magnetic separator included

magnetic separators | amsbio

Magnetic Separators are intended for magnetic separation of MagSi beads from liquid samples for isolation and purification of nucleic acids and proteins, immunoprecipitation, immunoassays (ELISA), cell sorting, and purification of biomolecules.

AMSBIO provides magnetic separators for both manual use and for use in automated processing, all of which are designed for optimal magnetic bead separation in terms of speed and bead pellet positioning, as well as stability and user-friendliness.

These separators are intended for manual processing in microtubules, microplates and PCR tube-strips. The separators are available as transparent acrylic versions for optimal visual inspection and in chemically resistant polyoxymethylene (POM) for routine use of organic solvents. For detailed information about the resistance towards commonly used solvents, please contact our technical support department.

These separators are intended for automated processing of MagSi magnetic beads and MagSiMUS biological sample preparation kits in 96, 384 or deepwell microplates. They include a SBS standard registration base for easy placement on liquid handling instruments, and are suitable for separation in PCR plates and many other microplates. MM-Separator 32 FlipTube is intended for use with MagSiMUSDX or other automated protocols using magnetic beads in FlipTubes.

magnetic separator - aic magnetics ltd

Magnets are combined in a fixed frame as a magnetic filter. When iron material get through the magnetic rod, the strong adsorption force makes the iron material solid adsorbed on the surface of magnetic rod, thereby the effect of the filter is removing impurities, and makes the equipment runs a longer time and makes things more cleaning.

magnetic separators | prab

Remove ferrous material, including sludge and chips, from both water soluble and neat oils with high intensity ferrite or rare earth magnets. This unit is used as a pre-filter to limit contaminants from reaching subsequent industrial filtration equipment. Typical applications include centerless and heavy stock removal grinding machines, honing, and gear cutting machinery.

PRABs line of magnetic separators employ high-intensity ferrite or rare earth magnets within a fully energized rotating drum to continuously remove ferrous particles from the flow of liquid. These systems are often used as a pre-filter to limit contaminants reaching subsequent filtration equipment.

Magnetic separators are well suited to processes where ferrous and non-ferrous contaminants are mixed with water-based coolants or straight cutting oils. They can also be used to enhance chip processing tasks and help you get the most out of your industrial filtration equipment.

Magnetic separators employ high-intensity ferrite or rare earth magnets within a fully energized rotating drum to continuously remove ferrous particles from the flow of liquid. These systems are often used as a pre-filter to limit contaminants reaching subsequent industrial filtration equipment. PRAB offers 4 models depending on your application needs including MCA, MCA-J, SS, and MSK.

Rare earth models are used when there are large amounts of ferrous fines (smaller than 40 micron), large amounts of sludge accumulation in a machines coolant tank, or when the coolant has a high viscosity rating such as straight oil.

Magnetic separators employ high-intensity ferrite or rare earth magnets within a fully energized rotating drum to continuously remove ferrous particles from the flow of liquid. This scrap metal equipment is often used as a pre-filter to limit contaminants reaching subsequent filtration equipment and are well suited to processes where ferrous and non-ferrous contaminants are mixed with water-based coolants or straight cutting oils. PRAB offers 4 models depending on your application needs.

Product Brochures Product Brochure: Magnetic Separator Product Family Product Brochure: Magnetic Separators MCA Product Brochure: Magnetic Separators Model MCJ-A Product Brochure: Magnetic Separators Model MSK Product Brochure: Magnetic Separators Model SS

Other Downloadable Content PRAB Fluid Filtration Solutions Product Selection Chart Brochure PRAB Fluid Filtration Systems and Wastewater Treatment Brochure PRAB Filtration Spectrum Brochure PRAB Builds Equipment for the Toughest Jobs in Manufacturing and Metalworking

PRAB completes comprehensive sample testing to establish an accurate understanding of the unique characteristics of your mixed solution and its industrial applications. This test determines the correct centrifuge system design and capacity to optimizes the filtration process within your facility.

What are my options for filtering and reusing cutting fluid? There are many options available for filtering your spent cutting fluids. The solution will vary depending on the various factors of your specific application. PRAB offers a full line of equipment to choose from. Please contact one of our fluid filtration specialists to discuss your specific operational needs. What []

Cutting fluids play a very important role in metalworking by providing lubrication to the working area which decreases the amount of heat generated while cuttingpreventing tools from exceeding critical temperature ranges. However, cutting fluid deteriorates over time as it becomes contaminated with tramp oils, metal fines, and bacteria. As it breaks down, it can damage machining tools, pumps, and []

Proven to Reduce Machine Downtime By Up to 50% Continuously Remove Ferrous Particles from the Flow of Liquid PRAB MCJ-A Magnetic Separators employ high-intensity ferrite magnets within a fully energized rotating drum to continuously remove ferrous particles from the flow of liquid. These systems are often used as a pre-filter to limit contaminants from reaching subsequent []

magnetic separation magnetense

Contact us to find out how Magnetense can help you solve system and productivity challenges. We offer complimentary video, telephone and chat conversations to help you clarify your needs so we can offer cost-efficient solutions.

Project ManagerMr. Giuseppe Zuccon 1. Our drum jacket was wearing too quickly and we also wanted a magnetic separated that would remove small ferrous parts during the production process.. 2. What product did you purchase? Ferrite magnetic drum. 3. What result did you get? We achieved the . removal distance related the test is 170mm which is good. We also noticed the quality of drum is excellent.. 4. Would you recommend us? Yes, we would recommend you.

