machine iron pipes manufacturing plants

sms group gmbh: seamless tube plants

Wherever you look, seamless steel tubes are an integral part of modern life. Today, the oil and gas industry, the construction and mechanical engineering industries, and automotive manufacturers demand ever better tubes made of higher steel grades, with closer tolerances and new dimensions.

Since its invention by the Mannesmann brothers in 1885, SMS group has continuously developed and enhanced the seamless tube production process. This keeps us one step ahead of the demands of the tube and pipe market both now and going forward. Take our PQF (Premium Quality Finishing) process, for example: with the fourth generation of PQF plants, our experts have succeeded in achieving a significant increase in output.

Whether it's high-alloy steels or particularly thin-walled precision tubes - with our PQF (Premium Quality Finishing) technology, you can produce even the highest-grade products efficiently and reliably. You also use less material to generate better output than with conventional solutions. That ensures tool cost plus energy savings due to the low reheating required during the rolling process.

However, not only a service partner for your plants and machines, SMS group is also there for your staff. Furthermore, You can enroll on standardized and individual training programs designed for you by our SMS TECademy. That ensures you strengthen your competence as a plant owner.

Whether you require one-off equipment checks, continuous condition monitoring, remote service, or regular plant inspections: our service experts will take care of it all. You can even outsource your complete maintenance operations to us. This ensures excellent plant availability plus best production results.

When the spare parts you need are no longer available or the new generation is not 100% compatible, you risk plant standstills. That's why SMS group constantly monitors the availability of all parts and, where necessary, offers modern alternatives - even for parts from third-party suppliers. This ensures competitiveness and full productivity over the entire life cycle of your plant.

Even plants "built to last" need to be critically examined from time to time, because markets and production processes are continuously evolving. Together with you, our service experts will find the best revamp options for your requirements. Once again bang up to date, your plants will then be ready to bolster your strong position on the market.

Connect with us for direct news and updates on the go. Find out more about projects, products, and innovations at SMS group. Set your personal preferences and see only content based on your interests. Turn on push notifications and youll never need to miss out on the latest news in and around SMS group

hdpe pipe machine - leading manufacturer in india

Devikrupa Group is the most trusted manufacturer, supplier & exporter of Single Screw & Barrel, Twin Screw & Barrel, Bimetallic Screw & Barrel, Food Processing Screw & Barrel. In 2008, Devikrupa group expand and under the new venture Devikrupa Extrusion. We manufacture HDPE Pipe Machine, PVC Pipe Manufacturing Machine and PVC Profile Plant.

HDPE Pipe Machine are ultramodern extrusion machinery that made with latest technology machinery and followed by international standard. Our HDPE pipe plants are available in various models that separated as per capacity. The plasticized capacity of HDPE pipe plants ranges between 110 kg/hr to 550 kg/hr. Devikrupa group is calculated among leading HDPE pipe machine manufacturers and our HDPE pipe manufacturing machines are comes with higher production capacity with powerful performance.

Die Head ensure the accurate thickness of the HDPE pipe wall and it gives perfect pipe at higher output. Low-pressure diagonal channel with spiral mixing part ensures extrusion at low temperature and homogeneous plasticization.

Our make Traction machines are HDPE pipes to maintain their perfect roundness. The traction machines for HDPE pipe plant is made from high-grade steel. Which offers optimum performance, lower power consumption and easy to operate.

Over 17 years experience and knowledge of international industrial systems, dedicated to provide the best economical PVC Pipe Machine & Screw Barrel to our valued customers. We Won Many Factory Awards and Ceritificates Since 2001-2018.

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Sai Machine Tools PVT. LTD. Has grown to become the largest manufacturing of plastic processing machinery in central India with state of the art screw cutting thread milling less brander(USA) Equipment .The company commenced its operations at plot no. 23, Sector A...

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2021-6-21Shop on china-tubemill.com for high quality, durable and safe tube mill, pipe mill, pipe making machine, pipe welding machine, pipe production line for sale with TIANYUAN which is one of leading manufacturers. All equipments in our factory enjoy competitive prices.

