impact of the type of stone crusher design

impact crusher working principle

Starting from the base working principle that compression is the forcing of two surfaces towards one another to crush the material caught between them. Impact crushing can be of two variations: gravity and dynamic. An example of gravity impact would be dropping a rock onto a steel plate (similar to what goes on into an Autogenous Mill). Dynamic impact could be described as material dropping into a rapidly turning rotor where it receives a smashing blow from a hammer or impeller. Attrition crushing is the reduction of materials by rubbing; primarily a grinding method. Shear crushing is accomplished by breaking along or across lines of cleavage. It is possible, when required, for a crusherto use a combination of two or three of these principles.

Rapidly increasing operating costs for minerals beneficiating plants continue to be the biggest single problem in maximizing profitability from these operations. The average world inflation rate has been increasing over the last decade and shows little sign of easing. The threat of continued increases in the price of fuel oil will eventually increase the cost of electrical power, in direct proportion for most users. This will undoubtedly cause closure of some lower grade ore bodies unless energy utilization efficiencies, particularly in comminution, can be improved.

Most of the recent literature concerning comminution performance improvement has been directed at grinding mill performance. It can be expected that more refined control systems will improve the overall milling energy efficiency, which is normally the largest single cost component of production. However, published gains by such methods to date appear to be limited to something less than 10%.

The second largest cost for comminution processes is normally that for wear metal consumed in grinding operations. Allis-Chalmers has continuing -research programs into all forms of comminution processes involving crushing and grinding. Improved crushing technology shows the way to reducing both energy and wear metal consumption mainly by producing finer feed which will improve downstream grinding mill performance.

A new testing procedure for studying crushing phenomena, presently being perfected by Allis-Chalmers, is described for the first time. These bench scale laboratory tests will give more accurate prediction of both energy requirements and size distribution produced in commercial crushing processes. As a direct result, this machine will allow more accurate comparisons to be made in capital and operating cost expenditures for various combinations of crushing and milling processes.

These new testing procedures can be run on small samples including pieces of drill core material. They could be part of testing and feasibility studies for most new concentrators. The same methods can be used to determine likely yield of various sized crushed products and, therefore, benefit crushed stone producers.

The theoretical and practical phenomena concerning comminution processes have received considerable attention in the literature and are not discussed here in any detail. Instead, the breakage studies in this paper are based on an empirical treatment of the fundamental relationships between energy and the size distributions of processed particles that have been observed both in the laboratory and in large-scale, commercial cone-crushing operations.

Because of the bewildering number of variables encountered when studying comminution processes, most investigators have preferred to assume that the size distribution generated in milling and crushing processes bears some relatively fixed relationship such as those described by Gates-Gaudin-Schuhmann1 or Rosin-Rammler.

Fred Bond, in his Third Theory of Comminution, used the former, essentially assuming that size versus cumulative percent passing that size was represented by a straight line of assumed slope 0.5 below the 80% passing size. Based on this assumption, Bond derived his well-known relationship:

The Work Index for rod and ball mills can be determined from laboratory tests and, as demonstrated by Rowland, the relationship gives us a reasonably accurate tool for the design of rotary grinding mill circuits.

Bonds methods have been less successful in predicting fine crushing performance, however, primarily because the typical crusher feed and product distributions do not meet the assumed conditions necessary for the satisfactory application of his equation (see Fig. (1)).

It is most evident that the curved lines appearing on Fig. (1) do not represent a Gates-Gaudin-Schuhmann size distribution. It is therefore not surprising that Bonds procedures do not work well in this situation. The Rosin- Rammler distribution has also been found inadequate to generally describe crusher products.

Work during the early 60s led to the concept of comminution as a repetitive process, with each step consisting of two basic operations the selection of a particle for breakage and the subsequent breakage of this particle by the machine. In this approach, the process under investigation is modelled by combining the particle selection/breakage event with information on material flow in and out of the comminution device.

Most workers who have used this approach have considered size reduction to be the result of the mechanical operation of the comminution device. This mechanical operation consumes the energy, and size reduction is merely a result of this energy consumption. This viewpoint is reasonably valid for tumbling mills where energy input tends to be constant and the proportion of the energy that is usefully consumed in particle breakage is low (<10%). It does not appear to be valid in compression crushers, however, since breakage energy is a significant proportion (>50%) of the total energy input to the crusher and markedly different power rates (energy input per unit of crusher feed) can be obtained by varying ore feedrates and/or crusher parameters such as closed side setting. It will therefore be necessary to include energy information in any model of the crushing process before it will be possible to accurately predict crusher performance. The inclusion of this energy-size information will significantly increase the complexity of these models.

The single-particle breakage event has been the subject of several studies. Most of these have utilized only sufficient energy to break the particle and do not simulate commercial crushing operations where energy levels are such that catastrophic repetitive breakage usually takes place. This approach to the study of comminution processes does yield valuable information, however, and it is unfortunate that it has not received greater attention.

The Bond Impact Work Index method has been an industry standard for the determination of crusher power requirements but was originally developed to ensure, that sufficient power was connected to primary gyratory crushers. In this method, pieces of rock are fractured by trial and error in the test device shown in Fig. (2), until sufficient impact energy has been applied to break the rock.

Normally, the rock breaks in halves, and in most tests only two and seldom more than three large pieces are observed after fracture. No size distribution information is used in calculating the Bond Impact Work Index from the formula:

KWH/tonne). The procedure works quite well for this type of crusher but tends to understate power requirements in fine crushers where power rates are typically much higher (upwards from 0.25 KWH/tonne).