Manager Head of Technical DepartmentMr. Valter Garbi 1. We had no specific problems; we just needed to reduce our maintenance and supply costs. 2. What product did you purchase? Magnetic rod for our chargers. 3. What result did you get? We conducted a comparative test on our previous and new magnetic separators and found the Magnatense product has far greater magnetic separation efficiency. 4. Would you recommend us? Yes, we would recommend you.

Purchase ManagerIng. Luca Ceccarelli 1. What product did you purchase? Neodymium rods. 2. What result did you get? We found the magnetic performance in our machine significantly improved once we installed your rods. We were able to develop 13,500 Gauss in contact with the pipe and 14,250 on the outside. 3. Would you recommend us? Yes, we would recommend you because your solution offers outstanding magnetic performance compared to other available systems.

Technical ManagerMr. Luca Durante 1. What product did you purchase? We purchased magnetic plates with the neodymium magnet which we installed on a batch feeder for our hammer mill. 2. What was the problem? We needed to remove metal parts that could go into the mill. 3. What result did you get? We successfully removed all unwanted metallic parts. 4. Would you recommend us? Yes, we would recommend you as suppliers of magnetic systems.

Engineering DepartureMr. Vito Lomorno 1. What was the problem? We were using a system where we couldn't separate the iron from unwanted parts. 2. What product did you purchase? Magnetic pulleys and neodymium rings. 3. What result did you get? We achieved a substantial increment in magnetic separation and an improved customer satisfaction rate from our own customers. 4. Would you recommend us? Yes, we would recommend you for your technical expertise and customer service.

Technical ManagerMr. Giovanni Bianchi 1. What was the problem? We could not prevent ferrous parts from accidentally entering the hammer mill. 2. What product did you purchase? Ferritic magnetic plate. 3. What result did you get? The magnetic plate we purchased has prevented all ferrous objects from entering the upper part of the mill. 4. Would you recommend us? Yes, without any doubt we would recommend you and your product.

Chief ExecutiveSig. Giordano Luca 1. What was the problem? Intercepting iron particles flowing in a pipe used to pneumatically load flour from cisterns to silos. 2. What product did you purchase? Pressurised magnetic piping. 3. What result did you get? The pneumatically loaded flour is free from ferrous particles and it is now safe to move to the next process steps. The machinery is protected from ferrous contaminants. 4. Would you recommend us? Yes, we would definitely recommend you.

Purchase ManagerSig. Paolo Massano 1. What was the problem? Our existing magnetic system did not remove iron from the mill feeders at a satisfactory rate. 2. What product did you purchase? We purchased the Neodymium or ferrite sticks with a 32mm diameter and a 200mm length. 3. What result did you get? We achieved a significant improvement in the removal rate when compared with the previous system. 4. Would you recommend us? Yes, I would recommend you.

Purchase ManagerSig.ra Stefania Manelli 1. What was the problem?Compartment in enamel filters. 2. What product did you purchase?We purchased a magnetic bar with a 32 diameter and 70 mm length. 3. What result did you get?We obtained good results.. 4. Would you recommend us?Yes, I would recommend you.

Established in Italy in 2000 to meet the growing demand for reliable and robust magnetic systems, Magnetense today is a world leader in the efficient design, build and distribution of state-of-the-art magnets, magnetic systems and consultancy services.

Products provided by Magnetence include ferrite/neodymium magnets; manufacturing; and production of magnetic separators such as drums, rolls, plates, overbands, pipings, filters, rods, bars and textile rods.

The WHIMS separator is a magnetic separation machine used in wet separation processes to treat fine grain materials which are smaller than 1.2mm or 200 mesh. These fine grain materials include red mine hematite, limonite, manganese ore, and ilmenite. The WHIMS is also used to treat magnetic minerals including quartz, feldspar, nepheline ore, and kaolin. This system removes iron contaminants to concentrate the treated minerals.

The Balance 2 Drum Magnet features a maximum 10,000 Gauss magnetic power: among the most powerful available on the marketThis drum achieves an excellent wear resistance which is due to Magnetenses unique BL2 balancing system. The BL2 is designed to be easily assembled and tested.

The RO and FLY magnetic rods are newly reinvented rods that have been specifically designed and built by the team at Magnetense. The RO models have a magnetic power of between 6,500 and 12,000 Gauss and the FLY model achieves a maximum power of 14,000 Gauss. The RO and FLY rods are made from high grade neodymium with single section mechanical structures and no moving parts. All rods have exceptional wear resistance which is more than double industry standard and which contributes to long-lasting efficiency.

The Overband Shark and Ova magnetic belts have been uniquely designed to include a combination of ferrite and neodymium magnets. Older generation conveyor belts were generally only fitted with ferrite magnets. This new belt design enables producers to reach more than 5507 Gauss along with a 10 per cent lighter structure when compared to other industry-standard overbelts.

The HMF electromagnetic filters are used in wet process separation of para-magnetic minerals found in quartz, feldspar,silicates, calcium carbonate and kaolin. The flow-rates are engineered in accordance with customer requirements.

The MAG Dry Magnetic Separators include the 1.10/15 and the MAG 3.10/15. Both machines have been designed and manufactured to de-iron a range of sand materials. This includes paramagnetic minerals such as hematite, biotite, ilmenite which are easily captured by Tiger Pulleys powerful magnets. The MAG 1.10/15 and the MAG 3.10/15 magnetic separators are specifically calibrated to remove fine iron particle sizes ranging from 0.1 to 1.8 mm.