High Speed DIN Stainless Steel Straight Seam Welding Pipe Making Machine. US 14,800-296,300 Set FOB. MOQ: 1 Set. Since 2019. Contact Supplier. Guangdong Shunde Seko Machinery Technology Co., Ltd. Manufacturer/Factory & Trading Company. Guangdong, China Since 2019. Chat

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About 22% of these are steel pipes, 19% are pipe making machinery, and 1% are duct making machine. A wide variety of pipe mill options are available to you, such as drain pipe, energy supply pipe. There are 60,123 pipe mill suppliers, mainly located in Asia. The top supplying country or region is China, which supply 100% of pipe mill respectively.

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XFX Tube Mill Machinery is professional in manufacturing high quality and easy maintainable erw steel pipe making machine tube mill line which has a large application fields. In the past over 30 years, we have exported our tube mills to many regions in the world and received good reputation. We are committed to technology innovation, satisfactory service, if you are interested in our erw steel ...

Foshan Jopar Machinery Co.,Ltd. is a design & manufacturer of a variety of steel pipe making machines and polishing machines. Our company is located Foshan city, we have the strong company strength and our products had export to many country such as India, Japan, Thailand, Vietnam, Indonesia, Malaysia, Russia, Poland, Myanmar, Colombia and so on.

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The decoiling machine is mainly used to decoil various metal coils, and work together with other machines to make a production line Name: Slitting line Brand: ztzg Original: China Slitting line is mainly used to slit kinds of wide steel strip into certain width, then recoil them to meet the request of various procedure for welded pipe and cold rolled section steel.

2021-3-5Production Description ERW50 Tube mill/pipe mill/welded pipe production/Pipe making machine is used to Produce steel pipes of 16mm~50mm in OD and 0.7mm~3.0mm in wall thickness, as well as corresponding square and rerctangular pipe.

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Shanghai Metal Corporation (SMC) is one of the largest china's manufacturer and supplier. From the acquisition of raw materials, packaging and exportation, SMC ensures only the best quality of products by assigning professional experts at every stage of production and continuous support.

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PPR Pipe Making Machine. PE, PP, PPR pipe extrusion equipment is consisted of extruder, vacuum calibrator, hauling machine, cutter and tipping rack, hauling machine unit has come ways of hauling, such as caterpillar type, three-claw type, four-claw type, six-claw type and so on. There are also knife-lifting cutter and planetary cutter.

2021-3-5Production Description ERW50 Tube mill/pipe mill/welded pipe production/Pipe making machine is used to Produce steel pipes of 16mm~50mm in OD and 0.7mm~3.0mm in wall thickness, as well as corresponding square and rerctangular pipe.

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Since its invention by the Mannesmann brothers in 1885, SMS group has continuously developed and enhanced the seamless tube production process. This keeps us one step ahead of the demands of the tube and pipe market both now and going forward. Take our PQF (Premium Quality Finishing) process, for example: with the fourth generation of PQF ...

Slitting line machine mainly composed of uncoiler,feeder,slitter and recoiler.its function is to slit a wide coil to stated width strips coil along with the length direction which can be used for milling,welding pipe,cold bend forming,stamping as billet.At same time,changing

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2021-3-5Production Description ERW50 Tube mill/pipe mill/welded pipe production/Pipe making machine is used to Produce steel pipes of 16mm~50mm in OD and 0.7mm~3.0mm in wall thickness, as well as corresponding square and rerctangular pipe.

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2 UNIK was founded in 2008, is specialized in the production of concrete block making machines (solid and hollow blocks, bricks, pavers, ceiling blocks, kerbstones etc), concrete pipe machine and ready mix plant etc. From mixing and batching to automatic cubing, Unik builds a complete line of equipment to outfit your entire concrete products plant.

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a guide to cast iron, ductile iron and steel manufacturing process | american cast iron products, inc

The process of recovering iron from iron ores starts with mining processes, stripping the earths outer layers that contain this metal. Iron ore then gets converted into various versions of what we call iron today.

Before this happens, however, it must be processed in a blast furnace, producing pig iron. Pig iron itself has few uses because of its brittleness. That said, when alloyed with other metals, it transforms from a useless substance into a sought-after and valuable commodity.

Molds include non-expendable molds (metal) and expendable molds (sand). Pouring methods range from gravity to vacuum or low-pressure. The more intricate the mold, the more controlled the pouring process must be.

What happens after casting? The iron must solidify correctly, or solidification could result in a ruined effort. When this occurs, the scrap metal gets recycled into pig iron for another attempt at casting.

