Introduction The zirconia grinding ball is made of nano-sized zirconia powder by iso-static pressing and high temperature sintering. Three is no pore and cavity in the ball and the inner of the ball forms homogeneous compact and stable quadrangle zirconia crystal structure(Ce-TZP), which has the same hardness, density and abrasion resistance like gemstone. We have different production types for different applications and the content of zirconia and the size of ball can be customized according to customer requirements.
Application Zirconia grinding ball can be used as generic grinding medium for sand grinding mill, vertical agitator bead mill, horizontal rolling mill, vibratory ball mill, bead mill and ball mill. It is suitable for ceramic raw materials, pigments, electronic slurry and battery materials such as silk-screen printing ink with high solid phase, offset printing ink, digital printing, barium sulfate, zirconia, zirconia silicate, calcium bicarbonate, kaolin, electronic paste, zirconia oxide, rare earth and fine grinding of nanometer industries such as precious metal paste, metal paint, medicine, biochemistry and cosmetics industry.
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Dry low intensity magnetic separation Metso dry drum separators have been developed mainly for dry separation of ferromagnetic ores with particle sizes finer than 20 mm. In addition to this conventional application, the dry drum separator has found a wide range of other applications such as: Iron and steel slag treatment Reduced pyrite ash separation Calcined ilmenite production Metal powder production Supergrade magnetic concentrate production Removal of ferromagnetic particles prior to highintesity magnetic separation Control of iron contamination in glass sand production. Efficient separation can be obtained with particle sizes in the range of 0.01 to 25 mm. By utilizing separators with different drum speeds, it is often possible to obtain a high grade concentrate with middlings and tailings as separate products. Often, dry magnetic separation can be more flexible than conventional wet magnetic separation and can provide large savings in grinding costs by recovering the valuable minerals at an early process stage. The dry drum separator consists of a stationary magnetic yoke with a number of permanent magnets placed insidea rotating drum of nonmagnetic material. Metso Corporation, TS Dry low drum 1105-en The magnets have alternating polarity and are normally of strontium-ferrite. The revolving drum is made in two versions: 1) for low speed, stainless steel with a replaceable wear cover of rubber, polyurethane or stainless steel and, 2) for high speed, reinforced plastic with rubber or polyurethane wear protection. The magnetic drum assembly is contained in a dust proof housing with an opening at the bot- tom for discharge of both magnetic and nonmagnetic products. These products are separated by means of a splitter placed under the drum inside of the housing. The whole unit can be dust vented by connecting the plant exhaust system to the outlet provided on the housing. Parts of the housing exposed to wear are normally protected by replaceable rubber or steel wear plates. Inspection of the drum and housing is made through inspection hatches. The housing is easily dismantled for erection and maintenance. The feed arrangement is dependant upon local conditions. For run-of-mine fines, a belt feeder is recommended. For other materials, a vibrating feeder, (or in the case of dusty material, completely covered drum feeders) can be used. The housing is equipped with a standard replaceable feed chute. To meet the various requirements the separators are manufactured with two different drum diameters; i.e. 916 and 1200 mm and drum lengths from 300 mm to 3000 mm in. The separator design allows for an easy combination of drums into double- or triple- drum units. For more information, contact your local Metso representative. www.metso.com Metso Minerals (Sweden) AB, SE-733 25 SALA. Tel: +46 224 570 00. Specifications in this document are subject to change without notice. Product names in this publication are all trademarks of Metso Corporation. Technical specification Drum separators
The drive is normally comprised of a speed reducer, V-belts, pulleys, and motor. The adjustment of the separator drum speed is easily achieved by changing V-belt pulleys when the change is reasonably small. Normally the drum peripheral is set between 1 and 6 m/s but applications with speeds up to 9 m/s exist. Optionally, the separators can be supplied with a variable speed drive. For sizing of drives and motors, Metso should be contacted. Product chutes under the drum housing are normally not provided as these are often designed to fit local conditions. Metso will assist with these upon...