Because of this, a research program was instituted by Allis-Chalmers Comminution Task Force Committee to break rock in a manner more analogous to that observed within commercial fine crushers. A pendulum type test device similar in most respects to that developed by the United States Bureau of Mines and shown diagrammatically in Fig. (3), was built and has been used in an extensive test program to determine whether it would be possible to predict cone crusher performance.

The rock samples selected for crushing in this device are usually minus 38mm (1-), plus 19mm () in size. The sample rock is weighed and then placed between the platens. The end of the rebound platen is placed in contact with the rebound pendulum and the crushing pendulum is raised to a predetermined vertical height which depends on the size of the sample. The crushing pendulum is then released after striking the crushing platen and breaking the rock, the remaining energy is transferred via the rebound platen to the rebound pendulum. The horizontal distance that the rebound pendulum travels is recorded by displacement of a marker and is subsequently converted to a vertical height.

where Ec = crushing energy E1 = crushing pendulum potential energy (before release) KE = kinetic energy of the two platens E2 = rebound pendulum maximum potential energy (after crushing) EL = system energy loss (sound, heat, vibration)

The system energy loss, EL, is determined by plotting EL as a function of the initial height of the crushing pendulum with no rock present. The major portion of this loss is by vibration. It is felt that the difference between system energy losses with and without rock present in the system is minimal as long as enough initial energy is supplied to result in a small elevation of the rebound pendulum.

The fragments from several rock samples broken under identical conditions were combined for each of the size analyses reported in this paper. Bond Work Indices were also backcalculated from the data using the standard formula, i.e.

Confirmation of the ability of the procedure to provide information suitable for the prediction of crusher performance was obtained by taking feed samples from 31 commercial operations treating a wide range of rocks and ores. At the time of taking a feed sample for laboratory testing in the pendulum device, relevant performance data such as power, feed rate and size distributions for feed and product were taken on the operating crusher. Several thousand rocks have been broken during tests with the device over the past 3 years.

The first thing to notice from these graphs is that there is an extremely good family relationship within each set of size distribution curves. This is somewhat coincidental, since the pendulum curve is the product of a single particle-single impact breakage event and the typical crusher product curve results from multiple particle-multiple impact breakage, but is probably due to two facts:

In order to show that the pendulum product size distribution is sensitive to power rate, several tests have been run on the same feed material at different levels of pendulum input energy. Typical results are shown in Fig. (7) as Schuhmann size distribution (log-log) plots. It can be seen that increasing amounts of fine material are produced with increasing energy input. The same effect was previously demonstrated for an operating crusher in Fig. (1). We can, therefore, conclude from this

that net power rates will be the same in the pendulum and the crusher when the two distributions coincide (as they do in Figs. (4) thru (6). This permits us to determine the efficiency of power utilization in crushers and to predict the product size distribution which will arise from operating crushers at different power rates.

The Bond Work Index figures obtained by backcalculation from the pendulum data are compared with the Net Work Index values obtained from the plants in Fig. (8). The agreement is surprisingly good especially in view of the fact that the 80% passing values do not completely describe the total feed arid product size distributions. This agreement is probably due to the fact that the use of comparable energy levels in both machines gives rise to similar reduction ratios and product size distributions. Because of this, the pendulum test provides a good estimate of the Net Work Index when this is required for current design procedures.

The pendulum product distribution is a breakage function and can be used in models of the process to predict crusher product distributions for different operating conditions. As an example of this approach, Whitens model of the cone crusher, Fig. (9), has been used to simulate the situation given in Fig. (4). The result of this simulation is given in Fig. (10) where it can be seen that very good approximations of crusher performance can be obtained.

The writers are firmly of the opinion that results to date prove that the use of this pendulum device can give more energy-size reduction information in a form readily useable for crusher application. The data can be generated in less time and from a much smaller sample than is required for pilot plant testing. Our present pendulum tester is a research tool and is currently being modified for use in commercial testing of minerals and rocks. More details of this device will be given at a later date.

basalt stone crushing plant, stone crusher selection

The soft brittle stones will be crushed by jaw crusher, impact crusher, hammer crusher or box crusher (heavy hammer crusher). The hard brittle rocks should be crushed by cone crusher and vertical impact crusher.

Secondly, its the performance (crushing ratio) and applicability of the stone crusher. With extrusion crushing principle, jaw crusher has large crushing ratio, and produces mainly needle and flake discharge particles, which is suitable for coarse crushing; the products of cone crusher, impact crusher, hammer crusher have good grain shape, and are suitable for medium and fine crushing; impact crusher and hammer crusher are suitable for crushing medium and below medium hard stone; cone crusher and vertical impact crusher are suitable for above medium hard stone.

Finally, whether there are special quality standards for crushed stones. If high requirements for gravel particle size, it is necessary to carry out shaping, and the shaping stone crusher should be equipped.

The complete set of gravel production line mainly includes vibration feeder, jaw crusher, cone crusher, impact crusher, vibrating screen, belt conveyor, dust removal equipment, centralized electric control equipment etc.

With high silicon content and abrasion resistance, Basalt is hard and tough material , and difficult to be broken in actual crushing operation. In the design of crushing process, priority should be given to crushers with lamination crushing principle, to reduce the loss of wear-resistant parts.

(6) Shaping: impact crusher or shaping crusher (after screening the fine crushed stones, the qualified ones will be sent to the storage bin through the belt conveyor, and the materials with unqualified particle size and shape will be returned to the impact crusher or vertical impact crusher for further processing and shaping).