Blast furnaces first appeared in the 14th century. Today, blast furnaces produce one ton of steel every day. Over the centuries, the equipment used for this steel production method has greatly evolved, leading to higher production rates.

Nevertheless, the processes that occur within the furnace have remained the same as the ingredients. Iron ore, coke, and limestone are all utilized to produce pig iron. As a result, coal remains a vital part of the coke-making process.

How does the process work? Coal gets crushed, ground into a powder, and then heated in an oven in the absence of oxygen at a temperature of 1800 degrees Fahrenheit. Heated to this extreme, the coal begins to melt, removing the most volatile materials within:

This purification process results in coke. The coke gets removed from the oven between 18 to 24 hours after reaction time. After being cooled and screened into one to four-inch pieces, its much stronger than average coal even though it still contains some sulfur and ash.

Electric arc furnaces (EAFs) came on the scene much later than their blast furnace counterparts towards the end of the 19th century. Electric arc furnaces quickly expanded to dominate the steel manufacturing industry.

Today, this process accounts for nearly two-thirds of all American steel production. Whats different between electric arc furnace steel production and blast furnace steel production? EAFs rely on an electrical current to direct reduced iron or to melt scrap steel.

Stainless steel is manufactured much in the same way as steel. But this iron-containing alloy proves extra resistant to rust and stains because of its chromium content. Usually, chromium comprises 12 to 20 percent of this alloy.

Each year, nearly 200,000 tons of nickel-containing stainless steel gets manufactured for the food processing industry. This metal also gets utilized in food storage, handling, cooking, and serving equipment. But the uses for this metal dont end with food manufacturing and services.

Austenitic stainless steels must contain a minimum of six percent nickel and austenite. Austenite is a carbon-containing iron with a face-centered cubic structure. It boasts good corrosion resistance and high ductility.

As for ferritic stainless steels, they contain ferrite, a body-centered cubic structure. As a result, they have better resistance to stress corrosion when compared to austenitic stainless steel. But they prove difficult to weld.

Martensitic stainless steels are comprised of a needle-like structure of iron. Finally, duplex stainless steels contain both ferrite and austenite in equal parts. Duplex stainless steels are more resistant to cracking from chloride stress corrosion.

Whats more, duplex stainless steels provide better overall resistance to crevice corrosion and pitting in most environments. Theyre also twice as strong as common austenitics. No wonder so many industries, from chemical refineries to seawater piping, rely on it.

In essence, ductile iron marks an essential step in the evolution of plumbing. This evolution can be traced through the manufacture of iron pipes in the UK. Over time, there have been three significant changes.

The term ductile refers to a metals ability to be stretched into wires or undergo deformation before failure. Used heavily in the world today, ductile pipes remain vital to water supply infrastructure.

In other words, these are the pipes that transport municipal drinking water. These are also the pipes that facilitate the removal of sewage from residential dwellings along with other household liquid waste.

Ductile iron consists of various materials manufactured to have many far-ranging properties. The addition of a small amount of cerium or magnesium to gray iron prior to casting results in a unique microstructure and set of mechanical properties.

Why do we use ductile iron for these infrastructures? Because its more flexible than ordinary gray iron, which means it can withstand the pressure these types of utility pipes must endure. In other words, these pipes will bend before they break or leak.

Besides the need to withstand the pressure associated with water flow, these pipes must also withstand corrosion since most are fitted underground. To ensure longevity, theyre manufactured with an adherence to the highest quality stands.

In the 1920s, the UK relied on pipes made from gray iron vertically cast. Around this time, gray cast iron that was spun also came into use, and the utilization of these pipes would continue through the 1960s. By the 1960s, another transition occurred to ductile cast iron.

Why has ductile cast iron come to dominate the industry? For many different reasons. Ductile iron demonstrates excellent mechanical properties under the influence of forces. Its also characterized by great resistance to high impacts and tensile stresses.

Ductile iron comes in a variety of sizes with different pressure capabilities. It can also withstand ground movement and is resistant to corrosion. As a result, it comes with assured long-term reliability based on a single-rated system.

The first machine we want to highlight in the ductile iron manufacturing process is the blast furnace. When you walk into a ductile iron manufacturing plant, you can recognize the blast furnaces by their tower-like appearance.

