indonesia sea sand iron

pearl: meanings, properties and powers - the complete guide

Small foreign bodies, like grains of sand or small parasites, get inside the mollusk and form layers of pearly materials around it as a defense. Layers in the Pearl build up just like the layers of an onion, creating concentric circles.

Pearls can be found in the Philippines and Sri Lanka and the Caribbean, and the Gulf of California. Freshwater and saltwater Pearls can also be found in Japan, China, Ireland, Scotland, France, Austria, Australia, Germany, and the USA.

Pearls can be used to access the wisdom of the Goddess in many moon rituals and also in manifestation work. They are very balancing in their vibration, gently bringing the energies of balance and harmony to the aura and etheric bodies.

They have beautiful colors and a pleasing shape, somewhat resembling the shape of an ear. They are often referred to as ears of the sea and used as natural vessels in many healing and shamanic rituals.

You will be firmly anchored to reality, but you will not become jaded or cynical. This stone will enlighten your mind and help you determine right from wrong. It will make you realize that not everything is black or white, and not everything is set in stone.

Pearls can last a lifetime if you know how to take care of them properly. Its important not to expose them to sunlight, dryness, humidity, acid, or wide temperature variations because this can dull your Pearls luster.

Wearing your Pearls is the best way that you can take care of them because your bodys natural oils will keep them lustrous. This also means that you can access their special powers as symbols of plenty, abundance, positivity, and a divine feminine spirit.

Pearl can also help with mood swings in both sexes, bringing a sense of proportion to any situation that has become overwhelming or out of control. The gentle vibration of Pearl also soothes the emotions of anyone who is grieving for the loss of a loved one.

Because there is such a strong Pearl symbolism in many cultures worldwide, wearing them helps to give you the presentation of someone successful, powerful, and prestigious. Pearls are classic and timeless and will always be relevant no matter the occasion.

They say that money goes to money. If you look like youre already well to do, people cant help but back your ideas, invest in your business and open the doors you need to get your money-making ideas off the ground.

Pearl will bring love energies to your relationship. It will strengthen the love thats already there, and it will give you the love that you seek if youre single and looking for a soul mate or life partner.

Its a stone that will strengthen relationships. It will improve your treatment of each other, and there will be more open lines of communication. Keep your heart open and your aura clear, and love will come knocking at your door when you least expect it.

We can use Pearl to connect us more deeply with the Earth through our Base chakras. It also forms a direct connection with our Earth Star chakra, which lies between our feet, about 20cm into the ground, and holds the pattern of our destiny and life purpose.

Together, these stones form a powerful vibration for bringing in the energies of Archangel Gabriel, who will help you understand your true purpose and bring you the discipline you need to see your projects and ideas through to completion on this plane.

After all, just as the mollusk in nature takes something nasty and dirty and coats it until it forms a Pearl, so too can the crystals surrounding you transform nasty situations into nicer ones with the right approach!

It brings the energies of curiosity and adaptability to Geminis, who are often very quick to learn. It also enhances your gentle, affectionate nature if you are a Gemini born in June. Peach Peals are popular as birthstones for Geminis.

Unlike other gemstones that can be derived from the earth, Pearl is the result of an organic process produced by a living creature. This gives it special energies absent from some other crystals, although petrified wood has similar properties. Pearl is the result of the creature protecting itself from the irritation of grit, sand, or parasites, which is why its considered the gemstone of nourishment and nurturing.

Its a stone that will enhance your ability to take care and nurture yourself. Wearing Pearls makes you feel special. They are timeless and classic, giving the wearer a sense of confidence and assurance.

Pearl is very soothing and calming in nature. It has a maternal, nurturing, and supportive vibration that can be relied upon to soothe frayed nerves, comfort troubled minds, and engender feelings of love and compassion for others.

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government of indonesia opens room for iron sand exports | indonesia investments

After the word spread that the government of Indonesia will reevaluate its export ban on mineral ore, Indonesia's Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources announced it will soon open room for exports of iron sand (a type of sand with heavy concentrations of iron). Bambang Gatot, Director General for Coal and Minerals at the Energy Ministry, said exporters will have to pay export duties but declined to inform about the exact amount. He did say, however, that the mechanism will be similar to the export duty mechanism used for other concentrate exports (including copper) in the "post-New Mining Law era".

Ministry of Finance Regulation No 153/PMK.011/2014 (Finance Ministry Regulation) sets an export duty on copper, iron, manganese, zinc, titanium, and lead concentrates in the range of 0 and 7.5 percent. The exact percentage depends on exporters' progress with processing facility (smelter) development. In accordance with the 2009 Mining Law the country's miners are required to build domestic processing facilities as the government seeks to ban exports of mineral ore in order to boost the development of domestic processing facilities hence boosting exports of mining products that are higher up in the value chain. This highly controversial mineral ore export ban - which conflicts with existing Contracts of Work - was planned to be implemented in full force in January 2014 but its implementation was delayed as Indonesia still lacks a sufficient amount of processing facilities. This implied that full implementation would cause billions of US dollars in lost revenue.

The aforementioned Finance Ministry Regulation provides room for the resumption of certain concentrate exports and yet discourages it at the same time. When miners have invested up to 7.5 percent of the total estimated costs for smelter development, then they need to pay a 7.5 percent export duty. When development of the smelter has been completed for 7.5 - 30 percent, then the export duties decline to 5 percent. Lastly, when the smelter has been completed for at least 30 percent, then export duties are scrapped altogether (examples of companies that are affected by these rules are Freeport Indonesia and Newmont Nusa Tenggara for their copper concentrate exports).

However, Bambang Gatot stated that - although the export duty mechanism for iron sand will be similar to the mechanism applied to specific concentrates mentioned in the Finance Ministry Regulation - the exact figures will most likely differ.

Companies that are expected to be positively affected by the resumption of iron sand exports (which had ceased in 2014) are Sumber Baja Prima, Megatop Inti Selaras, Adiguna Usaha Mandiri, Malta, Bejana Inti Alam, and Jogja Magasa Mining.

the ocean's weirdest creatures! | national geographic kids

Ready to meet some seriously strange creatures? Things you wont believe actuallyexist?! Then take a deep breath and join National Geographic Kids as we dive into the deep to get up close and personal with the oceans weirdest wonders

This may look like your average piece of seaweed but, believe it or not, its actually a fish! Found along the southern and western coast of Australia, the leafy sea dragon is a member of the same family as the seahorse the Syngnathidae family. They grow to around 20-24cm long and feed on plankton and small crustaceans. Moving through the water using their tiny fins, this fab fishs long, leafy extensions allow it to hide from predators by blending in with seaweed! David Attenborough has said he counts the leafy sea dragon as his favourite animal. Cool, eh?

