What is the capacity of pf1315 impact crusherThe capacity analysis about PF1315 impact crusher,The influential factors of PF1315 impact crushers productivity,How to improve the production capacity of PF1315 impact crusher
Jaw crusher is a type of effective and energy conservation crushing machinery. Jaw crusher is main applied in all kinds of ore and big block material medium size crushing material's hardness should be less than 320Mpa coarse crushing and fine crushing are available. This series has a complete range of specifications feeding size could be 125mm750mm it's the first choice of primary crushing.
YOUR NEXT JAW CRUSHER;WILL IT HAVE THESE FEATURES? Crushing Without Abrasion Perfect Balance Large Reduction Ratio Large CapacityPer Horsepower Sealed Dirt free Lubrication Simple Positive Safety Device LETS see why it is impossible to balance ordinarycrushers. BLAKE TYPE OVERHEAD ECCENTRIC TYPE KEU-KEN CRUSHER In the overhead eccentric type shown at the right Read more
The first successful big gyratory crusher was a 60 Traylor and, incidentally, it was the first of a long line of Bulldogs that have revolutionized crushing. It was built more than twenty-five years ago and has since been followed by several others of the same size,- the latest being the strongest and most powerful crusher Read more
The problem withasbestos rock reduction is, how do you crush something soft. Complicated operating conditions and the type of rock involved made it clear that a specially designed jaw crusher would be needed. Our helpwas asked. The experience and the ability of Birdsboros engineers to grasp and quickly solve unusualCrushing problems enabled us to present Read more
If the ore feed to any gyratory or jaw crusher consisted entirely of large cubes or spheres of a size that would just barely enter the crushing chamber, the crusher could not be expected to produce anything like its normal rated capacity because the upper part of the crusher could not shatter the large pieces Read more
TON RECIPROCATED Antique JAW STONE BREAKER:Curved by owners in installing and operating individual pumping plants. The new mechanical filtration or rapid sand filter plant for Baltimore comprises 32 filters each of 1440 square feet area and a capacity of 4,000,000 gallons daily. The turbidity of the water led to the adoption of this system in Read more
Primary stone: Antique Rock Crushers AND rock breaking machines if we may so designate those machines which are employed to reduce large masses of rock to sizes such as can be further dealt with by other machines may be divided into two headings, i.e., (a) those which work largely used in those portions Read more
The single most common reason for an increase or drop in the production of fines is the WORK INDEX of the ore. If you remember, the work index of the ore is a method of measuring the degree of hardness. As the ore becomes harder the fracture lines in the rock become cleaner or sharper Read more
Around Vibrating Screens, the 2 primary Safety considerations to have in mind are NOISE and DUST. These two are harder to deal with than most because of their nature. A hazard that involves blood and pain is an immediate thing and very easy to understand. But something that may take years of development before it Read more
This crusher developed by Jaques (now Terex Mineral Processing Solutions) has several internal chamber configurations available depending on the abrasiveness of the ore. Examples include the Rock on Rock, Rock on Anvil and Shoe and Anvil configurations (Figure 6.26). These units typically operate with 5 to 6 steel impellers or hammers, with a ring of thin anvils. Rock is hit or accelerated to impact on the anvils, after which the broken fragments freefall into the discharge chute and onto a product conveyor belt. This impact size reduction process was modeled by Kojovic (1996) and Djordjevic et al. (2003) using rotor dimensions and speed, and rock breakage characteristics measured in the laboratory. The model was also extended to the Barmac crushers (Napier-Munn et al., 1996).
Crushers are widely used as a primary stage to produce the particulate product finer than about 50100 mm in size. They are classified as jaw, gyratory and cone crushers based on compression, cutter mill based on shear and hammer crusher based on impact.
A jaw crusher consists essentially of two crushing plates, inclined to each other forming a horizontal opening by their lower borders. Material is crushed between a fixed and a movable plate by reciprocating pressure until the crushed product becomes small enough to pass through the gap between the crushing plates. Jaw crushers find a wide application for brittle materials. For example, they are used for comminution of porous copper cake.
A gyratory crusher includes a solid cone set on a revolving shaft and placed within a hollow body, which has conical or vertical sloping sides. Material is crushed when the crushing surfaces approach each other and the crushed products fall through the discharging opening.
Hammer crushers are used either as a one-step primary crusher or as a secondary crusher for products from a primary crusher. They are widely used for crushing of hard metal scrap for different hard metal recycling processes.
Pivoted hammers are pendulous, mounted on the horizontal axes symmetrically located along the perimeter of a rotor and crushing takes place by the impact of material pieces with the high speed moving hammers and by contact with breaker plates. A cylindrical grating or screen is placed beneath the rotor. Materials are reduced to a size small enough pass through the openings of the grating or screen. The size of product can be regulated by changing the spacing of the grate bars or the opening of the screen.
The feature of the hammer crushers is the appearance of elevated pressure of air in the discharging unit of the crusher and underpressure in the zone around of the shaft close to the inside surface of the body side walls. Thus, the hammer crushers also act as high-pressure forced-draught fans. This may lead to environmental pollution and product losses in fine powder fractions.
A design for a hammer crusher (Figure 2.6) allows essentially a decrease of the elevated pressure of air in the crusher discharging unit . The A-zone beneath the screen is communicated through the hollow ribs and openings in the body side walls with the B-zone around the shaft close to the inside surface of body side walls. As a result, circulation of suspended matter in the gas between A- and B-zones is established and high pressure of air in the discharging unit of crusher is reduced.
Crushers are widely used as a primary stage to produce the particulate product finer than about 50100mm. They are classified as jaw, gyratory, and cone crushers based on compression, cutter mill based on shear, and hammer crusher based on impact.
