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The Blackwater Project will comprise the construction, operation, and closure of an open pit gold and silver mine and ore processing facilities commencing with a nominal milling rate of 15,000 t/d (5.5 Mtpa). The ore processing facilities will be expanded to achieve 33,000 tpd (12 Mt/y) starting in year 6 with a final expansion to achieve 55,000 t/d (20 Mt/y) starting in year 11 of operation. A combined gravity circuit and whole ore leaching (WOL) will be used for recovering gold and silver.
The proposed mine plan involves mining 334 Mt of ore, 584 Mt of waste rock and 83 Mt of overburden. The material will be sourced via conventional open pit mining methods, initially targeting high-grade, near-surface ore for processing, with lower-grade material being stockpiled for processing at the end of the mine life.
Most of the waste material sourced from the pit will be used for construction of the tailings storage facility (TSF) or placed in the TSF itself. Overburden and non potentially acid generating waste rock not required for construction will be placed in stockpiles adjacent to the open pit. Potentially acid generating waste rock, along with tailings, will be deposited into the TSF located to the north/northwest of the open pit.
At closure, all buildings will be removed, disturbed lands rehabilitated, and the property returned to otherwise functional use according to future approved reclamation plans and accepted practices at the time of closure.
In addition to the site infrastructure, it is assumed that a 134 km, 230 kV transmission line will be constructed from the BC Hydro Glenannan substation near Endako, B.C. to the site to supply power to the Project.
Mining will be based on conventional open pit methods (drill-blast-load-haul) suited for the Project location and local site requirements. Open pit operations are anticipated to run for 18 years, excluding 1518 months of pre-production mining. Following mining operations, stockpiled low-grade material will be processed for an additional five years, resulting in a total life-of-mine (LOM) of 23 years. The open pit will be developed with a series of pushbacks. The first stage will target suitable waste rock for construction whilst exposing near-surface, high-grade material. The second phase will target higher-grade, lower-strip-ratio ore providing mill feed over the initial years of the Project. The remaining stages expand the pit to the north targeting progressively deeper ore. LOM activities are summarized in Appendix A.
Owner-managed mining and fleet maintenance operations are planned for 365 days/year, with two 12-hour shifts planned per day. Initially, mining will be undertaken using 400 t class hydraulic shovels and 190 t payload class haul trucks. As production requirements increase the load and haul fleet will be expanded with 550 t class hydraulic shovels and 220 t payload class haul trucks. The initial drill and loading fleet is planned to be diesel drive, with expansion fleet requirements being electric drive. The mine equipment fleet is planned to be purchased via lease arrangements.
The most recent metallurgical program, completed in 2019, was carried out with the primary objective of confirming and optimizing the flowsheet and design criteria using a combination of new test work, results from the historical and previous test work programs, and trade-off studies completed since the 2014 Feasibility Study. Drill core from site was sent to Base Metallurgical Laboratories Ltd. (BaseMet) in Kamloops, BC for test work that included core splitting, sample preparation, interval assaying, mineralogy, gravity concentration, cyanide leach and cyanide destruction.
The mineralogy indicated that the sulphur content is mainly associated with pyrite, pyrrhotite and sphalerite. The comminution test work included semi-autogenous grind (SAG) mill comminution (SMC) on the new drill core, Bond rod mill work index (RWi), Bond ball mill work index (BWi) and abrasion index (Ai) tests. The results indicate the material is hard with results ranging from 11.8 to 24.6 kWh/t and the 75th percentile of the samples tested was 21.1 kWh/t for the variability samples. A correlation between gold extraction and head grade was not observed. The variability composite results averaged 93.7% total gold extraction with gravity gold recovery of 34.2%.
Based on the test results, a gold dor can be produced with a primary grind size of 80% passing (P80) 150 m followed by gravity concentration, 2 hour pre-oxidation, a 48 hour cyanide leach at an initial cyanide concentration of 500 ppm and a pH of 10.5, carbon-in-pulp (CIP) adsorption, desorption and refining process. The weighted average of the year composites, based on the mine plan, is estimated to achieve an overall average gold recovery in the range of 93% to 94%.
The Study outlines an initial capital cost estimate of $592 million for Phase 1 (5.5 Mtpa), expansion capital of $426 million for the Phase 2 expansion to 12.0 Mtpa, expansion capital of $398 million for the Phase 3 expansion to 20.0 M tpa. Sustaining capital over the life of mine is estimated at $637 million while closure costs are estimated at $117 million, partially offset by proceeds from equipment salvage values, estimated at $42 million. The PFS factors a 15% contingency into all capital cost estimates with the exception of reclamation costs.