(9) In order to reduce dust and soil, the coarse crushed stone is transported to the medium crushing crusher by the vibration feeder, and the subsequent stone conveying is completed by the belt conveyor.

Whether dedusting equipment is installed depends on the cleanliness of the gravel (whether the mud content is qualified) and whether there is a water washing process. If there is a water washing process, it is not necessary to install the dust removal equipment.

The crushing mechanisms of different types of crushers are varied. With reasonable selection of stone crusher equipment, efficient configuration, process optimization and strict control of production and processing process, gravel aggregate quality can be effectively improved. Welcome to contact Zenith engineers for stone crushing solution.

In order to solve such problems as low production efficiency and difficult installation and maintenance, ZENITH developed a new generation of jaw crusher--- C6X Series Jaw Crusher. It is the most ideal coarse crushing equipment on current market because a

As the new generation of crusher, PEW Series Jaw Crusher is born with innovative significance. The unique design concept makes this crusher achieve perfect combination between crushing efficiency and operating cost.

line impact crusher pf type impact crusher artificial stone production line - best stone crusher plant solution from henan dewo

Dewo machinery can provides complete set of crushing and screening line, including Hydraulic Cone Crusher, Jaw Crusher, Impact Crusher, Vertical Shaft Impact Crusher (Sand Making Machine), fixed and movable rock crushing line, but also provides turnkey project for cement production line, ore beneficiation production line and drying production line. Dewo Machinery can provide high quality products, as well as customized optimized technical proposal and one station after- sales service.

Hongji Group Product Superiority. Impact crusher is also called stone impact crusher which is widely used in rock mining and quarrying and stone crushing. It is often seen in quarrying plant, ore beneficiation plant and power station and it is an important impact crushing machine.

It offers larger crushing ratio and more fully utilizes the high-speed impact energy of the rotor, which is the best choice in stone and gravel crushing line. However, as crusher boards are easy to wear, there is a limitation to crush hard materials, PF series impact crusher is usually used for coarse and fine crushing of medium-hardness materials.

Stone production line including: Vibrating feeder, jaw crusher, impact crusher, vibrating screen, belt conveyor and centrally electric controlling system, etc. The designed capacity is from 50t/h to 500t/h. To meet customer's specific requirement, we can also add other equipments such as cone crusher, dust catcher on the production line.

FEATURES Introduction to Impact Crusher. Impact crusher, which can also be called impact breaker,impact pulverizer or impactor crusher, is a new type of high-efficiency crushing machine with the features of small size, simple structure, large crushing ratio, low energy consumption, large production capacity, uniform product granularity and selective crushing.

This production line is one of classic design for crushing. With the unique vortex type three crushing cavities of the impact crusher, it produces the final product of high quality aggregate with character of uniformity in size and cubical in shape.

Throttling feed can maximize the production capacity and ensure that the particles are evenly crushed so that there are little needle and block materials in the stone-to-stone process. Cone crusher The cone crusher in the secondary or tertiary crushing proccess often fractures medium-hard or hard rocks like pebble, quartz, granite, etc.

Shanghai Longzhen Heavy Industry Co.,Ltd is a high-tech enterprise in Shanghai, specializing in mining crushing equipment and industrial milling equipment. Companys general headquarter is in beautiful Pudong New District, Shanghai, it has convenient transportation and it is close to Pudong Internati...

vertical impact crusher manufacturer/supplier, China vertical impact crusher manufacturer & factory list, find qualified Chinese vertical impact crusher manufacturers, suppliers, factories, exporters & wholesalers quickly on Made-in-China.com.

what is impact crusher|working principle, parts and types | quarrying & aggregates

The impact crusher is a highly efficient coarse, medium and fine crusher for medium-hard and softer rocks. Whether in a quarry, mining or Construction waste recycling, the impact crusher can efficiently crush the stone, so that the particle shape, particle size distribution and cleanliness are in line with the strict standards of concrete and asphalt aggregate. Impact crushing equipment not only achieves first-class product quality but also a remarkable throughput.

When the stone falls into the working area of the blow bar (hammer), it is crushed by the impact of the blow bar on the high-speed rotating rotor, and is thrown to the apron for a second impact, and rebounds until the rotating blow bar (hammer) is hit again. This process is repeated until the material is crushed to the required size and discharged from the machine outlet.

Aiming at the problems of the previous generation of impact crushers in terms of crushing efficiency and processing capacity, the CI5X impact crusher optimizes the crushing cavity type, rotor speed and power curve, improves the crushing efficiency and crushing ratio, and makes the finished product The aggregate shape is further optimized, and the gradation curve is more reasonable.

The comprehensive processing capacity of the equipment is increased by more than 15% compared with the previous generation products, which can meet the requirements of high-grade concrete for the preparation of aggregates.

PFW impact crusher is a new type of high-performance hydraulic crusher developed with internationally advanced impact crusher technology. It is very suitable for coarse, medium and fine crushing of various soft and medium-hard minerals and rocks.

PF impact crusher adopts traditional impact crushing technology. After years of design optimization, it has more excellent performance and reliable use. It is the most common medium-hard and soft material fine crushing equipment.

The PF impact crushing cavity and rotor have been optimized in design, and the production capacity and finished product particle size have been improved compared with traditional impact crushing. The counterattack frame and rotor are mechanically adjusted, which is simple and reliable.

primary crusher selection & design

The crusher capacities given by manufacturers are typically in tons of 2,000 lbs. and are based on crushing limestone weighing loose about 2,700 lbs. per yard3 and having a specific gravity of 2.6. Wet, sticky and extremely hard or tough feeds will tend to reduce crusher capacities.