A jaw crusher consists essentially of two crushing plates, inclined to each other forming a horizontal opening by their lower borders. Material is crushed between a fixed and a movable plate by reciprocating pressure until the crushed product becomes small enough to pass through the gap between the crushing plates. Jaw crushers find a wide application for brittle materials. For example, they are used for comminution of porous copper cake. A Fritsch jaw crusher with maximal feed size 95mm, final fineness (depends on gap setting) 0.315mm, and maximal continuous throughput 250Kg/h is shown in Fig. 2.8.
A gyratory crusher includes a solid cone set on a revolving shaft and placed within a hollow body, which has conical or vertical sloping sides. Material is crushed when the crushing surfaces approach each other and the crushed products fall through the discharging opening.
Hammer crushers are used either as a one-step primary crusher or as a secondary crusher for products from a primary crusher. They are widely used for crushing hard metal scrap for different hard metal recycling processes. Pivoted hammers are pendulous, mounted on the horizontal axes symmetrically located along the perimeter of a rotor. Crushing takes place by the impact of material pieces with the high speed moving hammers and by contact with breaker plates. A cylindrical grating or screen is placed beneath the rotor. Materials are reduced to a size small enough to pass through the openings of the grating or screen. The size of the product can be regulated by changing the spacing of the grate bars or the opening of the screen.
The feature of the hammer crushers is the appearance of elevated pressure of air in the discharging unit of the crusher and underpressure in the zone around the shaft close to the inside surface of the body side walls. Thus, the hammer crushers also act as high-pressure, forced-draught fans. This may lead to environmental pollution and product losses in fine powder fractions. A design for a hammer crusher (Fig. 2.9) essentially allows a decrease of the elevated pressure of air in the crusher discharging unit . The A-zone beneath the screen is communicated through the hollow ribs and openings in the body side walls with the B-zone around the shaft close to the inside surface of body side walls. As a result, the circulation of suspended matter in the gas between A and B zones is established and the high pressure of air in the discharging unit of crusher is reduced.
Secondary coal crusher: Used when the coal coming from the supplier is large enough to be handled by a single crusher. The primary crusher converts the feed size to one that is acceptable to the secondary crusher.
The main sources of RA are either from construction and ready mixed concrete sites, demolition sites or from roads. The demolition sites produce a heterogeneous material, whereas ready mixed concrete or prefabricated concrete plants produce a more homogeneous material. RAs are mainly produced in fixed crushing plant around big cities where CDWs are available. However, for roads and to reduce transportation cost, mobile crushing installations are used.
The materiel for RA manufacturing does not differ from that of producing NA in quarries. However, it should be more robust to resist wear, and it handles large blocks of up to 1m. The main difference is that RAs need the elimination of contaminants such as wood, joint sealants, plastics, and steel which should be removed with blast of air for light materials and electro-magnets for steel. The materials are first separated from other undesired materials then treated by washing and air to take out contamination. The quality and grading of aggregates depend on the choice of the crusher type.
Jaw crusher: The material is crushed between a fixed jaw and a mobile jaw. The feed is subjected to repeated pressure as it passes downwards and is progressively reduced in size until it is small enough to pass out of the crushing chamber. This crusher produces less fines but the aggregates have a more elongated form.
Hammer (impact) crusher: The feed is fragmented by kinetic energy introduced by a rotating mass (the rotor) which projects the material against a fixed surface causing it to shatter causing further particle size reduction. This crusher produces more rounded shape.
Jaw crushers are mainly used as primary crushers to produce material that can be transported by belt conveyors to the next crushing stages. The crushing process takes place between a fixed jaw and a moving jaw. The moving jaw dies are mounted on a pitman that has a reciprocating motion. The jaw dies must be replaced regularly due to wear. Figure 8.1 shows two basic types of jaw crushers: single toggle and double toggle. In the single toggle jaw crusher, an eccentric shaft is installed on the top of the crusher. Shaft rotation causes, along with the toggle plate, a compressive action of the moving jaw. A double toggle crusher has, basically, two shafts and two toggle plates. The first shaft is a pivoting shaft on the top of the crusher, while the other is an eccentric shaft that drives both toggle plates. The moving jaw has a pure reciprocating motion toward the fixed jaw. The crushing force is doubled compared to single toggle crushers and it can crush very hard ores. The jaw crusher is reliable and robust and therefore quite popular in primary crushing plants. The capacity of jaw crushers is limited, so they are typically used for small or medium projects up to approximately 1600t/h. Vibrating screens are often placed ahead of the jaw crushers to remove undersize material, or scalp the feed, and thereby increase the capacity of the primary crushing operation.
Both cone and gyratory crushers, as shown in Figure 8.2, have an oscillating shaft. The material is crushed in a crushing cavity, between an external fixed element (bowl liner) and an internal moving element (mantle) mounted on the oscillating shaft assembly. An eccentric shaft rotated by a gear and pinion produces the oscillating movement of the main shaft. The eccentricity causes the cone head to oscillate between the open side setting (o.s.s.) and closed side setting (c.s.s.). In addition to c.s.s., eccentricity is one of the major factors that determine the capacity of gyratory and cone crushers. The fragmentation of the material results from the continuous compression that takes place between the mantle and bowl liners. An additional crushing effect occurs between the compressed particles, resulting in less wear of the liners. This is also called interparticle crushing. The gyratory crushers are equipped with a hydraulic setting adjustment system, which adjusts c.s.s. and thus affects product size distribution. Depending on cone type, the c.s.s. setting can be adjusted in two ways. The first way is by rotating the bowl against the threads so that the vertical position of the outer wear part (concave) is changed. One advantage of this adjustment type is that the liners wear more evenly. Another principle of setting adjustment is by lifting/lowering the main shaft. An advantage of this is that adjustment can be done continuously under load. To optimize operating costs and improve the product shape, as a rule of thumb, it is recommended that cones always be choke-fed, meaning that the cavity should be as full of rock material as possible. This can be easily achieved by using a stockpile or a silo to regulate the inevitable fluctuation of feed material flow. Level monitoring devices that detect the maximum and minimum levels of the material are used to start and stop the feed of material to the crusher as needed.
