify regrinding an entire set or replacing key high-wear points.
Maintenance starts with periodic visual inspection during production runs. This includes checking product dimensions (especially tolerance deviations), finish deterioration, noticeable tool wear, and especially damaged tooling.
In between production runs, when tools are off the mill, it may be good to check bores and faces for wear. Worn bores can loosen dies, which can cause wandering part dimensions. Worn faces can create uneven clearances and pinching, which might lead to straightness problems.
Roll tooling manufacturers typically measure an entire set of tooling and record the information on a regrind chart, noting maximum wear on tooling. Certain highly worn tools may be replaced to avoid sinking an entire set more than necessary. Careful attention should be paid to situations such as an unequally geared machine. Worn faces can be welded up and reground. Worn bores can be plated and the inside diameter ground.
It is usually less expensive to regrind a set of tools than to replace it, but production volume and records may alter this. For example, if many parts require replacement, the cost approaches that of a new set.
Once a new set is in service, the old set should remain available as a standby. Also, if volume does not permit lengthy downtime while tools are being reground, a new set is the best choice because it only requires changeover.
Some minor adjustments are going to be made on a machine. One pass may be brought down a little hard, and one may be brought up a little bit. There may be a reverse reaction in the straightness adjustment. Little things like these can waste hours of setup time. All an operator has to do is write those things down, and eventually the set should go in little time.
With highly maintained roll tooling and good record keeping, a properly aligned mill can produce high-quality parts. Roll tooling can be replaced to ensure proper dimensions are consistent on all products. If the mill is out of alignment, its roll tooling will never be used to full capacity.
In today's workplace, lost production time resulting from emergency maintenance is no longer acceptable. Properly maintained roll tooling and mills that are aligned regularly can result in continuous quality. A good preventive maintenance program helps keep all tooling and mills in top working condition.
DWX milling machines were built for reliable, precise and error-free milling. Requiring no machine expertise to operate them, they are simple to set-up and feature a host of automated features. Choose from a range of dry-milling and wet-milling devices and create high-quality bridges, crowns and other restorations. A medical marking machine is also available for adding UDI compliant barcodes onto medical tools.
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We're a family owned & operated company established in 2009 that manufactures and markets a growing variety of specialty tools, in particular a Universal Track Saw guide rail system for handheld circular saws and routers.
I bought this package [8ft Combo Kit] in 2011 when I built our kitchen cabinets and needed to cut the plywood components to exact size. Wow, what a tool to cut plywood, I'll never do it on a table saw again!
"I do handyman and construction work and purchased this about 4 years ago. This tool saves me a ton of time...It's super accurate, easy to use, and reliable. Any home owner who does repairs around the house should own one of these..."
I bought this for myself for Christmas and I love it already! A bit of effort to set up, but then cuts are fabulously easy. Most importantly, it feels safer than the approach I had before. I love this!
The aluminum extrusions for our Track Saw Kits, Table Kits, and Router Gantry System are manufactured in either Cincinnati or Youngstown, Ohio. The plastic extrusions for the anti-chip edges are manufactured in Peebles, Ohio.We CNC machine our own adapter plates, set up jigs, and various other tidbits and accessories for our product lines. For example, our carrying & storage case is 100% made in-house and directly employs one full time employee.Started in April of 2009, the TrueTrac brand of products is still family owned and operated over ten years later. The company behind the brand is Levi Hollow Tools, LLC
I bought it as a gift. He's done nothing but rave about the TrueTrac track since and I've seen first hand the dramatic improvement in his work product. Smooth, straight cuts every time. I bought him clamps to use with the track, but he never uses them. The friction strip that comes with the track is more than adequate. Also, I made a mistake while ordering and the customer service was absolutely top notch.
I was a little apprehensive at first when looking into this system, however all of that has changed. I am a hobbyist not a professional woodworker and I must say that this system is impressive. It is incredibly easy to use with the table setup that I purchased as well. This system along with the table is a game change and makes this one of the best accessories I have purchased.
Used it to cut 11 foot pieces of 2" thick Black Walnut for a Bar top. Only problem was we had to cut one side turn it over and cut from the other side. May have to invest in a 10" circular saw and a adapter plate.
I purchased the 8ft. kit. I was able to adapt an old Craftsman corded circular saw no longer in use so it made an excellent partner to the conversion kit. As others mention, take your time and be as accurate as possible. The directions are clear so you can get it right. Now to the tracks: I had about 80 10 ft. foot of 3/8 in rough cut cedar planks I planning to use for paneling. Both edges of each plank were live edges and each plank had its own width. To get a squared edge, I used the track and adapted circular saw to cut a straight edge on one side. The accuracy was excellent. I was then able to use my table saw to cut the other edge and have perfectly true parallel sides and uniform width. In fact the track was so accurate and so easy to set at exact widths, I trued up some of the boards just using the track for both edges at the desired width. The project has worked out very well. I highly recommend this product.
The abilities of this machine just continue to grow! Thank you for the information on the finer points of the gantry system and tips on where to get the best materials to build my frame. P.S. Sawing more and more outside now, will be buying one of your track saw kits!
I was a little hesitant in buying this product. I was unsure if it would be compatible with my new saw ( roan dust collection saw) due to its design being a little different. Works like a charm!!!! Easy to set up even on a saw that is a little different like this one. Cuts where you place it every time. Dust is deciently contained with this saw and I'm sure with the dust collection it will be very very minimal. Very pleased!!!!
I bought it as a gift. He's done nothing but rave about the TrueTrac track since and I've seen first hand the dramatic improvement in his work product. Smooth, straight cuts every time. I bought him clamps to use with the track, but he never uses them. The friction strip that comes with the track is more than adequate. Also, I made a mistake while ordering and the customer service was absolutely top notch.