Selectiingwhat size a crusher needs to be is based on factors such as the F80 size of the rocks to be crushed, the production rate, and the P80 desired product output size. Primary crushers with crush run-of-mine rock from blast product size to what can be carried by the discharge conveyor or fit/math the downstream process.A typical example of primary crushing is reducing top-size from 900 to 200 mm.

Ultimately, the mining sequence will certainly impact the primary crusher selection. Where you will mine ore and where from, is a deciding factor not so much for picking between a jaw or gyratory crusher but its mobility level.

The mom and dad of primary crushers are jaw and gyratory crushers. In open-pit mines where high tonnage is required, thegyratory crushers are typically the choice as jaw crushers will not crush over 500 TPH with great ease. There are exceptions like MPI Mineral Park in AZ where 50,000 TPD was processed via 2 early century vintage jaw crushers of a:

The rated capacity at 5 closed-side setting was 490 stph based on standard 100lbs/ft3 feed material. These crushers were fed a very fine ore over a 4 grizzly which allowed the 1000 TPH the SAG mills needed.

In under-ground crushing plants where the diameter of the mine-shaft a skip forces limits on rock size, a jaw crusher will be the machine of choice. Again, if crushing on surface, both styles of stone crushing machines should be evaluated.

crushers - an overview | sciencedirect topics

This crusher developed by Jaques (now Terex Mineral Processing Solutions) has several internal chamber configurations available depending on the abrasiveness of the ore. Examples include the Rock on Rock, Rock on Anvil and Shoe and Anvil configurations (Figure 6.26). These units typically operate with 5 to 6 steel impellers or hammers, with a ring of thin anvils. Rock is hit or accelerated to impact on the anvils, after which the broken fragments freefall into the discharge chute and onto a product conveyor belt. This impact size reduction process was modeled by Kojovic (1996) and Djordjevic et al. (2003) using rotor dimensions and speed, and rock breakage characteristics measured in the laboratory. The model was also extended to the Barmac crushers (Napier-Munn et al., 1996).

Crushers are widely used as a primary stage to produce the particulate product finer than about 50100 mm in size. They are classified as jaw, gyratory and cone crushers based on compression, cutter mill based on shear and hammer crusher based on impact.

A jaw crusher consists essentially of two crushing plates, inclined to each other forming a horizontal opening by their lower borders. Material is crushed between a fixed and a movable plate by reciprocating pressure until the crushed product becomes small enough to pass through the gap between the crushing plates. Jaw crushers find a wide application for brittle materials. For example, they are used for comminution of porous copper cake.

A gyratory crusher includes a solid cone set on a revolving shaft and placed within a hollow body, which has conical or vertical sloping sides. Material is crushed when the crushing surfaces approach each other and the crushed products fall through the discharging opening.

Hammer crushers are used either as a one-step primary crusher or as a secondary crusher for products from a primary crusher. They are widely used for crushing of hard metal scrap for different hard metal recycling processes.

Pivoted hammers are pendulous, mounted on the horizontal axes symmetrically located along the perimeter of a rotor and crushing takes place by the impact of material pieces with the high speed moving hammers and by contact with breaker plates. A cylindrical grating or screen is placed beneath the rotor. Materials are reduced to a size small enough pass through the openings of the grating or screen. The size of product can be regulated by changing the spacing of the grate bars or the opening of the screen.

The feature of the hammer crushers is the appearance of elevated pressure of air in the discharging unit of the crusher and underpressure in the zone around of the shaft close to the inside surface of the body side walls. Thus, the hammer crushers also act as high-pressure forced-draught fans. This may lead to environmental pollution and product losses in fine powder fractions.

A design for a hammer crusher (Figure 2.6) allows essentially a decrease of the elevated pressure of air in the crusher discharging unit [5]. The A-zone beneath the screen is communicated through the hollow ribs and openings in the body side walls with the B-zone around the shaft close to the inside surface of body side walls. As a result, circulation of suspended matter in the gas between A- and B-zones is established and high pressure of air in the discharging unit of crusher is reduced.

Crushers are widely used as a primary stage to produce the particulate product finer than about 50100mm. They are classified as jaw, gyratory, and cone crushers based on compression, cutter mill based on shear, and hammer crusher based on impact.

A jaw crusher consists essentially of two crushing plates, inclined to each other forming a horizontal opening by their lower borders. Material is crushed between a fixed and a movable plate by reciprocating pressure until the crushed product becomes small enough to pass through the gap between the crushing plates. Jaw crushers find a wide application for brittle materials. For example, they are used for comminution of porous copper cake. A Fritsch jaw crusher with maximal feed size 95mm, final fineness (depends on gap setting) 0.315mm, and maximal continuous throughput 250Kg/h is shown in Fig. 2.8.

A gyratory crusher includes a solid cone set on a revolving shaft and placed within a hollow body, which has conical or vertical sloping sides. Material is crushed when the crushing surfaces approach each other and the crushed products fall through the discharging opening.

Hammer crushers are used either as a one-step primary crusher or as a secondary crusher for products from a primary crusher. They are widely used for crushing hard metal scrap for different hard metal recycling processes. Pivoted hammers are pendulous, mounted on the horizontal axes symmetrically located along the perimeter of a rotor. Crushing takes place by the impact of material pieces with the high speed moving hammers and by contact with breaker plates. A cylindrical grating or screen is placed beneath the rotor. Materials are reduced to a size small enough to pass through the openings of the grating or screen. The size of the product can be regulated by changing the spacing of the grate bars or the opening of the screen.