Christmas Tree Worms are found on coral reefs in tropical waters around the world. They get their name from the two spiral plumes that look just like yep, you guessed it Christmas trees! These hair-like tentacles grow from their small, tube-like bodies, and are used for feeding on microscopic plants and for respiration, allowing the worm to breathe. These cool critters come in different colours, including orange, yellow, blue and white!

Now heres a creature that might give you a fright! With its huge head and enormous mouth, these fearsome fish swim in the dark depths of the ocean. Ranging from around 20 centimetres to one metre in length, there are more than 300 species of anglerfish, most of which are found in the Atlantic and Antarctic oceans. So what makes this creature super strange? Well, the female has her own glowing light hanging above her mouth! This luminous flesh attracts unsuspecting prey close to the anglerfishs sharp, see-through teeth and thenchomp!

Ever seen a fish that looks like this before? Found mainly off the east coast of the United States, this creepy creature grows to around 50cm long. It has a blackish brown body with white spots on its head, and stripes on its tail. The wacky bit? The northern stargazers eyes and nostrils are located on the top of its head, and, unlike most fish, its mouth faces upwards! This cunning critter buries itself in the sand, leaving its eyes poking out. And when an unlucky smaller fish swims by, it rises up and swallows its meal in one big gulp!

Rather than swim through the ocean like most of our fishy friends, this cool creature prefers to walk along the seafloor! Found in the waters of southern Australia and Tasmania, it grows to around 15cm long and has skin covered in tooth-like scales, called denticles. So why the name handfish? Well, these quirky creatures move around the ocean floor using a unique set of fins that look similar to human hands. There are other kinds of handfish, too, including the spotted handfish and the pink handfish.

Meet the Wobbegong, a species of the carpet shark family not the piece of old rug that it may first seem! To find one of these super sharks, youll need to explore the tropical waters of the western Pacific Ocean and Indian Ocean. Wobbegongs spend their time resting on the sea floor, camouflaged by their flat, tasseled bodies. There they wait for a tasty treat including fish, octopuses, crabs and lobsters to pass their way, beforegulp! Some wobbegongs have also been seen to slowly sneak up on their prey, too, in search of some grub.

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i love the sea and when i am older i want to be a marine biologist. but these fish have really helped me study. the sea is more than you think but there is nothing to hate about the sea! my adventure is just begining.

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the 10 most populated countries in the world - worldatlas

More than half of the worlds people live in just 10 countries, the most populous countries on Earth. More people means more demand for everything, from natural resources to jobs. Hence, surging population growth can hinder development. Still, most of the worlds most populous countries have managed to reduce their yearly population growth rates. Introducing 10 of the worlds most populous countries:

China is the most populous country on Earth. Nearly 1.4 billion people call it home. The country has taken certain measures to combat overpopulation, including a so-called one-child policy, instituted in 1979, which made it illegal for families in the country to have more than one child. Now, however, Chinese citizens can have up to two children. Since the late 1980s, Chinas annual population growth rate has fallen significantly. Whereas the growth rate was 1.94% in 1988, it was just 0.39% in 2020. In fact, if present trends continue, the Chinese population will start to decline by 2035.

India is the second most populous country in the world, with over 1.36 billion people. In fact, it is estimated that by 2027, India could overtake China as the worlds most populous country. Indias annual population growth rate has been steadily declining since the early 1980s. The countrys growth rate in 1982 was 2.35%, but in 2020, the rate was just 0.99% According to recent estimates, Indias population may reach its peak in the early 2060s. Unlike China, India has not taken measures to limit the number of children its people can have. Instead, growing affluence, womens education, and family planning are credited with reducing the countrys population growth.

The United States has a total population of over 328 million. Yearly population growth in the U.S. reached 1.76% in 1956, then declined to a low of 0.89% in 1970. The rate remained more or less unchanged during the 1970s and 80s. In the 1990s, however, the population growth rate surged to a high of 1.27%. This period was followed by a decline in the first half of the 2000s, a slight rebound in the second half of the decade, then another decline from 2009 onward. In 2020, Americas annual population growth rate stood at just 0.59%, and is only expected to get lower in the future, though it will remain positive through 2050.

Indonesias population is more than 270.6 million. Growth in Indonesias population stood at an annual rate of 2.76% in 1967, but has declined since. The rate in 2020 was just 1.07%. Projections show that Indonesias yearly population growth rate will only decline further, with an annual growth rate of just 0.32% predicted by 2050.

Pakistans population is approximately 216.6 million. Its yearly population growth rate continued to rise up until 1982, reaching a peak of 3.41%. Afterwards, Pakistans population growth rate finally began to decline. In 2020, the rate stood at 2%. Population experts credit religious taboos, political timidity, and ignorance as the reason Pakistans population continues to grow at an alarming rate. In fact, the countrys birth rate ranks among the highest outside of Africa. Projections show that although the population growth rate in Pakistan will continue to decline, the number of people in the country will continue to grow significantly, to the point where there will be more than 338 million people in Pakistan by 2050.

Brazil is the most populous county in South America. More than 211 million live in the country. Although Brazils population is still growing, its annual growth rate has gradually slowed since the 1950s. In 1951, Brazils population grew at a rate of 3.02%. In contrast, 2020 saw the Brazilian population grow just 0.72%. By 2050, Brazils population is actually projected to decline 0.05%.

Nigeria is the most populous country in Africa. More than 200 million people call the West African country home. In sharp contrast to other developing countries, the annual growth rate of Nigerias population is actually higher now than it was in the 1950s. In 1951, Nigerias population grew at a rate of 1.49%. In 2020, however, its population grew by 2.58%. If present trends continue, Nigerias population may double by 2050.

Bangladesh has a population of over 163 million. The growth rate of the Bangladeshi population has not been consistent over the decades. In 1951, the countrys annual rate of population growth was 2.14%. In 1967, that rate went all the way up to 3.28%, before declining to 1.52% in 1973, then rebounding to 2.76% in 1979. Bangladeshs rate of population growth has been on a downward trend since the 1980s. In 2020, the countrys population growth rate was at an all-time low of 1.01%. This rate is projected to go down to 0.15% by 2050.