The Gravity Feed, Pneumatic Pipe and Electric Pipe magnets comprise a specialist mechanical structure that guarantees higher than industry standard wear resistance. The structure is made from high grade neodymium which allows users to achieve 20% per cent more power than our older generation pipe magnets.

The Tiger Magnetic Pulleys have a diameter of 300mm and a working height of 1500 mm which gives these pulleys a much higher capacity than lower height and diameter machines. These features are combined with an exceptional magnetic power of 12,310+ Gauss that is in contact with the surface and which allows the magnetic rollers to practically catch any magnetic particle or paramagnetic mineral.

The ROL Magnetic Pulley is manufactured with double cross poles which helps the system to reach much higher magnetic power than standard industry separators. The ROL is fixed with Magnetenses Track fixing system which guarantees close to unlimited efficiency and resistance.

The PLV1 Magnetic Plates add an entire new dimension to plate design and use. The aesthetically pleasing PLV1 has exceptional wear resistance and separation efficiency of between 15 and 20 per cent more than our older generation systems. The PLV1 is also equipped with magnetic shielding to help mitigate workplace accidents.

The PLV2 Magnetic Plates add an entire new dimension to plate design and use. The aesthetically pleasing PLV2 has exceptional wear resistance and separation efficiency of between 15 and 20 per cent more than our older generation systems. The PLV2 is also equipped with magnetic shielding to help mitigate workplace accidents.

Our new Batex Magnetic Textile Bars achieve 25 per cent more magnetic field power than our older separation systems. This result was achieved following constant tests aimed at improving the performance of the magnetic system. The New Batex bar also achieves a better separation of iron, even with the same magnetic field.

Established in Italy in 2000 to meet the growing demand for reliable and robust magnetic systems, Magnetense today is a world leader in the efficient design, build and distribution of state-of-the-art magnets, magnetic systems and consultancy services.

Products provided by Magnetence include ferrite/neodymium magnets; manufacturing; and production of magnetic separators such as drums, rolls, plates, overbands, pipings, filters, rods, bars and textile rods.

Magnetense team of engineers are responsible for the entire process including research, design, manufacturinge and global distribution of all products and services. By controlling the entire process operating costs are reduced to the minimum so products are sold to end users competitive price.

Unfortunately there are many magnetic systems manufacturers that promise unreal results eventually not achievable: by conducting a magnetic field measurement created by their systems their claims can be debunked.

In some cases magnetic system manufacturers chose to demonstrate their magnetic performances based on calculations in a closed circuit or through the incorrect use of an instrument; by testing their system any false claim can be debunked.

Magnetic performances based on calculations in a closed circuit or through the incorrect use of an instrument Are often claimed by magnetic system manufactured, but, physics is not made of fairy tales their claims can be easily exposed.

Contact us to find out how Magnetense can help you overcoming system and productivity challenges. We offer complimentary video, telephone and chat conversations to help you clarifying your needs in order to present you with the most cost-efficient solutions.

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magnetic separator, magnet

This type of magnetic separator automatically removes tramp irons that are buried in fast-moving thick material layer on conveyor belt. This unit helps to protect the crusher from being damaged by tramp irons, and their strength provides high efficiency product purification. It can be installed either cross belt or over the head of belt conveyor.

Magnetic Bar or Tube Magnet,This kind ofmagnetic separator will help to remove the ferrous contaminants from many kinds of materials. This kind of magnetis suitable to be used in many field of industries include pharmaceutical, food, laboratory, etc. There are many different magnetic strength available such as 10,000 gauss, 11,000 gauss, and 12,000 gauss

Used for removing fine iron particles or tramp iron from materials such as chemical, plastic, sugar, rice, spice, etc. Different styles and dimensions can be custom made depending upon customers application. It is designed to have maximum separation efficiency.

This Magnetic Head Rollerunit will extract tramp irons from the material conveyed on the belt or in the duct, and carry these irons to underneath of roller where they are removed and collected separately. Widely used in mining, feedstuff, and cement industry. Any required style and dimension can be custom made.

Used for removing tramp irons from granular or pulverized materials such as feedstuff, crushed ore, pulp chips, etc. This unit is automatic cleaning system. Material is fed through the top and pass through this machine, the material without iron contamination will come out at the bottom outlet and the tramp irons will be discharged at another outlet.

Suitable for heavy flow of materials such as mining, feedstuff, paper industry, etc. It is designed to pull out tramp irons from either 3 directions or 4 directions magnetic doors. Thus pipeline will not be clogged.

This plate magnet helps removingferrous particles from raw material such as grain, foodstuff, plastic, mineralsand glass. Easy installation. It can be installed in the hopper, duct or chute. As raw material passing the magnetic plate, the tramp irons will be caught by the plate magnet. The raw material that pass the magnet will be clean without iron rust or contaminated tramp irons.

This manual-cleaning lifting magnet is designed to provide efficient separation of tramp irons from materials conveyed on the conveyor. These units help to protect the crusher from being damaged by tramp irons. Compact Structure and easy maintenance. It can be installed either cross belt or over the head of belt conveyor.

Suitable for industries that require a very high capacity removal of ferrous particles from materials such as grain, crush ore, foodstuff, feedstuff, etc. Available in both manual and automatic cleaning system.