The feature of the hammer crushers is the appearance of elevated pressure of air in the discharging unit of the crusher and underpressure in the zone around the shaft close to the inside surface of the body side walls. Thus, the hammer crushers also act as high-pressure, forced-draught fans. This may lead to environmental pollution and product losses in fine powder fractions. A design for a hammer crusher (Fig. 2.9) essentially allows a decrease of the elevated pressure of air in the crusher discharging unit [5]. The A-zone beneath the screen is communicated through the hollow ribs and openings in the body side walls with the B-zone around the shaft close to the inside surface of body side walls. As a result, the circulation of suspended matter in the gas between A and B zones is established and the high pressure of air in the discharging unit of crusher is reduced.

Secondary coal crusher: Used when the coal coming from the supplier is large enough to be handled by a single crusher. The primary crusher converts the feed size to one that is acceptable to the secondary crusher.

The main sources of RA are either from construction and ready mixed concrete sites, demolition sites or from roads. The demolition sites produce a heterogeneous material, whereas ready mixed concrete or prefabricated concrete plants produce a more homogeneous material. RAs are mainly produced in fixed crushing plant around big cities where CDWs are available. However, for roads and to reduce transportation cost, mobile crushing installations are used.

The materiel for RA manufacturing does not differ from that of producing NA in quarries. However, it should be more robust to resist wear, and it handles large blocks of up to 1m. The main difference is that RAs need the elimination of contaminants such as wood, joint sealants, plastics, and steel which should be removed with blast of air for light materials and electro-magnets for steel. The materials are first separated from other undesired materials then treated by washing and air to take out contamination. The quality and grading of aggregates depend on the choice of the crusher type.

Jaw crusher: The material is crushed between a fixed jaw and a mobile jaw. The feed is subjected to repeated pressure as it passes downwards and is progressively reduced in size until it is small enough to pass out of the crushing chamber. This crusher produces less fines but the aggregates have a more elongated form.

Hammer (impact) crusher: The feed is fragmented by kinetic energy introduced by a rotating mass (the rotor) which projects the material against a fixed surface causing it to shatter causing further particle size reduction. This crusher produces more rounded shape.

Jaw crushers are mainly used as primary crushers to produce material that can be transported by belt conveyors to the next crushing stages. The crushing process takes place between a fixed jaw and a moving jaw. The moving jaw dies are mounted on a pitman that has a reciprocating motion. The jaw dies must be replaced regularly due to wear. Figure 8.1 shows two basic types of jaw crushers: single toggle and double toggle. In the single toggle jaw crusher, an eccentric shaft is installed on the top of the crusher. Shaft rotation causes, along with the toggle plate, a compressive action of the moving jaw. A double toggle crusher has, basically, two shafts and two toggle plates. The first shaft is a pivoting shaft on the top of the crusher, while the other is an eccentric shaft that drives both toggle plates. The moving jaw has a pure reciprocating motion toward the fixed jaw. The crushing force is doubled compared to single toggle crushers and it can crush very hard ores. The jaw crusher is reliable and robust and therefore quite popular in primary crushing plants. The capacity of jaw crushers is limited, so they are typically used for small or medium projects up to approximately 1600t/h. Vibrating screens are often placed ahead of the jaw crushers to remove undersize material, or scalp the feed, and thereby increase the capacity of the primary crushing operation.

Both cone and gyratory crushers, as shown in Figure 8.2, have an oscillating shaft. The material is crushed in a crushing cavity, between an external fixed element (bowl liner) and an internal moving element (mantle) mounted on the oscillating shaft assembly. An eccentric shaft rotated by a gear and pinion produces the oscillating movement of the main shaft. The eccentricity causes the cone head to oscillate between the open side setting (o.s.s.) and closed side setting (c.s.s.). In addition to c.s.s., eccentricity is one of the major factors that determine the capacity of gyratory and cone crushers. The fragmentation of the material results from the continuous compression that takes place between the mantle and bowl liners. An additional crushing effect occurs between the compressed particles, resulting in less wear of the liners. This is also called interparticle crushing. The gyratory crushers are equipped with a hydraulic setting adjustment system, which adjusts c.s.s. and thus affects product size distribution. Depending on cone type, the c.s.s. setting can be adjusted in two ways. The first way is by rotating the bowl against the threads so that the vertical position of the outer wear part (concave) is changed. One advantage of this adjustment type is that the liners wear more evenly. Another principle of setting adjustment is by lifting/lowering the main shaft. An advantage of this is that adjustment can be done continuously under load. To optimize operating costs and improve the product shape, as a rule of thumb, it is recommended that cones always be choke-fed, meaning that the cavity should be as full of rock material as possible. This can be easily achieved by using a stockpile or a silo to regulate the inevitable fluctuation of feed material flow. Level monitoring devices that detect the maximum and minimum levels of the material are used to start and stop the feed of material to the crusher as needed.

Primary gyratory crushers are used in the primary crushing stage. Compared to the cone type crusher, a gyratory crusher has a crushing chamber designed to accept feed material of a relatively large size in relation to the mantle diameter. The primary gyratory crusher offers high capacity thanks to its generously dimensioned circular discharge opening (which provides a much larger area than that of the jaw crusher) and the continuous operation principle (while the reciprocating motion of the jaw crusher produces a batch crushing action). The gyratory crusher has capacities starting from 1200 to above 5000t/h. To have a feed opening corresponding to that of a jaw crusher, the primary gyratory crusher must be much taller and heavier. Therefore, primary gyratories require quite a massive foundation.

