Attrition mill is a type of grinding mill by kinds of media to crush lump to powder-like substances. The impact can be rock on rock such as in an Autogenous Grinding (AG) mill, rock and a small ball charge (~10%), used in Semi Autogenous Grinding (SAG) mills, balls of various sizes in Ball Mills and less commonly these days, steel rods in Rod Mills.
These machines are used to grind or mix metals or raw materials for further processing. Various materials are placed into the mill drum and rotated with the mined materials that are to be crushed. The ball mill contains materials meant for crushing and grinding, such as balls of ceramic, small rocks, or balls made from stainless steel. The internal device of the ball mill grinds material into powder-like substances, and can rotate continuously for optimal grinding and refinery production.
A Sag mill is most often used in the mining fields, particularly in the mining of precious metals such as gold, copper, silver, and nickel. The sag mill serves in the line of industrial mining equipment designed to process, crush, separate, or locate precious metals from mined coal. The Sag mill is one of the large mining equipment pieces, and often requires mining equipment repair and maintenance. This is most often due to the large amount of heavy, residue bearing material being churned through the large drums of the grind mill. The Sag mill uses lifting plates along the interior of the drum, which lift material throughout the rotations, causing them to fall onto one another to promote crushing.
A ball mill has many steel or porcelain balls put in a drum to grind the feed between balls and between the balls and drum inner wall as the drum rotates. This mill is capable of grinding lumps whose size is tens of millimeters into a product tens of microns or even several microns. The ball mill can grind various ores and other materials with dry type and wet type. There are two kinds of ball mill, grate type and overfall type due to different ways of discharging material.
A crushing plant delivered ore to a wet grinding mill for further size reduction. The size of crushed ore (F80) was. 4.0mm and the S.G. 2.8t/m3. The work index of the ore was determined as 12.2kWh/t. A wet ball mill 1m 1m was chosen to grind the ore down to 200 m. A 30% pulp was made and charged to the mill, which was then rotated at 60% of the critical speed. Estimate:1.the maximum diameter of the grinding balls required at the commencement of grinding,2.the diameter of the replacement ball.
A 1.0 1.5m ball mill was loaded with a charge that occupied 45% of the mill volume. The diameter of balls was 100mm. The mill was first rotated at 25rpm. After some time, the rotation was increased to 30rpm and finally to 40rpm. Determine and plot the toe and head angles with the change of speed of rotation.
A 2.7m 3.6m ball mill was filled to 35% of its inner volume. The charge contained 100mm diameter steel balls. The mill was rotated at 75% of critical speed. The ore size charged was 2.8mm and the product size (P80) of 75 m. The work index of the ore was 13.1kWh/t. Determine the production rate of the mill when operated under wet conditions.
Hematite ore of particle size 4000 m is to be ground dry to 200 m (P80). The work index of the ore was determined and found to be equal to15.1kWh/t. Balls of diameter 110mm were added as the grinding media. The mill was rotated at 68% of the critical speed and expected to produce at the rate of 12t/h. The combined correction factors for Wi equalled 0.9. Calculate:1.the volume of the mill occupied by the grinding media,2.the mill capacity when the mill load was increased by 10% of its original volume.
The feed size of an ore to a 1.7m 1.7m wet ball mill operating in closed circuit was 5000m. The work index of the ore was determined under dry open circuit conditions and found to be 13.5kWh/t. The mill bed was filled to 30% of its volume with balls of density 7.9t/m3. A 20:1 reduction ratio of ore was desired. The mill was operated at 80% of the critical speed. Assuming a bed porosity of 40%, estimate the mill capacity in tonnes per year.
A ball mill is to produce a grind of 34 m (P80) product from a feed size of 200 m at a rate of 1.5t/h. The grinding media used was 90% Al2O3 ceramic ball of S.G. 3.5. The balls occupied 28% of the mill volume. The mill was rotated at 65% of the critical speed. The work index of the ore was 11.3kWh/t. Estimate the size of the mill required.
A wet overflow ball mill of dimensions 3.05m 3.05m was charged with nickel ore (pentlandite) of density 4.2 having a F80 value of 2.2mm. The mass of balls charged for grinding was 32t, which constitutes a ball loading of 35% (by volume). The mill was rotated at 18rpm. Estimate:1.power required at the mill shaft per tonne of ball,2.power required at the mill shaft when the load (% Vol) was increased to 45%.