Blast furnaces are used in the steel making process, too, because theyre ideal for mixing iron ore and charcoals together. The furnace facilitates extreme heat, making it easy for both of the substances to transform into a melted and integrated liquid metal.

When heat gets generated in the furnace, it creates the ideal environment for iron to produce iron oxide. How does the furnace sustain such soaring temperatures? The blast of air the furnace emits intensifies the heat produced.

At the base of the furnace, youll typically find a drawer facilitating the collection of slag. Secure doors are mounted o the front of the furnace, too. These doors make the introduction of raw materials to the furnace by a trough or conveyor belt easier.

Of course, the ductile iron manufacturing processs whole point is the cast metal into usable parts and components. After solid materials get rendered molten in a blast furnace, the molten metal is poured into a mold cavity containing the desired shape.

Think of the annealing furnace as a heat-treatment process. These furnaces permit the change of internal structures of metals. For example, they remove the grain coarseness of pipes, making them both more flexible and harder at the same time.

Now pipes can be easily designed and given specs, saving plenty of time and money in the pursuit of meeting consumer needs. Because of these impressive and far-reaching technological breakthroughs, custom made fittings and pipes are possible.

These custom pieces can be designed and manufactured rapidly. What do the designing tools used in the manufacture of ductile iron include? Two primary versions predominate, Pipespec software and PAMCAD design software.

Engineers rely on Pipespc software to design and create specifications about various pipeline schemes. Five analytical tools in the software permit engineers to remain grounded in the planning and design of piping through all stages of the project.

PAMCAD design software facilitates the creation and modification of pipework designs by giving engineers a complete water pipeline product database. The software permits the creation of accurate drawings rapidly and easily by calling up pipeline components.

These components can then be arranged on the screen, allowing engineers to craft new schema without having to reinvent the wheel. Compatible with the latest version of AutoCAD, PAMCAD offers engineers the following benefits:

From here, the chewed up metal goes into the blast furnace along with coke. As these substances liquefy in the furnace, impurities get burned away. After refining, workers introduce magnesium to the low-sulfur base iron under closely-monitored conditions.

Once the free graphite has formed in a spheroidal or nodular form, the metal matrixs continuity is at a maximum. This ductile material exceeds gray iron both in terms of strength and toughness as ductile iron.

At this point, the molten iron is directed into a trough where the spinning or rotating mold of the centrifugal casting machine takes over. Through centripetal force, the iron spreads against the mold walls.

Once the pipe gets extracted, inspectors weigh it and measure its wall thickness. Once theyve ensured the pipe meets all specifications, the core is removed from the bell end. The core, comprised of sand and plastic resin, will disintegrate.

Freshly cast pipes register piping hot temperatures of 850 degrees Fahrenheit, but they cool rapidly after leaving the mold. This rapid cooling renders the iron brittle. For this reason, the pipes next go into a gas-filled annealing furnace.

While ductile iron proves somewhat resistant to corrosion, linings are available to ensure the longevity of these structures. These internal linings include polyurethane (PUR) and cement mortar. Cement mortar remains more common in ductile iron pipe manufacturing.

Cement is sprayed inside the pipe, creating a 1/8 inch thick lining. Then, the pipe gets spun for a few seconds to smooth out the cement and ensure thickness consistency. This process seals the surface. Then, the cement cures for 24 hours.

After the pipes internal surfaces have been treated, then the outside of the pipe gets painted with an external coating such as zinc, polyethylene, or a bituminous coating. After this, a robot paints a stripe around the straight end of each pipe.

The quality of the final product is vital to plumbing that stands the test of time. Thats why quality control gets factored into various steps in the manufacturing process. These quality control measures include:

What happens in the case of systematic errors when measuring the length and diameters of the pipes and when the pipes are detected by inspection? They get sent back for remanufacturing, increasing their costs.

These pipes are also created to meet two new European standards. These standards cover ductile iron pipes, accessories, fittings, and their joints for water pipelines. Sewage pipelines also fall under these standards, both of which superseded the British standard.

Now that you have a thorough understanding of how cast iron, steel, and ductile iron get manufactured, its time to explore some of ductile irons many uses. For example, ductile iron is cast to create trench drain systems.

These trench drain systems come in a variety of sizes and materials. How do you know which system is right for you? Lets take a closer look at some of the important decisions you must make when choosing a trench drain system and the factors you must consider.

