iron ore thyssen mobile crushing screening plant high range

crushers - thyssenkrupp industries india

thyssenkrupp offers a wide range of crushers that are designed to take on any crushing job. Different types of crushers are used for crushing different types of materials - ranging from soft coal to very hard iron ore. Each type of crusher comes in various sizes, with selection dependent on the requirement of particular capacity, feed and crushed product size. They can be offered for stationary and mobile applications.

iron ore crusher | mining, crushing, grinding, beneficiation

Iron ore mining methods vary by the kind of ore being mined. You can find four major forms of iron ore deposits worked currently, with respect to the mineralogy and geology of the ore deposits. These are magnetite, titanomagnetite, massive hematite and pisolitic ironstone deposits.

Iron ore refers back to the ore containing iron or iron compound, which is one of the most important garbage in output of steel. There are many large-scale iron ore area which have high value of exploitation australia wide, Brazil, India, SA, Canada, Ukraine, Liberia as well as other countries. Main iron ores are magnetite,limonite, hematite ore, iron silicate ore, iron silicate mineral, etc. Probably the most widely used crushers in iron ore mining business are jaw iron ore crusher, cone crusher, hammer iron ore crusher and high-efficient iron ore fine crushers, etc. In iron ore mining, consumers usually choose a complete iron ore crushing production line for better efficiency. Currently, typically the most popular iron ore production line consists of two jaw crushers. After iron ore crushing, the fabric is going to be sent for the magnetic separation, and then in to the ball mill for grinding.

The worlds iron ore resources are concentration australia wide, Brazil, Ukraine, Russia, Kazakhstan, India, the usa, Nigeria, Canada as well as other countries. Nearly all iron ore experiences iron ore processing and it is utilized to make steel. Iron ore processing can be a procedure that contains explosions, shoveling, moving, crushing, grinding, pelletizing etc. Iron ore processing provides a range of coarse sizing that may produce material in 24-inch to .0017-inch particle sizes.

In iron ore crushing and screening process is really a basic connect to concentrator will have an effect on producing indicators. Methods accustomed to include jaw crushing, impact crushing, roll crushing, and pulverizing. To make iron ore size as fine as you can before entering into ball mill, iron ore processors usually are use cone crushers in pre-grinding stage, cone crusher come with an excellent fine crushing power to minish iron ore size. In coarse crushing, 2.1m or 2.2m gyratory crusher is usually being selected, in medium crushing process, processer usually use regular cone crusher, plus fine crushing, short-head kind cone crusher would work.

screening plant - an overview | sciencedirect topics

The CEGB uses three types of screening plant at CW pumphouses, coarse screens, fine mesh screens and pressure strainers. Coarse screens of bars are provided at the inlet to the system, which may or may not be at the pumphouse, in order to prevent the ingress of large baulks of timber which could damage the finer screens. If the system has an offshore intake, this coarse screen is likely to be made of 50 mm bars on a 200 mm pitch. Where the coarse screen is at the pumphouse, the bar pitch is much less, typically 50 mm, and in this case it is necessary to examine the need for permanent raking of the bars. Current practice is to provide room in the pumphouse civil works for the provision of a raking screen. This is usually achieved by enlarging one of the bulkhead gate slots. However, the screens are not fitted until a need is proven, or the station is sited in an area of known debris ingress.

Fine mesh screens are provided to stop the passage of weed and fish into the CW system where they could cause a blockage of the condenser tube plates. The majority of the fine screens are of the moving, self-cleaning, open type such as band or drum screens, although pressure strainers have been installed, downstream of the pumps, at a number of stations. Drum screens are the preferred type because they are substantial steel structures which can be designed to withstand the differential water pressure which could occur if the screen became completely blocked by debris (see Fig 2.67). They are relatively cheap, reliable and the only recurring area where particular attention is required is in the repair and reinstatement of protective coatings. They have lower head losses than other types of screen of similar duty. The only disdavantage of the drum screen is that it needs to extend both above the highest tide level and approximately 2 m below the lowest tide level. Usually, they are about 1.5 times the tidal range in diameter, which leads to very large civil works when the tidal range is large (e.g., Hinkley Point B screens are 21.5 m diameter with a tidal range of 14 m). When the tidal range is small, the diameter is set by the need to limit the velocity through the mesh to approximately 0.75 m/s and for a given throughput of water and allowable screen width, the submerged periphery at lowest water level fixes the diameter. Band screens, on the other hand, offer a more compact civil structure, provided that the full flow can be achieved in a single band, but they suffer from the disadvantage of a very large number of moving parts. Greater maintenance and their lower ability to withstand differential pressure make them less attractive for large plants.

Pressure strainers and debris filters offer the most compact civil structure as they can be located vertically above the main pumps. Unfortunately, they have several disadvantages. Being on the high pressure side of the pump, the shell has to be designed to pressure vessel standards. This is complicated by the very large inlet and outlet connections which weaken the shell. The pressure vessel has to be made as small as possible and the compact design gives a much higher head loss than the open type screens. Experience with this sort of strainer in the presence of heavy weed burdens has not been good, although on the continent, they have been very effective in dealing with shell fish (mainly mussels). For this reason, it is unlikely that the CEGB would repeat the pressure strainer design employed on Grain (5 660 MW oil-fired station). However, the more compact debris filter could be used in series with the open type screens, especially where a condenser tube ball-cleaning system is employed.

The iron ore lump obtained from ROM crushing and screening plants will continue to break down into 6.3mm particles during material handling from the product screen to stockpiles, port, and customer. Drop test conditioning of diamond drill core and crusher lump samples has been developed to simulate material handling and plant stockpiling (Clout et al., 2007). The outcomes of the lump simulations in Figure 2.9 indicate that most of the breakage of lump to 6.3mm fines occurs after the first significant drop height; thereafter, the lump consistently shows the same lower rate of breakage to the extent of testing. Breakage functions can be developed, like the curves in Figure 2.7, for specific iron ores and their hardness categories and then used in subsequent plant engineering design and lump degradation modeling. Different iron ores will show different breakdown characteristics, with very hard iron ores showing a slower rate of breakdown, whereas friable lump breaks down so rapidly that it is unlikely to be economically viable as a lump product (e.g., Figure 2.9, ROM 15 Friable).

Figure 2.9. Simulation of lump yield with cumulative mechanical breakdown in material handling from crusher to port. Lump yield for various hardness types derived from crushing and screening of run-of-mine (ROM) feed.