A grate discharge mill of dimensions 4.12m 3.96m was loaded to 40% of its volume with gold ore. The mill drew 10.95kW power per tonne of balls. To grind the ore to the liberation size the mill was run at 72% of the critical speed when charged with balls 64mm in size and 7.9t/m3 density. Determine:1.the fraction of the mill filled with balls,2.the mass of balls charged.
The feed size to a single stage wet ball mill was 9.5mm of which 80% passed through a 810 m sieve. The mill was expected to produce a product of 80% passing 150 m. The feed rate to the mill was 300t/h. The ball mill grindability test at 65 mesh showed 12kWh/t. The internal diameter of the ball mill was 5.03m and the length-to-diameter ratio was 0.77. The steel balls occupied 18% of the mill. The total load occupied 45% of the mill volume. If the mill operated at 72% of the critical speed, determine:1.the mill power at the shaft during wet grinding,2.the mill power at the shaft during dry grinding.
A 5.5m 5.5m ball mill is lined with single wave liners 65mm thick, which cover the entire inside surface. The centre line length was 4.2m and the trunnion diameters 1.5m in diameter. The mill was charged with an ore and 100mm diameter steel balls as the grinding media so the total filling of the cylindrical section was 40% and the ball fractional filling was 0.15 %. The slurry in the mill discharge contained 33% solids (by volume). The mill was expected to rotate at 12.8rpm. Estimate the total power required (including the power required for the no load situation).
There is now a new generation of mobile crushing and screening plant systems, which have been developed based on the motivation of reducing truck haulage. Newly designed mobile crushing and screening plant systems have the advantages of mobility, flexibility, economy, and reliable performance, making this system very appealing for small- to medium-sized projects or projects where a number of resources are separated by distance. Similarly, the advantages of mobile crushers are lower capital cost (up to 30% less), higher mobility, and higher salvage value at the end of the project life. Mobile crushing plants are not suited to large long-life projects, heavy rainfall climates, or arctic climates. The design considerations, operability, and maintainability require careful consideration. The equipment selection would also be based on different criteria to fixed plant (Connelly, 2013).
The iron ore lump obtained from ROM crushing and screening plants will continue to break down into 6.3mm particles during material handling from the product screen to stockpiles, port, and customer. Drop test conditioning of diamond drill core and crusher lump samples has been developed to simulate material handling and plant stockpiling (Clout et al., 2007). The outcomes of the lump simulations in Figure 2.9 indicate that most of the breakage of lump to 6.3mm fines occurs after the first significant drop height; thereafter, the lump consistently shows the same lower rate of breakage to the extent of testing. Breakage functions can be developed, like the curves in Figure 2.7, for specific iron ores and their hardness categories and then used in subsequent plant engineering design and lump degradation modeling. Different iron ores will show different breakdown characteristics, with very hard iron ores showing a slower rate of breakdown, whereas friable lump breaks down so rapidly that it is unlikely to be economically viable as a lump product (e.g., Figure 2.9, ROM 15 Friable).
Figure 2.9. Simulation of lump yield with cumulative mechanical breakdown in material handling from crusher to port. Lump yield for various hardness types derived from crushing and screening of run-of-mine (ROM) feed.
Large volumes of concrete derived from reliable consistent sources can be regarded as virtual quarries where a mobile crushing plant is used at the site. Examples include RCA derived from the decommissioning of concrete pavements from redundant military airfields or demolition of large concrete framed buildings/industrial facilities.22 In such cases, the availability of a material of consistent quality in large quantities makes their exploitation attractive.