The pitch of the magnetic poles is of great importance and is chosen to suit the particle size and magnetic susceptibility of the material to be handled. Standard separators can be supplied with magnet assemblies having 25, 45, 65, 100 and 165 mm pole pitch. A guidance in the selection of pole pitch is given by the graph below. The final selection of pitch may differ. 25 Particle size in mm 90% passing is cleaned on a second drum at higher speed where a final concentrate and middlings are obtained. In a three-drum separator system, the first drum is run at medium speed to divide the feed...
Technical specification Drum mm (ft) H mm (inch) L mm (inch) W mm (inch) D x L Power kW/hp Metso Corporation, TS Dry low drum 1105-en *Max lenght high speed plastic drum For more information, contact your local Metso representative. www.metso.com Metso Minerals (Sweden) AB, SE-733 25 SALA. Tel: +46 224 570 00. Specifications in this document are subject to change without notice. Product names in this publication are all trademarks of Metso Corporation.
Titanium ore is abundant in South Africa and it is one of the most distributed in the crust. It accounts for 0.61% of the earth's crust and it is in the 9th position. After titanium, aluminum, magnesium, titanium ranks the fourth situation. It is the important material to make artificial rutile titanium slag, titanium white, titanium, titanium sponge and electrode coating. Titanium is a typical lithophile element and it often appears to oxide mineral.
Titanium, oxides and alloy products are the important new structure materials, anti-corrosion materials, coatings. It is known as "the third developing metal after titanium, aluminum metal" and "strategic metals", and it is "very promising" metal material. It is widely used in aviation, aerospace, ships, military industry, metallurgy, chemical industry, machinery, electric power, water desalination, transportation, light industry, environmental protection, medical equipment and other fields. This titanium can create great economic and social benefits and has important status and role in the development of the national economy.
Titanium ore always involved in ilmenite and miners need to process the ilmenite to get high grade titanium materials in South Africa. Ilmenite nominally contains only 53% TiO2, so it must be purified before further processing.
Raw ilmenite or slag ore is first soaked in sulfuric acid for several hours to free up the titanium from the mineral. The titanium dissolves as titanium sulfate while many impurities do not dissolve and are removed by settling. The hydrated form of titanium dioxide is produced upon hydrolysis in alkali at elevated temperature. This precipitate is filtered and washed to remove traces of titanium impurities that can affect the brightness of the pigments produced. Ions such as potassium, phosphorus, or aluminum may be added to control particle size and durability. The hydrate paste then undergoes a high temperature calcination stage that yields the solid white product.
The titanium ore production line is located in South Africa and the contract was signed in 2011. SBM has been in charge of the installation. In the same year on December another set of production line equipment were bought by the local miners. We have been establishing business with the company since then. Because of the high quality, reliable operation and high productivity of the machines, we have established business with other factories which make heavy metals from ores for many years. In addition, the programs for crushing heavy ores designed by our experts have been well received by the producers.
Jaw crusher for titanium ore mining crushing plant is primary crusher that mainly breaks the large scale size and hard materials with resist compression pressure lessthan 320MPA. Besides crushing titanium, this jaw crusher is widely used in mining, metallurgy, construction, highway, railway, water conservancy and chemical industry.
Most titanium ore should be reduced less than 10mm before next dry separation. It is generally adopts two crushing system which includes coarse crushing and fine crushing to crush titanium ore in beneficiation plant. Jaw crusher is crucial crushing equipment in titanium ore crushing. Stone jaw crusher can crush most titanium product granularity less than 30mm. Jaw crusher features low energy consumption, low abrasion, and low operation cost.
For titanium belongs to the brittle materials. The fine crushing machine will be adopted as impact crusher. SBM impact crusher is designed for the brittle materials crushing process. Titanium ore impact crusher is for crushing soft and medium hard materials. It has a very high reduction ratio, which normally results in a three-stage crushing plant becoming a two stage plant with the impact crusher.
It is specifically designed to ensure rugged reliable operation coupled with simple maintenance, interchangeable wear parts and fast part replacement. SBM impact crushers provide low capital cost solutions, optimum performance and good cubical shape, whilst ensuring the lowest operating cost per ton, for a wide range of materials and applications.