There is now a new generation of mobile crushing and screening plant systems, which have been developed based on the motivation of reducing truck haulage. Newly designed mobile crushing and screening plant systems have the advantages of mobility, flexibility, economy, and reliable performance, making this system very appealing for small- to medium-sized projects or projects where a number of resources are separated by distance. Similarly, the advantages of mobile crushers are lower capital cost (up to 30% less), higher mobility, and higher salvage value at the end of the project life. Mobile crushing plants are not suited to large long-life projects, heavy rainfall climates, or arctic climates. The design considerations, operability, and maintainability require careful consideration. The equipment selection would also be based on different criteria to fixed plant (Connelly, 2013).

Biological fouling refers to marine life which contribute to the formation of the slimy deposits on the heat transfer surfaces of condensers. These include bacteria, fungi and algae. The slimes formed by these micro-organisms adhere to the metallic surface, resist heat flow and form a layer to which other suspended matter can adhere to reduce condenser performance further. Some forms of marine life, such as mussels and barnacles, can cause problems by restricting flow and blocking tubes.

Scale formation is caused by the deposition or reaction of inorganic material on heat transfer surfaces. It usually occurs at inland river-cooled stations, using cooling tower systems. The scales are usually calcium carbonate or calcium phosphate, or mixtures of both, and arise from variations in their solubility products with temperature and pH changes (Fig 4.32). The temperature effect is due to the inverse solubility characteristics of calcium salts. The pH changes arise by carbon dioxide stripping in the cooling towers.

Intermittent chlorination of the cooling water entering the condenser is carried out on all British power stations, and forms the accepted on-load fouling preventive technique. It is effective in controlling the growth of mussels in seawater systems, and the formation of slime in freshwater systems.

At coastal sites, marine fouling is significantly reduced by continuous chlorination of the cooling water. The degree of chlorination required is inversely proportional to the CW flowrate, a chlorine concentration of 0.5 mg/kg of CW being required at 1.5 m/s.

At inland sites, slime control is maintained by intermittent dosing of chlorine (a few minutes every four to eight hours) at a level which leaves a residual of chlorine of 2 mg/kg at the condenser CW outlet.

Fine filtration plus tube cleaning, however, is installed in some 10% of all locations, and is becoming more widely used following experience on power stations with recirculating systems. A detailed account of this method is given in Section 6 of this chapter.

Other methods, including the use of flocculants, acid dosing, and toxic paints have all been considered as possible remedies, but so far none has proved to be a viable alternative to those outlined above.

This is the most extensively used method of cleaning the inside surface of condenser tubes, and involves forcing bullets down the tubes to brush off surface deposits. Depending on the form of deposit to be removed, the bullets vary from hollow and solid rubber balls, to nylon and steel bristle designs.

Compressed air or water pressure, or a combination of both, forces the bullets down the tubes from lightweight guns which are designed to develop a seal at the tubeplate without effort from the operator.

This method is restricted to condensers suffering from scaling problems, e.g., Midland stations which draw their make-up water from the River Trent. Calcium carbonate and phosphate scales form the deposits and have been cleaned using a variety of acids, including hydrochloric, citric, acetic, and EDTA (ethylene diamine tetra-acetate).

An alternative to bulleting, this method is known as sinusoidal grit blasting; it involves blasting graded silica-free mineral grit through the condenser tubes. A special grit blasting nozzle incorporates a venturi which accelerates the grit and causes it to follow a sinusoidal path through the tube, stripping off deposits which have accumulated. This method has a 90% effectiveness in cleaning tubes, and requires a charge of grit at approximately 1 m/s.

To remove surface deposits, a high pressure lance with forward and side-facing jets is passed down each tube, blasting water at a pressure of 700 bar. This method has an advantage over acid or grit cleaning method, since its action does not have a detrimental effect on the tube surface. However, its operation is awkward within the confines of the waterboxes, and is therefore generally not used.

Low pressure water washing is effectively used to remove loose sludge and sediment deposits prior to leaving the condenser dry during overhaul. Often a combined water/compressed air gun (similar to the type used in bulleting) is employed, having a discharge pressure of 7 bar.

The former application controls marine fouling by raising the temperature to 40C for one hour every six weeks. This restricts mussel growth to sizes which will not lodge in condenser tubes. The heating is achieved either by introducing an auxiliary steam source in the CW culvert, or by reversing the flow of CW through the condenser.

Over the last few decades, noticeable increases in incorporation of computational techniques, artificial intelligence, and mathematical modelling in phytochemical research, especially in screening plant materials, plant metabolomics, chemical fingerprinting, chemical taxonomy, biosynthetic and phylogenetic studies, prediction of pharmacological and toxicological properties (virtual screening or in silico studies), and automated structure determination of phytochemicals based on spectroscopic data, have been observed (Sarker and Nahar, 2017). Some of these aspects initially formed Phytochemical Informatics that dealt with large amounts of data related to phytochemicals and/or their sources (Ehrman et al., 2010), and this was probably the starting point of a new avenue in phytochemical research, now known as Computational Phytochemistry.

Computational Phytochemistry may be defined as an emerging branch of phytochemistry, where computational techniques and mathematical and statistical models are used to efficiently deal with various aspects of phytochemical research. Computational Phytochemistry, a product of the digital age, uses mathematical algorithms, statistics, and large databases to integrate theories and modelling with experimental observations. Creation of models and simulations of physical processes involved in phytochemical protocols, and application of statistics and data analysis techniques to extract useful information from large bodies of data, are two fundamental building blocks of Computational Phytochemistry.

In most cases, introduction of computer-aided approaches saves time and money associated with phytochemical research, ranging from bioactive compound discovery to identifying the metabolomes (Sarker and Nahar, 2017). The overall impact of computational methods on phytochemical research is already visible in recent publications, and this will steadily transform, over the coming years, the way we perform phytochemical research today.

There are several articles published on the use of computational approaches to solve a number of issues in phytochemical research (Nuzillard and Massiot, 1991; Stortz and Cerezo, 1992; Sumner et al., 2003; Rollinger et al., 2005; Cape et al., 2006; Desai and Gore, 2011; Jeeshna and Paulsamy, 2011; Barlow et al., 2012; Castellano et al., 2014; Ningthoujam et al., 2014; Das et al., 2017; Mocan et al., 2017), and relevant theories, useful methodologies and techniques have been presented there.