The biggest drivers associated with the estimated expansion capital costs are the mobile fleet lease payments ($121 million), modular expansion of the process plant ($272 million) and indirect costs ($108 million). Sustaining capital is estimated to average $26 million per year in phase 1, ramping up to $40 million per year in phase 2 and $23 million per year in phase 3. Mobile fleet lease payments ($289 million) and tailings management ($190 million) are the primary drivers of sustaining capital costs.
The LOM operating cost estimates for Blackwater peak in Phase 1 at $28.42/t, with economies of scale and driving down costs to C$23.30/t in Phase 2 and $15.13/t in Phase 3. Over the LOM, the Project has estimated average operating costs of C$17.65/t.
The Study outlines robust economics for the Blackwater Project during all three stages of growth with annual production of 248,000 ounces of gold at an AISC of $668/oz in Stage 1, growing to 420,000 ounces of gold per year at AISC of $696 in stage 2 and smoothing out to 316,000 ounces of gold per year at an AISC of $911 per ounce in stage 3. The higher AISC in Phase 3 is mainly attributed to the inclusion of closure costs at the end of the life of mine. Over the LOM, the Study estimates an AISC of $811 per (or US$616/oz) ounce on production of 7.45 million ounces of gold, which places the Project in the bottom quartile of the global cost curve for gold project (source: World Gold Council).
The Study economics consider two private royalties at 1.0% and 1.5% over parts of the Mineral Reserve. Estimated payments to Indigenous nations are also included in the economic cash flow model for the Project.
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The main mineral component of limestone is calcite. It has rare crystal structure and mineral particles and its surface is smooth and granular. Colors are black, gray, white, yellow and brown. Limestone containing seawater formation lime, hence the name of marble, limestone, chalk, rock, etc. Their main component of natural mineral is calcium carbonate.
Limestone is a non-renewable resource, with the continuous progress of science and technology and the development of nanotechnology; Limestone application areas are further widened. After crushing by crusher and sand making machine, limestone can be applied in many fields. Limestone powder processing industry is gradually vigorous in recent years.
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Stabilization of soil to attain required engineering properties can be done either by mechanical or chemical stabilization. Most of these methods are relatively expensive to implement in practice and the best way is the usage of locally available materials. The present paper reports the stabilization of black cotton soil and loam soil with varying percentages of Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP) and waste crushed Glass (WCG). Various properties such as maximum dry density, optimum moisture content, and California Bearing Ratio (CBR) are analysed and the results are compared with red soil. Investigations are performed using percentages of Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP) at 30%, 50%, 55%, 60%, 65% and Waste Crushed Glass (WCG) at 5%. The results showed that there was an appreciable increase in strength and CBR values by the addition of RAP and WCG. The paper proved the effectiveness of proposed method for construction of pavements in village roads with reduced thickness.
Back Forty is Aquilas 100%-owned development-stage project delineating a gold-rich volcanogenic massive sulfide (VMS) deposit located along the mineral-rich Penokean Volcanic Belt in Michigans Upper Peninsula. Aquila and various past joint venture partners, including Hudbay Minerals, have invested more than $95 million exploring and advancing Back Forty.
On August 5, 2020, Aquila published the results of a Preliminary Economic Assessment (PEA) on Back Forty. The PEA expands on the Companys 2018 open pit Feasibility Study and includes the known underground Mineral Resource classification. The full Technical Report can be downloadedhere.
Aquila is currently advancing an optimized Feasibility Study that incorporates the open pit and underground mine plans. Aquila is also working to secure the remaining permits required to commence construction and operations at Back Forty.
In August 2020, Aquila released results of an expansion case PEA on Back Forty. The PEA was prepared in accordance with National Instrument 43-101 (NI 43-101) by P&E Mining Consultants Inc. in collaboration with Golder Associates Ltd. and Lycopodium Minerals Canada Ltd.
The Back Forty mine plan presented in the PEA is based on mining the highest value material as soon as possible and treating this material through the process plants to maximize cash flow. This strategy is achieved by mining the mineralized material and either feeding the material directly to the process plant or stockpiling the material on-site for processing later per a feed schedule based on optimal economics for the operation. This plan consists of a combined open pit and underground mining operation. Open pit mining will take place from Year 1 to Year 5. Underground development will be initiated in Year 5 and underground production mining will continue to Year 11.