This type of magnetic separator automatically removes tramp irons that are buried in fast-moving thick material layer on conveyor belt. This unit helps to protect the crusher from being damaged by tramp irons, and their strength provides high efficiency product purification. It can be installed either cross belt or over the head of belt conveyor.

the history of the development of the magnetic separators - minerallurgy

The application of magnetic separation techniques have been largely developed and applied for specific purposes for example, in mineral beneficiation and recovery as a means of eradicating pollution and in recycling applications (Dahe, 2004).

Since it is difficult and costly to treat ultra-fines and slimes by conventional methods such as gravity and flotation processes, it was necessary to continue to investigate the feasibility of new magnetic separation techniques (Arol and Aydogan, 2004). This is especially so for complex mineral compositions as the iron impurities are often locked within non-metallic ores and minerals, such as kaolin, feldspar and quartz which reduce the commercial values of these ores.

Magnetic separation is also favoured due to its simple design and operation, renewability and its low cost (Newns and Pascoe, 2002; Jiao et ai., 2007; Chen et ai., 2012). It is thus to review its development history.

Numerous magnetic separation techniques have been developed over the years to meet the requirements of the mineral processing industry, with the available equipment having its own benefits and limitations.

The selection of a separator is based on the susceptibility difference of particles within a material, the magnitude of the magnetic field generated within the separator, the desired product quality, material throughput and design configuration of the equipment for beneficiating different ores.

The fact that materials experience different forces in the presence of magnetic field gradients, is responsible for the physical separation of the components and mixtures under an applied external field (Svoboda and Fujita, 2003; Joseph et al., 2010). For example, iron being a paramagnetic material will be separated from its associated diamagnetic gangues phases (Chakravorty, 1989; Dahe, 1998; Zheng and Dahe, 2003; Dahe, 2004; Dobbins et al., 2009; Angadi et al., 2012).

Magnetic separators are grouped into either low intensity or high intensity, and can be either dry or wet operational types (Svoboda, 1987; Dobbins et al., 2007 and Joseph et al., 2010, Chakravorty, 1989).

In general, the view within industry is to reduce operational costs thus the wet process is more favourable in the early stages of the flow-sheet as a means for reducing both the drying and storage costs (Svoboda 1987; Chakravorty, 1989; Dahe, 1998; Zheng and Dahe, 2003; Svoboda 2003; Dahe, 2004; Dobbins et ai., 2007; Dobbins and Sherrell, 2009, Angadi et al., 2012).

The dry magnetic separators are used for beneficiating coarse and highly susceptible mineral particles. They are also used for removing tramp iron and magnetic impurities, concentrating highly susceptible magnetic values and in a cleaning stage for a variety of minerals (Svoboda, 1987; Svoboda and Fujita, 2003; Dobbins et al., 2009; Chen et ai., 2012; Angadi et al., 2012).

The different types of dry separators include the high intensity roller and drum type magnetic separators. The roIler type separators are of magnitude between 5% and 10% higher in magnetic field, they offer better separation efficiencies at low costs per ton compared to their drum type counterpart (Arvidson and Henderson, 1996). The commercial drum separators can treat up to 8 mm size fraction at feed rates of over 150 tlhr (Chakravorty, 1989).

The main operational limitation experienced by the dry magnetic separators is that the feeds are commonly wet ground and have to be completely dry prior to processing which means additional operational cost. In this case, separation efficiency at fine sizes to reduced and requires high magnetic field intensity and monolayer feeding for effective separation.

The magnets as the source of the magnetic field are best operated at ambient temperatures due to their sensitivity to high temperatures (Arvidson and Henderson, 1996). At elevated temperatures of 120C to 150 C, which is normally experienced the dry approach, the magnets tend to lose their magnetism and a cooling system may be required in order to prevent overheating and to maintain an efficient separation. This is also an added operational cost (Arvidson and Henderson, 1996; Dobbins et al., 2009).

The generation of dust during dry processing is also a major setback meaning that some efforts for dust pollution control will be required. Finally there is the need for sufficiently high magnetic field to achieve separation (Dobbins et al., 2009).

Cross-belt magnetic separators are used in the beneficiation of moderate magnetically susceptible ores, and they consist of two or more poles of electromagnets as the source of the magnetic field. A continuous cross-belt allows for the magnetic particles to be attached and collected in a separate container. While the conveyor pulls towards its end pulley, the non-magnetic particles are discharged and also collected in a separate container.

For efficient separation, the feed needs to be sized into narrow size ranges and the height of the poles should be adjusted to 2.5 times the coarsest size particles ranging between 75 !lm and 4 mm. The main benefit of this unit is that a single pass of the feed through the separator is sufficient to recover almost all the magnetic particles compared to other dry separators which require several passes (Chakravorty, 1989).

Permanent Roll Magnet (Permroll) uses a Samarium-Cobalt (Sm-Co) and Neodymium-Iron-Boron (Nb-Fe-B) permanent magnet as the source for generating a magnetic field of up to 1.6 Telsa (T), which facilitates separation of economic values from gangue minerals.

The benefit of this equipment is their capability to treat large particle sizes of material up to 25 mm. Energy consumption the by Permroll is low at 10% of the electrical energy required by Induced Roll Magnets (Svoboda 1987; Svoboda and Fujita, 2003).