The cone crusher is a modified gyratory crusher. The essential difference is that the shorter spindle of the cone crusher is not suspended, as in the gyratory, but is supported in a curved, universal bearing below the gyratory head or cone (Figure 8.2). Power is transmitted from the source to the countershaft to a V-belt or direct drive. The countershaft has a bevel pinion pressed and keyed to it and drives the gear on the eccentric assembly. The eccentric assembly has a tapered, offset bore and provides the means whereby the head and main shaft follow an eccentric path during each cycle of rotation. Cone crushers are used for intermediate and fine crushing after primary crushing. The key factor for the performance of a cone type secondary crusher is the profile of the crushing chamber or cavity. Therefore, there is normally a range of standard cavities available for each crusher, to allow selection of the appropriate cavity for the feed material in question.

Roll crushers are arbitrarily divided into light and heavy duty crushers. The diameters of the light duty crushers vary between 228 and 760mm with face lengths between 250 and 460mm. The spring pressure for light duty rolls varies between 1.1 and 5.6kg/m. The heavy duty crusher diameters range between 900 and 1000mm with face length between 300 and 610mm. In general, the spring pressures of the heavy duty rolls range between 7 and 60kg/m. The light duty rolls are designed to operate at faster speeds compared to heavy duty rolls that are designed to operate at lower speeds.

It has been stressed that the coal supplier should initially crush the materials to a maximum size such as 300 mm, but they may be something else depending on the agreement or coal tie up. To circumvent the situation, the CHP keeps a crushing provision so that coal bunkers receive the materials at a maximum size of about 2025 mm.

The unloaded coal in the hoppers is transferred to the crusher house through belt conveyors with different stopovers in between such as the penthouse, transfer points, etc., depending on the CHP layout.

Suspended magnets for the removal of tramp iron pieces and metal detectors for identifying nonferrous materials are provided at strategic points to intercept unacceptable materials before they reach the crushers. There may be arrangements for manual stone picking from the conveyors, as suitable. Crushed coal is then sent directly to the stockyard.

A coal-sampling unit is provided for uncrushed coal. Online coal analyzers are also available, but they are a costly item. Screens (vibrating grizzly or rollers) are provided at the upstream of the crushers to sort out the smaller sizes as stipulated, and larger pieces are guided to the crushers.

Appropriate types of isolation gates, for example, rod or rack and pinion gates, are provided before screens to isolate one set of crushers/screens to carry on maintenance work without affecting the operation of other streams.

Vibrating grizzly or roller screens are provided upstream of the crushers for less than 25 (typical) mm coal particles bypass the crusher and coal size more than 25 mm then fed to the crushers. The crushed coal is either fed to the coal bunkers of the boilers or discharged to the coal stockyard through conveyors and transfer points, if any.

This is used for crushing and breaking large coal in the first step of coal crushing plant applied most widely in coal crushing industry. Jaw crushers are designed for primary crushing of hard rocks without rubbing and with minimum dust. Jaw crushers may be utilized for materials such as coal, granite, basalt, river gravel, bauxite, marble, slag, hard rock, limestone, iron ore, magazine ore, etc., within a pressure resistance strength of 200 MPa. Jaw crushers are characterized for different features such as a simple structure, easy maintenance, low cost, high crushing ratio, and high resistance to friction/abrasion/compression with a longer operating lifespan.

Fixed and movable jaw plates are the two main components. A motor-driven eccentric shaft through suitable hardware makes the movable jaw plate travel in a regulated track and hit the materials in the crushing chamber comprising a fixed-jaw plate to assert compression force for crushing.

A coal hammer crusher is developed for materials having pressure-resistance strength over 100 Mpa and humidity not more than 15%. A hammer crusher is suitable for mid-hard and light erosive materials such as coal, salt, chalk, gypsum, limestone, etc.

Hammer mills are primarily steel drums that contain a vertical or horizontal cross-shaped rotor mounted with pivoting hammers that can freely swing on either end of the cross. While the material is fed into the feed hopper, the rotor placed inside the drum is spun at a high speed. Thereafter, the hammers on the ends of the rotating cross thrust the material, thereby shredding and expelling it through the screens fitted in the drum.

Ring granulators are used for crushing coal to a size acceptable to the mills for conversion to powdered coal. A ring granulator prevents both the oversizing and undersizing of coal, helping the quality of the finished product and improving the workability. Due to its strong construction, a ring granulator is capable of crushing coal, limestone, lignite, or gypsum as well as other medium-to-hard friable items. Ring granulators are rugged, dependable, and specially designed for continuous high capacity crushing of materials. Ring granulators are available with operating capacities from 40 to 1800 tons/h or even more with a feed size up to 500 mm. Adjustment of clearance between the cage and the path of the rings takes care of the product gradation as well as compensates for wear and tear of the machine parts for maintaining product size. The unique combination of impact and rolling compression makes the crushing action yield a higher output with a lower noise level and power consumption. Here, the product is almost of uniform granular size with n adjustable range of less than 2025 mm. As the crushing action involves minimum attrition, thereby minimum fines are produced with improving efficiency.