In the UK, there are a growing number of processing centres which combine conventional aggregate processing equipment (such as crushers and screens), with a washing plant. Such facilities have the ability to handle mixed construction demolition and excavation waste (including soil). For commercial reasons, the main output is generally a range of RA products (such as unbound fills, capping, sub-base and pipe bedding) rather than a segregated RCA.15
Annually 1 million tons of mineral demolition wastes mainly consisting of concrete and bricks, is produced in Finland. The crushed materials have in field studies on test roads showed favourable geotechnical properties for use in road constructions. The test samples from two crushing plants were chemically characterised and the leaching behaviour was studied by using column, two-stage batch leaching and pH static tests. Only sulphate and chromium leaching from the crushed material was detected. There was a good agreement between column and batch leaching tests. The contents of harmful organic compounds were very low. Based on experience and the results of the experimental study, a practical sampling and testing strategy for an environmental quality assessment system was developed. A two-stage batch leaching test was chosen for the quality control of demolition waste. Preliminary target values for leaching of sulphate, Cr, Cd, Cu and Pb were set. Both geotechnical and environmental properties of the crushed material indicate that the use of demolition waste in road constructions is acceptable and can be recommended to replace landfilling of this material. However, a detailed demolition plan is most important in order to have an acceptable material for utilisation in earth constructions.
Building garbage recycling equipment in Western developed countries is generally mobile crushing station and mobile screen station, which can be divided into two categories, i.e., wheeled and tracked, shown in Figs 8.5 and 8.6. They can be used either alone or in combination with multiple devices. Characteristics of rubber-tired mobile crushing plant are as follows:
the installation form of integrated complete sets of equipment eliminates complex installation work caused by site and infrastructure of fission components, thus cutting down the consumption of the material and working hours.
The machine adopts all-wheel drive and it can realize spin insitu. Standard configuration and quick change device with perfect function of security protection is especially suitable for narrow space and complex area.
Compared with the traditional crushing screening equipment, the mobile crushing station has characteristics of mobility, reconfigurability, and automation. The crushing, screening, and debris sorting of construction waste can be realized if these features are applied to the recycling of construction waste, which can completely meet the requirements of comprehensive treatment of construction waste. In addition, the combination of different types of mobile crushing station screened by the mobile screen substation, which manage the primary and secondary crushing of construction waste, cannot only improve the performance of recycled aggregates, but also get the recycled aggregates piled up in accordance with the aggregate graded, facilitating the recycle of recycled aggregates.
In the process of construction waste treatment with mobile crushing station, the interaction of the waste concrete with itself contains a mix of collision and friction with each other using vibrating equipment, such as vibrating feeder and the original vibrating screen, which can reduce relatively loose waste mortar on its surface. Compared with the mechanical rub method, there is an effect gap between the two, but it plays the same role as well, which improves the performance of the recycled aggregates to some extent.
New renewable equipment can not only break, but also sieve. Mobile crushing screening equipment produced by Atlas Copco, take PC1375 type I crusher, for example, its high efficiency and flexibility, simplicity of operation, product design for easier transportation make it very suitable for field use in harsh environment, and most important of all, products broken by this device is of high capacity and good quality. PC1375 type I crusher is equipped with a special design of 19-mm-thick conveyor belt with high-strength steel wire, which effectively prolongs its service life. Its standard configuration is high-intensity magnetic belt, which can separate all the metal materials out before conveying crushing material to the dump, producing clean broken end products and the separated metal materials can earn extra income. The discharging mouth of the crusher is equipped with rollers, the impact absorption plate with special design is composed of replaceable rubber and steel, and the conveyor belt is removable, which makes obstruction cleaning and equipment maintenance very convenient.
There are, however, an increasing number of urban buildings built using contemporary earth walling, particularly in Western Australia where the revival of rammed earth as a modern building medium has been particularly prolific.
Alan Brooks, an SRE contractor based in Perth says almost 90% of his current work is urban. He sources limestone rubble and recycled concrete from crushing plants often within the city itself so they can rely on quick deliveries of materials eliminating the need for stockpiling on small sites. Urban SRE is now their main business and they have developed tricks to streamline their production and keep costs down. In other parts of Australia this trend toward more urban earth wall construction is also growing.
Scott Kinsmore is a rammed earth contractor in Melbourne. He says he is building higher walls on smaller urban sites. The engineering for higher walls with more point-specific loads on small-site buildings is challenging and often requires more steel to be built within the wall structures. This can be frustrating and costly for the wall builder. Increasingly, Australian urban architects are meeting the challenges of sensible passive solar design and low embodied energy materials. While much of the current computer modelling that drives our 5 Star Energy Rating programmes is insulation-centric, some designers are using earth walling as a way to limit the embodied energy of their buildings as well as increasing their passive solar capacity.