According to at least two reports [60,61], the U.S. National Cancer Institute found that graviola stems and leaves showed anticancer activity in a plant screening program, even though the results were never released to the public and are cited as unpublished data, written by an anonymous author [58]. These report said that not only the stem and leaves, but also the fruit, seeds, and bark are used in herbal medicines. Also, several different products labeled graviola are sold over the Internet as cures for cancer. There are many reports about bioactive ACGs from different parts of graviola [6275]. Some were reported to be cytotoxic on adriamycin-resistant human mammary carcinoma (MCF 7/Adr) cells grown in culture, but some data are based on doses that were so dilute that they could not be detected by any analytical method, making the results highly suspect or invalid. Still, many of the articles just report the isolation of ACGs, with no data on cytotoxicities. The mechanism of action that is most often reported is that ACGs inhibit the mitochondrial NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I of the respiratory chain) [5,19,36,38,7678]. However, it has become apparent that there are other mechanisms for cytotoxicity [77], including modulating histone H3 phosphorylation [78], similar to the drug Vorinostat that acts by inhibiting histone deacetylase [79]. Also, ACGs form complexes with Ca2+, which affects their bioactivities [80]. Moreover, it should be emphasized that studies on cell cultures say nothing about the bioavailability of ACGs, which may be low, but can be improved by formulating doses with PEG [21], which is known to improve the bioavailability of the popular anticancer agent, adriamycin, which, unlike ACGs successfully completed all four phases of clinical development and has been approved by the U.S. FDA and other nations regulatory agencies and has saved or prolonged many lives [81].

None of the articles describing anticancer effects of ACGs mention the fact that at least one ACG, annonacin, is neurotoxic and may be the cause of atypical parkinsonism on the Caribbean island of Guadeloupe [9,2429], some areas of London, and the Pacific islands of New Caledonia and Guam [25,26], or that the atypical parkinsonism has almost disappeared since people on Guam and New Guinea have changed their diets [79]. Annonacin was found to cause tau pathology in cultured neurons, so it may be a risk factor in other neurodegenerative diseases [9]. Still, it is well known in the field of toxicology that the dose is the poison. So, it is quite likely that people can consume graviola fruit in moderation, for it is served in cafeterias in a Workers Nutrition Program in Brazil and it has several health benefits, including being good for rehydration therapy [82,83]. It has been found in not just graviola, but also the North American pawpaw (A. triloba) [28]. It should also be added that no neurotoxicity was found when A. coriaceae was fed to mice [84].

The pawpaw is a tree that produces a fruit that is in the early stages of commercial production in the United States, with about 40 commercially available clonal pawpaw cultivars with excellent fruit quality [10]. There are bioactive ACGs in the twigs, unripe fruit, seeds, roots, and bark tissues, which display antitumor, pesticidal, antimalarial, anthelmintic, piscicidal, antiviral, and antimicrobial effects. Products that are labeled pawpaw extract are sold over the Internet and they are advertised as being able to cure cancer. There is at least one report of a standardized extract of pawpaw increasing the longevity of 94 cancer patients [22], but the study was not done under good clinical practice and the extract was not prepared under cGMP regulations. Still commercial development of these compounds, based on twig extracts, has been problematic due to limited availability of biomass for extraction. So, it might be useful to find a larger source of ACGs, such as the fruit of the pawpaw, which can produce about 16kg of fruit per tree [22]. The ripe fruit was found to be active in a brine shrimp lethality test (BST) that has been used widely to test ACGs and extracts. However, instead of reporting toxicities as LD50 values, as is done in rodent toxicity studies, LC50 values were reported. So, LD50 values are calculated by dividing the mass of the dose divided by the mass of the test animal and are reported as mg/kg or g/kg. On the other hand, LC50 values are simply the concentration of the ACG solution that is given to 20 brine shrimp larvae, taken 48h after initiation of hatching in artificial seawater [22]. That is, the masses of ACGs and shrimp were not considered. Still, the BST has been used by many in activity-guided purification of ACGs.

At the Aveley Landfill site, in Essex, UK, a pilot project was set up to process MIBA and produce aggregates (IEA, 2014). The final screening plant manufactured various product sizes, including 10-mm aggregates for the manufacture of concrete blocks, 10- to 20-mm aggregates for coatings and 40-mm aggregates for bulk fill. These products had been used in several situations and, so that the aggregates could be accepted in a wider range of applications, further research efforts were being directed towards the following issues: processes needed to produce industry-ready aggregates, contamination removal techniques, improved performance of the resulting aggregates and leachability behaviour.

Standardisation is essential in all of the sampling techniques used so that probabilities and risks can be evaluated fairly in final economic studies. For example, extraneous materials such as plant fibres and other organic substances, which may be the cause of screening problems (e.g., blinding) in the prototype must be taken into account in any small plant screening processes. Bearing in mind that the eventual outcome of the project depends upon the interpretation of data obtained in the field, very high standards of collection and recording of information must be maintained throughout. The following rules of sampling apply generally to all residual type placers:

Standardise all procedures including logging; each drill crew should do and report the same type of things in the same way and each person logging should see and record important features of the samples according to the same set of standards.

The main issue in the information technology dimension is to enable a flexible exchange of information whilst avoiding duplication of information. Thus the idea comes about that there should be a centralised administration of information from which the software components required by the application can be produced through a factory.

So process information is put into the centre and parts of this information can be exchanged to various computational engineering applications. This approach builds a gear-network that links a large number of process systems and computational engineering applications together, stretching over: modelling, model simplification, approximations, different levels of design (screening, plant, engineering); but also control and operation-related activities such as: operator training, monitoring and plant scheduling, as well as alarm handling and more.

In our concept of the solution, we place a software exchange format/ontology in which models and other information is coded, in the core of this dimension. Libraries of models in this exchange format can easily be extended with new models, aggregated or simplified models. These models can also be recoded in software languages that make the models suitable for the existing segmented model-based engineering tools. The desire to integrate these segmented tools (see problem definition) motivates us to further develop an exchange format and code-generation tools. In addition, the approach enables the use of proprietary software components by implementing a tunnelling method: the interface to the proprietary component is made visible through the ontology-exchange-format mechanism, whilst the binary code is appended to the exchange domain and thus made available to the application. This approach enables the applications attach to common libraries that are conform with the core representation. Extending the exchange format with application dependent information makes the integration of the segmented tools even richer. One could think of initial conditions and solver-characterising quantities for solving DAE's or results of some applications for example reduced order models.

