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This study deals with the shaking table tests for two small-scale models (Model #1 and Model #2) of a concrete gravity dam, which has been planned for the construction with the recommendation of the peak ground acceleration of the maximum credible earthquake of 0.42 g. The development of bentonite-concrete mixture material, which matches the similitude requirements between the prototype and the model, is discussed. Two types of excitation, resonance test and ambient test, were conducted to investigate the resonant frequency, the maximum failure acceleration and the crack initiation/propagation. In both models, large amplification was observed at around 2428 Hz. The crack initiated at the slope changing point and then propagated around the neck area. The crack failures were occurred at the base acceleration of 0.55 g0.65 g.
Donlon, W. P. (1989). Experimental investigation of the nonlinear seismic response of concrete gravity dams, Report No. 89-01, Earthquake Engineering Research Laboratory, California Institute of Technology Pasadena.
Niwa, A. and Clough, R. W. (1980). Shaking table research on concrete dam models, Report No. UCB/EERC-80-05, Earthquake Engineering Research Center, College of Engineering, University of California Berkeley, California.
Wieland, M., Brenner, P., and Sommer, P. (2003). Earthquake resiliency of large concrete dams: Damage, repair, and strengthening concepts. Q.83, Proceedings of the 21st International Congress on Large Dams, ICOLD, Montreal Canada.
Zadnik, B. and Paskalov, T. (1992). Dam stability and time-dependent coefficient of friction. Proceedings of the 10th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Balkema, Rotterdam, The Netherlands, pp. 46334638.
Phansri, B., Charoenwongmit, S., Yooprasertchai, E. et al. An experimental study on shaking table tests on models of a concrete gravity dam. KSCE J Civ Eng 19, 142150 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12205-014-1221-8
The following chart gives standard pipe schedule or pipes sizes as given by ANSI / ASME B36.10M and API 5L . Data given in based on the NPS Tables given by ANSI B36.10M and includes Pipe wall thickness, outside diameter, nominal diameter.
Pipe size is specified by two designations: a nominal pipe size (NPS) for diameter based on inches, and a schedule (Sched. or Sch.) for wall thickness. NPS is often incorrectly called National Pipe Size, due to confusion with national pipe thread (NPT).
The European (ISO) designation equivalent to NPS is DN (diamtre nominal/nominal diameter/Durchmesser nach Norm), in which sizes are measured in millimetres. The term NB (nominal bore) is also frequently used interchangeably with NPS
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