Particles of sizes in the range of 1400m can be defined as dusts, with particles larger than 100m in size settling down near the source of formation. The total size range can be divided into three classes larger than 20m, 201m, and less than 1m these can be termed as large particles, fines and ultrafines, respectively (Leonard, 1979). The size distribution of dust generated in a crushing plant is indicated in Fig. 12.1. It should be noted that it is more difficult to separate smaller particles from the air stream as they have a greater tendency to remain in suspension (Kumar, 1987).
The amount of dust generated depends upon the type of handling and transportation equipment used. A sensitive location of dust control is generally at the conveyor transfer points, screens, crushers, bins, silos and loading and unloading points (Leonard, 1979). The dust control problem is usually restricted to dry handling of coal preparation plants.
Respirable dust is generally defined as particulate matter less than 10m in diameter according to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Respirable dust can get into the lungs of human beings and cause pneumoconiosis on prolonged exposure. The quality of air must be maintained so that the concentration of respirable dust does not exceed 2mg/m3. If the quartz content of an air sample exceeds 5%, the average concentration of respirable dust should be less than 2mg/m3 (Meyers, 1981).
The necessity for storage arises from the fact that different parts of the operation of mining and milling are performed at different rates, some being intermittent and others continuous, some being subject to frequent interruption for repair and others being essentially batch processes. Thus, unless reservoirs for material are provided between the different steps, the whole operation is rendered spasmodic and, consequently, uneconomical. Ore storage is a continuous operation that runs 24h a day and 7 days a week. The type and location of the material storage depends primarily on the feeding system. The ore storage facility is also used for blending different ore grades from various sources.
For various reasons, at most mines, ore is hoisted for only a part of each day. On the other hand, grinding and concentration circuits are most efficient when running continuously. Mine operations are more subject to unexpected interruption than mill operations, and coarse-crushing machines are more subject to clogging and breakage than fine crushers, grinding mills, and concentration equipment. Consequently, both the mine and the coarse-ore plant should have a greater hourly capacity than the fine crushing and grinding plants, and storage reservoirs should be provided between them. Ordinary mine shutdowns, expected or unexpected, will not generally exceed a 24h duration, and ordinary coarse-crushing plant repairs can be made within an equal period if a good supply of spare parts is kept on hand. Therefore, if a 24h supply of ore that has passed the coarse-crushing plant is kept in reserve ahead of the mill proper, the mill can be kept running independent of shutdowns of less than a 24h duration in the mine and coarse-crushing plant. It is wise to provide for a similar mill shutdown and, in order to do this, the reservoir between coarse-crushing plant and mill must contain at all times unfilled space capable of holding a days tonnage from the mine. This is not economically possible, however, with many of the modern very large mills; there is a trend now to design such mills with smaller storage reservoirs, often supplying less than a two-shift supply of ore, the philosophy being that storage does not do anything to the ore, and can, in some cases, has an adverse effect by allowing the ore to oxidize. Unstable sulfides must be treated with minimum delay, the worst case scenario being self-heating with its attendant production and environmental problems (Section 2.6). Wet ore cannot be exposed to extreme cold as it will freeze and become difficult to move.
Storage has the advantage of allowing blending of different ores so as to provide a consistent feed to the mill. Both tripper and shuttle conveyors can be used to blend the material into the storage reservoir. If the units shuttle back and forth along the pile, the materials are layered and mix when reclaimed. If the units form separate piles for each quality of ore, a blend can be achieved by combining the flow from selected feeders onto a reclaim conveyor.
Depending on the nature of the material treated, storage is accomplished in stockpiles, bins, or tanks. Stockpiles are often used to store coarse ore of low value outdoors. In designing stockpiles, it is merely necessary to know the angle of repose of the ore, the volume occupied by the broken ore, and the tonnage. The stockpile must be safe and stable with respect to thermal conductivity, geomechanics, drainage, dust, and any radiation emission. The shape of a stockpile can be conical or elongated. The conical shape provides the greatest capacity per unit area, thus reduces the plant footprint. Material blending from a stockpile can be achieved with any shape but the most effective blending can be achieved with elongated shape.