The top-level ontology is the one for the representation of the exchange format. It will typically use a template for the representation of all knowledge associated with the various computational engineering tasks. An ontology interfacing the exchange format with the centralised knowledge base enables the construction of a model warehouse. One such effort is reported on MODELISAR webpage (Modelisar (2012)), an effort of the Modelica Modelica (2009) community to define a simpler interface and presentation of process models and associated data. The extensions are mainly in the direction of optimisation. Whilst this effort is mainly used in the domain of megatronics applications, the idea is absolutely transferable to chemical engineering models. It is no parts specific to the application domain. The approach promises to be easier and more broadly applicable than the CAPE-OPEN approach (CoLan (2012)), which though has similar objectives.

The strength and look of a finished rammed earth wall is directly governed by the raw materials in the mix design, and material sourcing and processing have significant financial and environmental impacts on a project. The final selection of bulk materials will involve making trade-offs between cost of materials and wall quality. Geotechnical evaluation in conjunction with trial mix designs and pre-construction testing is highly recommended.

In the ideal situation, suitable soil materials required for construction can be found on the building site, and required quantities can be matched to excavations associated with site work. On small projects, site sourcing will be limited to the footprint of the structure. On larger parcels it is often possible to encounter different soil profiles, one or more of which may have the required characteristics.

In many cases, before a site-sourced material can be used in a mix formulation, screening or other forms of processing may be required. For smaller projects, a screening operation may be as simple as shoveling raw material through a static screen. Larger projects requiring greater quantities may warrant front-loaders and vibratory screening plants. Our experience has indicated that the expenses associated with on-site processing can in some cases equal the price per yard of an imported quarry product.

In most cases, a suitable mix design can be developed using some percentage of site-excavated soil in combination with one or more imported amendments. Optimum proportioning between site soil and amendment is determined through materials testing. Cost and intended wall quality will govern the decision. Imported materials can be expensive but their inclusion can enhance wall characteristics and reduce stabilization requirements. Common field and laboratory testing for rammed earth material inputs can be found in Chapter 6 of this text, as well as in section 14.7 of this chapter.

Importable amendments typically come from quarries. Occasionally excess soil material from some close or adjacent construction project such as a pipeline, road cut, basement or pool excavation might be obtained for the cost of transport. Be aware that free imports may require on-site screening to reduce gravel size and to break-up clods to improve the materials suitability.

The second source for amendment is virgin aggregate from a rock, sand or gravel quarry. The advantages to importing from a quarry are that the selected material is usually uniform, consistent and requiring no on-site processing. Additionally, materials can be delivered in manageable, incremental quantities, which can be of benefit on small sites.

Quarries may prove an even greater resource if they have what can be classified as post-industrial aggregates that are suitable for use as soil amendments. Most quarry operations are geared to the manufacture of clean building products with characteristics that adhere to industry standards. In many cases, the production of these materials results in the creation of lesser value by-products. These by-products may be overburden, crusher fines or tailings essentially waste products generated during primary processing. These types of products are in many cases suitable for use in rammed earth mix designs, with the nature of their creation allowing them to be classified as post-industrial recycled. This can work to double advantage for the environmentally conscious rammed earth builder they are sold at reduced price and can reduce the ecological impacts associated with construction. Furthermore, the LEED rating system awards points for the use of post-industrial recycled materials.

Recycled brick, tile and concrete can also act as amendments for a balanced rammed earth mix formulation. Gradation varies depending on the input and the processing. Advantages include (i) color enhancement: (brick and tile can introduce strong colors into the mix) and; (ii) increased strength (recycled concrete in some cases retains free cement, which can allow for a reduction in stabilization requirements).

Heavy trucks and diesel fuel account for a high percentage of the cost of soil amendment. It follows that the further the amendment source is from the project, the more significant are the environmental (and monetary) costs associated with the importation of that amendment. The choice of a final mix design, therefore, will involve decision-making in three key areas: (i) wall quality and performance; (ii) raw material costs and (iii) ecological impacts of construction. An argument might be made that the more durable the wall (i.e. improved wall quality) the more years of service it can provide, thus offsetting potentially higher initial construction costs (both monetary and ecological). Conversely, a rammed earth wall built entirely of site-sourced material with low to no stabilization will consume fewer non-renewable resources but may not have the same durability. Life-cycle costing takes into account both the energy inputs and the life expectancy of the finished product.

Site logistics are an important factor in staging any rammed earth construction project. Stockpiling raw materials, proportioning and blending, delivering the prepared mix to the formwork all require substantial room on the site and around the building perimeter. When a portion of site-soil is to be used in the formulation, this will have been excavated in previous stages of construction and should be stored near the work area but out of the paths of other trades. Imported material must be off-loaded and stored so that it is both accessible and convenient. Work areas for carpenters to construct formwork must be maintained. Careful pre-construction planning during the early stages of construction can reduce wasted man-hours and equipment costs.

Once the selected soil and aggregate materials have been stockpiled on site, it is important to ensure that the stockpiles are protected from rainy and windy weather. If such conditions are anticipated, covering the piles with tarps or plastic is critical. All materials should be relatively dry at the time of proportioning and blending. This will help to achieve correct material ratios, simplify mixing, reduce clods and clay balls, and achieve homogeneity in the final mix.

The creation of a high-quality mix design usually requires a minimum of two material inputs. In situations where suitable soil materials are found on-site, their composition will commonly include higher amounts of silt and/or clay-sized particles than is optimum. Additionally, they may require screening or other on-site processing. Sand and gravel are normally readily available from nearby quarries or landscape supply yards and can be used to improve a high-fines site-soil. Waste and recycled, both post-consumer and postindustrial, amendments should be preferable to virgin aggregates because of the associated environmental benefits, though performance testing should be the qualifying factor. Because of the high costs associated with transporting bulk soil and aggregate materials, informed decision-making throughout the process of selecting raw materials is critical. After those stockpiled materials are assembled they should be protected from the elements.

crushing plant - an overview | sciencedirect topics

A crushing plant delivered ore to a wet grinding mill for further size reduction. The size of crushed ore (F80) was. 4.0mm and the S.G. 2.8t/m3. The work index of the ore was determined as 12.2kWh/t. A wet ball mill 1m 1m was chosen to grind the ore down to 200 m. A 30% pulp was made and charged to the mill, which was then rotated at 60% of the critical speed. Estimate:1.the maximum diameter of the grinding balls required at the commencement of grinding,2.the diameter of the replacement ball.

A 1.0 1.5m ball mill was loaded with a charge that occupied 45% of the mill volume. The diameter of balls was 100mm. The mill was first rotated at 25rpm. After some time, the rotation was increased to 30rpm and finally to 40rpm. Determine and plot the toe and head angles with the change of speed of rotation.