A ring granulator works on n operating principle similar to a hammer mill, but the hammers are replaced with rolling rings. The ring granulator compresses material by impact in association with shear and compression force. It comprises a screen plate/cage bar steel box with an opening in the top cover for feeding. The power-driven horizontal main shaft passes from frame side to frame side, supporting a number of circular discs fixed at regular intervals across its length within the frame. There are quite a few bars running parallel to the main shaft and around the periphery that pass through these discs near their outer edges. The bars are uniformly located about the center of the main rotating shaft. There are a series of rings in between the two consecutive disc spaces, mounted on each bar. They are free to rotate on the bars irrespective of the main shaft rotation. The entire cage assembly, located below the rotor assembly, can be set at a desired close proximity to the rings by screw jack mechanism adjustable from outside the crusher frame. The rotor assembly consisting of the shaft, discs, rings, etc., is fixed as far as the main shaft center line is concerned. This main shaft carries in roller bearings from the box sides. The movable cage frame arrangement is provided so as to set its inner radius marginally larger than that of the ring running periphery. When coal is fed from the top, the rings also rotate along with the shaft and around their own center line along the bars, which drags coal lumps and crushes them to the desired size. After the coal has been crushed by the coal crusher, a vibrating screen grades the coal by size and the coal is then transported via belt conveyor. In this process, a dewatering screen is optional to remove water from the product.

Crusher machines are used for crushing of a wide variety of materials in the mining, iron and steel, and quarry industries. In quarry industry, they are used for crushing of rocks into granites for road-building and civil works. Crusher machines are equipped with a pair of crusher jaws namely; fixed jaws and swing jaws. Both jaws are fixed in a vertical position at the front end of a hollow rectangular frame of crushing machine as shown in Fig.10.1. The swing jaw is moved against the fixed jaws through knuckle action by the rising and falling of a second lever (pitman) carried by eccentric shaft. The vertical movement is then horizontally fixed to the jaw by double toggle plates. Because the jaw is pivoted at the top, the throw is greatest at the discharge, preventing chocking.

The crushing force is produced by an eccentric shaft. Then it is transferred to the crushing zone via a toggle plate system and supported by the back wall of the housing of the machine. Spring-pulling rods keep the whole system in a condition of no positive connection. Centrifugal masses on the eccentric shaft serve as compensation for heavy loads. A flywheel is provided in the form of a pulley. Due to the favorable angle of dip between the crushing jaws, the feeding material can be reduced directly after entering the machine. The final grain size distribution is influenced by both the adjustable crusher setting and the suitability of the tooth form selected for the crushing plates.

Thus, the crusher jaws must be hard and tough enough to crush rock and meet the impact action generated by the action of swing jaws respectively. If the jaws are hard, it will be efficient in crushing rock but it will be susceptible to fracture failure. On the other hand, if the jaws are tough, the teeth will worn out very fast, but it will be able to withstand fracture failure. Thus, crusher jaws are made of highly wear-resistant austenitic manganese steel casting, which combines both high toughness and good resistance to wear.

Austenitic manganese steel was invented by Sir Robert Hadfield in 1882 and was first granted patented in Britain in 1883 with patent number 200. The first United States patents, numbers 303150 and 303151, were granted in 1884. In accordance with ASTM A128 specification, the basic chemical composition of Hadfield steel is 1%1.4% carbon and 11%14% manganese. However, the manganese to carbon ratio is optimum at 10:1 to ensure an austenitic microstructure after quenching [2]. Austenitic manganese steels possess unique resistance to impact and abrasion wears. They exhibit high levels of ductility and toughness, slow crack propagation rates, and a high rate of work-hardening resulting in superior wear resistance in comparison with other potentially competitive materials [310]. These unique properties have made Hadfield's austenitic manganese steel an engineering material of choice for use in heavy industries, such as earth moving, mining, quarrying, oil and gas drilling, and in processing of various materials for components of crushers, mills, and construction machinery (lining plates, hammers, jaws, cones).

Austenitic manganese steel has a yield strength between 50,000psi (345MPa) and 60,000psi (414MPa) [3]. Although stronger than low carbon steel, it is not as strong as medium carbon steel. It is, however, much tougher than medium carbon steel. Yielding in austenitic manganese steel signifies the onset of work-hardening and accompanying plastic deformation. The modulus of elasticity for austenitic manganese steel is 27106psi (186103MPa) and is somewhat below that of carbon steel, which is generally taken as 29106psi (200103MPa). The ultimate tensile strength of austenitic manganese steel varies but is generally taken as 140,000psi (965MPa). At this tensile strength, austenitic manganese steel displays elongation in the 35%40% range. The fatigue limit for manganese steel is about 39,000psi (269MPa). The ability of austenitic manganese to work-harden up to its ultimate tensile strength is its main feature. In this regard austenitic manganese has no equal. The range of work-hardening of austenitic manganese from yield to ultimate tensile is approximately 200%.

When subjected to impact loads Hadfield steel work-hardens considerably while exhibiting superior toughness. However, due to its low yield strength, large deformation may occur and lead to failure before the work-hardening sets in [11]. This phenomenon is detrimental when it comes to some applications, such as rock crushing [12]. Work-hardening behavior of Hadfield steel has been attributed to dynamic strain aging [13]. The hardening or strengthening mechanism has its origin in the interactions between dislocations and the high concentration of interstitial atoms also known as the CottrellBilby interaction. Thus, the wear properties of Hadfield steel are related to its microstructure, which in turn is dependent on the heat-treatment process and chemical composition of the alloy. According to Haakonsen [14], work-hardening is influenced by such parameters as alloy chemistry, temperature, and strain rate.