Although material can be reclaimed from stockpiles by front-end loaders or by bucket-wheel reclaimers, the most economical method is by the reclaim tunnel system, since it requires a minimum of manpower to operate (Dietiker, 1980). It is especially suited for blending by feeding from any combination of openings. Conical stockpiles can be reclaimed by a tunnel running through the center, with one or more feed openings discharging via gates, or feeders, onto the reclaim belt. Chain scraper reclaimers are the alternate device used, especially for the conical stock pile. The amount of reclaimable material, or the live storage, is about 2025% of the total (Figure 2.11). Elongated stockpiles are reclaimed in a similar manner, the live storage being 3035% of the total (Figure 2.12).
For continuous feeding of crushed ore to the grinding section, feed bins are used for transfer of the coarse material from belts and rail and road trucks. They are made of wood, concrete, or steel. They must be easy to fill and must allow a steady fall of the ore through to the discharge gates with no hanging up of material or opportunity for it to segregate into coarse and fine fractions. The discharge must be adequate and drawn from several alternative points if the bin is large. Flat-bottom bins cannot be emptied completely and retain a substantial tonnage of dead rock. This, however, provides a cushion to protect the bottom from wear, and such bins are easy to construct. This type of bin, however, should not be used with easily oxidized ore, which might age dangerously and mix with the fresh ore supply. Bins with sloping bottoms are better in such cases.
Pulp storage on a large scale is not as easy as dry ore storage. Conditioning tanks are used for storing suspensions of fine particles to provide time for chemical reactions to proceed. These tanks must be agitated continuously, not only to provide mixing but also to prevent settlement and choking up. Surge tanks are placed in the pulp flow-line when it is necessary to smooth out small operating variations of feed rate. Their content can be agitated by stirring, by blowing in air, or by circulation through a pump.
Recycled concrete aggregate (RCA) comes from demolition of Portland cement concrete. Given that the original concrete might have been strong or weak, dense or open graded, fresh or weathered, then the aggregates pieces can be expected to vary similarly. If the RCA comes from a central recycling plant the consistency will have been addressed, to some extent, by blending of materials from different sources. If the material is coming from an on-site crushing plant then it will reflect more directly, and more immediately, the type of concrete being crushed.
The crushing process produces agglomerations of the original concretes aggregates with adhered mortar. These agglomerations are, typically, more angular than conventional aggregates. Also the crushed concrete will produce fines from the mortar element, the amount being controlled to a large extent by the strength of the original concrete. Thus high-strength concrete will typically crush to produce very sharp, even lance-like, blade aggregates with low proportions of fines, whereas the weakest concrete may crush to produce almost the original coarse aggregates plus a large proportion of fines made of the old mortar. In the crushed mortar component, be newly exposed. The effect of this will be a slow strength gain as this cement starts hydrating either with water that has been deliberately added, or with water attracted hygroscopically from the surrounding environment. Thus RCA is, to some degree, a self-cementing material with RCA from strong concretes (those with high cement contents in the original mix) often exhibiting a higher self-cementing ability.
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Cage mills are a practical solution to applications that require one-step crushing to produce the final product. And it has been that way since 1876, just about the time Mark Twain published his timeless classic, "The Adventures of Tom Sawyer." But there's a reason this 144-year technology is still relevant and an excellent size reduction method for the modern stone age.
"The Disintegrator" was the original name the inventor gave the cage mill because the process repeatedly forces the materials to break into pieces through multiple stages. You could say, the action of the cage mill is controlled chaos, tempered by probability and gravity. Once you understand the cage mill's construction, you'll see how the different models are suited to coarse, medium-fine, and fine size reduction processes. Example products for each cage mill type will illustrate the solution to specific problems.
Its unique design is key to understanding the cage mill. It works like this: Feed enters the innermost cage and is reduced by the action of counter-rotating cages as it's struck from one direction and then the other direction and so on through the number of rows (one through six). This cage mill characteristic minimizes the quantity of oversized particles found in the final product's particle size distribution. Adjusting the cages' speeds defines the final particle size. In general, as the number and velocity of the cages increases, higher percentages pass smaller mesh sizes.
Single-row cage mills are a legacy line predating horizontal shaft impactors in North America. The limestone, sand, and gravel production industries use these robust, compact, simple-to-operate impact crushers. Accepting large feed sizes, producing cubic-shaped particles, and processing high tonnages (up to 800 tn/hr) are hallmarks of the single-row cage mills.