The first factor we must consider when choosing a ductile iron trench drain system is the flow rate. After all, a drainage systems main objective is to remove liquids quickly. So, youll need to ask questions like how much a drain can remove and how rapidly.

Depending on the trench drain system you choose, complicated formulas will determine the flow rate. But for the purposes of this article, well focus on the easiest trench drain system to calculate flow rate, slot drains.

To calculate the flow rate for slot drains, its as simple as looking at the systems width. The slot opening determines the trench drain systems capacity. For example, a 1/2 inch slot opening permits 11 gallons per minute per foot of slot to escape.

Traditional drain systems must be assessed in terms of the grates material to ensure your load capacity needs get met. Otherwise, you could find your grate degrading over time under the weight of heavy loads.

The optimal trench drain system should integrate seamlessly into the floor. It should also stand up to heavy loads without breaking or wearing down. Make sure high-traffic environments are heavy load classes to ensure your system can stand daily pressures.

When you see the term chemical resistance, you might immediately assume it doesnt apply to your facility. Especially if your trench drain system will be primarily handling water. But this is a huge misnomer that could lead to short longevity for your trenches.

You must also take into account the temperature of the liquids that will be passing through your system. For example, if you own a food processing plant, brewery, or industrial plant, you may need to facilitate the removal of liquids at elevated temperatures.

For systems without grates, its easier to choose the right material. Again, stainless steel systems do well when it comes to extreme temperatures. They provide the flexibility you desire from a trench system.

Another vital consideration when choosing a trench drain system remains how easy it is to maintain. Maintenance refers to everything from how youll clean it to which parts will require replacement over time.

As youre considering various systems, inquire about special tools to make cleaning easier. For example, if you need to flush your drains regularly, there are tools to facilitate this. Some even allow you to choose between cleaning drains manually and setting a flushing timer.

You might also wish to consider designs such as slot drains, which eliminate the need for grates. Without grates, you have fewer replacement costs over the life of your system. Whats more, slot drains are built for durability and little ongoing maintenance.

Over time, drain systems can degrade. They can develop leaks and gaps. You dont want this to happen prematurely to your system. To avoid these issues, know up front that youll need to make a more substantial investment.

By refusing to go the cheapest route or cut corners, youll guarantee the installation of a system that stands the test of time. That means more money in your pocket over the long-term. Check out these FAQs about drainage systems.

That way, youll avoid the chance of liquids pooling on your property. Youll also prevent injuries associated with damage to drain systems such as gaps, leaks, damaged or broken grates, and open trenches.

Like trench drain systems, youll also want to consider a variety of factors before selecting a manhole frame and cover. Manufactured from cast iron, manhole covers come in different strengths and decorative options.

When it comes to shopping for manhole frames and covers, other considerations include anti-slip motifs. Anti-slip motifs come in square and diamond motifs, and they ensure that customers and employees dont slip on wet covers.

Youll also want to decide on whether you want a manhole cover with or without a hinge. If youre concerned about manhole covers getting stolen in your area, then opt for the hinge. However, if your facility is secure, theres no need for this additional feature.

As you can see, the process of creating trench drain systems and manhole frames and covers begins with cast iron manufacturing and ductile iron manufacturing. Over the decades, ductile iron manufacturing has revolutionized plumbing.

Its unique mixture of durability, flexibility, and longevity is an obvious choice for trench drain systems. On the other hand, cast iron manhole frames and covers can often handle the situation in other areas of your property.

That said, there are also situations where steel or stainless steel comes with added benefits. For example, stainless steel proves highly non-corrosive in situations where elevated fluid temperatures or the presence of chemicals exist.

Besides the materials from which your trench drain system is manufactured, youll want to bear in mind other vital features such as water flow, durability, general corrosion resistance, safety, load capacity, and ease of maintenance.

In areas that see a high traffic volume, you must choose a trench system manufactured from materials that can stand large load capacities on a daily basis. The same holds true for manhole frames and covers.

Now, youve got a more thorough understanding of what goes into the manufacture of cast iron, steel, stainless steel, and ductile iron. You also understand why ductile iron remains the optimal choice for plumbing and draining systems.

Nevertheless, applying this information to the construction and installation of the best drainage and plumbing systems for your facility is another thing. You need to rely on experts to help you with these complex systems.