Russia is the most populous country in Europe, with a population of more than 144 million. In 1954, Russias yearly population growth rate was 1.68%. This rate declined significantly during the mid-1950s, 60s, and 70s, before rebounding somewhat in the 80s. Shortly after the Soviet Union collapsed, however, Russias rate of population growth started to decline again, to the point where, by 1994, the country was actually losing population. Only by 2009 did Russias population begin to grow again, reaching annual growth of 0.14% in 2014, before lowering again. In 2020, Russias yearly population growth rate was just 0.04%, and statistics show that the country will start to lose people again from 2025 onward.

Latin Americas second most populous country is Mexico, with nearly 127.6 million people. The countrys yearly population growth was more or less steady during the late 1950s and 60s, but began to decline in the 1970s. In 1959, the rate was 3.17%, but by 2020, that rate was slashed to just 1.06%. According to projections, Mexicos population growth will continue to slow through 2050, though the country will still add population.

Reducing population growth is what developing countries need to do in order to continue developing at a steady pace. All but one of the developing countries that are among the worlds 10 most populous have managed to slow the growth of their populations, though Nigeria continues to struggle. The opposite problem is taking shape in Russia, where trends indicate that the country will lose population in the years to come. No matter what happens in individual countries, however, the worlds population is in no danger of declining if present trends hold. Quite the opposite, in fact.

15 types of ocean stones - characteristics

There are many kinds of rocks that make up the component of the ocean crust. These rocks are then further broken down into smaller pieces called stones or pebbles. These stones are still found under the earths crust. Some can be seen in the deep parts of the ocean floor. Others end up on beaches or the shorelines by the waves that carry them. Here are 15 Types of Ocean Stones along with a short explanation on each one of them.

The Agate stone is often found among the shorelines. Its made up of a silica called chalcedony. The stone is smooth. It is available in a wide range of colours. The colours and the patterns on the stone depend on its formation. The overall mineral component, pressure and temperature affects a huge part of the Agate stone appearance. There are usually parallel lines on the stone.

The Serpentinite stone is named as such since the appearance of the stone resembles the patterns of a snakes skin. The stone is made up of minerals such as magnesium and iron. The formation process of this stone is called serpentinisation. Serpentinisation is when water is involved in the minerals of the stone when it was forming.

The Chlorastrolite stone is also known as the Isle Royale Greenstone. The colour of the Chlorastrolite stone is a dark hue of green. The pattern on the stone is similar to the shell of a turtle. The Chlorastrolite stone is formed from the volcanic lava. Over time, the texture is smoothed out by the waves of the ocean.

It ends up in most shorelines of beaches. The surface of this stone could be opaque but sometimes it can be quite translucent. Most of the Chlorastrolite stones are small in size. It is rare to find this type of stone in a huge form.

The Jasper stone is a stone with a pattern of spots all over it. The colour of the stone is usually red. However, the Jasper stone can also be found in the colour yellow, green or brown. The appearance of this stone is opaque.

The Jasper stone is made from minerals such as iron and chalcedony. Many people try to find the Jasper stone to smooth it out even further. Then the stone is often used as a gem or even turned into a vase.

Apparently, the Mica Schist stone is the most abundant one than the other types. In the stone, the grains are able to observed with the naked eye. The grains are caused by the pressure and heat applied during the formation.

Sandstone is a stone that is made up from small particles of minerals. It consists of a component similar to a cement that holds all of its minerals together. The cement component could either be silica or calcium carbonate. The colour of sandstone varies. It can be brown, red, pink, grey, white, yellow or black.

Petrified Wood stone is made from the remains of a tree or a plant. The vegetation turned into stone through the process of permineralization. Permineralization is the process where the wood remains are fossilised by minerals. The stone is neither bright nor translucent since light cannot pass through the stone.

The Petrified Wood stone is a very solid stone and always opaque. The colour of the stone is usually gray or very pale brown. The pattern of the stone can be recognised from parallel lines that go across it.

Furthermore, the mixtures are stuck together by other elements. The elements include silica, calcium carbonate, iron oxide or clay. The formation of the Conglomerate stone starts a normal sized pebble.

Then, more sand and clay fill into the spaces of the stone which are then binded together. Conglomerate stone are found most near water especially the beach where there are strong waves transporting sediments. The strong waves also shape the Conglomerate stone to be rounder.

The Basalt stone formation happens when lava is exposed to a quick cooling. The basic composition of Basalt stone is silica. The stone plays an important role of making up the ocean crust. It also makes up a part of many volcanic rocks in many islands. The colour of Basalt stone usually varies from grey to black.

Gabbro stone is a dark stone that is similar to Basalt. The formation of Gabbro stone happens when a magma cools down under the Earths surface. Thus, it also makes up the component of the ocean crust. The Gabbro stone composes most of the crust in mid-ocean ridges. Gabbro stone is made up of nickel, cobalt, silver, gold, platinum, chromium and copper.

Diabase stone is also widely known as Dolerite stone. The stone contains a high amount of crystals and minerals. Some of the minerals are chalcopyrite, chlorite, serpentine and calcite. Other than those elements, the Diabase stone also contains tachylite. Tachylite is a volcanic glass that occurs during a rapid cooling. The colour of tachylite glass is brown or black with a luster to it.

Granite stone forms when the magma under the surface of the Earth slowly undergoes crystallisation. Granite stone is mainly made up of quarts, mica and some other kinds of minerals. Those components give the Granite stone a wide range of colour. Granite stone can be gray, white, red or pink. The grains on the stone is visible just by looking at it with the naked eye.

This stone type is quite popular. The common colours of the Budleigh Salterton Quartzite stone is purple, red or white. As for the red colour of this type of stone, it depends on how much oxidation occurs. This stone has a tough and solid structure. It is so solidly cemented that even metal cannot form a scratch on the surface of the stone.

The grain on the Flint stone is smooth. Moreover, the stone is hard and has a structure that looks like a shell. The colour of the Flint stone is grey or brownish. There are usually a lot of cracks on the Flint stone. The cracks are caused by constant pressure and impact from the ocean waves.

Although some of these stones could be quite rare or only exclusively found in certain places, you might still be able to encounter most of them. The next time you visit the beach, you might have the chance to find one.

indian ocean trade routes: asian history

The Indian Ocean trade routes connected Southeast Asia,India, Arabia, and East Africa, beginning at least as early as the third century BCE. This vast international web of routes linked all of those areas as well as East Asia (particularlyChina).

Long before Europeans "discovered" the Indian Ocean, traders from Arabia, Gujarat, and other coastal areas used triangle-sailed dhows to harness the seasonal monsoon winds. Domestication of the camel helped bring coastal trade goods such as silk, porcelain, spices, incense, and ivory to inland empires, as well. Enslaved people were also traded.