Multi-row mills consist of at least two cages and, in most cases, an even number of rows (two, four, or six). A multi-row cage mill has multiple stages of impact reduction, which produces size reduction by adding energy to the feed. The material enters the center of the innermost cage, where it bounces around, getting struck until its small enough to exit that row. Particle impact velocity increases the farther from the center the material travels.
Two-row and four-row cage mills output smaller mesh gradations than a single-row cage mill because they impart more energy into the material. Typical applications include distillery and brewery grain grinding, potash, glass, salt, gelatins, foundry cores, and potassium chloride.
Six-row cage mills are a unique solution for fine grinding of calcium carbonate, talc, cosmetic powders, and kaolin clay. Understanding the hardness and chemistry is a crucial application qualifier. The six-row is the final option before getting into higher cost, specialized fine or ultra-fine grinding equipment, such as ball mills, vertical roller mills, or jet mills. Final crushed product sizes down to 80% passing 200 mesh are possible.
Cage Mill Maintenance Cage configuration controls the feed's flow through the machine. The design concentrates the wear on the pins, which are made of hard alloys, to maximize the life span before replacement.
Here's what you need to know to increase the life of the cage sleeves: Reverse the rotation of cages frequently, allowing the sleeves to wear on both sides. Indexing or rotating the sleeves 90 degrees also increases the wear surface allowing for higher utilization of the wear parts. Modern designs allow one-hour changeout with backup cages to perform maintenance without downtime.
Work with your manufacturer to define maintenance schedules for extending the life of wear parts. There are no standard schedules as a result of variations due to moisture content, mineral composites, concentration, and other variables.
Testing is a Must for Proper Application Testing a variety of impactors and machine settings offers insight as to which mill works best. Testing at different speeds ensures meeting the right particle size reduction requirements, while keeping up with production demands.
Remember, the best results come from testing done at the specific moisture content and bulk density, as found in the field. Since changes to the material can occur during transport to the test facility, an analysis is critical to determine if any changes occurred that may affect the final test results. Abrasion tests determine wear-surface consumption and replacement schedules.
Summary Yes, the cage mill is a different type of impact crusher. By their very design, cage mills produce results that differ from the horizontal shaft and vertical shaft impactors. Once you understand how it operates and its advantages, you will be more likely to consider testing it on your feed or for the development of a new product in an existing plant.
The cage mill is a timeless classic. The versatility of the operation makes this impact crusher a workhorse for many industrial applications. If a product needs crushing, it's probably passed through a cage mill in the last 144 years. Take your place in history by considering a cage mill in your facility.
Here are size reduction-related articles that may interest you:Identifying a Pin Mill for Optimal Performance and Minimal DowntimeTech Talk: Hammer Mills and the Attrition ZoneCustomized Lump Breaker Solves Process Line Challenges
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After crushing, grinding, magnetic separation, flotation, and gravity separation, etc., iron is gradually selected from the natural iron ore. The beneficiation process should be as efficient and simple as possible, such as the development of energy-saving equipment, and the best possible results with the most suitable process. In the iron ore beneficiation factory, the equipment investment, production cost, power consumption and steel consumption of crushing and grinding operations often account for the largest proportion. Therefore, the calculation and selection of crushing and grinding equipment and the quality of operation management are to a large extent determine the economic benefits of the beneficiation factory.
There are many types of iron ore, but mainly magnetite (Fe3O4) and hematite (Fe2O3) are used for iron production because magnetite and hematite have higher content of iron and easy to be upgraded to high grade for steel factories.
Due to the deformation of the geological properties, there would be some changes of the characteristics of the raw ore and sometimes magnetite, hematite, limonite as well as other types iron ore and veins are in symbiosis form. So mineralogy study on the forms, characteristics as well as liberation size are necessary before getting into the study of beneficiation technology.