If youre feeling overwhelmed by all of the factors that go into selecting the best trench drain system and manhole covers for your facility, its time to speak to the experts. Contact us for all of your drainage needs. We carry a variety of trench drain systems, grates, and more.

American Cast Iron Products is a market leader in grey iron and ductile iron castings for the sewer, water works and construction industries. Amercast offers the widest range of sizes and specifications.

grp - amiantit

Amiantit Fiberglass Industries Limited (AFIL) was established in 1977, and it is the largest Glass Reinforced Polyester (GRP) & Glass Reinforced Vinylester (GRV) Pipe manufacturing plant in the world. GRP/GRV Pipes are specially designed and manufactured for sanitary sewerage collection & drainage systems, storm water drainage, water transmission and distribution & sea water intake and outfall lines along with many other applications as well.

GRP and GRV pipes are manufactured in standard lengths of 6 m and 12 m (custom lengths of up to 18 meters) and can handle pressures from gravity up to 32 bars. In addition, GRP and GRV Pipes are available in the sizes ranging from DN 80 mm to DN 4000 mm.

materials used to manufacture pipes and their machinability

In an industrial setting, a material is never selected by chance. During the design phase, the characteristics of the materials must be carefully studied and determined in order to avoid subsequent complications when in use, and to avoiding incurring unnecessary costs.

In an industrial setting, a material is never selected by chance. During the design phase, the characteristics of the materials must be carefully studied and determined in order to avoid subsequent complications when in use, and to avoiding incurring unnecessary costs.

This is especially the case when choosing a material to be used in a pipe. This is because some pipes are subjected to considerable mechanical, thermal or chemical stresses, depending on the type of fluid they carry, with pressure and temperature paying a determining role.

The material used to manufacture the pipe has an influence on all the manufacturing operations, including machining. The machinability of the pipe depends directly on the material used to manufacture the pipe, and for each given material, specific precautions must be taken in order to ensure good-quality machining.

Machining is a common operation when preparing a piece for welding where, for example, the pipe end has to be machined at specific angles so that the weld can penetrate the entire thickness of the pipe material.

Standard steel pipes are the most commonly used types of pipes owing to their low cost and mechanical qualities which make them suitable for a wide range of applications. Steel pipes are resistant, long-lasting and deformable. This means that they can be used for applications with significant temperature or pressure variations. Standard steel pipes are also very commonly used in situations where impacts or vibrations can affect the pipeline (underneath roads, for example). In addition, steel pipes are fairly easy to manufacture, bend and cut.

Steel pipes are however very prone to corrosion if no preventive treatment is applied. Galvanization is a common corrosion-control treatment; this consists in applying a zinc coat to the steel pipe. This coat then oxidizes in the place of the steel which it protects, with the all-important difference however that the zinc oxidizes very slowly.

Low-alloy steel (i.e., with a low carbon level of between 0.008% and 2.14%) can be easily machined. When the carbon rate increases, the material properties (such as hardness or mechanical resistance) tend to improve significantly. However, machining steels with a high carbon level is more difficult.

P91 steel is an alloy steel with a high chromium (9%) and molybdenum (1%) content. Adding chromium increases the mechanical resistance at high temperatures as well as corrosion resistance, and adding molybdenum improves creep resistance. Small amounts of nickel and manganese are added to enhance the overall hardness of the material. P91 steel is very sensitive to changes in its microstructure that can occur during excessive heating. These microstructure variations tend to weaken the material. This is why cold machining is often preferred for cutting this material.

P91 was initially developed for the manufacturing of pipelines in conventional or nuclear thermal power plants, where the steam leaves the superheater of a boiler in a modern conventional/thermal plant at a temperature of between 570C to 600C for a pressure of between 170 bars to 230 bars. This means that the final stages of the superheater and the pipelines delivering the turbine steam must be able to withstand these extreme conditions. In such a case, the high mechanical resistance of P91, constant over time, makes it the right choice.

By using P91 in such circumstances, the engineers were able to reduce the thickness of the pipelines whilst simultaneously increasing the operating temperature, all of which enhances the overall thermodynamic efficacy of such plants.

The high mechanical resistance of P91 steel means however that machining is difficult. Thus, the tools should be changed regularly to ensure sharpness and the cutting speeds should be kept low. The pass depth can also be adjusted to increase the machining speed.