Its fully-enclosed layout features high integration. It integrates the functions of high-efficiency sand making, particle shape optimization, filler content control, gradation control, water content control, and environmental protection into a single syst
Ti reacts with hematite forming products along the hematite-ilmenite solid solution.Ca. 80% of anatase nanoparticles in fly and bottom ash transform into novel phases.Ca. 30% and 60% of rutile particles transform in fly and bottom ash, respectively.
Titanium dioxide (TiO2) (nano)particles are produced in large quantities and their potential impacts on ecosystems warrants investigations into their fate after disposal. TiO2 particles released into wastewater are retained by wastewater treatment plants and accumulate in digested sludge, which is increasingly incinerated in industrialized countries. Therefore, we investigated the changes of the Ti-speciation during incineration of as-received sludge and of sludge spiked with anatase (d=2050nm) or rutile (d=200400nm) using X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In the as-received sludge, rutile and anatase were the dominant Ti bearing minerals and both remained unaffected by the anaerobic treatment. During incineration, Ti reacts with hematite to members of the hematite-ilmenite solid solution series (Hem-Ilm). Up to 80% of the Ti spiked as anatase transformed into Hem-Ilm, a distorted 6-fold coordinated Ti (Ti(IV)sulfate) and rutile during incineration. Up to 30% and 60% of rutile transformed into Hem-Ilm and Ti(IV)sulfate represented phases in fly and bottom ash, respectively. Fe and Ti were spatially correlated in ash derived from as-received and anatase spiked sludge, whereas only a thin layer of the spiked rutile reacted with Fe, in line with XAS data. This study highlights the transient nature of nano-Ti species during sewage sludge incineration.
Mahmoud Khalifeh, Arild Saasen, Helge B. Larsen, Helge Hodne, "Development and Characterization of Norite-Based Cementitious Binder from an Ilmenite Mine Waste Stream", Advances in Materials Science and Engineering, vol. 2017, Article ID 6849139, 7 pages, 2017. https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/6849139
Norite is a major type of solid waste generated during the production of ilmenite. This study focuses on the usability of norite as a solid precursor of alkali-activated cement. Sensitivity analysis was performed to find the influence of different alkali types and particle sizes of the source material on polycondensation. Norite was ground and mixed with sodium hydroxide and potassium hydroxide solutions to produce a binder. Potassium-containing systems were more effective compared to sodium-containing systems with respect to strength development. The X-ray diffraction patterns indicated formation of zeolites, albite, and oligoclase based on the type of activator and used additives. The patterns also revealed formation of an amorphous phase in the matrices of the binder that was cured at 87C. Microstructure analysis revealed some degree of crystallization with different Si:Al ratios, which indicated heterogeneity of the binder matrices.
Alkali-activated binders are a class of inorganic alkaline polymers, which are produced during the alkaline activation of silica-rich and alumina-rich materials. The reaction shows a complex process. Generally, in an alkaline medium, the bonds of Si-O-Si are broken and aluminum (Al) atoms penetrate into the original Si-O-Si structure. Consequently, aluminosilicate gels (oligomers) are formed and finally polycondensation takes place. Cations (e.g., Na+, K+, and Ca+) must be present in the framework cavities to balance the negative charges of ions [1, 2]. The result is a cementitious phase with high mechanical strength and high fire and acid resistance. Polycondensation depends on parameters such as chemical and mineralogical composition, particle size, and surface area of the source materials. In addition, curing pressure and temperature, Si:Al ratio of the used substances (the active silica content), alkali type (e.g., NaOH, KOH), alkali concentration, liquid-to-solid ratio, and types of additives significantly influence the binder synthesis .
Based on the source used, different types of binders can be produced such as fly ash-based and blast furnace slag-based binders. Utilization of fly ashes in the production of binders has been extensively studied [9, 10]. However, few studies have been carried out on the usability of natural rocks to make binders in alkaline media.
One of the worlds largest ilmenite producers has its quarry on the southwest coast of Norway. The mine is operated by Titania AS and the facility uses different methods to separate ilmenite from ore. The facility produces 850,000 metric tons of ilmenite concentrate per year. Ilmenite is a mineral chemically described as FeTiO3. When the iron is removed, the final product becomes TiO2 which is known as titanium white, a widely used white pigment. Normally, ilmenite is found in large quantities in the anorthosite or norite rocks. Thus, norite or anorthosite must be separated from the valuable ilmenite. This can be done by conventional separation techniques that leave large amounts of ground norite and anorthosite particles as a waste stream. Norite is one of the main waste tailings during the production of ilmenite at Titania AS. The norite used in this study was supplied by Titania AS.