During the classical era (4th century BCE3rd century CE), major empires involved in the Indian Ocean trade included the Achaemenid Empire in Persia (550330 BCE), the Mauryan Empire in India (324185 BCE), the Han Dynasty in China (202 BCE220 CE),and the Roman Empire (33 BCE476 CE) in the Mediterranean.Silk from China graced Roman aristocrats, Roman coins mingled in Indian treasuries, and Persian jewels sparkled in Mauryan settings.

Another major export item along the classical Indian Ocean trade routes was religious thought.Buddhism,Hinduism, and Jainism spread from India to Southeast Asia, brought by merchants rather than by missionaries. Islamwould later spread the same way from the 700s CE on.

During the medieval era (4001450 CE), trade flourished in the Indian Ocean basin.The rise of theUmayyad(661750 CE) andAbbasid(7501258) caliphates on the Arabian Peninsula provided a powerful western node for the trade routes.In addition, Islam valued merchantsthe Prophet Muhammad himself was a trader and caravan leaderand wealthy Muslim cities created an enormous demand for luxury goods.

Meanwhile, theTang(618907) andSong(9601279) dynasties in China also emphasized trade and industry, developing strong trade ties along the land-basedSilk Roads, and encouraging maritime trade.The Song rulers even created a powerful imperial navy to control piracy on the eastern end of the route.

Between the Arabs and the Chinese, several major empires blossomed based largely on maritime trade.The Chola Empire (3rd century BCE1279 CE) in southern India dazzled travelers with its wealth and luxury; Chinese visitors record parades of elephants covered with gold cloth and jewels marching through the city streets.In what is now Indonesia, theSrivijaya Empire(7th13th centuries CE) boomed based almost entirely on taxing trading vessels that moved through the narrow Malacca Straits.Even the Angkor civilization (8001327), based far inland in the Khmer heartland of Cambodia, used the Mekong River as a highway that tied it into the Indian Ocean trade network.

For centuries, China had mostly allowed foreign traders to come to it.After all, everyone wanted Chinese goods, and foreigners were more than willing to take the time and trouble of visiting coastal China to procure fine silks, porcelain, and other items.In 1405, however, theYongle Emperorof China's new Ming Dynasty sent out the first ofseven expeditionsto visit all of the empire's major trading partners around the Indian Ocean.The Ming treasure ships underAdmiral Zheng Hetraveled all the way to East Africa, bring back emissaries and trade goods from across the region.

In 1498, strange new mariners made their first appearance in the Indian Ocean.Portuguese sailors under Vasco da Gama (~14601524) rounded the southern point of Africa and ventured into new seas.The Portuguese were eager to join in the Indian Ocean trade since European demand for Asian luxury goods was extremely high.However, Europe had nothing to trade.The peoples around the Indian Ocean basin had no need for wool or fur clothing, iron cooking pots, or the other meager products of Europe.

As a result, the Portuguese entered the Indian Ocean trade as pirates rather than traders.Using a combination of bravado and cannons, they seized port cities like Calicut on India's west coast and Macau, in southern China.The Portuguese began to rob and extort local producers and foreign merchant ships alike.Still scarred by the Moorish Umayyad conquest of Portugal and Spain (711788), they viewed Muslims in particular as the enemy and took every opportunity to plunder their ships.

In 1602, an even more ruthless European power appeared in the Indian Ocean: theDutch East India Company(VOC).Rather than insinuating themselves into the existing trade pattern, as the Portuguese had done, the Dutch sought a total monopoly on lucrative spices likenutmegand mace.In 1680, the British joined in with theirBritish East India Company, which challenged the VOC for control of the trade routes.As the European powers established political control over important parts of Asia, turning Indonesia,India, Malaya, and much of Southeast Asia into colonies, reciprocal trade dissolved.Goods moved increasingly to Europe, while the former Asian trading empires grew poorer and collapsed.With that, the two-thousand-year-old Indian Ocean trade network was crippled, if not completely destroyed.

mining the ocean bottom for metals is this a bad idea?

Poisoned water and soil with skyrocketing disease, cancer and death rates near the City of Baotou, ... [+] Inner Mongolia as a result of mining and processing rare metals like neodymium for wind turbine magnets.

Those are necessary, but the how may be even more important than the what. Bringing up green tech like electric vehicles and wind turbines takes a lot of resources, more than we can provide now, particularly special metals like Co, Li, Te and Nd, as well as just base metals like Fe, Cu, Pb and Zn.

And getting those metals out of the ground in the amounts needed is as bad or worse for the environment as drilling for oil and gas, or mining for coal. And China leads the worlds production of these metals by a lot.

In mineral-rich regions of China, poisoned water and soil have caused skyrocketing disease, cancer and death rates in impoverished villages, like that shown above. As a result of producing things like neodymium (Nd) for wind turbine magnets, most crops and animals have died around a 5-mile-wide crusty lake of toxic black sludge near the City of Baotou.

A 4-inch diameter manganese nodule. These nodules are polymetallic rockconcretionson thesea ... [+]bottom formed of concentric layers ofironandmanganesehydroxidesaround a core of san or, a piece of rock or shell. These nodules occur in most oceans, even in some lakes, and are abundant in theabyssal plainsof the deep ocean between 4,000 and 6,000m (13,000 and 20,000ft). They contain varying amounts of manganese, iron, nickel, copper, cobalt, titanium and barium.

Manganese nodules are polymetallic rockconcretionson theseabottom formed of concentric layers ofironandmanganeseoxihydroxides. These nodules occur in most oceans, even in some lakes, and are abundant on theabyssal plainsof the deep ocean between 4,000 and 6,000meters (13,000 and 20,000ft).

Manganese nodules contain varying, but large, amounts of manganese, iron, nickel, copper, cobalt, titanium and barium, as well as lesser, but significant, amounts of precious and rare metals like niobium, vanadium, thallium, bismuth, yttrium, lithium and molybdenum.

Nodule formation is simple. Most metals are dissolved in sea water to some amount. Over time, they can precipitate around a nucleus of some kind on the sea floor - a sharks tooth, a fragment of shell - around which the nodule grows.

Manganese oxide minerals are key, especially vernadite, todorokite and birnessite. These form naturally in water and in the pore water between the sediment particle. Other metals are incorporated in smaller amounts during their precipitation.

Nodules grow very slowly, millimeters per million years, and environmental conditions must remain stable over this long of a time - a lot of sediment cant be raining down on them, there must be constant flow of ocean bottom water, small pieces of shells need to be around to serve as nucleation sites, the sediment must be porous, not hard rock, and there must be a good supply of oxygen in order to form the manganese oxides.