A series of grade blending stockpiles, by material type, will serve to prioritize the processing of higher-grade material and also manage fluctuations in process plant feed delivery from the two mining operations.
The Back Forty Project area consists of very subdued terrain and topography. The area, topography and climate are amenable to the conventional open pit mining operations proposed for the Project. The open pit mining operation will encompass a single open pit that will be mined with conventional mining equipment in three pushback phases. The underground mine will be developed beneath the open pit with a single decline access point located partway down the open pit main access ramp.
The open pit design is based on the 2018 Feasibility Study design. Minor modifications were made to standardize on 5-metre-high benches with a quadruple bench configuration, resulting in a 20-metre vertical distance between catch berms.
Open pit mining operations will be carried out by Company personnel except for blasting operations. A blasting contractor will be used to supply the explosives, prepare the blasts, charge the holes, fire the blast, and inspect the area post-blast. The equipment fleet will consist of hydraulic excavators and wheel loaders, both with 8 m3 buckets, and 90 t capacity haul trucks, plus track dozers, graders, and support equipment.
Extraction of the underground Mineral Resource will be achieved by a combination of mechanized Cut and Fill (CF) or Longhole (LH) methods. CF mining is the dominant method, producing approximately 63% of mined tonnes, with LH producing the remaining 37% of tonnes. CF mining uses one of four stope sizes, and targets flatter-dipping material (dip less than 55). LH mining uses one of two stope size subsets and orientations (transverse or longitudinal). The weighted average direct mining cost is $33/tonne.
The underground mine begins construction and development in Year 5 with commercial production achieved in Year 6. The production rate of the underground varies depending on development requirements, with a commercial production rate of 2,300 t/d, increasing to a maximum of 3,200 t/d in Year 7.
The oxide mineralized material will be processed via a cyanidation leach circuit to produce dor. Depending on the grades of copper, zinc and lead, the sulphide mineralized material will be processed via two stages of flotation to produce concentrates, i.e. either a copper and zinc concentrate, or a lead and zinc concentrate.
Sulphide mineralized material will be processed on a campaign basis based on the main material types that have a similar metallurgical response. As such the design of the sulphide process plant is based on a flexible metallurgical flowsheet to process the main material types.
The Mineral Resource Estimate is set out in Table 3 and was prepared by P&E Mining Consultants Inc. The Deposit is well-defined with 94% of the Mineral Resource contained in the Measured and Indicated (M&I) classifications. On a gold equivalent basis, the Deposit contains 2.5 million gold equivalent ounces in the M&I classifications at a grade of 4.3 g/t gold equivalent.
3. The Inferred Mineral Resource in this estimate has a lower level of confidence than that applied to an Indicated Mineral Resource and must not be converted to a Mineral Reserve. It is reasonably expected that the majority of the Inferred Mineral Resource could be upgraded to an Indicated Mineral Resource with continued exploration.
4. The Mineral Resources in this Technical Report were estimated using the Canadian Institute of Mining, Metallurgy and Petroleum (CIM), CIM Standards on Mineral Resources and Reserves, Definitions and Guidelines prepared by the CIM Standing Committee on Reserve Definitions and adopted by the CIM Council.
Developed within a highly altered sequence of rhyolite breccias and pyroclastic rocks cut by dikes, sills and irregular intrusions of porphyritic dacite and rhyodacite. Late mafic dikes and at least one dioritic to gabbroic intrusive intrude the felsic sequence.
Structurally, this rhyolite sequence and associated massive sulfide mineralization has been deformed into an asymmetric, moderately southwest plunging anticlinal fold characterized by a gently dipping north limb, and a steeply dipping and sheared south limb. Folding has produced an axial planar schistosity and faulting has offset lithologies and created zones of weakness for younger intrusive rocks.
Altered host rocks form assemblages of quartz sericite pyrite throughout an extensive area surrounding the known mineralization. The degree and extent of this alteration is evidence for a large and long-lived hydrothermal system and suggests the potential for additional mineralization in the area.
Early in 2001, zinc-rich massive sulfide mineralization was intersected in a water well. Follow-up drill testing of a geophysical anomaly resulted in the discovery of the massive sulfide deposit. To date, Aquila has completed over 700 diamond drill holes and has drilled over 135,000 meters in which polymetallic ore mineralization has been intersected from the surface to depths exceeding 700 meters.