1. Magnetite ore stage grinding-magnetic separation process The stage grinding-magnetic separation process mainly utilizes the characteristics of magnetite that can be enriched under coarse grinding conditions, and at the same time, it can discharge the characteristics of single gangue, reducing the amount of grinding in the next stage. In the process of continuous development and improvement, the process adopts high-efficiency magnetic separation equipment to achieve energy saving and consumption reduction. At present, almost all magnetic separation plants in China use a large-diameter (medium 1 050 mm, medium 1 200 mm, medium 1 500 mm, etc.) permanent magnet magnetic separator to carry out the stage tailing removing process after one stage grinding. The characteristic of permanent magnet large-diameter magnetic separator is that it can effectively separate 3~0mm or 6~0mm, or even 10-0mm coarse-grained magnetite ore, and the yield of removed tails is generally 30.00%~50.00%. The grade is below 8.00%, which creates good conditions for the magnetic separation plant to save energy and increase production.
2.Magnetic separation-fine screen process Gangue conjoined bodies such as magnetite and quartz can be enriched when the particle size and magnetic properties reach a certain range. However, it is easy to form a coarse concatenated mixture in the iron concentrate, which reduces the grade of the iron concentrate. This kind of concentrate is sieved by a fine sieve with corresponding sieve holes, and high-quality iron concentrate can be obtained under the sieve.
There are two methods for gravity separation of hematite. One is coarse-grained gravity separation. The geological grade of the ore deposit is relatively high (about 50%), but the ore body is thinner or has more interlayers. The waste rock is mixed in during mining to dilute the ore. For this kind of ore, only crushing and no-grinding can be used so coarse-grained tailings are discarded through re-election to recover the geological grade.
The other one is fine-grain gravity separation, which mostly deals with the hematite with finer grain size and high magnetic content. After crushing, the ore is ground to separate the mineral monomers, and the fine-grained high-grade concentrate is obtained by gravity separation. However, since most of the weak magnetic iron ore concentrates with strong magnetic separation are not high in grade, and the unit processing capacity of the gravity separation process is relatively low, the combined process of strong magnetic separation and gravity separation is often used, that is, the strong magnetic separation process is used to discard a large amount of unqualified tailings, and then use the gravity separation process to further process the strong magnetic concentrate to improve the concentrate grade.
Due to the complexity, large-scale mixed iron ore and hematite ore adopt stage grinding or continuous grinding, coarse subdivision separation, gravity separation-weak magnetic separation-high gradient magnetic separation-anion reverse flotation process. The characteristics of such process are as follows:
(1) Coarse subdivision separation: For the coarse part, use gravity separation to take out most of the coarse-grained iron concentrate after a stage of grinding. The SLon type high gradient medium magnetic machine removes part of the tailings; the fine part uses the SLon type high gradient strong magnetic separator to further remove the tailings and mud to create good operating conditions for reverse flotation. Due to the superior performance of the SLon-type high-gradient magnetic separator, a higher recovery rate in the whole process is ensured, and the reverse flotation guarantees a higher fine-grained concentrate grade.
(2) A reasonable process for narrow-level selection is realized. In the process of mineral separation, the degree of separation of minerals is not only related to the characteristics of the mineral itself, but also to the specific surface area of the mineral particles. This effect is more prominent in the flotation process. Because in the flotation process, the minimum value of the force between the flotation agent and the mineral and the agent and the bubble is related to the specific surface area of the mineral, and the ratio of the agent to the mineral action area. This makes the factors double affecting the floatability of minerals easily causing minerals with a large specific surface area and relatively difficult to float and minerals with a small specific surface area and relatively easy to float have relatively consistent floatability, and sometimes the former has even better floatability. The realization of the narrow-level beneficiation process can prevent the occurrence of the above-mentioned phenomenon that easily leads to the chaos of the flotation process to a large extent, and improve the beneficiation efficiency.
(3) The combined application of high-gradient strong magnetic separation and anion reverse flotation process achieves the best combination of processes. At present, the weak magnetic iron ore beneficiation plants in China all adopt high-gradient strong magnetic separation-anion reverse flotation process in their technological process. This combination is particularly effective in the beneficiation of weak magnetic iron ore. For high-gradient strong magnetic separation, the effect of improving the grade of concentrate is not obvious. However, it is very effective to rely on high-gradient and strong magnetic separation to provide ideal raw materials for reverse flotation. At the same time, anion reverse flotation is affected by its own process characteristics and is particularly effective for the separation of fine-grained and relatively high-grade materials. The advantages of high-gradient strong magnetic separation and anion reverse flotation technology complement each other, and realize the delicate combination of the beneficiation process.
