Surface modification of iron powder was carried out via wet ball milling in siloxane block copolymer and surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulfate) solutions. The produced materials were characterized by means of SEM, XRD and Mssbauer spectroscopy. The structure of the modified surface layers was studied by XPS and FT-IR spectroscopy.
Milled NZVI particles with Al2O3 have high reactivity against Cr(VI), TCE and PCE.High suspension stability and mobility comparing with commercial nZVI.The particles have a highly deformed structure with a thin oxide layer.High positive values of -Potential and low saturation magnetization.
The performance of new nano zero-valent iron (nZVI) particles produced by a promising new milling method in organic solvent was examined. The basic feature of the new process involves the addition of abrasive alumina particles having an average particle size of 5m during milling. The milled particles with alumina had a specific surface area exceeding 20m2g1 as well as high percentages of Fe(0) content of 7580%. The reactivity against Cr(VI), Trichloroethylene, and Tetrachloroethylene was determined and in all cases, the removal capacity of the milled particles was higher than that of commercial available nZVI particles. This high reactivity may be related to the absence of a thick and continuous oxide layer on the surface, the high disorder levels of the metallic structure and the large number of reaction sites. Sedimentation tests revealed very good suspension stability, while in mobility tests, the particles could be distributed throughout the column length. The results showed a low tendency to agglomerate in aqueous solution. This behaviour has been attributed to two factors related to the milling process: first, the high -Potential found in the particles, which enhances electrostatic repulsion. The second factor is the significant decrease of saturation magnetization of the milled particles with alumina in comparison with the values of the commercial nZVI particles, leading to a reduction in magnetic interparticle interaction. This decrease may be related to the introduction of a significant carbon content in the iron particles (0.651.35%wt, depending on the sample) and the presence of a highly deformed nanostructure.
Soft magnetic composite materials comprised of alumina coated iron powders were produced via high-energy ball milling.Self-coating occurs directly from milling media, no additional powder necessary.Low ball-to-powder ratios permit minimal particle size reduction while continuing to deform powders.We report improved magnetic saturation for higher curing temperatures of insulated powder compacts.
Electrically insulated ferrous powders permit isotropic magnetic flux, lower core losses, and structural freedom for state-of-the-art electromagnetic (EM) core and device designs. Many current coating materials are limited by low melting temperatures, which leads to insufficient insulation of powders, resulting in metal-on-metal contact. Use of a high-temperature coating material, such as alumina, could alleviate these issues. In this work, iron powder was mechanically milled with alumina media, to yield plastically deformed, alumina-coated iron particles with improved magnetic saturation, elastic modulus, and hardness. Various milling times and media ball sizes are investigated to maintain particle size, insulate powders uniformly, and optimize properties after compaction and curing. We found that longer milling times yielded more dense powder coatings and lower magnetic saturation.
Molecular transformations under milling Fe with N-phenylanthranilic acid are studied.Main processes include complexation, polymerization and adsorption of NPhA on Fe.NPhA-modified layers provide high corrosion stability of Fe plate-shaped particles.NPhA & solvent decompose under long milling with formation of Fe oxides and carbides.
This paper provides FTIR and XPS studies on molecular transformations in interfaces and liquid media under wet ball milling of iron with N-phenylanthranilic acid (NPhA) used as a chelator and corrosion inhibitor. The initial stages of ball milling are accompanied with the formation of a variety of compounds, including complex compounds of iron, polymeric NPhA, ester groups, and non-volatile alkyl derivatives. The NPhA derivatives adsorbed on the surface stabilize the flake-like shape of particles and significantly increase their corrosion resistance in both acidic and neutral media. It has been shown that chelators/corrosion inhibitors may be successfully used as effective process controlling agents for wet ball milling of transition metals of low corrosion resistance to synthesize corrosion-resistant flake-shaped particles. Long-term milling has been shown to make towards the destruction of oxygen-containing groups, including the dehydration of NPhA itself to acridone, a polycyclic compound. The destruction of the modifying NPhA-based surface layer leads to the agglomeration of particles. The intensive destruction of the milling medium ingredients taking place during long-term milling facilitates the accumulation of oxides and carbides.
Fe3O4 nanoparticles with sizes ranging from 30 to 80nm were synthesized by wet milling iron powders in a planetary ball mill. The phase composition and the morphologies of the as-synthesized products were measured by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Nanosized Fe3O4 particles were prepared by wet milling metallic iron powder (200 mesh, 99%) in a planetary ball mill equipped with stainless steel vials using iron balls under distilled water with a ball-to-powder mass ratio of 50:1 and at a rotation speed of 300rpm. The use of the iron balls in this method played a key role in Fe3O4 formation. The present technique is simple and the process is easy to carry out.
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