A 2.7m 3.6m ball mill was filled to 35% of its inner volume. The charge contained 100mm diameter steel balls. The mill was rotated at 75% of critical speed. The ore size charged was 2.8mm and the product size (P80) of 75 m. The work index of the ore was 13.1kWh/t. Determine the production rate of the mill when operated under wet conditions.

Hematite ore of particle size 4000 m is to be ground dry to 200 m (P80). The work index of the ore was determined and found to be equal to15.1kWh/t. Balls of diameter 110mm were added as the grinding media. The mill was rotated at 68% of the critical speed and expected to produce at the rate of 12t/h. The combined correction factors for Wi equalled 0.9. Calculate:1.the volume of the mill occupied by the grinding media,2.the mill capacity when the mill load was increased by 10% of its original volume.

The feed size of an ore to a 1.7m 1.7m wet ball mill operating in closed circuit was 5000m. The work index of the ore was determined under dry open circuit conditions and found to be 13.5kWh/t. The mill bed was filled to 30% of its volume with balls of density 7.9t/m3. A 20:1 reduction ratio of ore was desired. The mill was operated at 80% of the critical speed. Assuming a bed porosity of 40%, estimate the mill capacity in tonnes per year.

A ball mill is to produce a grind of 34 m (P80) product from a feed size of 200 m at a rate of 1.5t/h. The grinding media used was 90% Al2O3 ceramic ball of S.G. 3.5. The balls occupied 28% of the mill volume. The mill was rotated at 65% of the critical speed. The work index of the ore was 11.3kWh/t. Estimate the size of the mill required.

A wet overflow ball mill of dimensions 3.05m 3.05m was charged with nickel ore (pentlandite) of density 4.2 having a F80 value of 2.2mm. The mass of balls charged for grinding was 32t, which constitutes a ball loading of 35% (by volume). The mill was rotated at 18rpm. Estimate:1.power required at the mill shaft per tonne of ball,2.power required at the mill shaft when the load (% Vol) was increased to 45%.

A grate discharge mill of dimensions 4.12m 3.96m was loaded to 40% of its volume with gold ore. The mill drew 10.95kW power per tonne of balls. To grind the ore to the liberation size the mill was run at 72% of the critical speed when charged with balls 64mm in size and 7.9t/m3 density. Determine:1.the fraction of the mill filled with balls,2.the mass of balls charged.

The feed size to a single stage wet ball mill was 9.5mm of which 80% passed through a 810 m sieve. The mill was expected to produce a product of 80% passing 150 m. The feed rate to the mill was 300t/h. The ball mill grindability test at 65 mesh showed 12kWh/t. The internal diameter of the ball mill was 5.03m and the length-to-diameter ratio was 0.77. The steel balls occupied 18% of the mill. The total load occupied 45% of the mill volume. If the mill operated at 72% of the critical speed, determine:1.the mill power at the shaft during wet grinding,2.the mill power at the shaft during dry grinding.

A 5.5m 5.5m ball mill is lined with single wave liners 65mm thick, which cover the entire inside surface. The centre line length was 4.2m and the trunnion diameters 1.5m in diameter. The mill was charged with an ore and 100mm diameter steel balls as the grinding media so the total filling of the cylindrical section was 40% and the ball fractional filling was 0.15 %. The slurry in the mill discharge contained 33% solids (by volume). The mill was expected to rotate at 12.8rpm. Estimate the total power required (including the power required for the no load situation).

There is now a new generation of mobile crushing and screening plant systems, which have been developed based on the motivation of reducing truck haulage. Newly designed mobile crushing and screening plant systems have the advantages of mobility, flexibility, economy, and reliable performance, making this system very appealing for small- to medium-sized projects or projects where a number of resources are separated by distance. Similarly, the advantages of mobile crushers are lower capital cost (up to 30% less), higher mobility, and higher salvage value at the end of the project life. Mobile crushing plants are not suited to large long-life projects, heavy rainfall climates, or arctic climates. The design considerations, operability, and maintainability require careful consideration. The equipment selection would also be based on different criteria to fixed plant (Connelly, 2013).

The iron ore lump obtained from ROM crushing and screening plants will continue to break down into 6.3mm particles during material handling from the product screen to stockpiles, port, and customer. Drop test conditioning of diamond drill core and crusher lump samples has been developed to simulate material handling and plant stockpiling (Clout et al., 2007). The outcomes of the lump simulations in Figure 2.9 indicate that most of the breakage of lump to 6.3mm fines occurs after the first significant drop height; thereafter, the lump consistently shows the same lower rate of breakage to the extent of testing. Breakage functions can be developed, like the curves in Figure 2.7, for specific iron ores and their hardness categories and then used in subsequent plant engineering design and lump degradation modeling. Different iron ores will show different breakdown characteristics, with very hard iron ores showing a slower rate of breakdown, whereas friable lump breaks down so rapidly that it is unlikely to be economically viable as a lump product (e.g., Figure 2.9, ROM 15 Friable).

Figure 2.9. Simulation of lump yield with cumulative mechanical breakdown in material handling from crusher to port. Lump yield for various hardness types derived from crushing and screening of run-of-mine (ROM) feed.

Large volumes of concrete derived from reliable consistent sources can be regarded as virtual quarries where a mobile crushing plant is used at the site. Examples include RCA derived from the decommissioning of concrete pavements from redundant military airfields or demolition of large concrete framed buildings/industrial facilities.22 In such cases, the availability of a material of consistent quality in large quantities makes their exploitation attractive.

In the UK, there are a growing number of processing centres which combine conventional aggregate processing equipment (such as crushers and screens), with a washing plant. Such facilities have the ability to handle mixed construction demolition and excavation waste (including soil). For commercial reasons, the main output is generally a range of RA products (such as unbound fills, capping, sub-base and pipe bedding) rather than a segregated RCA.15

Annually 1 million tons of mineral demolition wastes mainly consisting of concrete and bricks, is produced in Finland. The crushed materials have in field studies on test roads showed favourable geotechnical properties for use in road constructions. The test samples from two crushing plants were chemically characterised and the leaching behaviour was studied by using column, two-stage batch leaching and pH static tests. Only sulphate and chromium leaching from the crushed material was detected. There was a good agreement between column and batch leaching tests. The contents of harmful organic compounds were very low. Based on experience and the results of the experimental study, a practical sampling and testing strategy for an environmental quality assessment system was developed. A two-stage batch leaching test was chosen for the quality control of demolition waste. Preliminary target values for leaching of sulphate, Cr, Cd, Cu and Pb were set. Both geotechnical and environmental properties of the crushed material indicate that the use of demolition waste in road constructions is acceptable and can be recommended to replace landfilling of this material. However, a detailed demolition plan is most important in order to have an acceptable material for utilisation in earth constructions.