Primary gyratory crushers are used in the primary crushing stage. Compared to the cone type crusher, a gyratory crusher has a crushing chamber designed to accept feed material of a relatively large size in relation to the mantle diameter. The primary gyratory crusher offers high capacity thanks to its generously dimensioned circular discharge opening (which provides a much larger area than that of the jaw crusher) and the continuous operation principle (while the reciprocating motion of the jaw crusher produces a batch crushing action). The gyratory crusher has capacities starting from 1200 to above 5000t/h. To have a feed opening corresponding to that of a jaw crusher, the primary gyratory crusher must be much taller and heavier. Therefore, primary gyratories require quite a massive foundation.
The cone crusher is a modified gyratory crusher. The essential difference is that the shorter spindle of the cone crusher is not suspended, as in the gyratory, but is supported in a curved, universal bearing below the gyratory head or cone (Figure 8.2). Power is transmitted from the source to the countershaft to a V-belt or direct drive. The countershaft has a bevel pinion pressed and keyed to it and drives the gear on the eccentric assembly. The eccentric assembly has a tapered, offset bore and provides the means whereby the head and main shaft follow an eccentric path during each cycle of rotation. Cone crushers are used for intermediate and fine crushing after primary crushing. The key factor for the performance of a cone type secondary crusher is the profile of the crushing chamber or cavity. Therefore, there is normally a range of standard cavities available for each crusher, to allow selection of the appropriate cavity for the feed material in question.
Roll crushers are arbitrarily divided into light and heavy duty crushers. The diameters of the light duty crushers vary between 228 and 760mm with face lengths between 250 and 460mm. The spring pressure for light duty rolls varies between 1.1 and 5.6kg/m. The heavy duty crusher diameters range between 900 and 1000mm with face length between 300 and 610mm. In general, the spring pressures of the heavy duty rolls range between 7 and 60kg/m. The light duty rolls are designed to operate at faster speeds compared to heavy duty rolls that are designed to operate at lower speeds.
It has been stressed that the coal supplier should initially crush the materials to a maximum size such as 300 mm, but they may be something else depending on the agreement or coal tie up. To circumvent the situation, the CHP keeps a crushing provision so that coal bunkers receive the materials at a maximum size of about 2025 mm.
The unloaded coal in the hoppers is transferred to the crusher house through belt conveyors with different stopovers in between such as the penthouse, transfer points, etc., depending on the CHP layout.
Suspended magnets for the removal of tramp iron pieces and metal detectors for identifying nonferrous materials are provided at strategic points to intercept unacceptable materials before they reach the crushers. There may be arrangements for manual stone picking from the conveyors, as suitable. Crushed coal is then sent directly to the stockyard.
A coal-sampling unit is provided for uncrushed coal. Online coal analyzers are also available, but they are a costly item. Screens (vibrating grizzly or rollers) are provided at the upstream of the crushers to sort out the smaller sizes as stipulated, and larger pieces are guided to the crushers.
Appropriate types of isolation gates, for example, rod or rack and pinion gates, are provided before screens to isolate one set of crushers/screens to carry on maintenance work without affecting the operation of other streams.
Vibrating grizzly or roller screens are provided upstream of the crushers for less than 25 (typical) mm coal particles bypass the crusher and coal size more than 25 mm then fed to the crushers. The crushed coal is either fed to the coal bunkers of the boilers or discharged to the coal stockyard through conveyors and transfer points, if any.
This is used for crushing and breaking large coal in the first step of coal crushing plant applied most widely in coal crushing industry. Jaw crushers are designed for primary crushing of hard rocks without rubbing and with minimum dust. Jaw crushers may be utilized for materials such as coal, granite, basalt, river gravel, bauxite, marble, slag, hard rock, limestone, iron ore, magazine ore, etc., within a pressure resistance strength of 200 MPa. Jaw crushers are characterized for different features such as a simple structure, easy maintenance, low cost, high crushing ratio, and high resistance to friction/abrasion/compression with a longer operating lifespan.
Fixed and movable jaw plates are the two main components. A motor-driven eccentric shaft through suitable hardware makes the movable jaw plate travel in a regulated track and hit the materials in the crushing chamber comprising a fixed-jaw plate to assert compression force for crushing.
A coal hammer crusher is developed for materials having pressure-resistance strength over 100 Mpa and humidity not more than 15%. A hammer crusher is suitable for mid-hard and light erosive materials such as coal, salt, chalk, gypsum, limestone, etc.
Hammer mills are primarily steel drums that contain a vertical or horizontal cross-shaped rotor mounted with pivoting hammers that can freely swing on either end of the cross. While the material is fed into the feed hopper, the rotor placed inside the drum is spun at a high speed. Thereafter, the hammers on the ends of the rotating cross thrust the material, thereby shredding and expelling it through the screens fitted in the drum.
Ring granulators are used for crushing coal to a size acceptable to the mills for conversion to powdered coal. A ring granulator prevents both the oversizing and undersizing of coal, helping the quality of the finished product and improving the workability. Due to its strong construction, a ring granulator is capable of crushing coal, limestone, lignite, or gypsum as well as other medium-to-hard friable items. Ring granulators are rugged, dependable, and specially designed for continuous high capacity crushing of materials. Ring granulators are available with operating capacities from 40 to 1800 tons/h or even more with a feed size up to 500 mm. Adjustment of clearance between the cage and the path of the rings takes care of the product gradation as well as compensates for wear and tear of the machine parts for maintaining product size. The unique combination of impact and rolling compression makes the crushing action yield a higher output with a lower noise level and power consumption. Here, the product is almost of uniform granular size with n adjustable range of less than 2025 mm. As the crushing action involves minimum attrition, thereby minimum fines are produced with improving efficiency.