Carbon content affects the yield strength of AMS. Carbon levels below 1% cause yield strengths to decrease. The optimum carbon content has been found to be between 1% and 1.2%. Above 1.2% carbides precipitate and segregate to grain boundaries, resulting in compromised strength and ductility particularly in heavy sections [15]. Other alloying elements, such as chromium, will increase the yield strength, but decrease ductility. Silicon is generally added as a deoxidizer. Carbon contents above 1.4% are not generally used as the carbon segregates to the grain boundaries as carbides and is detrimental to both strength and ductility [15].

Manganese has very little effect on the yield strength of austenitic manganese steel, but does affect both the ultimate tensile strength and ductility. Maximum tensile strengths are attained with 12%13% manganese contents [16]. Although acceptable mechanical properties can be achieved up to 20% manganese content, there is no economic advantage in using manganese contents greater than 13%. Manganese acts as an austenitic stabilizer and delays isothermal transformation. For example, carbon steel containing 1% manganese begins isothermal transformation about 15s after quenching to 371C, whereas steel containing 12% manganese begins isothermal transformation about 48h after quenching to 371C [15].

Austenitic manganese steel in as-cast condition is characterized by an austenitic microstructure with precipitates of alloyed cementite and the triple phosphorus eutectic of an Fe-(Fe,Mn)3C-(Fe,Mn)3P type [17], which appears when the phosphorus content exceeds 0.04% [18]. It also contains nonmetallic inclusions, such as oxides, sulfides, and nitrides. This type of microstructure is unfavorable due to the presence of the (Fe, Mn)xCy carbides spread along the grain boundaries [19]. However, in solution-treated conditions austenitic manganese steel structure is essentially austenitic because carbon is in austenite solution [19]. The practical limit of carbon in solution is about 1.2%. Thereafter, excess carbon precipitation to the grain boundaries results, especially in heavier sections [20].

Austenitic manganese steel in the as-cast condition is too brittle for normal use. As section thickness increases, the cooling rate within the molds decreases. This decreased cooling rate results in increased embrittlement due to carbon precipitation. In as-cast castings, the tensile strength ranges from approximately 50,000psi. (345MPa) to 70,000psi (483MPa) and displays elongation values below 1%. Heat treatment is used to strengthen and increase the mechanical properties of austenitic manganese steel. The normal heat-treatment method consists of solution annealing and rapid quenching in a water bath.

Considering the mechanical properties, it is difficult to imagine that a casting made from Hadfield steel could suffer failure in service. However, cases like this do happen, especially in heavy-section elements and result in enormous losses of material and long downtimes. The reason for such failures is usually attributed to insufficient ductility, resulting from sensitivity of austenitic manganese steel to section size, heat treatment, and the rapidity and effectiveness of quenching [21]. Poor quench compounded by large section size results in an unstable, in-homogenous structure, subject to transformation to martensite under increased loading and strain rate. This article investigates the cause of incessant failure of locally produced crusher jaws from Hadfield steel.

According to the recent marketing research data conducted by the foundry an estimate of 15,000metrictons of this component is being consumed annually in the local market. This is valued at about $30million. From this market demand, the foundry plant can only supply about 5% valued at $1.5million. This is because the crusher jaws produced locally failed prematurely. Hence, this study aimed at investigating the causes of failure.

Annual wine exports in the European Union is around 21.9 billion (Eurostat) with France being the main wine exporting country followed by Italy and Spain. The wine production process (Fig. 9.1) can be divided into the following stages (Sections 9.2.1.19.2.1.4).

Grape crushers or crusher destemmers are initially used via light processing to avoid seed fracture. Sulfur dioxide is added to the mass to prevent oxidation. At this stage, grape stems are produced as one of the waste streams of the winery process. The mash is pressed in continuous, pneumatic, or vertical basket presses leading to the separation of the pomace (marc) from the must. Microbial growth is suppressed via sulfur dioxide addition.

The solids present in the must are removed before or after fermentation for white wine production. Fining is achieved by combined processes including filtration, centrifugation, flocculation, physicochemical treatment (e.g., activated carbon, gelatin, etc.,), and stabilization to prevent turbidity formation (e.g., the use of bentonite, cold stabilization techniques, etc.). Clarification leads to the separation of sediments via racking.

Wine production is carried out at temperatures lower than 20C for 610 weeks in stainless steel bioreactors or vats with or without yeast inoculation (most frequently Saccharomyces cerevisiae). At the end of fermentation, the wine is cooled (4C5C) and subsequently aged in barrels or wooden vats. The sediment that is produced during fermentation and aging is called wine lees and constitutes one of the waste streams produced by wineries. Current uses of wine lees include tartrate production and ethanol distillation. Lees could also be processed via rotary vacuum filtration for recycling of the liquid fraction and composting of the solid fraction.

Wine is cooled rapidly to facilitate the precipitation of tartrate crystals. Fining is applied for the separation of suspended particles using bentonite and gelatin. Filtration is subsequently applied to remove any insoluble compounds. The wine is finally transferred into bottles.

The main differences in the red wine production process are skin maceration duration, fermentation temperature, and unit operation sequence. Whole crushed grapes are most frequently used in red wine fermentation, which is carried out at 22C28C to facilitate the extraction of color and flavors. The remaining skins, seeds, and grape solids after fermentation are pressed to recover wine with the correct proportions of tannins and other compounds necessary for the final wine product.

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