Norite is an intrusive igneous rock and is predominantly composed of orthopyroxene and plagioclase. Orthopyroxene is an inosilicate and therefore has interlocking chains of silicate tetrahedra. Plagioclase is a common series of aluminosilicate (tectosilicate) minerals within the feldspar family. In the Streckeisen classification system, norite is in the group with gabbro and anorthosite. Similar to gabbro and anorthosite, norite is very rich in plagioclase compared to K-feldspar, feldspathoids, and quartz [11, 12]. Therefore, norite has the potential to be utilized as a solid precursor in the development of a new cementitious binder. The current study presents a fundamental procedure for developing a norite-based binder in alkali media.
Titania AS provided the norite; its chemical analysis and the traced minerals are presented in Tables 1 and 2. The laboratory at Titania AS reported a pH value of 6.5 for the norite . Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and potassium hydroxide (KOH) pellets used for the preparation of alkali solutions were caustic soda and caustic potash with 99% purity. Sodium silicate solution (Na2SiO3) and potassium silicate solution (K2SiO3) were used in some mix designs. The Na2SiO3 (supplied by Merck KGaA in Germany) was reported to contain 28.5% SiO2, 8.5% Na2O, and 63% H2O; the K2SiO3 (supplied by Univar AS, Norway) was reported to contain 38% potassium silicate and 62% H2O. An aluminum- and calcium-rich blast furnace slag (product name Merit 5000 from Merit 5000, Sweden) was used as an additive (Table 3). Distilled water was used throughout the experiments.
As the norite particle size was high, 0.42mm, the specific surface area of the norite was increased to enhance its reactivity by milling. Therefore, every 100g of the norite was ground by using a Retsch PM100 ball mill at 356rpm for 10 minutes. Particle size distribution (PSD) of the ground norite, Figure 1, was measured using a Sympatec HELOS laser diffraction particle size analyzer. The analysis was done at Tel-Tek National Research Institute, Norway. Sauter mean diameter (SMD) and volume mean diameter (VMD) were reported to be 6.43 and 47.16m, respectively. The particle density of norite was estimated to be 2.00g/cc.
A Zeiss Supra 35VP model scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDXS) analyzer was used. The analysis was performed at ambient temperature and under high vacuum conditions.
An Agilent Cary 630 FTIR (Fourier transform infrared) spectrometer was used to investigate the structure of the norite and the investigation was carried out in the 1200400cm1 region. The KBr (potassium bromide) wafer technique was used for the spectra determination .
X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) analysis of the norite and the binder was performed using X-ray synchrotron radiation with the wavelength of 0.6888. The XRD measurements were performed with a PILATUS2M pixel detector-based diffractometer at the Swiss-Norwegian beamline (SNBL-BM01A), at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, ESRF, Grenoble, France. The two-dimensional diffraction patterns spanned a maximal diffraction angle, 2, of 46 degrees. One-dimensional diffraction patterns were obtained by azimuth integration using the program Fit2D . The mineral analysis program, Match!, and Crystallography Open Database (COD) were used for phase identification .
To measure the compressive strength of the binder, two different uniaxial compressive strength (UCS) mechanical testers were utilized: a Zwick/Z020 for specimens with compressive strength lower than 10MPa and a Toni Technik-H for specimens with compressive strength higher than 10MPa. The Zwick/Z020 and Toni Technik-H testers applied TestXpert II v3.2 and TestXpert v7.11 testing software, respectively, to calculate UCS of the specimens.
In order to produce a pure norite-based binder, the ground norite was mixed with an alkali solution for 2 minutes. To investigate the influences of ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS) and type of alkali silicate solution, the GGBFS and alkali silicate solution were introduced into some of the mixes as presented in Tables 4 and 5. When an alkali silicate solution was required, the alkali solution and the alkali silicate solution were mixed prior to adding the solid phase. Whenever the GGBFS was necessary, it was entered into the blend during the final part of the mixing. A Hamilton Beach blender was used for the mixing.