A ring granulator works on n operating principle similar to a hammer mill, but the hammers are replaced with rolling rings. The ring granulator compresses material by impact in association with shear and compression force. It comprises a screen plate/cage bar steel box with an opening in the top cover for feeding. The power-driven horizontal main shaft passes from frame side to frame side, supporting a number of circular discs fixed at regular intervals across its length within the frame. There are quite a few bars running parallel to the main shaft and around the periphery that pass through these discs near their outer edges. The bars are uniformly located about the center of the main rotating shaft. There are a series of rings in between the two consecutive disc spaces, mounted on each bar. They are free to rotate on the bars irrespective of the main shaft rotation. The entire cage assembly, located below the rotor assembly, can be set at a desired close proximity to the rings by screw jack mechanism adjustable from outside the crusher frame. The rotor assembly consisting of the shaft, discs, rings, etc., is fixed as far as the main shaft center line is concerned. This main shaft carries in roller bearings from the box sides. The movable cage frame arrangement is provided so as to set its inner radius marginally larger than that of the ring running periphery. When coal is fed from the top, the rings also rotate along with the shaft and around their own center line along the bars, which drags coal lumps and crushes them to the desired size. After the coal has been crushed by the coal crusher, a vibrating screen grades the coal by size and the coal is then transported via belt conveyor. In this process, a dewatering screen is optional to remove water from the product.
Crusher machines are used for crushing of a wide variety of materials in the mining, iron and steel, and quarry industries. In quarry industry, they are used for crushing of rocks into granites for road-building and civil works. Crusher machines are equipped with a pair of crusher jaws namely; fixed jaws and swing jaws. Both jaws are fixed in a vertical position at the front end of a hollow rectangular frame of crushing machine as shown in Fig.10.1. The swing jaw is moved against the fixed jaws through knuckle action by the rising and falling of a second lever (pitman) carried by eccentric shaft. The vertical movement is then horizontally fixed to the jaw by double toggle plates. Because the jaw is pivoted at the top, the throw is greatest at the discharge, preventing chocking.
The crushing force is produced by an eccentric shaft. Then it is transferred to the crushing zone via a toggle plate system and supported by the back wall of the housing of the machine. Spring-pulling rods keep the whole system in a condition of no positive connection. Centrifugal masses on the eccentric shaft serve as compensation for heavy loads. A flywheel is provided in the form of a pulley. Due to the favorable angle of dip between the crushing jaws, the feeding material can be reduced directly after entering the machine. The final grain size distribution is influenced by both the adjustable crusher setting and the suitability of the tooth form selected for the crushing plates.
Thus, the crusher jaws must be hard and tough enough to crush rock and meet the impact action generated by the action of swing jaws respectively. If the jaws are hard, it will be efficient in crushing rock but it will be susceptible to fracture failure. On the other hand, if the jaws are tough, the teeth will worn out very fast, but it will be able to withstand fracture failure. Thus, crusher jaws are made of highly wear-resistant austenitic manganese steel casting, which combines both high toughness and good resistance to wear.
Austenitic manganese steel was invented by Sir Robert Hadfield in 1882 and was first granted patented in Britain in 1883 with patent number 200. The first United States patents, numbers 303150 and 303151, were granted in 1884. In accordance with ASTM A128 specification, the basic chemical composition of Hadfield steel is 1%1.4% carbon and 11%14% manganese. However, the manganese to carbon ratio is optimum at 10:1 to ensure an austenitic microstructure after quenching . Austenitic manganese steels possess unique resistance to impact and abrasion wears. They exhibit high levels of ductility and toughness, slow crack propagation rates, and a high rate of work-hardening resulting in superior wear resistance in comparison with other potentially competitive materials . These unique properties have made Hadfield's austenitic manganese steel an engineering material of choice for use in heavy industries, such as earth moving, mining, quarrying, oil and gas drilling, and in processing of various materials for components of crushers, mills, and construction machinery (lining plates, hammers, jaws, cones).
Austenitic manganese steel has a yield strength between 50,000psi (345MPa) and 60,000psi (414MPa) . Although stronger than low carbon steel, it is not as strong as medium carbon steel. It is, however, much tougher than medium carbon steel. Yielding in austenitic manganese steel signifies the onset of work-hardening and accompanying plastic deformation. The modulus of elasticity for austenitic manganese steel is 27106psi (186103MPa) and is somewhat below that of carbon steel, which is generally taken as 29106psi (200103MPa). The ultimate tensile strength of austenitic manganese steel varies but is generally taken as 140,000psi (965MPa). At this tensile strength, austenitic manganese steel displays elongation in the 35%40% range. The fatigue limit for manganese steel is about 39,000psi (269MPa). The ability of austenitic manganese to work-harden up to its ultimate tensile strength is its main feature. In this regard austenitic manganese has no equal. The range of work-hardening of austenitic manganese from yield to ultimate tensile is approximately 200%.
When subjected to impact loads Hadfield steel work-hardens considerably while exhibiting superior toughness. However, due to its low yield strength, large deformation may occur and lead to failure before the work-hardening sets in . This phenomenon is detrimental when it comes to some applications, such as rock crushing . Work-hardening behavior of Hadfield steel has been attributed to dynamic strain aging . The hardening or strengthening mechanism has its origin in the interactions between dislocations and the high concentration of interstitial atoms also known as the CottrellBilby interaction. Thus, the wear properties of Hadfield steel are related to its microstructure, which in turn is dependent on the heat-treatment process and chemical composition of the alloy. According to Haakonsen , work-hardening is influenced by such parameters as alloy chemistry, temperature, and strain rate.