The key technology innovation of the integrated dry grinding and magnetic separation system is to "replace ball mill grinding with HPGR grinding", and the target is to reduce the cost of ball mill grinding and wet magnetic separation.
HPGRs orhigh-pressure grinding rollshave made broad advances into mining industries. The technology is now widely viewed as a primary milling alternative, and there are several large installations commissioned in recent years. After these developments, anHPGRsbased circuit configuration would often be the base case for certain ore types, such as very hard, abrasive ores.
The wear on a rolls surface is a function of the ores abrasivity. Increasing roll speed or pressure increases wear with a given material. Studs allowing the formation of an autogenous wear layer, edge blocks, and cheek plates. Development in these areas continues, with examples including profiling of stud hardness to minimize the bathtub effect (wear of the center of the rolls more rapidly than the outer areas), low-profile edge blocks for installation on worn tires, and improvements in both design and wear materials for cheek plates.
With Strip Surface, HPGRs improve observed downstream comminution efficiency. This is attributable to both increased fines generation, but also due to what appears to be weakening of the ore which many researchers attribute to micro-cracking.
As we tested , the average yield of 3mm-0 and 0.15mm-0 size fraction with Strip Surface was 78.3% and 46.2%, comparatively, the average yield of 3mm-0 and 0.3mm-0 with studs surface was 58.36% and 21.7%.
These intelligently engineered units are ideal for classifying coarser cuts ranging from 50 to 200 mesh. The feed material is dropped into the top of the classifier. It falls into a continuous feed curtain in front of the vanes, passing through low velocity air entering the side of the unit. The air flow direction is changed by the vanes from horizontal to angularly upward, resulting in separation and classification of the particulate. Coarse particles dropps directly to the product and fine particles are efficiently discharged through a valve beneath the unit. The micro fines are conveyed by air to a fabric filter for final recovery.
Air Magnetic Separation Cluster is a special equipment developed for dry magnetic separation of fine size (-3mm) and micro fine size(-0.1mm) magnetite. The air magnetic separation system can be combined according to the characteristic of magnetic minerals to achieve effective recovery of magnetite.
After rough grinding, adopt appropriate separation method, discard part of tailings and sort out part of qualified concentrate, and re-grind and re-separate the middling, is called stage grinding and stage separation process.
According to the characteristics of the raw ore, the use of stage grinding and stage separation technology is an effective measure for energy conservation in iron ore concentrators. At the coarser one-stage grinding fineness, high-efficiency beneficiation equipment is used to advance the tailings, which greatly reduces the processing volume of the second-stage grinding.
If the crystal grain size is relatively coarse, the stage grinding, stage magnetic separation-fine sieve self-circulation process is adopted. Generally, the product on the fine sieve is given to the second stage grinding and re-grinding. The process flow is relatively simple.
If the crystal grain size is too fine, the process of stage grinding, stage magnetic separation and fine sieve regrind is adopted. This process is the third stage of grinding and fine grinding after the products on the first and second stages of fine sieve are concentrated and magnetically separated. Then it is processed by magnetic separation and fine sieve, the process is relatively complicated.
At present, the operation of magnetic separation (including weak magnetic separation and strong magnetic separation) is one of the effective means of throwing tails in advance; anion reverse flotation and cation reverse flotation are one of the effective means to improve the grade of iron ore.
In particular, in the process of beneficiation, both of them basically take the selected feed minerals containing less gangue minerals as the sorting object, and both use the biggest difference in mineral selectivity, which makes the two in the whole process both play a good role in the process.
Based on the iron ore processing experience and necessary processing tests, Prominer can supply complete processing plant combined with various processing technologies, such as gravity separation, magnetic separation, flotation, etc., to improve the grade of TFe of the concentrate and get the best yield. Magnetic separation is commonly used for magnetite. Gravity separation is commonly used for hematite. Flotation is mainly used to process limonite and other kinds of iron ores
Through detailed mineralogy study and lab processing test, a most suitable processing plant parameters will be acquired. Based on those parameters Prominer can design a processing plant for mine owners and supply EPC services till the plant operating.
Prominer has been devoted to mineral processing industry for decades and specializes in mineral upgrading and deep processing. With expertise in the fields of mineral project development, mining, test study, engineering, technological processing.