The slurries were poured in cylindrical plastic molds with 52mm diameter and 100mm length. The specimens were cured at ambient pressure and different temperatures: ambient temperature and 87C. Tables 4 and 5 present the mix designs.
For a better understanding of the binder synthesis, sets of analytical experiments were conducted. For each test, only one parameter was changed while the others were kept constant. The compressive strength of the different specimens was measured, besides the XRD and microstructure analyses.
The norite particle size could be important for understanding its physical and chemical properties. So, two specimens were prepared to evaluate the influence of the norite particle size on its reactivity. The specimens were prepared by using the nonground and the ground norite. The maximum particle size of the nonground norite was reported to be 2mm. Both specimens were mixed by using 8MNaOH and cured at ambient pressure and temperature for 7 days. A liquid-to-solid mass ratio of 0.42 was selected to maintain fluidity of the slurries; however, generally, a liquid-to-solid mass ratio of 0.35 is recommended . The prepared slurry with the nonground norite never solidified while the ground norite solidified (Figure 2). Although the larger precursor particles have lower surface-to-volume ratio and the slurry requires a lower activator content, the formation of gels was not observed. The smaller the particle sizes, the higher the reactivity of the norite. Likely, the large particles do not participate in the reaction to form the binder but they act as an aggregate (Figure 4(a)). It could be said that milling activates the material mechanically.
Figure 3 presents the compressive strength development of the norite-based binder, which was cured at 87C and ambient pressure. A radical strength development was observed after 7 days of curing. The specimens were prepared by mixing the norite with 8M solution of sodium hydroxide (Table 4).
Figure 4 presents the SEM images of specimen 1, which was cured at 87C and ambient pressure for 7 days. The crystallization is shown through Figures 4(a)4(c). Two crystals were selected for element analysis to confirm the polycondensation. The crystals are marked with a green cross (Figures 4(b)-4(c)). The resulting crystals mainly contain Si, Al, O, and Na. The element analysis of the marked crystals resembled erionite and oligoclase. From microstructural observations, it could be said that the selected matrices are not homogeneous (Figures 4(b)-4(c)). One crystal has a Si:Al ratio of 1.5 (Figure 4(b)), while the other crystal has a Si:Al ratio of 2 (Figure 4(c)). Higher magnifications on the crystals showed existence of some fissures as shown in Figure 4(b).
As shown in Figure 4(b), some rod-like species have been identified in some parts of the binder. The influence of these rod-like species on the compressive strength could not be figured out and, in this regard, further studies should be carried out in the future.
Figure 5 shows the XRD patterns of the binder cured for 7 days at 87C and ambient pressure. The XRD analysis shows that the starting material mainly consists of anorthite sodian (Al1.52Ca0.52Na0.48O8Si2.48). But erionite, albite, and stilbite-Na seem to be synthesized as a result of polycondensation. In addition, the formation of an amorphous phase was noticed as a broad diffuse halo, or a hump, in the 2 range between 5 and 15. Nonetheless, it has been shown that amorphous inorganic polymers are formed in the 2 range between 20 and 39 degrees. The identification of the amorphous phases requires further study.
The XRD patterns show that when the norite was mixed with pure 8M NaOH solution, the content of the amorphous phase increased (Figure 5(a)). He et al.  reported that curing alkali-activated based slurries at elevated temperatures leads to a higher degree of crystallization. It should be mentioned that, for the K-containing system, the pattern showed lower content of the amorphous phase compared to the Na-containing system. However, the GGBFS used as an additive was almost amorphous.
The oligoclase determined by the XRD patterns (Al1.277Ca0.277Na0.723Si2.723) with low content of erionite-Ca (Al3.954Ca1.22H72.096K6Mg0.26O49.2Si14.046) was the reaction product of a Na-containing system (Figure 5(a)). Oligoclase is a high sodium content feldspar which could be reasonable due to the use of Na-containing solution . Erionite-Ca is a member of the zeolite minerals. Gougazeh and Buhl  studied the synthesis of zeolite A by treating the activated metakaolin from natural kaolin with various concentrations of NaOH at 100C. Their result shows that zeolite A was the major constituent phase, while quartz and hydroxysodalite were the minor constituents of the final product.