Carbon content affects the yield strength of AMS. Carbon levels below 1% cause yield strengths to decrease. The optimum carbon content has been found to be between 1% and 1.2%. Above 1.2% carbides precipitate and segregate to grain boundaries, resulting in compromised strength and ductility particularly in heavy sections . Other alloying elements, such as chromium, will increase the yield strength, but decrease ductility. Silicon is generally added as a deoxidizer. Carbon contents above 1.4% are not generally used as the carbon segregates to the grain boundaries as carbides and is detrimental to both strength and ductility .
Manganese has very little effect on the yield strength of austenitic manganese steel, but does affect both the ultimate tensile strength and ductility. Maximum tensile strengths are attained with 12%13% manganese contents . Although acceptable mechanical properties can be achieved up to 20% manganese content, there is no economic advantage in using manganese contents greater than 13%. Manganese acts as an austenitic stabilizer and delays isothermal transformation. For example, carbon steel containing 1% manganese begins isothermal transformation about 15s after quenching to 371C, whereas steel containing 12% manganese begins isothermal transformation about 48h after quenching to 371C .
Austenitic manganese steel in as-cast condition is characterized by an austenitic microstructure with precipitates of alloyed cementite and the triple phosphorus eutectic of an Fe-(Fe,Mn)3C-(Fe,Mn)3P type , which appears when the phosphorus content exceeds 0.04% . It also contains nonmetallic inclusions, such as oxides, sulfides, and nitrides. This type of microstructure is unfavorable due to the presence of the (Fe, Mn)xCy carbides spread along the grain boundaries . However, in solution-treated conditions austenitic manganese steel structure is essentially austenitic because carbon is in austenite solution . The practical limit of carbon in solution is about 1.2%. Thereafter, excess carbon precipitation to the grain boundaries results, especially in heavier sections .
Austenitic manganese steel in the as-cast condition is too brittle for normal use. As section thickness increases, the cooling rate within the molds decreases. This decreased cooling rate results in increased embrittlement due to carbon precipitation. In as-cast castings, the tensile strength ranges from approximately 50,000psi. (345MPa) to 70,000psi (483MPa) and displays elongation values below 1%. Heat treatment is used to strengthen and increase the mechanical properties of austenitic manganese steel. The normal heat-treatment method consists of solution annealing and rapid quenching in a water bath.
Considering the mechanical properties, it is difficult to imagine that a casting made from Hadfield steel could suffer failure in service. However, cases like this do happen, especially in heavy-section elements and result in enormous losses of material and long downtimes. The reason for such failures is usually attributed to insufficient ductility, resulting from sensitivity of austenitic manganese steel to section size, heat treatment, and the rapidity and effectiveness of quenching . Poor quench compounded by large section size results in an unstable, in-homogenous structure, subject to transformation to martensite under increased loading and strain rate. This article investigates the cause of incessant failure of locally produced crusher jaws from Hadfield steel.
According to the recent marketing research data conducted by the foundry an estimate of 15,000metrictons of this component is being consumed annually in the local market. This is valued at about $30million. From this market demand, the foundry plant can only supply about 5% valued at $1.5million. This is because the crusher jaws produced locally failed prematurely. Hence, this study aimed at investigating the causes of failure.
Annual wine exports in the European Union is around 21.9 billion (Eurostat) with France being the main wine exporting country followed by Italy and Spain. The wine production process (Fig. 9.1) can be divided into the following stages (Sections 22.214.171.124.2.1.4).
Grape crushers or crusher destemmers are initially used via light processing to avoid seed fracture. Sulfur dioxide is added to the mass to prevent oxidation. At this stage, grape stems are produced as one of the waste streams of the winery process. The mash is pressed in continuous, pneumatic, or vertical basket presses leading to the separation of the pomace (marc) from the must. Microbial growth is suppressed via sulfur dioxide addition.
The solids present in the must are removed before or after fermentation for white wine production. Fining is achieved by combined processes including filtration, centrifugation, flocculation, physicochemical treatment (e.g., activated carbon, gelatin, etc.,), and stabilization to prevent turbidity formation (e.g., the use of bentonite, cold stabilization techniques, etc.). Clarification leads to the separation of sediments via racking.
Wine production is carried out at temperatures lower than 20C for 610 weeks in stainless steel bioreactors or vats with or without yeast inoculation (most frequently Saccharomyces cerevisiae). At the end of fermentation, the wine is cooled (4C5C) and subsequently aged in barrels or wooden vats. The sediment that is produced during fermentation and aging is called wine lees and constitutes one of the waste streams produced by wineries. Current uses of wine lees include tartrate production and ethanol distillation. Lees could also be processed via rotary vacuum filtration for recycling of the liquid fraction and composting of the solid fraction.
Wine is cooled rapidly to facilitate the precipitation of tartrate crystals. Fining is applied for the separation of suspended particles using bentonite and gelatin. Filtration is subsequently applied to remove any insoluble compounds. The wine is finally transferred into bottles.
The main differences in the red wine production process are skin maceration duration, fermentation temperature, and unit operation sequence. Whole crushed grapes are most frequently used in red wine fermentation, which is carried out at 22C28C to facilitate the extraction of color and flavors. The remaining skins, seeds, and grape solids after fermentation are pressed to recover wine with the correct proportions of tannins and other compounds necessary for the final wine product.
Glass is one of the commonly used material in people's production and daily life. It is widely used in construction, chemical, medical, automotive, engineering, instrumentation, and other industries.