Thus, deep ocean abyssal plains are perfect. Areas having high economic supplies are concentrated particularly in the Pacific and Indian Oceans, in the wide deep-sea basins at depths of 3500 to 6500 m.

The Clarion-Clipperton Zone (CCZ) is the largest, about the size of Europe, extending from the west coast of Mexico to Hawaii. The total mass of manganese nodules here is over 21billion tons. Other important areas include the Peru Basin, the Penrhyn Basin near the Cook Islands, and the central Indian Ocean.

Uhno one. These are in international waters, supposedly overseen by the United Nations. But regulations have never been formally established for ocean mining. The UN has a little-known, and little watched, bureaucracy known as the International Seabed Authority (ISA) headquartered in Kingston Harbour, Jamaica.

The ISA kind of goes its own way, receives little oversight and convenes their own general assembly once a year at their headquarters. Delegates from the 168 member countries descend on Kingston from around the world. Their assignment is to try to mitigate the long-term destruction of the ocean floor, not to prevent its mining.

The members choose locations where ocean mining will be permitted, issue licenses to mining companies, and draft the technical and environmental standards ofan Underwater Mining Code, waiting for the day when this new thing takes off and parts of the ocean floor look like wet ant colonies. And that day may be this year.

The ISA is already granting exploratory permits to dozens of companies, and some of these are for delicate subsea places like the beautiful Lost City of underwater hot springs east of Florida, the largest ever discovered. These will be destroyed before anyone is even aware of their existence.

Expected mining rates are thousands of square miles a year and the horrible thing about this whole affair is that, for the most part, we dont know whats down there. Its easy to figure out where the nodules are, but not much else. Like whats living there.

Like this bizzare creature from the bottom of the sea, Mertensia ovum, we dont know what life ... [+] exists in the deep, deep sea and on the deep ocean floor. Light refracts off the comb-rows of this ctenophoreproducing stripes of rainbow color. One of the two tentacles with which it feeds is deployed while the other is retracted.

Another positive for nodules is no deforestation, no open pits, no contaminated rivers or aquifers, no tailings impoundments, and no exploitation of indigenous peoples. Certainly there will be no child labor as occurs in mining areas in sub-Saharan Africa.

The individual nodules lie loosely on the sea floor or buried shallowly in the sediment. They can be harvested from the sea floor bottom with underwater vehicles similar to a potato harvester, but that might be too slow for industry.

All organisms that cant escape quickly enough are killed, including snails, sea cucumbers and deep sea worms, a huge part of the seabed food chain. The mining stirs up enormous amounts of sediment that are moved by ocean currents through and out of the area, to settle down on the sea floor again, covering sensitive organisms, particularly the sessile, or immobile ones, which then die.

The mining, pumping and cleaning of the manganese nodules creates noise and vibrations, which disturb marine mammals such as dolphins and whales, and could force them to flee from their natural areas to die from not having their natural food supply.

The sediment-laden water produced on the ships by the cleaning of manganese nodules will be released back into the sea, creating another sediment cloud. We should release the sediment near the sea bottom instead of letting it fall through the entire water column killing everything on its way, particularly algae and plankton, but that would require miles of very wide tubing at high cost.

So the talk at ISA is how to reduce these problems as much as possible, admitting they cant be eliminated. The ISA requires environmentally sound methods and solutions, which are possible. We can reduce the sediment cloud by using a cowled rather than an open harvesting machine.

Scientists in the German project Disturbance and Recolonization (DISCOL) ploughed up a sea-floor area of several square kilometers in the Pacific and observed that it took seven years for the sea bottom life to basically recover. Of course, many species disappeared permanently.

But destruction increases proportionally with the area, especially since recolonization occurs from the edges, so scaling up from several square kilometers in the above experiment to a million square kilometers indicates massive, long-term destruction.

Fortunately, the ISA plans that the licensed areas not be harvested all at once, but in small steps. Small harvested sites should be surrounded by large undisturbed areas for rapid recolonization. Marine biologists are determining what the patterns of mined and undisturbed areas should look like.

I have been a scientist in the field of the earth and environmental sciences for 33 years, specializing in geologic disposal of nuclear waste, energy-related research, planetary surface processes, radiobiology and shielding for space colonies, subsurface transport and environmental clean-up of heavy metals. I am a Trustee of the Herbert M. Parker Foundation, Adjunct at WSU, an Affiliate Scientist at LANL and consult on strategic planning for the DOE, EPA/State environmental agencies, and industry including companies that own nuclear, hydro, wind farms, large solar arrays, coal and gas plants. I also consult for EPA/State environmental agencies and industry on clean-up of heavy metals from soil and water. For over 25 years I have been a member of Sierra Club, Greenpeace, the NRDC, the Environmental Defense Fund and many others, as well as professional societies including the America Nuclear Society, the American Chemical Society, the Geological Society of America and the American Association of Petroleum Geologists.

I have been a scientist in the field of the earth and environmental sciences for 33 years, specializing in geologic disposal of nuclear waste, energy-related research, planetary surface processes, radiobiology and shielding for space colonies, subsurface transport and environmental clean-up of heavy metals. I am a Trustee of the Herbert M. Parker Foundation, Adjunct at WSU, an Affiliate Scientist at LANL and consult on strategic planning for the DOE, EPA/State environmental agencies, and industry including companies that own nuclear, hydro, wind farms, large solar arrays, coal and gas plants. I also consult for EPA/State environmental agencies and industry on clean-up of heavy metals from soil and water. For over 25 years I have been a member of Sierra Club, Greenpeace, the NRDC, the Environmental Defense Fund and many others, as well as professional societies including the America Nuclear Society, the American Chemical Society, the Geological Society of America and the American Association of Petroleum Geologists.

world atlas of sands sand

Everybody knows sand from the summer time on the beach, as construction material or raw material for glass making. Talking about beach sand, did you ever notice that not all the beaches are the same? Some are really wonderful to walk onto while others can be a pain for the feet. And some are white like the snow and others are dark like the night. What about the sand from the desert, is it the same like the one from the beach? What makes them different, why they have so many colors? Without pretending to be an expert I will try to answer these questions here from the point of view of a sand collector and not of a scientist. So

Sand can be defined as naturally occurring granular material having the grain diameter falling in the interval of 0.063 (1/16) to 2.0 mm. In the USA sand is usually classified by grain size into five main categories: very fine (1/16 1/8 mm), fine (1/8 1/4 mm), medium (1/4 1/2 mm), coarse (1/2 1 mm) and very coarse (1 2 mm).