Building garbage recycling equipment in Western developed countries is generally mobile crushing station and mobile screen station, which can be divided into two categories, i.e., wheeled and tracked, shown in Figs 8.5 and 8.6. They can be used either alone or in combination with multiple devices. Characteristics of rubber-tired mobile crushing plant are as follows:

the installation form of integrated complete sets of equipment eliminates complex installation work caused by site and infrastructure of fission components, thus cutting down the consumption of the material and working hours.

The machine adopts all-wheel drive and it can realize spin insitu. Standard configuration and quick change device with perfect function of security protection is especially suitable for narrow space and complex area.

Compared with the traditional crushing screening equipment, the mobile crushing station has characteristics of mobility, reconfigurability, and automation. The crushing, screening, and debris sorting of construction waste can be realized if these features are applied to the recycling of construction waste, which can completely meet the requirements of comprehensive treatment of construction waste. In addition, the combination of different types of mobile crushing station screened by the mobile screen substation, which manage the primary and secondary crushing of construction waste, cannot only improve the performance of recycled aggregates, but also get the recycled aggregates piled up in accordance with the aggregate graded, facilitating the recycle of recycled aggregates.

In the process of construction waste treatment with mobile crushing station, the interaction of the waste concrete with itself contains a mix of collision and friction with each other using vibrating equipment, such as vibrating feeder and the original vibrating screen, which can reduce relatively loose waste mortar on its surface. Compared with the mechanical rub method, there is an effect gap between the two, but it plays the same role as well, which improves the performance of the recycled aggregates to some extent.

New renewable equipment can not only break, but also sieve. Mobile crushing screening equipment produced by Atlas Copco, take PC1375 type I crusher, for example, its high efficiency and flexibility, simplicity of operation, product design for easier transportation make it very suitable for field use in harsh environment, and most important of all, products broken by this device is of high capacity and good quality. PC1375 type I crusher is equipped with a special design of 19-mm-thick conveyor belt with high-strength steel wire, which effectively prolongs its service life. Its standard configuration is high-intensity magnetic belt, which can separate all the metal materials out before conveying crushing material to the dump, producing clean broken end products and the separated metal materials can earn extra income. The discharging mouth of the crusher is equipped with rollers, the impact absorption plate with special design is composed of replaceable rubber and steel, and the conveyor belt is removable, which makes obstruction cleaning and equipment maintenance very convenient.

There are, however, an increasing number of urban buildings built using contemporary earth walling, particularly in Western Australia where the revival of rammed earth as a modern building medium has been particularly prolific.

Alan Brooks, an SRE contractor based in Perth says almost 90% of his current work is urban. He sources limestone rubble and recycled concrete from crushing plants often within the city itself so they can rely on quick deliveries of materials eliminating the need for stockpiling on small sites. Urban SRE is now their main business and they have developed tricks to streamline their production and keep costs down. In other parts of Australia this trend toward more urban earth wall construction is also growing.

Scott Kinsmore is a rammed earth contractor in Melbourne. He says he is building higher walls on smaller urban sites. The engineering for higher walls with more point-specific loads on small-site buildings is challenging and often requires more steel to be built within the wall structures. This can be frustrating and costly for the wall builder. Increasingly, Australian urban architects are meeting the challenges of sensible passive solar design and low embodied energy materials. While much of the current computer modelling that drives our 5 Star Energy Rating programmes is insulation-centric, some designers are using earth walling as a way to limit the embodied energy of their buildings as well as increasing their passive solar capacity.

Particles of sizes in the range of 1400m can be defined as dusts, with particles larger than 100m in size settling down near the source of formation. The total size range can be divided into three classes larger than 20m, 201m, and less than 1m these can be termed as large particles, fines and ultrafines, respectively (Leonard, 1979). The size distribution of dust generated in a crushing plant is indicated in Fig. 12.1. It should be noted that it is more difficult to separate smaller particles from the air stream as they have a greater tendency to remain in suspension (Kumar, 1987).

The amount of dust generated depends upon the type of handling and transportation equipment used. A sensitive location of dust control is generally at the conveyor transfer points, screens, crushers, bins, silos and loading and unloading points (Leonard, 1979). The dust control problem is usually restricted to dry handling of coal preparation plants.

Respirable dust is generally defined as particulate matter less than 10m in diameter according to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Respirable dust can get into the lungs of human beings and cause pneumoconiosis on prolonged exposure. The quality of air must be maintained so that the concentration of respirable dust does not exceed 2mg/m3. If the quartz content of an air sample exceeds 5%, the average concentration of respirable dust should be less than 2mg/m3 (Meyers, 1981).

The necessity for storage arises from the fact that different parts of the operation of mining and milling are performed at different rates, some being intermittent and others continuous, some being subject to frequent interruption for repair and others being essentially batch processes. Thus, unless reservoirs for material are provided between the different steps, the whole operation is rendered spasmodic and, consequently, uneconomical. Ore storage is a continuous operation that runs 24h a day and 7 days a week. The type and location of the material storage depends primarily on the feeding system. The ore storage facility is also used for blending different ore grades from various sources.

For various reasons, at most mines, ore is hoisted for only a part of each day. On the other hand, grinding and concentration circuits are most efficient when running continuously. Mine operations are more subject to unexpected interruption than mill operations, and coarse-crushing machines are more subject to clogging and breakage than fine crushers, grinding mills, and concentration equipment. Consequently, both the mine and the coarse-ore plant should have a greater hourly capacity than the fine crushing and grinding plants, and storage reservoirs should be provided between them. Ordinary mine shutdowns, expected or unexpected, will not generally exceed a 24h duration, and ordinary coarse-crushing plant repairs can be made within an equal period if a good supply of spare parts is kept on hand. Therefore, if a 24h supply of ore that has passed the coarse-crushing plant is kept in reserve ahead of the mill proper, the mill can be kept running independent of shutdowns of less than a 24h duration in the mine and coarse-crushing plant. It is wise to provide for a similar mill shutdown and, in order to do this, the reservoir between coarse-crushing plant and mill must contain at all times unfilled space capable of holding a days tonnage from the mine. This is not economically possible, however, with many of the modern very large mills; there is a trend now to design such mills with smaller storage reservoirs, often supplying less than a two-shift supply of ore, the philosophy being that storage does not do anything to the ore, and can, in some cases, has an adverse effect by allowing the ore to oxidize. Unstable sulfides must be treated with minimum delay, the worst case scenario being self-heating with its attendant production and environmental problems (Section 2.6). Wet ore cannot be exposed to extreme cold as it will freeze and become difficult to move.