Waste glass is on the rise due to the popularization of glass. Meanwhile, the recycling of glass waste reduces the discharge of garbage, achieves the goal of environmental protection, and brings good benefits for investment users.
The glass crusher can process various waste glass such as glass pieces, glass bottles, automobile glass, bulletproof glass, industrial glass tubes, and other glass products into various shapes of granular, fibrous, powdery, etc.
The traditional jaw crusher is a primary crushing equipment, and Fote Heavy Machinery has improved the jaw crusher in its design so that it can be used for fine crushing and suitable for glass recycling.
Since Fote jaw crusher has a deep crushing cavity, glass can be crushed and processed by squeezing, grinding and other methods. At the same time, glass jaw crusher has the characteristics of large crushing ratio and a wide range of application which can crush various glass such as beer bottles and automobile glass with different hardness.
Given that glass is a highly brittle material thatmay cause some splashes during the crushing process, Fote glass jaw crusher has been designed with a semi-closed vertical curtain at the feeding port, which can prevent the splash of materials, and play the role of noise reduction and dust sealing.
Theglass jaw crusher is the highly productive equipment with the capacity of1 to 500 tons per hour. And the glass crushing machine has a complete model series to meet the different needs of customers.
The glass can be easily crushed by the impact force produced by the high-speed hammerhead of the glass hammer crusher. Simultaneously, this work requires the hammerhead to have strong wear resistance.
The gap of the grate at the discharge port can be adjusted to control the product size. The glass crusher has a wide range of adaptation, advanced structural design, good sealing of frame, and produces low noise and little pollution.
Glass roll crusher has a simple design, a small footprint, and is easy to install and replace its components. It is equipped with a dustproof board, improving the sealing performance and avoiding the splash of glass dust.
The glass impact crusher can handle glass waste with large water content, if the glass material contains too much water, it could be reduced by the heating device installed on the feeding port and impact plate.
Glass impact crusher can effectively control the discharge particle size and has a wide adjusting range of discharging port. It can control the output size by adjusting the rotor speed, the impact type and the gap of the grinding chamber.
The glass crushing process has very little wear on the impact crusher. When the glass material is broken by the impact crusher, it will hit the front of the hammer plate without any touch with the back and sides of the machine.
Due to the large hammerhead of the impact crusher, its balance needs to be calibrated during installation, otherwise, the vibration force of the machine will be relatively large during operation, which may be dangerous.
The working performance of the glass compound crusher is less affected by the moisture of the material. The finished product is cubic and has large bulk density and small iron pollution, which will improve the recycling value of glass wastes.
The glass composite crusher is designed with a vertical structure, so the material may not be repeatedly crushed at a fast-passing speed, and a good crushing effect cannot be guaranteed for glass pieces.
The working mode of the crusher and the daily maintenance can respectively control and influence the crushing performance. Each type of crusher has different parameters such as crushing principle, feeding and output size.
If you have any requirements about glass crusher, please consult Fote Heavy Machinery and we will provide you with the detailed parameters and quotation of the above glass crusher online for free. If you have special material or output requirements, we can also customize the equipment parameter plan for you to offer the most suitable glass crusher. At the same time, Fote Heavy Industry provides you with free test service. Welcome to visit the factory, and Fote looks forward to cooperating with you.
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Jaw type stone crusher is the most frequently used equipment in mining industry, because it has a good smashing effect on hard rocks, such as granite and shale. In China, due to the impact of most of the regional environment, jaw type stone crusher becomes the first choice to produce sand and gravel aggregate.
Jaw type stone crusher is the most frequently used equipment in mining industry, because it has a good smashing effect on hard rocks, such as granite and shale. In China, due to the impact of most of the regional environment, jaw type stone crusher becomes the first choice to produce sand and gravel aggregate. Sand and gravel aggregate has a wide applied range in some large-scale industrial departments. It is the basic large-size equipment required by national development and progress.
Fote Machinery an experienced jaw crusher machinery manufacturer in China. We have a strict control on equipment quality and spare no effort to provide our customer with high-quality products. The moving and static jaw plates of FTM jaw type stone crusher are made of high manganese steel which has a very good protection effect on the jaw crusher itself. Our equipment is built by high wear-resisting materials, hard and durable. Meanwhile, in order to improve the working efficiency of the jaw type stone crusher, we use the concave-convex-opposite longitudinal ridges on the internal crushing tooth plate. The principle of this is that this kind of insection can directly hit the defects of stone's texture, and focus the crushing core on the minute cracks in the stone itself and squeeze and bend the stone, so as to smash it directly.
Kothnur Last Bus Station, Bengaluru No. 001, Sattva Shubham Apartment 80 Feet Road, J P Nagar 8 th phase, kothnur Bangalore 80 Feet Road, J P Nagar, Kothnur Last Bus Station, Bengaluru - 560108, Dist. Bengaluru, Karnataka
Byraveshwara Industrial Estate, Bengaluru 32/33, Extended Sai Baba Layout, 40 Feet Road, Near Anupama School Andrahalli Main Road, Peenya, 2nd Stage, Byraveshwara Industrial Estate, Bengaluru - 560091, Dist. Bengaluru, Karnataka
Tata Nagar, Kodigehalli, Bengaluru No. 366 2nd Main,Kodigehalli,Opp. Sathish Dawan Park Tata Nagar,Sahakarnagar Post Sahakaranagar Post,Kodigehalli, Tata Nagar, Kodigehalli, Bengaluru - 560092, Dist. Bengaluru, Karnataka
The highest compressive strength of the materials in jaw crusher is 320Mpa. Jaw crusher is mainly used for the medium-sized crushing operations of bulk ores in mining, smelting, building materials, highway, railway, water conservancy, chemical industry and other industries, which is the indispensable primary crushing equipment in stone crushing line and sand making line.