Further, the patterns show that albite (AlNaO8Si3) and stilbite-Na (Al2.42Ca0.84H18Na0.75O24.12Si6.64) are the reaction products for the K-containing system (Figure 5(b)). Albite is a plagioclase feldspar mineral and stilbite is a series of tectosilicate minerals of the zeolite group. Kawano and Tomita  reported the synthesis of zeolites from obsidian in various concentrations of NaOH and KOH solutions at 150 and 200C. They showed that smectite, phillipsite, and rhodesite formed in an NaOH solution as pH increased and smectite, merlinoite, and sanidine were produced in KOH solutions as pH increased. The pH and Si:Al and Na:K ratios of the reacting solutions were important parameters determining the nature of the products formed from obsidian. Formation of the zeolite could be due to the quantity of silica and grain size as investigated by Prudhomme et al. .
The infrared spectra of the norite and the norite-based binder are given in Figure 6. The binder was cured for 7 days at 87C and ambient pressure. As shown in Figure 6, the chemical shifts of main IR characteristic bands and appearance of new peaks were observed. The IR for the solid precursors (norite) and the binder consists of the strongest vibrations at 9801020cm1 and 420560cm1. Comparing the IR spectra of the norite and norite-based binder shows that, during polycondensation, the outstanding band at 1008cm1 shifted towards a lower wavenumber (1000cm1). It seems that 1008cm1 band is caused by asymmetrical vibration of Si(Al)-O bonds and 540cm1 band by bending vibration of Si-O-Al bonds [2, 21]. The appearance of new peaks at 881 and 577cm1 is due to reaction. Mucsi et al.  studied the formation of fly ash-based geopolymer by using Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and suggested that the appearance of a new peak at 881cm1 is related to Si-O stretching and the bending of O-H in the Si-OH bond.
Inclusion and influence of GGBFS on fly-ash have been studied on the setting time and strength development of fly ash-based binder. It is believed that addition of an amorphous silica phase leads to a shorter setting time and higher compressive strength. It has also been reported that the addition of GGBFS to concrete enhances setting time of concrete at ambient temperature. However, it may affect the final compressive strength of the slurry due to incomplete reaction [16, 23].
As the measured 7-day compressive strength of the binder was low, the influence of GGBFS was studied. As shown in Table 5, addition of the GGBFS to the slurries strongly influenced the compressive strength of the specimens, which were cured at ambient pressure and temperature. However, there was no supplementary information about the hydraulic reactivity relation for the used GGBFS.
The influence of alkali type was studied in this work. The obtained results show higher compressive strength for the specimens prepared using K-containing systems than with sodium (Table 5). It has been reported that dissolution of aluminosilicate in a sodium solution is more effective than in a potassium solution. However, the compressive strength of the binder is higher for the K-containing systems than for the Na-containing systems [2, 24, 25]. This phenomenon is explained by the size of K+ cations and the formation of zeolite in the geopolymer structure . Therefore, to get the same strength as the K-containing system, the amount of sodium solution may be increased. The used concentrations are classified as corrosive in the criteria for classification of substances; therefore, the K-containing system may have a lower risk of hazard, which makes it user-friendly. Hence, it could be said that K-containing systems are more user-friendly in comparison to Na-containing systems. However, a combination of potassium and sodium solutions substantially reduces the compressive strength (Table 5).
A norite-based binder has been successfully produced from the waste tailing of an ilmenite mine consisting mainly of anorthosite. The particle size of the source material significantly affected the reactivity. The IR spectra of norite-based binder showed a shift towards a lower wavenumber. The maximum compressive strength was obtained for the fully potassium-containing system while a combination of sodium and potassium reduced the strength development. The XRD patterns showed formation of oligoclase, albite, and zeolites. Furthermore, the patterns indicated amorphous phases for the Na-containing systems at 87C of curing; however, crystallization was expected at elevated temperatures. The SEM images showed some degree of crystallization and heterogeneity in the binder matrices.