Storage has the advantage of allowing blending of different ores so as to provide a consistent feed to the mill. Both tripper and shuttle conveyors can be used to blend the material into the storage reservoir. If the units shuttle back and forth along the pile, the materials are layered and mix when reclaimed. If the units form separate piles for each quality of ore, a blend can be achieved by combining the flow from selected feeders onto a reclaim conveyor.

Depending on the nature of the material treated, storage is accomplished in stockpiles, bins, or tanks. Stockpiles are often used to store coarse ore of low value outdoors. In designing stockpiles, it is merely necessary to know the angle of repose of the ore, the volume occupied by the broken ore, and the tonnage. The stockpile must be safe and stable with respect to thermal conductivity, geomechanics, drainage, dust, and any radiation emission. The shape of a stockpile can be conical or elongated. The conical shape provides the greatest capacity per unit area, thus reduces the plant footprint. Material blending from a stockpile can be achieved with any shape but the most effective blending can be achieved with elongated shape.

Although material can be reclaimed from stockpiles by front-end loaders or by bucket-wheel reclaimers, the most economical method is by the reclaim tunnel system, since it requires a minimum of manpower to operate (Dietiker, 1980). It is especially suited for blending by feeding from any combination of openings. Conical stockpiles can be reclaimed by a tunnel running through the center, with one or more feed openings discharging via gates, or feeders, onto the reclaim belt. Chain scraper reclaimers are the alternate device used, especially for the conical stock pile. The amount of reclaimable material, or the live storage, is about 2025% of the total (Figure 2.11). Elongated stockpiles are reclaimed in a similar manner, the live storage being 3035% of the total (Figure 2.12).

For continuous feeding of crushed ore to the grinding section, feed bins are used for transfer of the coarse material from belts and rail and road trucks. They are made of wood, concrete, or steel. They must be easy to fill and must allow a steady fall of the ore through to the discharge gates with no hanging up of material or opportunity for it to segregate into coarse and fine fractions. The discharge must be adequate and drawn from several alternative points if the bin is large. Flat-bottom bins cannot be emptied completely and retain a substantial tonnage of dead rock. This, however, provides a cushion to protect the bottom from wear, and such bins are easy to construct. This type of bin, however, should not be used with easily oxidized ore, which might age dangerously and mix with the fresh ore supply. Bins with sloping bottoms are better in such cases.

Pulp storage on a large scale is not as easy as dry ore storage. Conditioning tanks are used for storing suspensions of fine particles to provide time for chemical reactions to proceed. These tanks must be agitated continuously, not only to provide mixing but also to prevent settlement and choking up. Surge tanks are placed in the pulp flow-line when it is necessary to smooth out small operating variations of feed rate. Their content can be agitated by stirring, by blowing in air, or by circulation through a pump.

Recycled concrete aggregate (RCA) comes from demolition of Portland cement concrete. Given that the original concrete might have been strong or weak, dense or open graded, fresh or weathered, then the aggregates pieces can be expected to vary similarly. If the RCA comes from a central recycling plant the consistency will have been addressed, to some extent, by blending of materials from different sources. If the material is coming from an on-site crushing plant then it will reflect more directly, and more immediately, the type of concrete being crushed.

The crushing process produces agglomerations of the original concretes aggregates with adhered mortar. These agglomerations are, typically, more angular than conventional aggregates. Also the crushed concrete will produce fines from the mortar element, the amount being controlled to a large extent by the strength of the original concrete. Thus high-strength concrete will typically crush to produce very sharp, even lance-like, blade aggregates with low proportions of fines, whereas the weakest concrete may crush to produce almost the original coarse aggregates plus a large proportion of fines made of the old mortar. In the crushed mortar component, be newly exposed. The effect of this will be a slow strength gain as this cement starts hydrating either with water that has been deliberately added, or with water attracted hygroscopically from the surrounding environment. Thus RCA is, to some degree, a self-cementing material with RCA from strong concretes (those with high cement contents in the original mix) often exhibiting a higher self-cementing ability.

mobile crushers | mobile crushing plant

Based on more than 30 years' experience in the industry development, installation of thousands of sets of equipment and a large amount of money invested in research and development, SBM has released a brand-new mobile crushing and screening plants including seven modules and a total of about 70 types. Our mobile crushers are able to be widely used in phases such as coarse crushing, intermediate crushing, fine crushing, ultra fine crushing. sand-making sand washing, sand shaping and screening in fields of metal mines, building aggregates and solid waste treatment, etc. Also they are able to meet customers' requirements for diversification, high quality and high production capacity, and committed to providing customers with comprehensive and systematic integration solutions.

Our mobile crusher can be used in one stage of crushing for separate operation or complete joint operations with other crushing and screening portable plants to achieve two-stage, three-stage or four-stage crushing, so that various crusher screening requirements could be satisfied.

The mobile crushers feature flexible configurations, with more attention paid to complete functions, stable performance and strong practicability. The reasonable matching among all systems of the equipment has greatly improved the equipment productivity, and compared with the fixed production lines of the same equipment conditions, this products feature more reliable performance, more powerful functions richer function portfolios, significantly enhanced complete capacity and wider applications.

This machine adopt a modular design concept that the same frame can be adapted to a variety of types, so that different host machine units of the same type could be exchangeable. The on-site needs can be satisfied only by changing the main machine equipment according to users' diversified needs.

Mobile crusher has been optimized in structure design and product portfolio, so it has more types and more flexible combinations, able to provide users with more abundant and effective portable solutions

The equipment adopts a universal frame and a modular designed main machine, able to realize rapid upgrade and replacement, so that higher demands of production lines could be satisfied. The frame-mounted platform needs no additional investment, but only replacement of the main equipment and its accessories to upgrade and expand the scale of a stone production line.

The equipment is provided with a preliminary screening module and an adjust-able vibrating screen, the equipment parameters can be adjusted and optimized according to Users' field conditions to optimize the on-site produc tion efficiency.

The speed of the vehicle-mounted belt conveyor can be adjusted according to the material throughput to reduce the energy consumption. At the same time, a feedback alarm system for overload electronic control signals is additionally provided to achieve timely power-off shutdown in case of any fault.

This complete sets of equipment can accurately meet customers' various requirements for crushing operations by means of simple adjustment, and the users can switch "screening first and then crushingto crushing first and then screening according to their individual needs to satisfy the product requirements. Users can also add a returning charge conveyor to realize swit ching between closed and open loops to expand the range of equipment applications.