Sand can be found on a variety of relief forms from beaches to deserts, lake shores, rivers, but also mountains, quarries, dunes along sea shores, sometimes also the side of the road. But how the sand arrives there depends on the processes that lead to the formation of sand grains. The most important is represented by weathering of the rocks caused by external factors like wind, precipitations, freezing unfreezing cycles etc.

This method is basically mechanical and the sands resulted bear the physico-chemical characteristics of the mother rock they originate from. Explosive volcanism (pyroclastic process) is the reason for a more dramatic formation of sands associated with volcanic activity and formation of igneous rocks of altered chemical composition. The third class is given by rock crushing mechanisms, both caused by rock movements as well as caused by the impact between two rock massifs. Deposition of dissolved minerals from warm seas can be the reason for the formation of sand grains by pelletization using both chemical and biological precipitation processes.

The sand composition depends directly on its origins. As an example, sands collected from volcanic islands often have in their composition volcanic tuffs and ashes while the beaches of single atolls are usually made of corals and skeletal remains of tiny sea animals. The mineralogical composition of sands does have also a direct connection to the sands color, the mother nature being here extremely generous: white sands with biologic origin, black sands from volcanic islands, reddish hues in arid areas (deserts) etc.

Further classification of sands is based on the consideration whether the sand has resulted from processes related with animal and plants life (biogenic sands) or resulted from rocks transformations (mineral sands). Very often in nature we can find combinations of these two groups in this case we can speak about mixed sands. Nevertheless, the term carbonate sands is also used when speaking about sands formed by precipitation of calcium carbonate. This term may be very conclusive but it does not make any difference between biological precipitation (calcium carbonate found in skeletons of sea animals) and chemical precipitation (calcium carbonate dissolved in warm sea waters).

A biogenic substance is generally defined as a substance resulted from life processes (either animals or plants or both). The term biogenic sand refers to sand made of skeletal remains of plants and animals. Most sands of biogenic origin contain skeletal rests of corals, calcium-depositing algae and different small marine animals such as gastropod mollusks (snail-like shells or fragments), bivalve shells, barnacles, foraminifera, sponge spicules, worm tubes etc. The biogenic sands can be distinguished from mineral sands by their high content in calcium carbonate (CaCo3).

The most common constituent of mineral sands is silicon dioxide present in its quartz form. Silicate sands (based on quartz) are present on beaches, deserts but also rivers, mountains and lakes and, to some extend, on volcanic islands. Beside quartz, another popular group are the sands composed of immature sediments such as granitic rock fragments (which implies that original rock is not very far and the weathering agents did not have sufficient time to alter the original rock). These sands may be called lithic sands and they may contain a huge variety of rock fragments (granite, basalt, sandstone, limestone etc).

Heavy mineral sands contain those minerals with specific weight higher than 2.9 g/cm. Due to their stable composition in time, the heavy minerals offer valuable information about the original rocks they are originating from. Eroded from these rocks and transported to the bottom of water bodies, the heavy mineral sands are too heavy to be transported to the shores by the regular waves but they can be found in thin layers on the beaches after some stormy nights. Very common minerals are magnetite (black color, with magnetic properties), garnets (usually pink or red), ilmenite (black) etc.

Another group of sands which is very spectacular and offers impressive macroscopic images is represented by the volcanic sands. This type of sand is generally made of unconsolidated fragments of volcanic debris, usually lava which is cooling off very fast after a volcanic eruption. Volcanic sands can be further classified according to the final characteristics of the lava. When the ejected solid material get into violent contact with gases and steam released by a volcano it is blown apart into pieces of diffeernt sizes. The very small sized material forms the volcanic ash which, by consolidation, lead to the formation of volcanic tuff. Further weathering of volcanic tuff can produce particles of diameters in sand range as depicted in the image below:

The mixed sands contain both mineral and biogenic sand grains and are very common especially on sea shores. However, the group is very difficult to define since the it consists of combinations in different ratios of any of the above described sands (the mineral part can be of igneous, sedimentary or metamorphic origin while the biogenic part can have animal or plant origins).

These are sands of special interest for sand collectors with very often only one major constituent. These sands do not form a scientific group by themselves (they can be either biogenic or mineral) but they are very appreciated for their visual characteristics (color, grain shape etc) so I decided to list them separately, also mentioning the group they belong to.

After definition, origins and classification, the physical characteristics of sand like grain size, roundness, sphericity, and sorting degree will be described here during the following days so stay tuned and visit again this page if you want to know more about the fascinating sand.

Click on the continent image to see sand micro-photographs from contries belonging to the respective continent. Images will be added on regular basis so check the links regularly to get the latest sand micro-imagery. In addition to that you may also click on the photo camera (top-right side of the screen) to access the Sand Photomicrography library.

Rock-forming mineral with a deep red color (slightly purple) belonging to the garnet group having the chemical formula: Fe3Al2(SiO4)3. The name almandine (also known as carbuncle) comes from Alabanda, a region in Asia where the minerals were firstly found in ancient times. The term carbuncle is derived from Latin and means live coal or burning charcoal. Almandine occurs frequently in metamorphic rocks like mica schist (see also this post for more details).

Arenophile is the term used to describe a person who is interested in collecting sand samples as hobby. The criteria for collecting sand can be various: colors, location, mineralogy (composition) etc. Although in general only sand is collected, sometimes other samples from other materials are collected too such as crushed rocks, mud, soils, etc. Very often people like to swap sand with other collectors and use to gather in online communities such as Sand Forum International.

A biogenic substance is generally defined as a substance resulted from life processes. The term biogenic sand refers to sand made of skeletal remains of plants and animals. Most sands of biogenic origin contain skeletal rests of corals, algae and different small marine animals such as mollusks (snails, shells), foraminifera, sponge spicules, worm tubes etc. The biogenic sands can be distinguish from mineral sands by their high content in calcium carbonate (CaCo3).

Corals are marine organisms living in compact colonies secreting calcium carbonate to form a hard skeleton. The coral colonies are spread over the oceans mostly surrounding atolls and islands. Skeleton rests can form nice sands much appreciated by sand collectors.

Software for management of custom collections. With Collection Studio you can easily design unlimited number of custom fields, statistic reports and many others. Check the following link for an extensive review.

Group of minerals used since the old times as gemstone also renowned for displaying the greatest variety of color than any other mineral, occurring in any color (except blue). Most common color is purple red.