The authors acknowledge the Research Council of Norway, ConocoPhillips, AkerBP, Statoil, and Wintershall for financing the work through the research center DrillWell (Drilling and Well Centre for Improved Recovery), research cooperation between IRIS, NTNU, SINTEF, and UiS. The authors are also grateful to the management of Titania AS, Norway, for their support. Special thanks are due to the Swiss-Norwegian beamlines (SNBL) at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) for providing beamtime and technical support during the experiment.
Copyright 2017 Mahmoud Khalifeh et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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911 Metallurgy can provide you with all your hydrometallurgical service needs, from testing to production. We offer a comprehensive range of test services including bottle roll testing, column leach testing, pressure leach testing, bioleach testing, albion process testing, electrowinning testing, solvent extraction testing, and so much more. Our experts know how process all ore types, ranging from precious and base metal ores (Au, Ag, Cu, Ni, Co), to platinum group metal ores (PGMs), to uranium ores, to rare earth elements (REEs). 911 Metallurgy can provide testing both at the laboratory and pilot scale, offsite and or onsite. Using the data generated from testing, our experts can help you design your process, select equipment, and help you get into production. We will provide the experience and service you need to minimize risks and make your project a reality.
Column leach tests or column percolation leach tests, are primarily used to simulate heap leach conditions. 911 Metallurgy has comprehensive column leach testing and heap leach experience, and can provide you with guidance and service to meet your projects needs.
Heap leaching is a common mineral processing technique, used to extract precious metals (Au and Ag), copper, uranium, and other constituents. First, ore is stacked onto an impermeable plastic liner. Then, a solution containing reagents, specific to the targeted constituent or constituents, is dispersed using a drip or sprinkler system. The solution percolates through the heap, extracting constituents by dissolving them. The enriched solution, called the pregnant leach solution or PLS, is then collected and processed to extract the constituent of interest.
Column leach tests are used to evaluate if a constituent or constituents can be extracted from a solid, under simulated heap leach test conditions. First, the solids are sized according to the needs of the test work. Then if needed, column test feeds are agglomerated to improve the permeability and strength of the stacked feed. A leach solution is then applied to the top of the column, at a constant flow rate. As the solution percolates through the column it dissolves and concentrates constituents into a pregnant leach solution (PLS). The PLS is collected daily, to track reagent consumptions, interim constituent concentrations, and to determine final constituent mass balances and recoveries. Tests are often run until pregnant leach solution constituent concentrations approach detection limits, to determine maximum recoveries, with leach cycles ranging from months to years.
911 Metallurgy has years of experience managing and designing heap leach testing programs. Our specialists will walk you through the entire process from preliminary testing (e.g. ore characterization and coarse bottle roll tests), to geotechnical testing (e.g load permeability testing), to optimization (e.g. crush size and reagent), to extraction (e.g. solvent extraction), to design.
Bottle roll tests are widely employed in metallurgical and environmental testing. 911 Metallurgy has extensive bottle roll testing experience and can provide you with guidance and service to meet your laboratory testing needs.
Bottle roll tests are used to evaluate if a constituent or constituents can be removed from a solid through dissolution. Basically, known amounts of solid and liquid are added to a bottle, to create a slurry. The slurry is then gently agitated and sampled at scheduled time intervals, to track reagent consumptions, interim constituent concentrations, and to determine final constituent mass balances and recoveries.
In metallurgical testing, bottle roll tests are used to determine a materials amenability to leaching a specific metal or metals. Tests can be run at coarse feeds to evaluate heap leaching amenability, or fine feeds to evaluate conventional mill leaching processes.
Reagents specific to the type of metal or metals targeted are added to the bottle roll test solution. Solutions can vary from acid, to neutral, to basic. Cyanide is typically used to extract precious metals, such as gold and silver. Whereas, solutions containing sulfuric acid are often employed to extract copper.
In environmental applications, bottle roll tests are used to characterize what constituents might impact the environment when a solid material is exposed to a solution. Particularly, if the constituent will become harmful if it migrates into a source of water, such as a river, lake, or aquifer.