The limitation of these separators is their low throughputs capacity, the high cost of replacing worn magnets and belts, along with the speed of the belt determining the separation efficiency of the system. The use of a belt affects separation by reducing the magnetic field, magnetic intensity and electrostatic interactions generated by the fine particles attached to the belt (Svoboda, 1987).

Rare Earth Roller (RER) separators are low capacity units when compared to Rare Earth Drum (RED) separators. However they are high in capacity when compared to Induced Roll Magnetic (IRM) separators. They are mostly used in the beneficiation of mineral sands, in multi process stages, for example in the final cleaning and scavenging stages to improve the quality of the product and increase recovery (Dobbins et al., 2007).

They use thin and open designed belts with the aim of minimising the interference with the magnetic force. The open design has limitations in that, fine particles are easily blown off and build up on the belt, thus reducing the belt life and increasing the maintenance cost. In another instant, as the material travels along the belt, there is a possibility of the particles rubbing against each other, causing the particles to be magnetised and attached to the belt.

Separation efficiency can be compromised and can only increase by ensuring that the feed is in a monolayer to prevent compaction which can lead to non-magnetic particles being trapped within the feed bed and fine particle reporting to the bottom of the feed bed (Dobbins and Sherrel, 2009).

Its limitation is that it is generally of low capacity due to the narrow allowable gap size situated between the feed pole and the roll, and also limited to a particle size range of 100 11m to 2 mm (Chakravorty, 1989). Treating particles sizes >2 mm on the IRM will require a much bigger gap size thus reducing magnetic field strength.

The feed material is fed at the top of the equipment in a controlled thin layer by means of a vibrating feeder. The gap between the feed pole and the roll together with the splitter are adjustable and are of great importance for an efficient separation.

In order to achieve good and effective results, the material to be treated must be dry, free-flowing and within the size range of 100 11m to 2 mm. The gap size should be adjusted to approximately 2.5 times the average particle size as with the cross-belt separators (Chakravorty, 1989). With the many operational limitations of the IRM, it is increasingly replaced by rare earth rollers (RER).

A cross-belt magnetic separator was used by AI-Wakeel and EI-Rahman, 2006 in beneficiating iron ore from Egypt. The ore treated was at +53 /Jm size fraction and a reported head grade of 34.30% Fe. An upgrade to 49.85% Fe and a low Fe recovery were obtained. The author reported that a finer grind is required to liberate the locked iron ore mineral in order to meet the commercial grade product specification.

The application of a Permroll separator was used by Alp, 2008 in beneficiating colemanite tailings at +75 /Jm size fraction and a head grade of 31.52% B203 An upgrade to 43.74% B203, and recovery of95.06% with a mass reduction of 31.47% was obtained using only magnetic separation. This was compared to a previous investigation conducted on the same tailings by Ozdag and Bozkurt (1987) where a better B203 recovery of 97.7% was achieved but at a lower grade using a multi stage process consisting of attrition scrubbing/washing.

Dobbins et al. (2007) used an Outotec RED magnetic separator to recover mineral sands and to validate previous results obtained of 70% ilmenite from aeolian tailings. The results showed that a good quality product at 66% ilmenite was produced at the acceptable commercial specification.

In order to improve both grade and recovery of the low magnetic susceptible material, Bhatti et al. (2009) conducted investigations on a low grade chromium ore from Balochistan in Pakistan with a head grade of 28% Cr203. The investigations were carried out under different test parameters including the magnetic field intensity, particle size and feed rate. The results showed that a magnetic field intensity of 4000 Gauss was the optimum and any increase above this point resulted in a reduced product grade. It was noted that, as the particle size was reduced and the feeding rate increased the efficiency of separation was reduced. However, a product grade of 40% Cr203 and 90% Cr203 recovery was obtained.

The industrial use of dry high intensity magnetic separators such as the cross belt, Permroll, RER, RED and fluidised bed are sharply declining due to the difficulties experienced in their operations (Svoboda, 1987; Svoboda and Fujita, 2003; Dobbins et al., 2007 Dobbins et aI., 2009; Chakravorty, 1989). Fine materials are difficult to beneficiate as the result of mechanical entrapment of non-magnetic particles, thus causing inefficient separation, high maintenance and replacement costs (Svoboda, 1987; Chen et al., 2012).

Researchers have noted that better liberation of coal through grinding will improve the efficiency of separation. The difference in the coal magnetic properties has led to various research programmes being conducted in order to increase the magnetic susceptibility mainly for those rich in pyrite prior to magnetic separation.

Microwave energy has been used in treating coal to facilitate the change of FeS2 into a more magnetically susceptible FeS (Zavitsanos et al., 1978; Zavitsanos et al., 1982; Butcher and Rowson 1995; Cicek et ai., 1996). The authors used flash pyrolysis prior to the magnetic separation. The results showed that pyrite was converted into iron sulphides based on the temperature of the pyrolysis test. In addition, the result showed that after beneficiation of the -100 !lm particle size, a reduction of 35% sulphur content was obtained by flash pyrolysis and magnetic separation.

A study on sulphur and ash removal from low-rank lignite coal by low temperature carbonization and dry magnetic separation was investigated by Celik and Yildirim (2000). The result was successful but there was a serious concern regarding air pollution by sulphur during the low-temperature carbonization. There appears to be an improvement in the magnetic susceptibility potential of coal for High Gradient Magnetic Separator (HGMS) beneficiation technique, at least for pyrite removal, but it was found that much work still has to be done to improve this process and to evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of the whole process for coal cleaning.