Iron silicate from the larger mica group whose name derives from the Greek glaucos (meaning gleaming or silvery and referring to its blue-green color, which can vary from bluish green to olive green). The chemical formula of glauconite is K0.08R11.33R20.67[(Al0.13Si3.87O10](OH)2.

Sands containing good amounts of minerals such as ilmenite, zirconium, rutile, titanium, etc. and trash minerals such as magnetite and garnet. The heavy mineral sands are to be found especially on the beaches where tidal action brought to the light the heavier minerals.

One of the three main types beside sedimentary and metamorphic rocks. The igneous rocks are formed by cooling off and solidification of magma. Further classification divide igneous rocks in intrusive (magma solidifies under crust surface) and extrusive (magma solidifies above crust surface).

Deposits formed by the shells of some specific red algae living mostly off the Brittany and Ireland coasts, primary composed of calcium and magnesium carbonate, but containing also high amounts of magnesium, iron and other elements.

Volcano-like formations having similar characteristics as the real volcanoes just that magma is made out of water and clay from the underground layers. This is deposited in the form of mud at the top of the volcanoes, with the eruption of gases coming out like some lazy bubbles.

Phyllite is a foliated metamorphic rock found in the surroundings of stones of the pre-Cambrian epoch. In Tharandt Open-Air Geological Museum we found phyllite in Mohorn-Grund (north of Tharandter Forest). Due to the high content in mica, phyllite has a nice silvery aspect but is very fragile and breaks easily just under the pressure of fingers.

Pitchstone is a volcanic rock with dull, glassy aspect and very resistant to erosion. In comparison with obsidian (a volcanic rock with similar characteristics), pitchstone contains about 8% water in its structure. The main color of pitchstone is black but, in case of rock formations from Tharandt, Germany, the stone contains small red patches. Their presence in the main block is not yet clearly explained, some theories suggesting that they are foreign rock particles (most probably hematite a red iron ore mineral) assimilated by the molten lava on its way to the surface.

Porphyry is a variety of igneous rock consisting of large-grained crystals, such as feldspar or quartz, dispersed in a fine-grained feldspathic matrix or groundmass. The color of porphyry is usually reddish due to the presence of hematite.

Measure describing the sharpness of a grains corners and edges, regardless of shape. A perfect rounded particle would have the roundness = 1, all the others being included in different roundness classes.

Shale rock (in German: Schiefer) is the name used for a sedimentary rock made of mud (actually a mix of clay and some other minerals like quartz and calcite). The fine-graded rock can be broken into parallel layers and it is often used for covering the roofs of houses in mountain areas.

Measure of the degree to which the shape of a particle approaches that of a sphere. A perfect spherical grain would have the sphericity factor = 1 but this is rather uncommon in nature as most sand grains have sphericity numbers around 0.7.

16 top-rated tourist attractions in indonesia | planetware

The Indonesian archipelago is a collection of islands that holds untold treasures in its diversity of cultures, landscapes, and cities. With nearly 13,500 islands under its jurisdiction, Indonesia offers an adventure for everyone, from exploring ancient temples and hiking active volcanoes to diving in largely untouched waters.

You can wander the busy streets of Jakarta, or take a step back in time with a visit to the remote villages of Tana Toraja, indulge in the bliss of Bali, or come face to face with the volatile Anak Krakatau.

Whatever you choose, the experience is sure to be one filled with awe and appreciation for a country as steeped in history and natural beauty as this one. Find the best places to visit with our list of the top attractions in Indonesia.

Arguably Indonesia's most popular vacation spot, Bali has a number of cultural landmarks and traditions that make a visit here worthwhile. But, for many people, Bali is about the island's beautiful beaches. If a beach vacation is what you're looking for, you may want to head to one of Bali's luxury beach resorts and spend some time soaking up the sun.

Anyone who travels to Bali is going to have warm sand and blue water on their mind, and the island doesn't disappoint. Kuta is the best known beach, and is great for those who like to combine sun, surfing, and socializing. Because of its popularity, you'll find no shortage of restaurants and things to do here.

If you're looking for something a little quieter and less crowded, Nusa Dua is still a beauty, but draws fewer tourists. Sanur is the place to go for a little more culture, as well as great water sports.

This ancient temple is one of the most famous and culturally significant landmarks in Indonesia. Borobudur was built in the 8th century and constructed in the shape of a traditional Buddhist mandala. It is one of the top UNESCO World Heritage sites, and is considered one of the greatest Buddhist sites in the world.

The massive temple was forgotten for centuries, when it is believed that much of the population moved to eastern Java due to volcanic eruptions. But it was rediscovered in the 1800s and, today, is one of the main draws in Java.

Visit at sunrise for a torch-light climb up the temple and for the breathtaking experience of watching as the complex is bathed in sunlight. Borobudur lies near Yogyakarta, an old Javanese city known for its rich cultural and historical offerings.

Though orangutans still live in the wild, several sanctuaries rescue and protect orangutans as land development infringes on their natural habitat. Tanjung Puting National Park in Kalimantan, Borneo, is home to the largest orangutan population in the world, as well as other primates, birds, and reptiles.

The Gili Islands are a major draw in Lombok, which has risen in popularity among backpackers and tourists over the years. These picturesque islands offer beaches that rival those of Bali in their beauty, as well as opportunities for diving and even snorkeling at a turtle sanctuary. If you're looking for more turtle action, you can check out a turtle hatchery where hundreds of these creatures are born each year.

Kayaking is also popular in the Gilis, and if you're seeking a place to reconnect with your mind and body, you will find several options for yoga classes. The Gili Islands provide a more relaxed, though still stimulating, alternative to popular Bali.

Komodo National Park, a UNESCO World Heritage site, encompasses five main islands and a number of smaller ones, as well as the surrounding marine areas. The waters off these islands are some of the richest and most diverse in the world.

The komodo dragons are the stars of the show on any visit to the park, but visitors can also hike, snorkel, go canoeing, or visit small villages on the islands. Another highlight is Pink Beach on Komodo Island. This stretch of pink sand is one of the top beaches in Indonesia.

At this Hindu temple, you'll see many long-tailed macaques, a species of monkey commonly seen throughout Southeast Asia. The temple also makes an interesting visit because Balinese Hinduism combines aspects of several different religions, making it unique among other types of Hinduism practiced today.

The forest is near Padangtegal, a small village that has drawn artists of all varieties for many years, and the temple, artistry, and stunning natural backdrop make a trip to the forest and village a must-do in Bali.

Indonesia sits on the Ring of Fire, an area with some of the most active volcanoes in the world. Many of the country's volcanoes, such as Mount Merapi, are famous for their violent eruptions and their stunning, but dangerous beauty.