A Duplex stainless steel consists of stainless chromium steel with nickel added. The matrix contains both ferrite and austenite, hence the name Duplex. This alloy was designed to provide corrosion resistance and tensile strength. Duplex steel pipes are very commonly used in gas and petroleum offshore platforms where the pipelines are subjected to intense pressures and saline elements. Duplex steel tubes can also be found in industries with chlorinated products and acids, such as in the chemical or pharmaceutical industries. In recent years, more strongly alloyed Duplex steels have emerged under the name of Super-Duplex or Hyper-Duplex.

Duplex steel pipes are relatively difficult to machine due to their tensile strength and high yield strength. This can lead to very high cutting temperatures and to a plastic deformation of the pipe. In any case, the tooling and clamping must be sufficiently rigid and stable in order to machine a Duplex steel pipe.

Just like standard steels, stainless steels are comprised of iron and carbon, to which chromium has been added. Upon exceeding a certain proportion of chromium (10.5%), a chromium oxide layer is formed on the steel surface. This so-called passive layer is chemically inert, corrosion resistant and stable.

Their popularity stems from their corrosion resistance and chemical stability which make stainless steel piping suitable for fluids that must not be contaminated (pharmaceutical industry, food industry, etc.) and for corrosive fluids (the chemical industry, in particular).

The machinability of stainless steel is highly dependent on the proportion of alloying elements. Specifically, a high proportion of chromium, nickel or titanium makes machining more difficult, whereas adding carbon or sulfur facilitates machining.

The cutting tool must be sufficiently well assembled and the machine itself must be sufficiently rigid to support the forces caused by the cutting; as a rule of thumb, the forces deployed when cutting stainless steel can be more than 50% higher than with standard carbon steel.

Therefore, the alloy base is nickel which can be alloyed with chromium, iron, titanium or aluminum. These alloys have the same advantages as stainless steels, but to a greater extent. Specifically, their heat resistance is higher (about 900C) as is their corrosion resistance (corrosion in chlorine ion, pure water and caustic medium). They are also much more expensive than standard alloys, but this is justified for applications where operator safety is an essential criterion.

Pipes made from nickel-based superalloys are used in aeronautics (in combustion chambers, for example), the chemical industry (owing to their corrosion resistance), nuclear engineering, and, to a lesser extent, in the food industry.

Superalloys are considered very difficult to machine. This can be attributed to several factors. Firstly, one must bear in mind that 70% of the heat is returned directly to the cutting tool (as opposed to 15% for standard steel, for example). Therefore, it is essential to keep the cutting-edge cooled during the machining. The second complication is the hardness of the material; in fact, the lifetime of a cutting tool used to machine a superalloy can be reduced to just a few minutes if the tool does not have the necessary power, or if the cutting speeds and tools are not suitable.

Titanium is an extremely interesting metal for the industry. Titanium can be used to manufacture pipes which are light and yet highly resistant to corrosion and able to withstand very high temperatures (600C). Its mechanical properties (resistance, fatigue and deductibility) are also appreciated. Titanium is however expensive and this limits its use to specific applications. In general, one finds titanium in the aeronautics sector where its low density combined with its attractive mechanical properties make it an essential material.

Since the thermal conductivity of titanium is very low (about 10 times lower than steel), the heat dissipation during machining is relatively poor. Therefore, the cutting edge needs to be properly cooled to avoid machining defects.

Aluminum is very widely used in the industry. Aluminum pipes are inexpensive, easy to form and assemble. They are also light and corrosion-resistant, making them a natural choice in the aeronautics, transport and construction sectors. Aluminum pipes are also used to build compressed-air pipelines.

Aluminum pipes have a very low level of hardness, and are therefore relatively easy to machine. However, the malleability of aluminum can cause problems (shavings can lead to machine jamming, for example). In this case, the best response is to increase the cutting speed, the depth of the pass and the feeding speed. There is also a risk of aluminum pipes being deformed during machining if the machine tool, and in particular the clamping jaws, are not correctly chosen.

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But what really sets U.S. Pipe apart isnt just our pipe. Its all the other superior products we offer. From restrained joints to welded outlets and fittings, weve been providing dependable and economical solutions for our customers for over 100 years.

But what really sets U.S. Pipe apart isnt just our pipe. Its all the other superior products we offer. From restrained joints to welded outlets and fittings, weve been providing dependable and economical solutions for our customers for over 100 years.