Wet magnetic separators were introduced as a result of the many limitations faced by dry magnetic separators. The inability of the dry separators to beneficiate high magnetic susceptible minerals such as magnetite more efficiently, at high throughput rates for a very fine size particle, and to separate minerals under high magnetic field intensity, was responsible for the design of the currently available wet high intensity magnetic separators. These separators have shown capabilities of treating various ore types and fine fractions less than 1 mm, for either strong or weakly magnetic minerals.

The benefits of wet separators are that they are robust with high capacity, ease of operation and in addition, they also use an electromagnet as a source for generating the magnetic field or matrixes such as groove plates or filaments for generating disturbance within the magnetic field commonly referred to as high intensity (Corrans et al., 1979; Svoboda, 1987; Chakravorty, 1989; Hearn and Dobbins, 2007).

All WHIMS units operate under the same principles but, they differ in the magnitude of the magnetic field, the type of matrix and in some instances the arrangement of the rotating rotor (Chakravorty, 1989).

The application of a matrix as the point for collecting magnetic particles in WHIMS made a huge impact and improved the magnetic separation process of materials that were previously considered too fine or to have too low magnetic susceptibility. These traditional types of separators came about as a result of Joness idea for a magnetised matrix in the form of steel wool and Frantzs idea of a high magnetic field with the aim of increasing the localised magnetic force (Svoboda and Fujita, 2003).

The simple design is composed of a horizontal rotor with the matrix packed in a chamber and placed between the poles of electromagnets to generate the localised magnetic field gradient. The feed in slurry form is fed onto the matrix, the magnetic particles are collected and attach onto the matrix and the non-magnetic particles pass through the matrix and into a separate container. When the current is switched off, the magnetic particles are released from the matrix and flushed with water to ensure that all particles are collected into a separate container. Based on this idea, many advanced designs came into being (Chakravorty, 1989).

Although traditional WHIMS is relatively easy to operate, for effective separation it is important to use a suitable matrix for the feed under investigation, and an appropriate feed rate, particle size, magnetic field intensity, and location of the feed and wash water.

The matrixes in high intensity separators generate a strong localised magnetic field as high as 104 %, with the selection of the matrix based on the characteristics of the slurry being treated. There are many types of matrixes available; steel wool, groove plates or steel balls or rods to capture the weakly magnetic particles (Svoboda, 1981; Zeng and Dahe, 2003). They serve as the collecting points for magnetically susceptible material and also as a region where the highest magnetic field is experienced, while the gaps facilitate a passage for the removal of the non-magnetic particles (Hearn and Dobbins, 2007). It is also observed that effective separations are achieved at particle sizes> 1 00 ~m (Corrans et ai., 1979 Dobbins and Hearn, 2007).

The many limitations of the traditional WHIMS have resulted in low separation efficiency of very fine size fractions as a result of entrainment, clogging of the matrix and low throughputs, compared to the latest technology of high intensity magnetic separators (Dobbins and Hearn, 2007; Das et ai., 2010). Poor selectivity during separation and the clogging of the matrix has resulted in diminished industrial use.

These limitations drove the development of a vertical magnetic separator (VMS) which was designed in the Czech Republic and later became the foundation for developing the SLon VPHGMS (Zeng and Dahe, 2003; Hearn and Dobbins, 2007).

The improvements on the VMS included a vertical rotor instead of the horizontal one, reverse water flush to keep the matrix clean and a bottom feeder with a mechanism for controlling the velocity of the slurry. This design configuration made it possible to treat finer particles which were considered untreatable or too fine for processing under gravity techniques (Dobbins, 2007).

China made further improvements on the VMS to achieve better separation efficiencies by introducing the SLon VPHGMS. It has a similar design to the VMS but it has an additional feature, a pulsating mechanism that agitates the slurry and keeps particles in suspension to assist in improving the product quality and recovery (Dahe et af., 1998; Zeng and Dahe, 2003; Dahe, 2004).

Another set of separators are the superconducting magnetic separators. These are considered to be of highly advanced technologies which are able to generate high magnetic field strengths of up to 2T. With the initiatives put forward by both Jones and Frantz, many high intensity magnetic separators have been designed and commercialised (Svoboda, 1987, 2003).

Extensive work has been conducted using different wet high intensity magnetic separators. The early successful application of the WHIMS separator was on kaolin purification, iron-ore and beach sand beneficiation (Svoboda and Fujita, 2003). Investigations were conducted for the removal of gangue phases from a low grade iron ore using WHIMS by many researchers. For example, Angadi et af. (2012); Arol, (2004); Jamieson et af. (2006); Dobbins et af. (2007); Das et af. (2010) and Padmanabhan and Sreenivas, (2011) concentrated different ores from their gangue minerals and attained grades suitable for commercial applications. Iron ore with suitable grades for blast furnace application was also recovered from a low grade ore by AI-Wakeel and EI-Rahman, (2006).

The inferior separation efficiency experienced by the high intensity magnetic separator when processing fines was investigated by Chen et af. (2011). These investigations were in contrast to those reported on the influence of key variables such as magnetic field intensity, matrix type and shape and slurry velocity on the performance of the high intensity magnetic separator (Li and Watson, 1995; Newns and Pascoe, 2002). The results showed a higher recovery for finer magnetic particles due to the smaller magnetic leakage factor, higher magnetic induction and no direct contact of feed flow on the magnetic deposits on the vertical magnetic matrix elements of the newly designed separator.