Mount Bromo is among the best known, thanks largely to its incredible views, particularly when seen standing over the caldera at sunrise. Bromo's peak was blown off in an eruption, and you can still see white smoke spewing from the mountain.

The volcano is part of Bromo Tengger Semeru National Park, which also includes Mount Semeru, the highest peak in Java. The park is home to the Tengger people, an isolated ethnic group who trace their ancestry back to the ancient Majapahit empire.

The architectural style of Tongkonan, boat-shaped houses and other buildings, are immediate standouts, but the people are what make this piece of natural paradise so special. They are, by many accounts, the friendliest and most welcoming people you could hope to meet while traveling.

The Toraja approach to death is one of reverence and celebration. Funerals are elaborate ceremonies involving plenty of food and traditional dance, and the dead are buried in graves built into surrounding caves. Travelers to the area can visit villages and connect with locals, or trek in the notoriously lush and pristine countryside.

Few places suggest wild, untamed adventure like Borneo. One of the most ecologically diverse places on earth, Borneo is home to orangutans, exotic birds, Sumatran rhinos, pygmy elephants, and an array of other creatures.

In Kalimantan, in Indonesian Borneo, you can travel down the Kapuas River, the longest in Indonesia; visit villages of the indigenous Dayak people; and observe foreign influences from China, Malaysia, and even Europe in the ports and cities along the way.

You can also go trekking in the rainforest for a chance to see some of Borneo's famed wildlife in person. Bukit Baka-Bukit Raya National Park is a conservation area in West Kalimantan that includes two of the highest mountains in Borneo and supports wildlife such as orangutans, clouded leopards, slow lorises, sun bears, and many other species.

Another of Indonesia's natural wonders, Lake Toba is both a body of water and super volcano. The lake, which sits in a crater, was formed between 69,000 and 77,000 years ago and is believed to have been the result of a catastrophic eruption.

Surely, the eruption of Indonesia's most famous volcano, Krakatau, in 1883 was the largest in recorded history. The eruption severely impacted climate conditions around the world and took a devastating toll on human life on nearby Java and Sumatra. Anak Krakatau, "Child of Krakatau," is the youngest of the islands formed by the 1883 eruption, and forced itself above the surface in 1930.

This young and volatile volcano continues to rise higher out of the sea and have significant eruptions. Anak Krakatau still belches smoke and fire, and tourists can visit Krakatau's child for a reminder of the awesome, unseen power just beneath the surface at every turn in Indonesia.

The fairlyland of lush, cone-shaped islands set against blue and turquoise waters is one of Indonesia's most spectacular sights. Hundreds of islands and cays make up this tropical paradise, but the beauty extends beneath the surface as well.

Colorful fish and a diverse variety of marine life thrive in the warm, clear waters. In fact, the coral reefs here are some of the most biodiverse on the planet, making it a popular area for diving in Indonesia.

Another of Indonesia's famed volcanoes, Gunung Rinjani is a top attraction on Lombok. Rinjani itself does not see the eruptions and activity that some of the others have, but its caldera-forming eruption in the late 13th century is believed to have been one of the most powerful in human history. A lake sits in Rinjani's caldera, and within the lake sits Mt. Baru, another active volcano.

In Rinjani National Park, you may spot animals such as the rare black Ebony leaf monkey, long-tailed macaques, the sulfur-crested cockatoo, and other exotic species. Guided treks are available, and you can camp overnight in the park. The park does caution that treks are strenuous, so if you plan to hike the mountain, you should be in good physical health and be prepared with the appropriate equipment.

This is one of Bali's most popular temples, built on a rock formation in the sea. The original formation began to deteriorate at one point, so a portion of the rock is now artificial. Still, Pura Tanah Lot draws people in droves, particularly in time to catch the sunset.

This temple compound is found on the southern coast of Beraban village, and you can walk out to the temple at low tide. Once the sun goes down, browse the stalls at Tanah Lot market to purchase unique Balinese souvenirs.

Bali and Lombok are tried and true vacation spots for a reason, but the lesser-known Banda Islands have their own appeal as an off-the-beaten path getaway. This cluster of 10 islands sits at the edge of the Banda Sea, whose depths reach more than 6,500 meters.

The Bandas have long been on the radar of those involved in the spice trade, thanks to their rich source of nutmeg. Called "Eastern Indonesia's best kept secret," the Bandas hold untold thrills for divers and sailors in particular.

The beaches may be the first thing that comes to mind when you think of Bali, but the verdant rice fields are a close second. So lush and life-giving are the terraces of the Jatiluwih Rice Fields that they were designated a UNESCO Cultural Landscape as part of Bali's Subak System.

The meticulously cultivated and irrigated fields are a testament to the wealth of natural resources in Bali, as well as the carefully honed skills of the local farmers. No visit to Bali is complete without seeing these rich acres.

top sand exporters by country 2020

By value, the listed 15 countries shipped 83.6% of global sand exported in 2020. Among the top exporters, the fastest-growing sand exporters from 2019 to 2020 were: China (up 281.6%), Malaysia (up 120.6%), Vietnam (up 79.2%) and Mozambique (up 35.9%). Five countries posted declines in their annual sand exports: Australia (down -39.9%), United States (down -21.1%), Saudi Arabia (down -15.8%), Canada (down -3.5%) and Germany (down -1.4%).

The following countries posted the highest positive net exports for sand during 2020. Investopedia defines net exports as the value of a countrys total exports minus the value of its total imports. Thus, the statistics below present the surplus between the value of each countrys exported sand and its import purchases for that same commodity.

The United States of America earned the highest surplus in the international trade of sand. In turn, this positive cashflow confirms Americas strong competitive advantage for this specific product category.

The following countries posted the highest negative net exports for sand during 2020. Investopedia defines net exports as the value of a countrys total exports minus the value of its total imports. Thus, the statistics below present the deficit between the value of each countrys imported sand purchases and its exports for that same commodity.

Overtaking Canada in 2020, China incurred the highest deficit in the international trade of sand. In turn, this negative cashflow highlights both countries competitive disadvantages for this specific product category but also signals opportunities for sand-supplying countries that help satisfy the powerful demand notably from China and Canada.

Forbes Global 2000 rankings, The Worlds Biggest Public Companies. Accessed on June 15, 2021 International Trade Centre, Trade Map. Accessed on June 15, 2021 Investopedia, Net Exports Definition. Accessed on June 15, 2021 Wikipedia, Sand. Accessed on June 15, 2021