Jaw crusher can be divided into large, medium and small sizes. The crusher with above 600MM feeding mouth is the large crusher, 300-600MM is medium crusher and less than 300MM is small jaw crusher.
Jaw crusher can be classified into simple swing type jaw crusher (simple pendulum jaw crusher), complex swing type jaw crusher (complex pendulum jaw crusher) and integrated pendulum jaw crusher according to the different swinging ways of the movable jaw plate.
Hongxing Machinery is one of the most reliable jaw crusher manufacturers in China, which has many years of jaw crusher production experience. We have high efficiency jaw crusher for sale with complete models. When it comes to jaw crusher price, we have lowest quotation with highest quality. If you are interested, please contact our online customer service or send emails to [email protected] Thank you!
Model Feed opening (mm Max.feeding size (mm) Adjusting range of discharge opening (mm) Processing capacity (t/h) Rotation speed of eccentric shaft (r/min) Motor power (kw) Total weight (t) Dimensions LWH (mm) PE-150250 150250 125 10-40 1-3 250 4P 5.5 0.8 720660850 PE-200300 200300 180 15-50 2-6 260 4P 7.5 1.2 910750990 PE-200350 200350 180 18-70 3-10 260 4P 11 1.5 1000870990 PE-250400 250400 210 20-60 5-21 300 6P 15 2.8 130010901270 PE-400600 400600 340 40-100 16-64 275 6P 30 7 173017301630 PE-500750 500750 425 50-100 40-110 275 6P 55 12 198020801870 PE-600750 600750 500 150-200 80-240 275 6P 55 15.8 207020001920 PE-600900 600900 500 65-160 50-160 250 6P 55 17 219022062300 PE-7501060 7501060 630 80-140 110-320 250 8P 110 29 266024302800 PE-8001060 8001060 640 130-190 130-330 250 8P 110 29.8 271024302800 PE-8301060 8301060 650 160-220 150-336 250 8P 110 30.7 274024302800 PE-8701060 8701060 660 200-260 190-336 250 8P 110 31.5 281024302800 PE-9001060 9001060 685 230-290 230-390 250 8P 110 33 287024202940 PE-9001200 9001200 750 95-165 220-380 200 8P 110 52 338028703330 PE-10001200 10001200 850 195-265 315-500 200 8P 110 55 348028763330 PE-12001500 12001500 1020 150-350 400-800 180 6P 160-220 100.9 420033003500 PE-15001800 15001800 1200 220-350 500-1000 180 8P 280-355 139 516036604248 PEX-150750 150750 120 18-48 8-25 320 4P 15 3.8 120015301060 PEX-250750 250750 210 25-60 13-35 330 6P 22 5.5 138017501540 PEX-2501000 2501000 210 25-60 16-52 330 6P 30 7 156019501390 PEX-2501200 2501200 210 25-60 20-61 330 6P 37 9.7 214016601500 PEX-3001300 3001300 250 20-90 16-105 300 6P 55 15.6 272019501600 Model Max.feeding size (mm) Processing capacity (t/h) PE-150250 125 1-3 PE-200300 180 2-6 PE-200350 180 3-10 PE-250400 210 5-21 PE-400600 340 16-64 PE-500750 425 40-110 PE-600750 500 80-240 PE-600900 500 50-160 PE-7501060 630 110-320 PE-8001060 640 130-330 PE-8301060 650 150-336 PE-8701060 660 190-336 PE-9001060 685 230-390 PE-9001200 750 220-380 PE-10001200 850 315-500 PE-12001500 1020 400-800 PE-15001800 1200 500-1000 PEX-150750 120 8-25 PEX-250750 210 13-35 PEX-2501000 210 16-52 PEX-2501200 210 20-61 PEX-3001300 250 16-105
Doyou want to turn construction waste into treasure? Doyou want to crushlimestone, river pebble, granite, basalt, and quartz stone into small particle?Do you want to get economic benefits from these stones?Then it is high timethat youchoose a jaw crusher! As a matter of fact, it is widely used to crush ore and large pieces of material in mining smelting, building material, road, railway, water conservancy and chemical industry. Brcauseit has so many applications, it is also called universal crusher.
The jaw crusher plant, which is researched and designed by Aimix Group, has combined with domestic and foreign advanced technology. Our crushers adopt deep crushing cavity, so the feeding rate and crushing efficiency can be greatly improved. It is also energy-saving. Compared with other crusher,it can save more than 50% energy. Jaw crushing plant has advanced technology, long service life, reliable working condition, easy maintenance and other advantages.
As a leader of mining machinery, this kind of crusher can process almost all the rocks and minerals, such as: basalt, pebble, iron ore, limestone, granite, quartz stone, shale, gravel, river pebble, bluestone, gypsum, construction waste, building aggregates, etc. In other words, it can turns all types of stones into useful materials.
Firstly, You should consider the size of raw materials and the required size of the finished materials. If the materials have big size, you can choose the ordinary crusher machine(PE series). Because itis the primary crushing equipment and suitable for crushing large stone materials. On the contrary, you should choose Aimixs secondary jaw crusher or other kind of fine crusher machines in order to crush smaller materials.
Secondly, you should consider the machines performance. Aimix, a reliable crusher supplier, adopts advanced technology to manufacture all kinds of crushers. Accordingly, our crushers have simple structure, easy maintenance, stable performance and low operation cost. So you can choose our crusher machines without hesitation.
Lastly, jaw crusher price is a very crucial factor. In addition, we can recommend suitable machines to different customers according to their budgets and requirements. We ensure that all customers will get best crusher with the most reasonable price.