With continuing research on improving the separation efficiencies of the existing high intensity separators, a new separator called the superconducting magnetic separator was used by Li et al. (2011) to beneficiate extremely fine red mud particles at <100 /-lm. The results showed that the ability to separate fine weakly magnetic minerals, and the capability to generate a very high magnitude of magnetic field makes this separator a potentially superior separator to other units.

Investigations into the optimisation of a high intensity magnetic separator to beneficiate scandium (Sc) by removing the Fe contaminant were conducted by Likun and Yun, (2010). The head grade for the material treated was reported to be 48.90 glt Sc, 11.45% Fe. Mineralogical analysis showed that scandium was the major mineral and biotite, tremolite, ilmenite, and tantalite were the dominant gangue mineral phases present.

Ilmenite was separated from the other gangue minerals by using its high specific gravity, and it was removed by a gravity technique. A -37 /-lm sized fraction feed was used and the results showed that a magnetic product containing 62.34% Fe and Sc grade of8.l4 glt with a loss of 0.97% Sc was achievable, and a non-magnetic Sc product with an upgrade to 51.40% Sc was also attained.

Pilot scale investigations were carried out on the same size fraction using the same material and flow-sheet, along with the same low magnetic separator followed by high intensity magnetic separators. The results showed that 315 glt Sc at 78% recovery was achievable and that other rare earth elements which have low magnetic susceptibility could also be concentrated through high intensity magnetic separation.

Fine and super fine bauxite was treated by magnetic separation with the potential to evaluate the occurrence of iron bearing minerals and to verify the possibilities of minimising the iron content of the bauxite by Kahn et al. (2003). The results showed that for bauxite fine and superfine products, Fe203 grades of 8% Fe203 and 6% Fe203, with 53 to 55% of total Ah03 were obtained from fine and superfine bauxite feed, with 19.50% Fe203 and 18.40% Fe203 grades, respectively. The author concluded that without further comminution, potential aluminum recoveries of about 90% by gravity concentration or magnetic separation could be attained.

The separation of gangue from a low grade iron ore using traditional WHIMS (Gaustec G-340) with a capacity of 200 tlhr was conducted by Angadi et af. (2012) to enhance the quality of the low grade ore. A low grade iron ore from Kolkata, India was used with a head grade of 49.27% Fe. The mineralogical report showed that the iron mineral was mainly present in the hematite and goethite phases with quartz and kaolinite as the major gangue mineral phases within the ore. The results showed that an upgrade of up to 62% Fe in the concentrate stream was achievable using WHIMS.

An iron and titanium material containing vanadium as gangue was treated in a SLon VPHGMS (Dobbins et af., 2007). The objective was to remove 17% to 20% gangue in order to improve the product quality of the fine magnetite and titanium. The results reported an upgrade to 47.50% Ti02 and doubling the recovery at the same time. By discarding the majority of the mass by magnetic separation, the SLon VPHGMS technology also showed that it could be used as a waste rejecting stage prior to the flotation process.

Zheng et af. (2003) used the SLon VPHGMS separator in a test in a Qidashan mineral processing plant in China. The aim of the investigation was to meet metallurgical specifications of 66% Fe and reduce the high energy used in the plant. Previous tests with the WHIMS 2000 in the same plant showed that it was only capable of beneficiating up to a grade of 63% Fe, 3% short of meeting the required specifications. The material was then treated by a SLon-1500 and the results showed magnetic products with much higher Fe grades and recoveries, with low Fe losses to the tailings streams. The improved quality product was a result of the pulsating mechanism provided by the SLon VPHGMS, preventing the matrix from clogging. By keeping the matrix clean the particles have more attaching space which increases the recovery.

Mohanty et af. (20I0) conducted a set of experiments on slimes from mines around the Barbil area, eastern India. One set of the experiments comprised of desliming prior to magnetic separation and another test was a direct magnetic separation using traditional WHIMS. The feed used was -150 ~m at a head grade of 58.64% Fe, and was analysed through polished sections at size range of -150+ 1 00 ~m. The result showed that the major phases are hematite with a substantial quantity of goethite. The slimes were then subjected to magnetic separation using Jones WHIMS at various intensities.

The investigation showed that by increasing the magnetic field intensity of the WHIMS, low magnetic susceptible iron minerals were attracted thus reducing the product grade. However, the authors concluded that beneficiation by WHIMS was capable of beneficiating Fe to >61% Fe grade with a high mass yield of -80%. Another investigation was conducted by Srivastava and Kawatra (2009) on a low grade hematite ore from Minnesota in a USA stockpile. Mineralogical investigations on the ore showed that hematite (Fe203), silica (Si02), and manganite (MnO.OH) were present as major phases. The magnetic separation results reported a beneficiation of the feed from 27.30% Fe to 45.24% Fe with a 42.06% Fe recovery for the -25 ~m size fraction. However major Fe losses to the tailings stream were reported, indicating that WHIMS was not entirely efficient in beneficiating this particular ore at this fine size.

magnetic head pulleys as a traversing sorter steinert

STEINERT rotary magnetic belt separators can be included as independent sorting units during system planning or they can be integrated as machine components into an existing conveyor belt in the form of a magnetic head pulley. This type of magnetic separator is also known as a rotary magnetic belt separator and is always used in traversing operation for a high extraction of ferromagnetic materials. It is also possible to use stronger magnetic forces with this sorting machine to separate weakly magnetic materials like stainless steels.