Compared with stationary crushing plant, this mobile crushing plants can be configured with quick-mounting outrigger steel plates as options free of base hardening and fixation, and can be quickly fixed for working on the site to realize the effect of small range movement approximately like caterpillar equipment, so such have considered the flexibility and the equipment portfo-lio diversification of mobile crushing and screening lants.

Each crushing solution will be different from others due to different feeding types or product requirements, and the K-series mobile plants can provide users with: the maximum flexibility and cost effectiveness able to meet all portable crushing and screening requirements.

delivering plantwide control for arriums iron knob mine | rockwell automation australia

Arrium Mining is an exporter of hematite iron ore and also supplies iron ore feed to Arrium's integrated steelworks at Whyalla. The business currently exports approximately 9-10 million tonnes per annum of hematite ore, primarily to China.

Iron Knob is located in the Middleback ranges approximately 60 kilometres north west of Whyalla, South Australia. It is said to be the birthplace of Australian steel with commercial mining dating back to the 1890s.

Arrium engaged Striker Australia to prepare infrastructure to access the ore reserves in the Iron Knob mine. Striker provides quality, reliable and tough crushing, screening and materials handling equipment to the mining and related industries.

The task at hand was to design, supply, assemble, install and commission modular crushing and screening equipment to process hematite iron ore sourced from the Iron Knob Mining Area for rail transport to Arriums port facilities with minimum ground works and in a short on-site construction timeframe.

To achieve this, Striker Australia contracted SAGE Automation, a Solution Partner of Rockwell Automation and leading provider of industrial automation and control systems. The company is committed to deliver the highest technical solution and customer service, leading with Rockwell Automation technologies and this project was no exemption.

SAGE Automation was contracted to supply the control system and visualisation together with the complete electrical design, construction and installation works for the new crushing and screening plant.

The Iron Knob crushing and screening plant was designed to have a 10 year life expectancy, making the use of mobile crushing and screening equipment as a more cost-effective solution compared to a fixed infrastructure solution.

The plant was originally estimated to cost approximately $40 million, but by using mobile equipment, this cost was able to be reduced by half, said Christopher Poetsch, Senior Electrical Engineer at SAGE Automation.

Poetsch knew that the control and visualisation solution from Rockwell Automation would provide the required flexibility and reliability for this application. As a result of the maintainability and easy integration of the solution into the systems at the site, Rockwell Automation is the control and visualisation vendor of choice for Arrium Mining.

According to Greg Schultz, executive account manager at Rockwell Automation, By having the crushing in close proximity to the mine, the requirement for transport and materials handling is reduced dramatically.

The modular design of the plant made integration easy and also delivered the flexibility required to adapt to changes. The new plant has had a number of design revisions but because it is modular and mobile, it has been easy to adapt to changes, explained Jonathan Deluao, Principal Control Systems/Maintenance Engineer at Arrium Mining.

The overarching control requirements for the entire plant including the conveyors, crushers, feeders and stackers were provided by Allen-Bradley ControlLogix. With safety being a vital consideration for the plant, Allen-Bradley GuardLogix - with local and distributed safe POINT I/O modules provided integrated safety control and the ability to stop either a particular piece of equipment or a section of the plant if required.

Due to the size of plant, over 75 variable speed drives were required. The more complex of these were from the Allen-Bradley PowerFlex family, used for the synchronisation of the vibrating feeders and for the speed control of the conveyors to optimise flow rates to the crushers. FactoryTalk View Site Edition (SE) supervisory-level HMI software is used for monitoring and controlling the plant. It provides operational insight into the complete site, including the conveyors, crushers and feeders.

Using the Rockwell Automation platform for control and visualisation of the plant provided peace of mind, reliability and improved maintenance response times. The plant operators are familiar with, and have confidence in, the ControlLogix and FactoryTalk platform. Because it is used on other Arrium sites, maintenance requirements are also reduced, explained Poetsch.

Using the Rockwell Automation platform for control and visualisation of the plant provided peace of mind, reliability and improved maintenance response times. The plant operators are familiar with, and have confidence in, the ControlLogix and FactoryTalk platform. Because it is used on other Arrium sites, maintenance requirements are also reduced, explained Poetsch.

One of the most significant challenges the project team faced was the extremely tight timeframe. To deliver the project within these timeframes, we leveraged previous project experience, industry knowledge, SAGE Automation team agility, and the use of the Rockwell Automation tools for the design and deployment of the control system, which proved to save significant time and cost, said Poetsch.

Due to the delivery sequence for the crushing and screening equipment, it was necessary to start commissioning sections of the plant while others were being mechanically and electrically installed. Poetsch explained that the use of POINT I/O for the system allowed for flexibility in design and scope changes, right through to the commissioning and handover phase, which helped to deliver the project within time and budget.

Integration between plant equipment was made easy with the Integrated Architecture platform from Rockwell Automation which we stipulate as a standard for Arrium sites. This allows us to benefit from common spares and resources, minimises training requirements and helps the plant capitalise on the core infrastructure, said Deluao.

The high availability of the ControlLogix control system and associated components gives Arrium the assurance of a high mean time between failure (MTBF) and mean time between repair (MTBR) and low mean time to repair (MTTR), which ultimately equates to minimal downtime, planned or unplanned.

Integrated Device Level Ring (DLR) connectivity was used to optimise the network architecture, increase its fault tolerance and provide consolidated network diagnostics. The Allen-Bradley Stratix switches included integrated DLR connectivity, and although the control system did not require redundancy to the level of other Arrium plants, the DLR network topology delivered a reliable network architecture for the plant.

The site now processes approximately five million tonnes of ore per annum and the control system has been embraced by operators and maintenance staff with minimal training. The system was designed and installed to meet Arriums stringent requirements, which are not only site specific but company-wide, said Poetsch.

Rockwell Automation Australia and Rockwell Automation New Zealand are subsidiaries of Rockwell Automation, Inc.a leading global provider of industrial automation and information solutions that helps manufacturers achieve a competitive advantage in their businesses. The company brings together leading global brands in industrial automation which include Allen-Bradley controls and services and Rockwell Software factory management software. Its broad product mix includes control logic systems, sensors, human-machine interfaces, drive controllers, power devices, and software.

Rockwell Automation, Inc. (NYSE:ROK), the worlds largest company dedicated to industrial automation and information, makes its customers more productive and the world more sustainable. Headquartered in Milwaukee, Wis., Rockwell Automation employs approximately 22,000 people serving customers in more than 80 countries.