On the basis of actual situation, the most popular types are PE series, PEX series and HD Germany series. Each type contains several models. For example, PE series mainly contains 18 models. The smallest model is PE 150*250, and the biggest machine is PE 1600*2100. PEX series mainly consists of 5 models. Besides, HD series is a kind of German version crusher. Aimix mainly manufactures and exports 4 models of HD crusher- HD80, HD98, HD110, HD125.
The main specifications of this kind of crusher machinesare PE series crushers, PEX series crushers and HD series crushers. PE crushers are mainly used in primary crushing stage. However, PEX crushers mainly work in secondary or third crushing stage.
PEcrusheris the most common kind of crusher machine.It consists ofPE150*250, PE250*450, PE1200*1500, and so on. In orderto satisfy different demands, thecrusher havea large range of inputsize and outputsize. You can adjust the size according to the requirements of theraw material and thefinished product. The inputsizes are from 125mm to 1020mm. Moreover, each type of inputsize can be adjusted from 10mm to 300mm.For example, the large input size of PE150*250is 125mm, and you can adjust the input size from 10mm to 40mm based on 125mm. The things you need to do are putting the materials into the crushers and adjusting the size you want.
PEX series mainly consists of five models: PEX 150*750, PEX 250*750, PEX 250*1000, PEX 250*1200, and PEX 300*1300. Besides, HD Germany crushers are also a main type of concrete jaw crusher for sale. And there are four types of HD crushers. They are mainly used to crusher hard materials. Compared to other crushers, it has larger production and higher quality finished products.
There are several main parts of jaw crusher: frame, jaw plate and side guard plate, and transmission part. The frame is a four-walled rigid frame, and it is used to hold the eccentric shaft and stand the reactive force of crushed material. So, the frame needs sufficient strength and rigidity. It is usually made of cast steel. The frame of mini jaw crusher for sale can be made of high quality cast iron instead of cast steel. The frame ofthe crushrneeds to be cast in sections and bolted firmly into a whole, and the casting process is complicated. The frame of self-made small jaw crushmachinecan be welded with thick steel plate, but the stiffness is poor.
Both the fixed jaw plate and the mobile jaw plate are composed of jaw beds and jaw plates. The jaw plates are fixed on the jaw bed with bolts and wedge screws. Jaw bed of fixed jaw plate is the front wall of the frame. Jaw bed of mobile crusher jaw plate must have sufficient strength and stiffness to stand the broken reactive force, and thus most mobile jaw plates are made of cast steel or cast iron pieces.
The eccentric shaft is the main shaft of the crusher, which is made of high carbon steel. The eccentric parts must be precision-machined and heat-treated. One end of the eccentric shaft is a pulley, and the other end is a flywheel.
When the rock crushing machine works, motor drives belt and pulley, and the eccentric shaft drives the mobile jaw plate. When the mobile jaw plate rises, the angle between elbow plate and mobile jaw plate becomes larger. So the mobile jaw plate will be close to the fixed jaw plate. At the same time, materials can be crushed. When the mobile jaw plate down, the angle between elbow plate and the movable jaw becomes small. And under the effect of rod and spring, the mobile jaw plate will be far from the fixed jaw plate. Meanwhile, broken material will be discharged.
Crushing chamber (working chamber) is composed of a fixed jaw plate and a mobile jaw plate. The mobile jaw plate is periodically reciprocated against the fixed jaw plate, sometimes separated, and sometimes closed. When they are separated, the material enters the crushing chamber and the finished product is discharged from the lower part. When they are closed, the material between the two jaw plates is crushed by crushing, bending and splitting.
2. This kind of crushercan not only crush small size materials, but also crush large pieces of limestone. And the largest broken particle size is 1000 * 1200mm. In current mining industry, limestone is in short supply and many ordinary crushers can not crush large size limestone. And itcan crush large limestone into small particles, so you can get more crushed limestone by using ourcrusher.
However, different jaw crusher manufacturers have different prices. So we suggest that you buy crusher machinefrom professional manufacturers. Aimix Group, a professional crusher exporter, can produce all kinds of crushers, such as hydraulic crusher, no grinding crusher, impactor crusher, direct drive crusher, double chamber crusher, cone crusher machine, and track mounted jaw crusher. Aimixs equipments not only have high quality, but also have cheap price. Our equipments are directly sold by factory, so you can get more discounts from our factory!
All kinds ofcrusherscan be customized according to the actual needs of users. If you want to buy, please send us an email and we will provide you high quality equipment and professional service. Please feel free to give your inquiry in the form below. We will reply in 24 hours.
1. This series of small jaw crushers as a type of double toggle jaw crusher are mainly used for medium and fine crushing of ore and rocks with medium and high hardness in the industries of metallurgy, mine, chemical industry, cement, construction, refractory material and ceramics.
2. The PE jaw crusher or small jaw crusher is a suitable double toggle jaw crusher for crushing the ores with compressive strength not less than 320MPA. The materials of maximum blocks to be crushed must not be more than the dates listed in the technology parameter.
1. Fixed body of the small jaw crusher: The main component of the fixed body is rack, which has two manufacturing engineers: carbon steel casting rack and carbon steel plate welded rack. Welded rack uses the reinforced stiffener on the basis of the original cast rack, and can achieve the same effect as casting rackthrough strict quality control and specific process requirements. In order to prevent the serious wear and tear of the lateral wall, crushing chamber is equipped with shield on the left and right side, which can be easily replaced.
2. Rotating body: This pe jaw crusher as a kind of double toggle jaw crusher is composed of moving jaw, eccentric shaft, bearings, pulleys and other parts, and it is the main part of the jaw crusher transmission and endurance.
3. Adjustment device: It is used to adjust the size of discharging mouth and control the discharging granularity. Hongxing jaw crusher has two forms: long wedge type and plunger gasket type with convenient and flexible adjustment, can achieve stepless adjustment.