The separation principle relies mainly on magnetic forces. These attract ferromagnetic materials to the pulley surface, whereas non-magnetic materials are routed to the discharge parabola depending on the conveyor belt's transport speed. Once the materials attracted to the underside of the head pulley by the magnetic field reach the end of the magnetic force field, they obey the laws of gravity again and fall into a discharge chute partitioned via a separating splitter.

Our high-performance rotary magnetic belt separators are often used to generate stainless steel concentrate with high intrinsic value. Although typical applications also include the protection of downstream sorting steps, such as eddy-current separation, or to protect downstream crushers such as cutting mills.

The extraction of weakly magnetic particles increases efficiency and improves wear protection during subsequent separation of non-ferrous metals using eddy current separators, or provides machine protection by increasing the service life of crushing tools.

stationary overhead magnetic separators for conveyor belts

Permanent Suspension Magnetsare designed specifically for the extraction of occasional tramp iron from material being processed on the conveyor belt, vibratory feeder or gravity chute. These overhead magnets are constructed using Grade 8 high power ceramic magnetics and require no electricity, unlike electro type units.

The magnetic separator, usually a rectangular pattern, is suspended over the material being conveyed, while the ferrous material is extracted and held against the face of the magnet until manually cleaned off.

For safety and ease of cleaning, swipe arms or slide trays are standard on all magnetic separator units to assist in cleaning without having to touch the tramp metals. And when comparing to electro magnets, they are less expensive to purchase, operate and are virtually moisture, corrosion and flame proof.

Typical applications for the use ofPermanent Suspension Magnetsinclude removal of iron from coal, stone, fertilizers, recycled asphalt, stag, gypsum, ores and similar materials where contamination by tramp iron is occasional and continuous separation is not essential and the primary purpose is processing machinery protection. These overhead magnets can be mounted either horizontal or inclined over the head pulley. All stationary magnets are fitted with a set of adjustable suspension chains designed to suit application and attach to suspension lugs. Preferred installation position is above the head pulley where the burden is spread out and the material is in virtual suspension as it is discharged from the conveyor.

Magnetic Separators can be mounted on a variety of structures, including runway beams (using a trolley for suspension and movement) or A-Frame structure. Size availability covers the entire range of conveyor widths and material burden depths to 25, depending on material being separated.

WARRANTY A Limited Lifetime Warranty on the magnet system is offered, against loss of magnetic strength, when used under normal operating conditions. Magnet systems are available in over 110 models to match any conveyor width, from 12 to 84 or burden depth to 25, depending on the material being separated. With as many as 50 units always in stock at our warehouse, including many of the popular sizes, they are ready for immediate delivery.

Tri-Polar Magnetic Circuitryis relatively new on the magnet system scene. It is the ultimate in Permanent Magnet technology, not available from any other magnet system manufacturer. Shields Company/Mastermaghave developed this computer designed magnetic circuitry using their rare, large and very costly 13 Ton Magnetizer*, one of only four in the world. It is available as standard on SHIELDS/MASTERMAG PSM STATIONARY MAGNET SERIES in the larger sizes. *Magnet system manufacturers traditionally magnetize ceramic blocks before forming the circuit in a stainless steel box. Due to the nature of magnets wanting to repel each other there is a limitation on how many blocks can be stacked on top of each other. SHIELDS/MASTERMAG forms their circuit in the stainless steel box prior to magnetizing. After the circuit is completed and box sealed, it is immersed in the 15 Ton Magnetizer for three (3) separate sessions thoroughly magnetizing the system creating the Tri-Polar Magnetic Circuitry. The evolution of Permanent Magnets have taken some dramatic leaps in the past 15 plus years. First, is the quality of the material used to make a permanent magnetic system. In the case of SHIELDS/MASTERMAG, we use only Ceramic 8, as do most reputable magnet companies. This material, also known as Strontium Ferrite, has allowed permanent magnets to last longer (SHIELDS/MASTERMAG offers a Limited Lifetime Warranty against loss of magnetic strength see details below) and produce more field strength (gauss or force index).

In many applications, Permanent Industrial Magnets can be more or as effective as Electromagnets and have considerable advantages over Electros. Longer warranty Lower Profile Lighter No costly power required Less costly to purchase and operate

But with theTri-Polar Magnetic Circuitryas part ofSHIELDS/MASTERMAGslarger Permanent Industrial Magnet Series, Permanent Magnet Technology will never be the same. As a direct result of this new technology, peripheral magnetic leakage is all but eliminated, directing the magnetic field straight down and creating a stronger magnet. These Series of magnets are approximately 30% more powerful than the competing units of the same size and equivalent or superior to many sizes of Electros. As a result of this increase in strength and the potential for use in extreme applications Manganese Wear Impact Plates are included as standard.

Exclusive to the industry, our magnetic separators utilize tri-polar magnetic circuitry. This eliminates most peripheral magnetic leakage and directs the magnetic field straight down, improving and increasing the strength compared to equivalent sized magnets. This technology is not available from any other magnet system manufacturer in North America. Magnetic intensity in excess of 400-500 gauss at the recommended working gap retained permanently when used under normal operating conditions.

If buying American made products is important to you, always ask where competing items are made. The majority of our competitors' products originate in Canada or overseas, a fact not always clearly stated.