911 Metallurgy can provide you with the analytical services that your project needs. Our analytical specialists have a wide range of experience from running drill core assay programs, to metallurgical test analyses, to environmental analyses. Our analytical services are ISO certified and implement a rigorous QA/QC program, to ensure that our analyses are precise, accurate, and reliable. Need fast turn around times? No problem, our experts can work with you to provide a turnaround schedule that will meet or exceed your schedule.
911 Metallurgy has extensive report writing experience. Our specialists can help you create high quality reports that you need to make your project a success. Need help with your 43-101 report? 911 Metallurgy professionals have experience writing documents for a variety of needs including but not limited to 43-101 technical reports, metallurgical testwork reports, operational reports, and engineering design reports. Our report writing specialists have the skills you need to meet your project schedule.
911 Metallurgy can help you design the metallurgical process that will make your project successful. Our experts take the time to understand your project and develop a solution that meets your schedule and processing requirements. 911 Metallurgy specialistsuses state of the art modeling techniques to design and select equipment for your process. There are often many solutions to a process, so our specialists compare solutions, to evaluate important factors such as efficiency, capital, and operating costs. Once a process is selected we will provide you with the information and service you need to go from design to production.
911 Metallurgy can help you optimize and audit your process. Understanding your circuit is important, therefore we recommend a site visit to make sure we collect the data our experts need to get the best results. Onsite, our experts inventory the circuit equipment and operating conditions, and conduct a survey, to determine important metrics used in our advanced modelling program. Once the review is complete, the survey data is combined and used to generate models for simulation software. The models are then used to simulate the circuit/process and determine optimal process parameters. Not interested in a site visit? No problem 911 Metallurgy can also provide offsite optimization services, using data that you have collected.
911 Metallurgy specialists are ready to help you commission new circuits or upgrade old circuits. Our experts have extensive experience commissioning various processes including but not limited to comminution, hydrometallurgical, and pyrometallurgical circuits. Need equipment for your new process? 911 Metallurgy has a comprehensive inventory of equipment to fulfill your needs. Have an uncommon ore type? Dont worry, 911 Metallurgy specialists have a strong background and experience needed to address complex ore types, with experience ranging from processing precious metal and base metal deposits to rare earth elements (REEs). Our experts will help you minimize risks to ensure your project is a success.
911 Metallurgy can help you conduct technical audits for your metallurgical program. Our specialists can review all aspects of proposed project including the design, test work, risks, finances, and more. Having trouble with existing projects? 911 Metallurgy experts can evaluate and troubleshoot existing processes, and will help your project be successful.
911 Metallurgy can provide training for your staff. Our training specialists knowledge and experience provide your employees with the opportunity to improve their skills and understanding of a process. Training typically includes a detailed review of the unit processes, and the parameters that affect it. After trainees have developed a better understanding of the process, our experts teach them the best practices to maximize performance, solve performance issues, run benchmarks, and optimize your process. 911 Metallurgy helps your employees learn the right skills, so that your project will be a success.
Pilot plant programs provide critical testing and design data for your project. 911 Metallurgy specialists can make sure that your pilot plan program is designed properly and provides the information that you need to make your project a success.911 Metallurgy uses state of the art modeling techniques and simulation, to evaluate the process design ahead of construction. Once the process had been designed, our experts will lead you through process, helping you design, construct, schedule, sample, and run the pilot plant. Leverage our specialists knowledge and experience to minimize your risks, and make your pilot program a success.
911 Metallurgy can provide you with the services and equipment you need to make your pilot plant program a success. Need somewhere to run your pilot program? No problem, 911 Metallurgy can provide access to advanced pilot plant facilities, that aremanned by professionally trained staff and have the infrastructure you need to meet your projects schedule. Dont have experience running a pilot plant? Operating a pilot plant successfully is difficult, our experts have the knowledge and experience, that will help your project minimize risks.
911 Metallurgy can provide you with the construction services that your project requires. Whether your building a pilot plant or your processing facility, our experts can provide you with the knowledge and experience you need through the design and construction process. Need help selecting equipment? No problem, 911 Metallurgy has an extensive inventory of equipment and can help you select reliable and high quality equipment. Need help managing your construction process? Our onsite construction management specialists have extensive experience and can help you manage construction projects of any size. 911 Metallurgy will lead you through the construction process and help your project succeed.